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Estimation of irrigation requirement using CROPWAT December 17 2013 Amit Yalwar Sushma M

Estimation of irrigation requirement using CROPWAT

Estimation of irrigation requirement using CROPWAT

December 17

2013

Amit Yalwar Sushma M

1.

(a) Differentiate between Reference Evapotranspiration and Actual Crop Evapotranspiration

Reference Evapotranspiration

Actual Crop Evapotranspiration

The evapotranspiration rate from a reference surface is called the reference crop

Actual evapotranspiration in a soil water budget is the actual amount of water delivered to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. In wet months, when precipitation exceeds potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration is equal to potential evapotranspiration. In dry months, when potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation, actual evapotranspiration is equal to precipitation plus the absolute value of the change in soil moisture storage. Denoted by AET

evapotranspiration or reference evapotranspiration and is denoted as ETo. The reference surface is a hypothetical grass reference crop with specific characteristics. The assumed characteristics are:

crop height of 0.12 m

fixed surface resistance of 70 s m -1

an albedo of 0.23

ETo was introduced to study the evaporative demand of the atmosphere independently of crop type, crop development and management practices. As water is abundantly available at the reference evapotranspiring surface, soil factors do not affect ET. The only factors affecting ETo are climatic parameters. Consequently, ETo is a climatic parameter and can be computed from weather data. ETo expresses the evaporating power of the atmosphere at a specific location and time of the year. The use of potential ET is strongly discouraged due to ambiguities in its definition.

The reference crop evapotranspiration represents the evapotranspiration from a standardized vegetated surface where as AET represents the real evapotranspiration occurring in a specific situation. Actual Evapotranspiration is dependent on several factors such as Weather parameters, Crop factors, and Management & environmental conditions.

(b) List some of the important factors affecting crop evapotranspiration

The factors that affect the crop evapotranspiration are:

Weather parameters such as radiation, air temperature, humidity and wind speed

Crop factors such as crop type, crop height, crop roughness, reflection, ground cover and crop rooting

Management and environmental conditions such as cultivation practices, application of fertilizers, availability of water and the type of irrigation method employed

(c) For the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method write the following

i) Expression for ET o

Where

of irrigation method employed (c) For the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method write the following i) Expression for

R n is the net radiation,

G is the soil heat flux,

(e s - e a ) represents the vapour pressure deficit of the air,

r a is the mean air density at constant pressure, c p is the specific heat of the air,

D

represents the slope of the saturation vapour pressure temperature relationship,

g

is the psychrometric constant, and

r s and r a are the (bulk) surface and aerodynamic resistances

ii) How to calculate ET from ETo by using the crop coefficients

Crop evaporation is calculated by multiplying the reference crop evapotranspiration, ET o , by a crop coefficient, K c:

ET c = K c ET o

Where,

ETc crop evapotranspiration [mm d-1], Kc crop coefficient [dimensionless], ETo reference crop evapotranspiration [mm d-1]

The reference ET o is defined and calculated using the FAO Penman-Monteith equation.

There are two approaches to determine crop coefficients

i. Single crop coefficient approach (Kc) In the single crop coefficient approach, the effect of crop transpiration and soil evaporation are combined into a single Kc coefficient. The coefficient integrates differences in the soil evaporation and crop transpiration rate between the crop and the grass reference surface. As soil evaporation may fluctuate daily as a result of rainfall or irrigation, the single crop coefficient expresses only the time- averaged (multi-day) effects of crop evapotranspiration.

ii. Dual crop coefficient approach (Kcb + Ke) In the dual crop coefficient approach, the effects of crop transpiration and soil evaporation are determined separately. Two coefficients are used: the basal crop coefficient (Kcb) to describe plant transpiration, and the soil water evaporation coefficient (Ke) to describe evaporation from the soil surface. The single Kc coefficient is replaced by:

K c = K cb + K e

Where,

K cb basal crop coefficient,

K e soil water evaporation coefficient

2. Estimation of crop evapotranspiration using CROPWAT (a) Give a short description about CROPWAT, mentioning its purpose/ functions, organization behind its development/ maintenance.

Purpose/Functions and features: CROPWAT for Windows is a computer program for the calculation of crop water requirements and irrigation requirements based on soil, climate and crop data. In addition, the program allows the development of irrigation schedules for different management conditions and the calculation of scheme water supply for varying crop patterns. CROPWAT can also be used to evaluate farmers’ irrigation practices and to estimate crop performance under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. There are many features built in to CROPWAT, some of which are as follows:

monthly, decade and daily input of climatic data for calculation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo)

backward compatibility to allow use of data from CLIMWAT database

possibility to estimate climatic data in the absence of measured values

decade and daily calculation of crop water requirements based on updated calculation algorithms including

adjustment of crop-coefficient values

calculation of crop water requirements and irrigation schedulingfor paddy & upland rice, using a newly

developed procedure to calculate water requirements including the land preparation period

interactive user adjustable irrigation schedules

daily soil water balance output tables

easy saving and retrieval of sessions and of user-defined irrigation schedules

graphical presentations of input data, crop water requirements and irrigation schedules

easy import/export of data and graphics through clipboard or ASCII text files

extensive printing routines, supporting all windows-based printers

context-sensitive help system

Multilingual interface and help system: English, Spanish, French and Russian

Organization behind its development/maintenance: CROPWAT is a decision support tool developed by the Land and Water Development Division of FAO. The Land and Water Division aims at enhancing the agricultural productivity and advancing the sustainable use of land and water resources through their improved tenure, management, development and conservation. It addresses the challenges member countries face in ensuring productive and efficient use of land and water resources in order to meet present and future demands for agricultural products, while ensuring the long-term sustainability of the land and water quantity and quality.

FAO is engaged in a programmatic approach to agricultural water management that addresses water use efficiency and productivity, and deploys best practices for water use and conservation. The Division further develops and maintains various information systems, including its continually updated water information system, AQUASTAT, and tools for analysis such as CROPWAT, AQUACROP and MASSCOTE, thereby contributing to the formulation of national and regional water management strategies and perspective studies.

(b) List various modules available in CROPWAT and briefly mention the functions of each of the

modules.

The modules available in CROPWAT are as follows:

Climate/ET o

available in CROPWAT are as follows:  Climate/ET o The Climate module can be selected by

The Climate module can be selected by clicking on the “Climate/ETo” icon in the module bar located on the of the main CROPWAT window. The module is primary for data input, requiring information on the meteorological station (country, name, altitude, latitude and longitude) together with climatic data.

Rain

and longitude) together with climatic data.  Rain The Rain module also include calculations, producing

The Rain module also include calculations, producing Effective rainfall data using one of the approaches available, which can be selected by clicking on “Options” on the toolbar while the Rain module is the active window.

Crop

The Crop module requires crop data over the different development stages, defined as follows:

i. Initial stage: it starts from planting date to approximately 10% ground cover.

ii. Development stage: it runs from 10% ground cover to effective full cover.

iii. Effective full cover for many crops occurs at the initiation of flowering.

iv. Mid-season stage: it runs from effective full cover to the start of maturity. The start of maturity is often

indicated by the beginning of the ageing, yellowing or senescence of leaves, leaf drop, or the browning of fruit to the degree that the crop evapotranspiration is reduced relative to the ETo.

v. Late season stage: it runs from the start of maturity to harvest or full senescence.

Soil

start of maturity to harvest or full senescence.  Soil The module includes calculations, providing the

The module includes calculations, providing the initial available soil moisture and, in case of rice, the maximum percolation rate after puddling.

The Soil module is essentially data input, requiring the following general soil data:

i. Total Available Water (TAW)

ii. Maximum infiltration rate

iii. Maximum rooting depth

iv. Initial soil moisture depletion

CWR(Crop Water Requirement)

The CWR module includes calculations, producing the irrigation water requirement of the crop on a decadal basis and over the total growing season, as the difference between the crop evapotranspiration under standard conditions (ETc) and the Effective rainfall.

Schedule

i. The schedule module essentially includes calculations, producing a soil water balance on a daily step. The following parameters are used:

ii. Effective rainfall, over dry, normal and/or wet years

iii. Water stress coefficient (Ks)

v.

Root zone depletion

vi. Net irrigation

vii. Deficit

viii. Irrigation losses

ix. Gross irrigation

x. Flow

Crop Pattern

The cropping pattern module is primary data input, requiring information on the crops (Up to 20) being part of the scheme. With reference to each crop, the following data should be provided:

i. Crop file

ii. Planting date

iii. Area: extension of the area dedicated to each crop, as a percentage of the total cropped area. Care should be taken that at any given moment the sum of the individual crops does not exceed 100 % of total scheme area.

Scheme

The scheme module includes calculations, producing:

i. Irrigation requirement for each crop of the scheme

ii. Net scheme irrigation requirement

iii. Irrigated area as a percentage of the total area

iv. Irrigation requirement for the actual area

(c)

download the meteorological data for

- Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh

- Get the annual average of Maximum temperature Minimum temperature and Rainfall Get the latitude/longitude and altitude of Kurnool from any other sources

a. Annual average Maximum temperature from 1901 to 2002

Month

Temp o C

Jan

30.30075

Feb

33.26194

Mar

36.84572

Apr

39.02913

May

38.80286

Jun

34.63322

Jul

31.95679

Aug

31.49069

Sep

31.76408

Oct

31.32451

Nov

29.70408

Dec

28.89462

b. Annual average Minimum Temperature from 1901 to 2002

Month

Temp o C

Jan

17.12696

Feb

19.11847

Mar

22.00961

Apr

25.04699

May

25.5075

Jun

24.33742

Jul

23.35353

Aug

23.05736

Sep

22.61122

Oct

21.71819

Nov

19.16203

Dec

16.98119

c.

Annual Average Rainfall from 1901 to 2002

Month

mm

Jan

1.092598

Feb

1.279314

Mar

3.59452

Apr

17.79497

May

46.0072

Jun

50.45806

Jul

60.67507

Aug

71.283

Sep

132.8518

Oct

108.6945

Nov

40.31686

Dec

8.175127

d. Latitude: 15 o 50’N Longitude: 78 o 05’E Altitude: 274-281m above MSL (Various sources quote values in between 274m and 281m)

(d)

Estimate the irrigation requirement for a selected crop and soil. Calculate the total irrigation

requirement during different growth periods of the crop (initial stage, crop development stage etc.)

Crop chosen: Rice Soil type chosen: Black Clay Soil Total Irrigation requirement: 917.1 mm/dec Stage-wise Irrigation requirement:

Month

Decade

Stage

Kc

ETc

ETc

Eff rain

Irr. Req.

coeff

mm/day

mm/dec

mm/dec

mm/dec

Nov

1

Nursery

1.2

0.46

0.5

1.8

0.5

Nov

2

Nurs/LPr

1.19

0.79

7.9

11.5

90.4

Nov

3

Nurs/LPr

1.06

3.85

38.5

8.6

30

Dec

1

Initial

1.07

3.81

38.1

5.3

178.6

Dec

2

Initial

1.1

3.86

38.6

1.6

37

Dec

3

Development

1.1

3.98

43.8

1.2

42.6

Jan

1

Development

1.13

4.19

41.9

0.9

41

Jan

2

Development

1.16

4.44

44.4

0.1

44.4

Jan

3

Mid

1.2

4.89

53.8

0.2

53.6

Feb

1

Mid

1.21

5.24

52.4

0.4

52

Feb

2

Mid

1.21

5.56

55.6

0.4

55.2

Feb

3

Mid

1.21

5.96

47.7

0.7

47

Mar

1

Late

1.2

6.36

63.6

0.6

63

Mar

2

Late

1.17

6.59

65.9

0.7

65.2

Mar

3

Late

1.12

6.5

71.5

2.4

69.1

Apr

1

Late

1.07

6.43

51.4

3.1

47.5

Total

       

715.6

39.4

917.1