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TUM School of Management

Production and Supply Chain Management


Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Quality Engineering & Management


Case Study: Descriptive Statistics

Dr. Holly Ott


Production and Supply Chain Management
Chair: Prof. Martin Grunow
TUM School of Management

Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Descriptive Statistics
Empirical methods to describe populations: arranging and
summarizing data to obtain useful information
Frequency Distribution: Histograms
Box-and-Whisker Plots
Measures of Location
Measures of Dispersion

2012 from "A First Course in Quality Engineering: Integrating Statistical


and Management Methods of Quality" by K.S. Krishnamoorthi. Reproduced
by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Histogram
The frequency distribution is the tool used to understand and describe
the variation among units in a population.
A histogram is the sample analog of the frequency distribution of a
population

Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Box-and-Whisker Plots
The box-and-whisker (B&W) plot is another compact way of
representing a population with variability, and it is especially
useful when comparing several distributions with respect to their
central value and dispersion.

2012 from "A First Course in Quality Engineering: Integrating Statistical


and Management Methods of Quality" by K.S. Krishnamoorthi. Reproduced
by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Example: Iron Foundry Casting


Process
In an iron foundry that makes large castings, molten iron is
carried from the furnace where iron is melted to where it is
poured into molds over a distance of about 150 yards. This
travel, as well as some time spent on checking iron
chemistry and deslagging, causes cooling of the molten
iron.
[Disclaimer: This, example is taken from real processes, and the scenarios described represent true
situations. Some of the names of product characteristics and process parameters, however, have been
changed so as to protect the identification or the source of data. The numbers that represent targets and
specifications have also been occasionally altered to protect proprietary information.]
2012 from "A First Course in Quality Engineering: Integrating Statistical
and Management Methods of Quality" by K.S. Krishnamoorthi. Reproduced
by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Example: Iron Foundry Casting


Process
The process engineer had estimated that the temperature
drop due to this cooling to be about 20F and, accordingly,
had chosen the target temperature at which the iron is to be
tapped out of the furnace as 2570F so that the iron would
be at the required temperature of 2550F at pouring.
Target Temperature at Pouring = 2550F
Estimated cooling between Tap-out and Pouring: 20F
Target Temperature at Tap-out = 2550F + 20F = 2570F
2012 from "A First Course in Quality Engineering: Integrating Statistical
and Management Methods of Quality" by K.S. Krishnamoorthi. Reproduced
by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Example: Iron Foundry Casting


Process
The final castings, however, showed burn-in defects that
were attributed to the iron being too hot at pouring. The
castings with such defects were absolutely not acceptable
to the customer.

2012 from "A First Course in Quality Engineering: Integrating Statistical


and Management Methods of Quality" by K.S. Krishnamoorthi. Reproduced
by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Data Analysis Pouring Temperature


Estimate cooing
by 20F from
Tap-out to
Pouring
Target at Pouring
= 2550F
Problem: iron too hot
at pouring,
Burn-in defects at
customer site!
Holly Ott

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Data Analysis Pouring Temperature


Pouring
Temperature Range
= 2595 2495
= 100F

Center of
distribution near
2560F
Holly Ott

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Data Analysis Tap-out Temperature


Target for
tap-out
temperature set to
2570F
so that after
20F drop,
the target pouring
temperature is
reached
= 2550F
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

10

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Data Analysis Tap-out Temperature


Pouring
Temperature Range
= 2597 2537
= 60F

Center of
distribution near
2570F
11

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Box & Whisker Plot


Median Pouring
Temperature = 2560F

Median Tapout
Temperature =
2570F

Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

12

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Data Analysis
Final castings showing burn in defects due to too high pour
in temps.
Tap out temp is too high center about 2570F ;
Range = 2597 2537 = 60F
Pour out temp is too high center about 2560F ;
Range = 2595 2495 = 100F
it looks like the temperature drop is only 10F

2012 from "A First Course in Quality Engineering: Integrating Statistical


and Management Methods of Quality" by K.S. Krishnamoorthi. Reproduced
by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

13

TUM School of Management


Production and Supply Chain Management
Prof Martin Grunow

Technische Universitt Mnchen

Recommendation
1) Adjust target for tap out temperature to 2560F then
-10F gives pour out at target temperature 2550F
2) Reduce variability of pour out temp. How?

2012 from "A First Course in Quality Engineering: Integrating Statistical


and Management Methods of Quality" by K.S. Krishnamoorthi. Reproduced
by permission of Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, a division of Informa plc.
Holly Ott

Quality Engineering & Management Module 4.2

14