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ARGUMENT TECHNIQUES

ARGUMENT TECHNIQUES

QUARREL VS. ARGUMENT

QUARREL VS. ARGUMENT Jerry Springer Oprah

Jerry Springer

QUARREL VS. ARGUMENT Jerry Springer Oprah

Oprah

QUARREL VS. ARGUMENT Jerry Springer Oprah

WHAT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY?

WHAT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY?  Purpose & Audience  Reasoning strategies (Organization)
WHAT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF AN ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY?  Purpose & Audience  Reasoning strategies (Organization)

Purpose & Audience

Reasoning strategies (Organization)

The rational appeal

The emotional appeal

The ethical appeal

Fallacies

Ethical issues

PURPOSE & A

PURPOSE & A  Demonstrating facts  Nursing is hard work, dorms are poor study places

Demonstrating facts Nursing is hard work, dorms are poor study places

Defend/oppose a policy, action, or project

Company should drug-test employees

Assert the greater/lesser value of someone/something

Ranking candidates for promotion

P & AUDIENCE

P & AUDIENCE Think like a reader (oh wait, you are )  Consider reader’s interests,

Think like a reader (oh wait, you are

)

Consider reader’s interests, expectations, and needs

concerning this issue

Identify the evidence most likely to convince readers

Identify the objections readers will have

Identify the consequences of this argument

Decide how objections should be addressed

REASONING STRATEGIES (ORGANIZATION)

REASONING STRATEGIES (ORGANIZATION)  Induction  General claim is supported by specific evidence (direct

Induction

General claim is supported by specific evidence

(direct observations, statistical data, scientific studies)

Makes conclusion probable but doesn’t prove

Must demonstrate credibility of evidence

College program effective because most students in it get jobs

Deduction Analogy

REASONING STRATEGIES (ORGANIZATION)

REASONING STRATEGIES (ORGANIZATION)  Deduction  Demonstrates how a specific conclusion follows logically from

Deduction

Demonstrates how a specific conclusion follows logically from initial premise Must make clear how conclusions do actually follow from agreed-upon premises

Politicians assert the benefit to future generations, then policies to favor that

Analogy

REASONING STRATEGIES (ORGANIZATION)

REASONING STRATEGIES (ORGANIZATION)  Analogy  Weakest form of rational appeal  Never prove anything, only

Analogy Weakest form of rational appeal Never prove anything, only show probability and sometimes offer explanations Assumption that humans respond to chemicals as rats do

THE RATIONAL APPEAL

THE RATIONAL APPEAL Present reasons and evidence in a way that readers will find as reasonable

Present reasons and evidence in a way that

readers will find as reasonable or plausible

Established truths

Opinions of authorities

Primary source information Statistical findings Personal experience

THE RATIONAL APPEAL

THE RATIONAL APPEAL To Evaluate Evidence  How credible are the sources of information?  How

To Evaluate Evidence

How credible are the sources of information?

How reliable is the evidence?

How much confirming evidence is there? How much contradictory evidence is there?

How well established is the evidence?

How well does the evidence actually support or fit the

claim?

What does the evidence actually allow you to conclude?

THE EMOTIONAL APPEAL

THE EMOTIONAL APPEAL  Identify stories, scenes, or events of the topic that arouse the strongest

Identify stories, scenes, or events of the topic

that arouse the strongest emotions

Can lend powerful reinforcement

Tug heartstrings of readers to take actions

THE ETHICAL APPEAL

THE ETHICAL APPEAL  Write with genuine concern for topic, commitment to truth and sincere respect

Write with genuine concern for topic, commitment to truth and sincere respect for others Tone is paramount Offensive, arrogant, or mean-spirited is ineffective Look for snide comments Pleasant, fair-minded, decent is effective

FALLACIES

FALLACIES Lapses in logic that reflect upon ability to think clearly and weaken argument  Hasty

Lapses in logic that reflect upon ability to think clearly and weaken argument

Hasty generalization someone bases a conclusion on too little evidence

Student tries to reach instructor one time and declares

that the instructor is impossible to reach

Non sequitur draws unwarranted conclusions from seemingly ample evidence

Bill is out every night. I wonder who he is dating?

Stereotyping attaches one or more supposed characteristics to a group or one of its members

Teenagers are lousy drivers

FALLACIES

FALLACIES Lapses in logic that reflect upon ability to think clearly and weaken argument  Card

Lapses in logic that reflect upon ability to think clearly and weaken argument

Card Stacking only part of available evidence given

while deliberately omitting essential info

College students have it easy because they are only in classes 12 hours per week.

Either/Or Fallacy only two choices exist when several

are available

Either buy tires or get stuck inside this winter

Begging the Question asserts truth of an unproven

statement

Vitamin A is harmful to your health, so all bottles should have a warning label. If enough of us write to the FDA, this could change. But how do we know it’s harmful when evidence isn’t given?

FALLACIES

FALLACIES Lapses in logic that reflect upon ability to think clearly and weaken argument  Circular

Lapses in logic that reflect upon ability to think clearly and weaken argument

Circular Argument supports position merely by restating it

That person is overweight because he is fat.

Red Herring argues off point

American car is superior but abruptly shifts to the plight of laid off workers

Ad Hominem argument attacks an individual rather than opinion

Sam doesn’t deserve a promotion. His divorce was

messy.

FALLACIES

FALLACIES Lapses in logic that reflect upon ability to think clearly and weaken argument  Appeal

Lapses in logic that reflect upon ability to think clearly and weaken argument Appeal to the Crowdplays on irrational fears and prejudices of audience

The Red Scare, Adolf Hitler

Guilt by Association some similarity between

one person to another

Similar to poisoning the well

Post Hoc assuming that because one event

follows another, the first caused the second

Coincidence that a black cat ran across the street right before the car crashed into the telephone pole

FALLACIES

FALLACIES Lapses in logic that reflect upon ability to think clearly and weaken argument  Faulty

Lapses in logic that reflect upon ability to think

clearly and weaken argument Faulty Analogy error of assuming two

circumstances are similar in all respects when

they are not

Football coach insists that if he emulates Lombardi’s techniques that his team will win conference

Doesn’t take players into consideration, level of play, etc.

ETHICAL ISSUES

ETHICAL ISSUES Argument is an attempt to alter attitudes or spark action Responsibility for quality of

Argument is an attempt to alter attitudes or spark action

Responsibility for quality of argument and possible

consequences

Carefully consider stance and argument

Is it credible? Is it dependent on certain conditions?

Be fair to other positions

Legitimacy of reasons and evidence

Examine fallacies and other possible reader

manipulations

Explore the consequences of readers adopting

this position

FOR MONDAY…

FOR MONDAY… Read Marissa Brown’s “Teacher Natalie Munroe Has a Right to Call Kids Lazy and

Read Marissa Brown’s “Teacher Natalie Munroe Has a Right to Call Kids Lazy and Rude,” Jonathan Zimmerman’s “When Teachers Talk out of School,” Byron York’s “A Carefully Crafted Immigration Law in Arizona,” Conor Friedersdorf’s “Immigration Policy Gone Loco” (pgs. 579-588)

Be ready to discuss your assigned element (given on next slide)

READ THE READINGS. PREPARE TO DISCUSS

YOUR ASSIGNED ELEMENT AS IT APPLIES TO
YOUR ASSIGNED ELEMENT AS IT APPLIES TO
EACH READING.
EACH READING.


Purpose & Audience Misty, Blanche

The rational appeal

Pamela, Ryan

The emotional appeal

Ce-Ce, Kam

The ethical appeal & Ethical issues

Unique, Karen, Chad

Fallacies & Reasoning strategies Anthony, Grace