Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

Biological gateway for the Galapagos Archipelago

FOREWORD

The following project was produced as a part of Inter 7 - Unknown Fields Division during the 2nd year of
architecture at the Architectural Association, London. Kate Davies and Liam Young led the group through
various experiments between the realms of nature and culture, between science and ction to nally let
us wander off the map, through our own speculative landscapes of science ction.
The journey to the Galapagos Archipelago through the Ecuadorian rainforest plunged us navigators
into the pristine land that Darwin explored and explained, while including the wilds of genetic
modication, of relentless globalisation and agressive capitalism. The project is fashioned through
speculation and projection based of the eld observations.
This Unit brought projects about as critical instruments that would instigate debate and raise questions
about architecture practice in relation to the social and political consequences of various environmental
and technological futures.

S u p e r v i s e d by Ka t e D a v i e s a n d L i a m Yo u n g
Fo r a 2 n d ye a r BA a t t h e A rc h i t e c t u ra l A s s o c i a t i o n , L o n d o n
Fro m O c t o b e r 2 0 0 8 t o J u n e 2 0 0 9

GALAPAGOS : A MICROCOSM SIMILAR TO THE EARTH

The islands were born in the middle of nowhere from an intense volcanic activity. Slowly,
water allowed life to happen on the isolated rocks. It took a long time for the land-based
life to settle on the islands. Only few species managed to survive in this hostile environment
thanks to very specic adaptation. A very diverse fauna and ora developed its own
specicities and specialities perfectly adapted to the particular environment. A while later,
the humans settled on this wild land. Although the survival was hard in the early years,
they lately colonised the whole archipelago and their expansion is now extremely fast.
The abundance of resources makes the place an ideal for their developement. The rst
inhabitants of the archipelago lived a life based on shing and harvesting, and, recently,
some individuals managed to achieve a wealthy and sophisticated life but remained
totally detached from the rest of the people. They use the ressources and the locals for

instant prots. The richest got richer and the poorest remained in their situation frustrated
by the proximity and opportunism of the others. As the social gap was enlarging, the
whole ecosystem was intensively exploited. Some people realised the danger and set up
organisations to take care of the archipelago. Despite their efforts, humans kept expanding in
a system blindly driven by money and which is now a threat for itself. The impact of humans is
surely irreparable and at the moment no alternative to the viral evolution characterised by its
destruction and autodetruction is foreseen.
This story echoes with the one that humans went thourgh at the scale of the earth and at a
slower timescale. If the lesson was integrated, the Galapagos could be used to forecast the
future of the planet.

PUERTO AYORA : THE HUB OF THE ARCHIPELAGO

Puerto Ayora is the largest city of the archipelago. Located on the south shore of
Santa Cruz Island, it shelters most of the archipelago ecomonic, social, political and
environmental powers. It is the main hub for goods and people between the continent
and the rest of the archipelago - planes arrive on the north shore of the island and
cargos and ferries moor in the bay of Puerto Ayora, then people and goods are
redistributed to the rest of the archipelago.
The high transit going through turned the city into the wealthiest area of Ecuador. The
immigration has been going out of control and the arbitrary limits supposed to prevent
infringements on the nature reserve are now fading away. Surprisingly, Puerto Ayora
has all the issues of a usual developing country.

Displacements patterns on the archipelago during 24 hours

Number of passengers :
<5
10
20
50
> 250

Displacement represented :

Planes
Buses
Watertaxis
Large tourist vessels
Vessel shuttles
Fishing boats
Interislands shuttles

THE COMPULSORY PASSAGE THROUGH THE BAY OF PUERTO AYORA

The bay of Puerto Ayora sees a constant ow of boats approaching, docking and
loading people and goods. Locals, tourists and scientists merge in that point more than
anywhere else on the island and anybody going through the island passes this point.
The cliff facing the docks marks the limit between the human area of the harbour and
the natural reserve. This vertical surface appears as a line on maps, yet represents a
large imposing surface constantly overlooking the most active part of this island.

Displacement patterns in Puerto Ayora Bay during 24h


Number of passengers :
<5
10
20
50
> 250

Displacement represented :

Planes
Buses
Watertaxis
Large tourist vessels
Vessel shuttles
Fishing boats
Interislands shuttles

The hanging presence of the cliff over Puerto Ayora - Visibility diagram

THE SITE : THE CLIFF FACING THE GATEWAY DOCKS

The site selected for the project is the cliff overhanging the harbor
of Puerto
Ayora.
The
meters"ZPSB
high vertical
surface
draws
the
5IF
EPDLT
PG10
1VFSUP
BSF WFSZ
CVTZ
5PVSJTUTBOEMPDBMTTIBSFUIFTQBDFTPNFIPXPSPUIFS0OF
border
between the intense human acitivity of the town and the
QJFSTFFNTUPXFMDPNFUIFUPVSJTUTXIPTUBZPOBTIJQ
natural
reserve.
It CBZ
is the 5IFTF
only undebatable
town limit,
as
theUP
others
EPDLFE
JO UIF
GFSSJFT DPOUBJO
GSPN
get
pushed further every days. This natural facade is already in
QBTTFOHFSTXIPMBOEXJUISVCCFSEJOHIJFT5IFSFXIFO TVDI
TIJQ
PS
XIPMF
theGPSF 
unconscious
as aB
line
thatBSSJWFT
shouldnt
beMFBWFT 
passed UIF
for the
sake of
QJFSHFUTDSPXEFECZUPVSJTUTXBJUJOH
nature.
Seen by
all person
passing
through
the archipelago,
it is
5IF PUIFS
QJFS
JT VTFE
CZ UIF
MPDBMT
.PTU PG UIF
HPPETDPNJOHUPUIFBSDIJQFMBHPBSFTIJQQFEXJUIDBSalso
ideal to expose them in a more explicit way the why.

Darwin
Station

Airport

Fish Market

PUERTO AYORA

Puerto Ayora
Square

HPTGJSTUUP1VFSUPBZPSBBOEUIFOUPUIFPUIFSJTMBOE
UIBOLTUPUIFCPBUTBTTVSJOHUIFMJOLUPSFTUPGUIF
BSDIJQFMBHP

PLAZA
FINCH
PLAZA

Plaza

del

Albatros

Plaza

Cvica

FINCH

Main
Supermarket

Pier under
construction

Customs

CL

IFF

Goods Pier

Docks for the


locals boats

Tourist Pier

TheThe
beach
beachbehind
behind the
the island
island is
isused
used by
by
thelocals
localsto
todock
dock their
their boats
boats
the

Anchor area for


large ships

BAY OF PUERTO AYORA


Island

CLIFF

Beach

SITE
CLIF

GALAPAGOS NATIONAL PARK

Other Islands

CLIFF

The 100m long pier in construction

The new 100m long pier in construction


Tourists waiting for boarding on their ferry

Tourists waiting for boarding of their ferry

The tourist pier on the left, the locals


the pier
main on
supermarket
on the
right
The pier,
tourist
the left, the
locals
pier, the main supermarket on the right

Sunset over the cliff on Puerto Ayora bay

Sunset over the cliff of Puerto Ayora Bay

MODEL STUDY FOR THE FACADE OF THE BILLBOARD

The architectural intervention is an extension of the


cliff. Bulging out the natural wall, the facade creates
an enclosed yet outdoor space. It faces the bay of
Puerto Ayora exposing itself like a billboard to the
people on the island.

BIOLOGICAL BILLBOARD : THE BACTERIA AS INDICATOR

The facade is form of a series of panels lled with bacterias


which are grown according to social, economical and
environmental indicators. Therefore, the transluscency and
color of the panels evolves providing an outline of the actual
situation of the Archipelago. This billboard shows to the
tourists as well as the locals a summary of the complex factors
inuencing the equilibrum of this fragile microcosm.

BIOLOGICAL PANELS OF THE BILLBOARD HANGING FROM THE CLIFF

The hundred bacteria lled panels forming the billboard are


hanging from a light metal structure attached to the cliff. Their
density, color and phosphorenscence changes according to the
data collected across the archipelago. People going through the
galapagos see this building and can get a rough picture of the
situation at a certain point in time. Also, the building sheds a
modern and pedagogical customs and boat terminal that every one
has to go through.

FROM DATA TO A REPRESENTATION, BACTERIA DENSITIES AS A LANGUAGE

MONITORING

PROCESSING

DISPLAYING
INFORMATIVE FACADE

LABORATORY

INDICATORS

Official United Nations Indicators


of Sustainable Development
New York 2007

Bad

Good

Bad

USUAL REPRESENTATION

Good

ADAPTED REPRESENTATION
Day
Night

Opaque Dark

Day

Transluscent
Phosphorescent

Night

Excellent

Excellent

Very Good

Very Good

Good

Good

Acceptable

Acceptable

Average

Average

Bad

Bad

Very Bad

Very Bad

Serious

Serious

Crisis

Crisis

The color coding is based on the official Dashboard of


Sustainability. The statistical data from each indicator is represented by one color. The information from
i i
i
i

The representation is adapted to bacteria densities.


The diagram becomes density-coded, from transparent
to opaque during the day, from phosphorescent to dark
i

The facade displays the information to the people of


the island. They get an evorview of the social, economic and environmental situation of the Archipelago.

THE BACTERIA DENSITY TO ILLUSTRATE THE SITUATION OF EACH INDICATOR

Proportion of terrestrial area protected, total


and by ecological region
Management effectiveness of protected areas
Area of selected key ecosystems
Fragmentation of habitats
Change in threat status of species
Abundance of selected key species
Abundance of invasive alien species
Carbon dioxide emissions
Emissions of greenhouse gases
Consumption of ozone depleting substances
Ambient concentration of air pollutants in ur
ban areas
Land use change and degradation
Mining reglementation
Arable and permanent cropland area
Area under organic and sustainable farming
Respect of the park borders
Quality of the accessible part of the reserve
Qualification of the guides
Use of agricultural pesticides
Proportion of terrestrial area protected, total
and by ecological region
Respect of the marine reserve rules
Management effectiveness of protected areas
Quantity of boats in activity
Area of selected key ecosystems

Bathing water quality

Fragmentation of habitats
Change in threat status of species
Abundance of selected key species

Abundance of invasive alien species


limits
Carbon dioxide emissions
Illegal fishing proportion
Emissions of greenhouse gases
Consumption of ozone depleting substances
Marine trophic index
Ambient concentration of air pollutants in ur
ban areas
Area of coral reef ecosystems and percentage
Land use change and degradation
live cover
Mining reglementation
Arable and permanent cropland area
Water use intensity by economic activity
Presence of faecal coliforms in freshwater
Area under organic and sustainable farming
of the park borders
Biochemical oxygen demand in waterRespect
bodies
Quality of the accessible part of the reserve
Qualification of the guides
Wastewater treatment
Use of agricultural pesticides
Activity of volcanos
Respect of the marine reserve rules
Quantity of boats in activity
Intensity of El Nino
Human and economic consequences Bathing
due towater quality
limits
natural disasters
Illegal fishing proportion
Material intensity of the economy
Marine trophic index
Domestic material consumption
Area of coral reef ecosystems and percentage
Annual energy consumption, total andlive
bycover
main
Water use intensity by economic activity
user category
Presence of faecal coliforms in freshwater
Share of renewable energy sources inBiochemical
total oxygen demand in water bodies

PANEL LABORATORY

Wastewater treatment
energy use
Activity of volcanos
Intensity of energy use, total and byIntensity
economic
of El Nino
Human and economic consequences due to
activity
natural disasters

Material intensity of the economy


Generation of hazardous waste
Domestic material consumption
Annual energy consumption, total and by main
Generation of waste
user category
of renewable energy sources in total
Waste treatment and disposalShare
energy use
Intensity of energy use, total and by economic
Modal split of passenger transportation

activity

Generation of hazardous waste


Modal split of freight
transport
Generation of waste

Energy intensity of transport


Waste treatment and disposal
Modal split of passenger transportation

Modal split of freight transport

Energy
intensity of transport
Population
growth
rate

Population growth rate

Immigration rate
rate
Immigration
Total fertility rate

Data

Unit

Time
Scale

Total fertility rate


Dependency ratio

Ratio of local residents to tourists


Dependency ratio
Proportion of sea or land-based tourism

Wealth of the tourists


Ratio of local residents
to tourists
Life expectancy at birth

Proportion of sea or land-based


tourism
Healthy life expectancy at birth
Wealth of the tourists
Percent of population with access to pri

14

Persons / Day

mary health care facilities


Contraceptive prevalence rate
Immunization against infectious childhood
Life expectancy at birth
diseases
Nutritional status of children
Healthy life expectancy at birth
Morbidity of major diseases such as HIV/
AIDS, malaria,
tuberculosis
Percent of population with access
to pri
Prevalence of tobacco use

Bacteria Mixture

Bacteria Strains
Nutrients
Water

(Day + Night)

mary health care facilities


Suicide rate
Gross intake ratio to last grade of primary
Contraceptive prevalence rate
education
Immunization against infectious childhood
Life long learning

Net enrolment rate in primary education


diseases
Adult secondary (tertiary) schooling attainment
Nutritional status of children
level
Morbidity of major diseases such as HIV/
Immigration and emmigration rates due to education
AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis
Adult literacy rate
Prevalence of tobacco use
Percentage of population having paid bribes
Number of intentional homicides per 100,000
Suicide rate
population
Gross intake ratio to last grade of primary
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita
Gross saving
education
Investment share in GDP
Life long learning
Adjusted net savings as percentage of gross
national income (GNI)
Net enrolment rate in primary education
Debt to GNI ratio
Adult secondary (tertiary) schooling attainment
Employment-population ratio
level
Vulnerable employment
Labor
Immigration and emmigration rates due
toproductivity
edu- and unit labor costs
Share of women in wage employment in the
cation
non-agricultural sector
Internet users per 100 population
Adult literacy rate
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population
Percentage of population having paidMobile
bribes
cellular telephone subscribers
per 100 population
Number of intentional homicides per 100,000
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a
population
percent of GDP
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita
Tourism contribution to GDP
Gross saving
Share of imports from the continent
Investment share in GDP
Average price difference with the continent
Adjusted net savings as percentage of gross
given or received as a percentage of GNI
national income (GNI)
Remittances as percentage of GNI

Debt to GNI ratio


Employment-population ratio
Vulnerable employment
Labor productivity and unit labor costs
Share of women in wage employment in the
non-agricultural sector
Internet users per 100 population
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population
Mobile cellular telephone subscribers
per 100 population
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a
percent of GDP
Tourism contribution to GDP

Waste Material
Immigration Rate
Person / Day

Immigration Rate
Person / Day

Share of imports from the continent


Average price difference with the continent
given or received as a percentage of GNI

Remittances as percentage of GNI

Variations of bacteria density at the


scale of the panel

The panels are made of two sheets of casted transparent plastic


that come together to form the hermetic volume containing the
bacterias. The bacterias receive the precise amount of nutrients
corresponding to the indicator they are referring to through a pipe.
The bacteria mixture are automatically prepared specically to
each factor and the waste is treated as well.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE PANELS AND THEIR MEANING


Land Reserve
Global Economic Partnership

Poverty
Comsumption and Production Patterns

Biodiversity

Economic Development
Demographics

Atmosphere
Freshwater

Education

Governance

Marine Reserve
Natural Hazards

Biodiversity

Atmosphere

Land

Oceans, seas and coasts

Freshwater

Natural Hazards

Ecosystem

Climate change

Land use and status

Coastal zone

Water quantity

Frequency of natural hazards

Proportion of terrestrial area protected, total


and by ecological region
Management effectiveness of protected areas
Area of selected key ecosystems
Fragmentation of habitats

Carbon dioxide emissions


Emissions of greenhouse gases

Land use change and degradation


Mining reglementation

Water use intensity by economic activity

Activity of volcanos
Intensity of El Nino

Ozone layer depletion

Agriculture

Respect of the marine reserve rules


Quantity of boats in activity
Bathing water quality

Species
Change in threat status of species
Abundance of selected key species
Abundance of invasive alien species

Ambient concentration of air pollutants in urban areas

Consumption of ozone depleting substances

Arable and permanent cropland area

Fisheries

Air quality

Use of agricultural pesticides


Area under organic and sustainable farming

limits
Illegal fishing proportion

National Park
Respect of the park borders
Quality of the accessible part of the reserve
Qualification of the guides

Marine environment
Marine trophic index
Area of coral reef ecosystems and percentage
live cover

Water quality
Presence of faecal coliforms in freshwater
Biochemical oxygen demand in water bodies
Wastewater treatment

Intrication with the population


Human and economic consequences due to
natural disasters

Comsumption and produc


tion patterns
Material consumption
Material intensity of the economy
Domestic material consumption

Energy use
Annual energy consumption, total and by main
user category
Share of renewable energy sources in total
energy use
Intensity of energy use, total and by economic
activity

Waste generation
and management
Generation of hazardous waste
Generation of waste
Waste treatment and disposal

Transportation
Modal split of passenger transportation
Modal split of freight transport
Energy intensity of transport

Health

Demographics

Health

Education

Poverty

Governance

Economic development

Population

Mortality

Education level

Income poverty

Corruption

Macroeconomic performance

Population growth rate


Immigration rate
Total fertility rate
Dependency ratio

Gross intake ratio to last grade of primary


education
Life long learning
Net enrolment rate in primary education
Adult secondary (tertiary) schooling attainment
level
Immigration and emmigration rates due to education

Proportion of population living below national


poverty line
Proportion of population below $1 a day

Percentage of population having paid bribes

Life expectancy at birth


Healthy life expectancy at birth

Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita


Gross saving
Investment share in GDP
Adjusted net savings as percentage of gross
national income (GNI)

Health care delivery


Tourism
Ratio of local residents to tourists
Proportion of sea or land-based tourism
Wealth of the tourists

Percent of population with access to primary health care facilities


Contraceptive prevalence rate
Immunization against infectious childhood
diseases

Literacy
Adult literacy rate

Income inequality

Number of intentional homicides per 100,000


population

Ratio of share in national income of highest to


lowest quintile

Trade
Share of imports from the continent
Average price difference with the continent

External financing
given or received as a percentage of GNI

Sustainable public finance


Sanitation

Debt to GNI ratio

Proportion of population using an improved


sanitation facility

Employment

Nutritional status
Nutritional status of children

Drinking water

Health status and risks

Proportion of population using an improved


water source

Morbidity of major diseases such as HIV/


AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis
Prevalence of tobacco use
Suicide rate

Crime

Global economic partnership

Access to energy
Share of households without electricity or
other modern energy services
Percentage of population using solid fuels for
cooking

Living conditions
Proportion of urban population living in slums

Employment-population ratio
Vulnerable employment
Labor productivity and unit labor costs
Share of women in wage employment in the
non-agricultural sector

Information and communication


technologies
Internet users per 100 population
Fixed telephone lines per 100 population
Mobile cellular telephone subscribers
per 100 population

Research and development


Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a
percent of GDP

Tourism
Tourism contribution to GDP

Remittances as percentage of GNI

NEW LANGUAGE - TWO SNAPSHOTS OF THE FACADE AT DIFFERENT TIMES

This pattern shows that education, demographics and health are getting
better as they are more transluscent. Though, the governance is having
a bad time, while there may have been a natural disaster ruining water
and atmosphere quality.
A precise explanation is visible inside the building.

This pattern shows that some aspects of the biodiversity, marine and
land reserve are struggling while the overall state of the people is
doing well. Yet, the economic and governing forces are not doing best.
A precise explanation is visible inside the building.

IMPROVED CUSTOMS FOR THE GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO

As every one coming on the island has to


pass through the harbour of Puerto Ayora, the
protected space created by the hanging panels
is ideal for a mordernised and pedagogical
custom checkpoint. Indeed, there are already
ongoing customs that verify immigration and
goods but it mainly focuses on preventing the
import of biological threats to the island or the
theft of protected species. The customs processes
any one arriving and leaving on the archipelago
and provides a quarantine if necessary. Besides
the legal and protection aspects of the program,
the mass of panels that you have to go through
when passing the customs acts as a pedagogical
media that stimulates people awareness about
the fragile ecosystem they are entering, and also
about the one they are going back to: the planet
Earth.

WAIT

PIER

CUSTOMS

Else
Where

Santa
Cruz

Quarantine

WAIT

PIER

CUSTOMS

Cliff

Arrive

Wait

Customs IN

Depart

Customs OUT

Beach

Informative Facade

Town

Ellis Island customs and quarantine to get to the American land

| Space exploration quarantine |

Current existing customs

Modern custom practices

A FILTERING GATEWAY BENEATH A CANOPY OF BACTERIA

INFORMATIVE FACADE

Facade
Maintenance
Waiting IN
Quarantine

Pier IN
Boat
maintenance

Pier OUT

CUSTOMS

BEACH
Docks For the Locals

Bridge

PUERTO AYORA

The building ts onto and along the cliff without interupting any of the current
activity of the harbour, it even improves some.
The locals still benet from the natural protection of the island and the access
of the beach, but they have now a bridge to access it. Their boats still t
underneath.
The boats containing any people coming from the continent through planes and
ships moor on the arrival pier, wait to go through the test cabins. If they pass,

they can comme the other side, otherwise the cabin goes up to the quarantine
level where further test may be done resulting in passage or explusion.
People who leave the island have to go through the same tests as on the way in
and then board on the ships to the continent.
The whole process is contained within the space dened by the hanging
bacteria panels which somehow acts as a justication for the heavy customs
procedure.

STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION OF THE PANELS

Waiting and circulation

Customs

Latitude:
Longitude:

Pier

0 45 0 South
90 19 0 West

Facade

The size and density of the panels in relation with the program
The panels are on the East-West axis
in order to get a minimum shadow
and direct the viewpoints from
the building towards the ocean

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Step 6

Original site: the


cliff falling into the
sea.

Concrete foundations
are put in the sea and
on the top of the
cliff.

130 pre-stressed beams are attached to the concrete on the


top of the cliff and span over
the sea with a maximum length
of 20 meters. Cables tigh the
beams down to the foundation
in the sea.

The cables a tightened between


the beams and the concrete
blocks in the sea in such a
way that the beams are horizontal. The structure is entirely stiff and pre-stressed,
ready to welcome the other elements.

The panels containing


the bacteria are suspended to the structure.

The floor plates and


the spaces are then
suspended over the
water.

PLAN AND SECTION OF THE BUILDING

Cliff level

4
Sea level

NORTH
8

Arrival pier

Waiting area

Boat maintenance

Facade maintenance

Brigde to Puerto Ayora

Departure pier

Quarantine

Access to the locals beach

Custom pod

10 meters

UNFOLDING SECTION THROUGH THE BUILDING

South - East

North - West

1 meter

5 meters

10 meters

AN INFORMATIVE LANDMARK FOR A CONSCIOUS DEVELOPMENT OF THE GALAPAGOS

Thanks to its intricate and ostentious presence, the building


would hopefully become a landmark acting for a conscious
evolution of the Galapagos Archipelago. Constantly yet subtly
and objectively exposing the issues that a place encounters in a
simple visual form may be one of the solutions for a more aware
development.

Arriving to the Galapagos on the full moon night