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# Number and algebra

Equations
and
logarithms
Historically, algebra dates back to ancient Egypt and
Babylon where linear and quadratic equations were solved.
In ancient Babylon, quadratic equations were solved by very
similar methods to those still relevant and taught today.
Logarithms were developed in the seventeenth century and
are still in use, most recognised in the pH, decibel and
Richter scales.

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Shutterstock.com/WitR

for the A

n Chapter outline
7-01 Equations with algebraic
fractions
x 2 bx c 0
7-03 Simple cubic equations
ax 3 c*
7-04 Equation problems
7-05 Equations and formulas
7-06 Changing the subject of
a formula*
7-07 Graphing inequalities on
a number line
7-08 Solving inequalities
7-09 Logarithms*
7-10 Logarithm laws*
7-11 Exponential and
logarithmic equations*
*STAGE 5.3

9780170194662

n Wordbank
Proficiency strands
U
F
R

## cubic equation An equation involving a variable cubed

(power of 3), such as 4x 3 500

## exponential equation An equation where the variable is

a power, such as 3 x 243

U
U
U

F
F
F

PS R
PS R
R

C
C
C

## logarithm The power of a number, to a given base. For

example, log10 1000 3, meaning that the logarithm of
1000 to base 10 is 3, because 1000 10 3

U
U
U
U

F
F
F
F

C
R
R
R
R

C
C
C

## inequality A mathematical statement that two quantities

are not equal, involving algebraic expressions and an
inequality sign (>, , <, or )
quadratic equation An equation involving a variable
squared (power of 2), such as 3x 2  6 69
solution The answer to an equation, inequality or
problem, the correct value(s) of the variable that makes
an equation or inequality true

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Equations and logarithms

## solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions

solve simple quadratic equations using a range of strategies
substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown
solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line
(STAGE 5.3) use the definition of a logarithm to establish and apply the laws of logarithms
(STAGE 5.3) solve simple exponential equations
solve linear equations and problems involving equations
(STAGE 5.3) solve linear equations involving complex algebraic fractions
(STAGE 5.3) solve simple cubic equations of the form ax 3 c
(STAGE 5.3) change the subject of a formula
(STAGE 5.3) solve simple logarithmic equations

SkillCheck
Worksheet
StartUp assignment 6

## Solve each equation.

a 4a 5 2a  19

MAT10NAWK10040

Equations with
algebraic fractions
MAT10NAVT10026

c 4(2  x) 24

b y 2  10y 16
e w 2  10w 21

c m 2  m  56
f x 2  2x  24

a k 2 5k 4
d u 2 8u  65

Video tutorial

b 3x 2 4
5

## 7-01 Equations with algebraic equations

Example

Puzzle sheet
Equations code puzzle
MAT10NAPS10041
Puzzle sheet
Equations order activity
MAT10NAPS10042
Puzzle sheet
Solving linear
equations 1
MAT10NAPS00035
Puzzle sheet
Solving linear
equations 2
MAT10NAPS00036

248

## Solve each equation.

a 2m  m 2
3
2

b 2a 4 2
5
3

Solution
a 2m  m 2
3
2
Multiply both sides by a common multiple of the denominators to remove the fractions.
The lowest common multiple (LCM) of 3 and 2 is 6, so multiply both sides by 6.


2m m

632
6
3
2
2m
m
62 3
 63 3
12
31
21
4m  3m 12
m 12

## Check by substituting that this

solution is correct.

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D
for the A

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

b 2a 4 2
5
3
Multiply both sides by 15, the LCM of 5 and 3.
2a 4
2
3
5
3 15
3 15
51
31
32a 4 10
6a 12 10
6a 2
2
a
6
1

3

Example

Stage 5.3

Solve 2n 1  3n  2 5
3
2

Video tutorial
Equations with
algebraic fractions

Solution
2n 1 3n  2

5
3 
2


2n 1
3n  2
 63
6 3 5
62
31
21

MAT10NAVT10026

4n 2  9n 6 30
5n 8 30
5n 38
38
n
5
3
7
5

Exercise 7-01
1

3y
9
a
5

## Equations with algebraic fractions

See Example 1

b 2a 2
9

c m56
2

d k  2 11
5

n5
10
3

y1
2
4

x1
2 10
4

y1
63
5

i m213
5

x670
5

2x 1
10
5

3m  2
6
4

51  n
13
2

41 d
1 71
3
3

8n 1
24
3

9780170194662

249

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Equations and logarithms

a 2k 5
3
4
y2 y1

e
5
2
3y 2 2y 1

i
3
4
3a
a
m
1
2 3

b 3w 2
10 5
a
5a1
f
3
8
j ww7
5 2
2y y
 4
n
5 3

c 5x  10
2
3
p2 p5

g
5
2
k w  w 15
2 5
a
o 3a 2
3 4

d x1x1
2
4
2y  1 y 1

h
5
4
l 2w  w 4
3
4

a 4m  m 2
5
3
A m 10

B m 12

C m 30
7

D m4
3

B m5

C m5
3

D m2
3

b m 1 3 2m
2
5
A m1
Stage 5.3
See Example 2

## Solve each equation.

a x  1 2x 0
4
7
d x3x26
5
2
7 2a a  1
g

6
5
2
j a  10  5  2a 1
5
4
2

p2 p1

10
3
4
e 3x  10 x  2 11
3
2
6a  1 a 2
h

8
4
3
b

c m 2 m 1 12
3
4
3y 1 y 2

4
f
4
3
w3 w1 1
i


6
5
3

iStockphoto/Lagui

## 7-02 Quadratic equations x bx c 0

An equation in which the highest power of the variable is 2 is called a quadratic equation;
for example, x 2 5, 3m 2 7 10, d 2  d  6 0 and 4y 2  3y 8.

250

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D
for the A

ustralian Curriculum

Solving ax 2 c

10 10A
Worksheet
Equations review

Summary

MAT10NAWK10043

## The quadratic equation x 2 c (where c is a positive number) has two solutions,

p
p
p
x  c which means x c and x  c

Example

3
Video tutorial

a m 2 16

b 3x 2 75

c 3m 2  12 0

MAT10NAVT10028

Solution
a m 2 16
p
m  16
4
b 3x 2 75
75
x2
3
2
x 25
p
x  25
5

Example

equations

## Finding the square root of both sides.

c

3m 2  12 0
3m 2  12 12 0 12
3m 2 12
12
m2
3
2
m 4
p
m 4
2

9

Solution
5x 2
25
9
5x 2 25 3 9
225
225
x2
5
45p
x  45
pp
 9 5
p
3 5

9780170194662

As a surd

## In simplest surd form

251

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Equations and logarithms

Example

## Solve 7x 2  88 0, writing the solution correct to one decimal place.

Solution
7x 2  88 0
7x 2 88
88
x2
7
r
88
x
7
x 3:54562 . . .
 3:5

Solving x 2 bx c 0 by factorising
To solve quadratic equations of the form x 2 bx c 0, we need to factorise the quadratic
expression on the LHS, which we learnt in Chapter 5, Products and Factors.

Example

Video tutorial
by factorising
MAT10NAVT10029

Solve x 2 5x 6 0.

Solution
x 2 5x 6 0
(x 2)(x 3) 0
The LHS has been factorised into two factors, (x 2) and (x 3), whose product is 0.
If two numbers have a product of 0, then one of the numbers must be 0.
) x2 0
) x 2

or
or

x3 0
x 3

## [ The solution to x 2 5x 6 0 is x 2 or x 3.

Check:
When x 2,
LHS (2) 2 5 3 (2) 6 0
RHS 0
Therefore LHS RHS.
When x 3,
LHS (3) 2 5 3 (3) 6 0
RHS 0
Therefore LHS RHS.

252

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D
for the A

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Summary
When solving quadratic equations by factorising, the following property is used.
If pq 0, then p 0 or q 0.

Example

7
Video tutorial

a x2  x  2 0
c a 2  2a 0

equations

b u 2 3u  28 0
d p 2 5p 24

MAT10NAVT10028

Solution
a x2  x  2 0
(x  2)(x 1) 0
) x20
or
)x2
or

x10
x 1

## [ The solution to x 2  x  2 0 is x 2 or x 1.

b u 2 3u  28 0
(u 7)(u  4) 0
) u70
or
u40
) u 7
or
u4
[ The solution to u 2 3u  28 0 is u 7 or u 4.
c a 2  2a 0
This requires a simpler factorisation as there
are only two terms, both involving a.
a(a  2) 0
)a0
or
a20
)a0
or
a2
[ The solution to a 2  2a 0 is a 0 or a 2.
d p 2 5p 24
p 2  5p  24 0
( p  8)(p 3) 0
) p80
or
p30
)p8
or
p 3
[ The solution to p 2 5p 24 is p 8 or p 3.

## Moving all terms to the LHS

and making the RHS 0

Note: Quadratic equations of the form ax 2 bx c 0 will be met in Chapter 11, Quadratic
equations and the parabola.

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253

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Equations and logarithms

Quadratic equations x 2 bx c 0

Exercise 7-02
See Example 3

b x 2 400
a m 2 144
2
f w 2  16 0
e y 10
2
a
8
j 5k 2 180
i
2
k2
w2
m
0:5
2:5
n
2
10
q 4x 2 1

See Example 4

See Example 5

See Example 6

x 2  x  30 0
d 2  2d 0
k 2  7k 0
m 2 3m
u 2 2u 8

o 5y 2 5

d 2 60 204

m2
9
4
y2
t
 2 18
5

3k 2
58
4

b y 2 5y 4 0
e x 2 2x  3 0

c y 2 16y 48 0
f x 2 3x  40 0

b
e
h
k
n

x 2  8x 16 0
x 2  3x  10 0
y 2 5y
a 2 24a 80
x 2 x 42

c
f
i
l
o

x 2  5x  66 0
n 2 4n 0
v 2 12v
n 2 10n
p(p 9) 20

a x 2 9
2
d 9w  1 1
2

NSW

k 3w 2 300

## Solve each quadratic equation.

a
d
g
j
m

Stage 5.3

d k 2  169 0
h t2  9 7

Solve each quadratic equation, writing the solution in exact (surd) form where necessary.
2
a 5m 2  20 0
b 4a 36
c m 2 28
9
2
2
d 9k 2 10 13
e k 6
f 3k 27
16
10
Solve each quadratic equation, writing the solution correct to two decimal places where necessary.
2
b 2x 23
c 6y 2 0.726
a 9m 2  2 32
5
2
d 2w 20
e 3a 2 11 267
f 2y 2  14 63
5
Solve each quadratic equation.
a x 2 3x 2 0
d x 2 x  12 0

See Example 7

r 2p 2 3 21

c y 2 225
g x 2 10 14

b 2k 2 5 9
2
e 4d 8
3

c 3m 2 8 4
2
f 5a 3 2
2

## 7-03 Simple cubic equations ax c

An equation in which the highest power of the variable is 3 is called a cubic equation, for example,
x 3 12, 2m 3 1 25, d 3  14 4 and x 3  3x 2 5x 4 0.

Summary
The cubic equation x 3 c has one solution: x

254

p
3
c

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D
for the A

Example

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A
Stage 5.3

a y 3 64

b p 3 50

c 2x 3 2000

Solution
a y 3 64
p

3
y 64
4

b p 3 50
p
p 3 50
c 2x

2000
2000
x3
2
1000
p
x 3 1000
10

Example

## Dividing both sides by (2).

Solve each cubic equation, writing the solution correct to one decimal place.
2y 3
11
b
a 11x 3  102 0
7

Solution
a 11x 3  102 0
11x 3 102
102
x3
11
9:272 . . .
p
x 3 9:272:::
2:1008 . . .
 2:1

b 2y 3
11
7
2y 3 11 3 7
77y 3
77

2
38:5
p
y 3 38:5
3:3766 . . .
 3:4

9780170194662

255

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3
See Example 8

Solve each cubic equation, writing the solution in exact form where necessary.
a
d
g
j

See Example 9

## Simple cubic equations ax 3 c

Exercise 7-03

x3 1
u 3 8
h 3 11
7m 3 448

m 3 125
y 3 729
k 3 48
4x 3 81

c
f
i
l

a 3 1331
n 3 20
5m 3 75
12x 3 480

Solve each cubic equation, writing the solution correct to one decimal place.
a w 3  16 0
b m 3 6 22
c 5m 3  1080 0
x3
5x 3
9
120
f
3
7
3
3
3x 3 10
h 2x 0:2048
i 7a  10 121
4
5
9
7x 3
10
a 3  0.064 0
k 
l 5t 3 46 370
9
Does a cubic equation of the form ax 3 c always have a solution?
When is the solution to x 3 c positive?

d 3t 3  10 87
g
j
3

b
e
h
k

a
b

## c When is the solution to x 3 c negative?

d Can x 3 c have two solutions?

## 7-04 Equation problems

Example

10

At a concert, an adults ticket costs \$5 more than twice the cost of a childs ticket. The total
cost for 3 adults and 7 children is \$327. Find the cost of a childs ticket and an adults ticket.

Solution
Let the cost of a childs ticket be \$c.
[ Cost of an adults ticket \$(2c 5)
32c 5 7c 327
6c 15 7c 327

## Using a variable to represent an

unknown quantity.
Forming an equation.
Solving the equation.

13c 15 327
13c 312
c 24
A childs ticket costs \$24.
) Cost of an adults ticket 2 3 \$24 5
\$53
[ A childs ticket costs \$24 and an adults ticket costs \$53.
Check: 3 3 \$53 7 3 \$24 \$327.

256

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N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D
for the A

Example

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

11

Jennifer is 7 years older than Amy. Ten years from now, the sum of their ages will be 43.
How old are they now?

Solution
Let x Amys age now.
[ Jennifers age now x 7.
In 10 years time:

Amy
Jennifer

Now
x
x7

In 10 years time
x 10
x 7 10 x 17

x 10 x 17 43
2x 27 43
2x 16
Amy is 8 now.

x8
Jennifers age now 8 7

15
Amy is 8 years old now and Jennifer is 15 years old now.
[ Check: In 10 years time, the sum of their ages will be 18 25 43.

Exercise 7-04

Equation problems

For each question, write an equation and solve it to answer the problem.
1 A rectangle is four times as long as it is wide. The perimeter of the rectangle is 250 cm. Find
the dimensions of the rectangle.
2 The equal sides of an isosceles triangle are twice as long as the other side. The perimeter of the
triangle is 90 mm. Find the lengths of the sides of the triangle.
3 At the football match, an adults ticket costs \$6 more than twice the cost of a childs ticket. The
total cost for 3 adults and 5 children is \$249. Find the cost of a childs ticket and an adults ticket.

See Example 10

## 4 The sum of three consecutive numbers is 186. Find the numbers.

5 The sum of three consecutive even numbers is 288. Find the numbers.
6 Sanjay is nine times the age of his son, Anand. In 5 years he will be four times the age of
Anand. How old are they now?

See Example 11

7 When 15 is subtracted from three times a certain number, the answer is 63. What is the number?
8 The product of 2 and a number is the same as 12 subtract the number. Find the number.
9 The sum of the present ages of Vatha and Chris is 36. In 4 years time, the sum of their ages
will equal twice Vathas present age. How old are they now?
10 Four consecutive numbers have a sum of 858. Find the numbers.
11 Find x.
(2x + 45)

5(x 12)

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257

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Equations and logarithms

12 Manoris bag has 10-cent and 20-cent coins. She has 202 coins with a total value of \$31.90.
How many 20-cent coins does Manori have?
13 If 17 more than a number is 5 more than three times the number, what is the number?
3(x + 2)

## 14 If the perimeter of this parallelogram is 130, find x.

x3

15 The sum of Scotts age and his mothers age is 45. In 5 years time, three times Scotts age less
9 will be the same as his mothers age. Find the present ages of Scott and his mother.
16 One angle in a triangle is double the smallest angle, and the third angle in the triangle is
5 more than four times the smallest angle. Find the size of each angle.
17 A large container of water is 7 full. After 15 L has been taken out, the container is 2 full.
8
3
When full, how many litres does the container hold?
18 The total cost of a school camp for Year 10 students was \$21 280. Each teacher paid \$185 to
attend and each student paid \$165. There was one teacher for every 15 students. Find the
numbers of teachers and students that attended the camp.

Mental skills 7

## Maths without calculators

Multiplying decimals
1

## Study each example.

a 3 8 = 24, so 3 0.8 = 2.4

## 0 dp + 1 dp = 1 dp (dp = decimal places)

The number of decimal places in the answer is equal to the total number of decimal places
in the question. Also, the answer sounds reasonable because, by estimation:
3 3 0.8  3 3 1 3 (2.4  3)
b 6 5 = 30, so 0.6 0.5 = 0.30 = 0.3

1 dp + 1 dp = 2 dp
By estimation, 0:6 3 0:5  0:5 3 0:5 1 3 1 1 0:25
2
2 4

(0.3  0.25)

## c 7 3 = 21, so 0.07 0.3 = 0.021

2 dp + 1 dp = 3 dp
By estimation, 0:07 3 0:3  0:07 3 1  0:02
3

258

(0.021  0.02)

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N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D
for the A

10 10A

## Now evaluate each product.

a 0.7 3 5
e 8 3 0.1
i 0.3 3 0.8

ustralian Curriculum

b 12 3 0.2
f 0.03 3 0.9
j 0.2 3 0.06

d (0.6) 2
h 1.1 3 8
l 0.07 3 0.4

c 0.4 3 0.3
g 4 3 0.05
k 9 3 0.2

## Study each example.

Given that 15 3 23 345, evaluate each product.
a 1.5 2.3 = 3.45

## 1 dp + 1 dp = 2 dp (Estimate: 1.5 2.3 2 2 = 4)

b 150 0.23 = 15 10 0.23 = 15 0.23 10 = 3.45 10 = 34.5

0 dp + 2 dp = 2 dp
(Estimate: 150 0.23 150 0.2 = 150 1 = 30)
5

## c 0.15 2300 = 0.15 23 100 = 3.45 100 = 345

2 dp + 0 dp
= 2 dp
(Estimate: 0.15 2300 0.2 2300 =
4

1
5

2300 = 460)

a 3.9 3 17
e 3.9 3 1.7
i 3900 3 1.7

b 39 3 170
f 390 3 1.7
j 39 3 1.7

c 39 3 0.17
g 3.9 3 0.17
k 39 3 0.017

d 0.39 3 1.7
h 3.9 3 170
l 0.39 3 0.17

## 7-05 Equations and formulas

A formula is an equation that describes a relationship between variables. For example, the formula
for the perimeter of a rectangle is P 2(l w), where P is the subject of the formula and appears
on the LHS of the sign.

Example

Puzzle sheet
Getting the right
formula
MAT10NAPS10044

12

The cost, \$C, of a taxi trip is C 5 2.4d, where d is the distance travelled in kilometres.
a Find the cost of a taxi trip if the distance travelled is 15 km.
b Find the distance travelled by the taxi if the cost of the trip was \$78.20.

Solution
a When d 15:
C 5 2:4 3 15
41
The cost was \$41.

9780170194662

b When C 78.20:
78:20 5 2:4d
73:20 2:4d
73:20
d
30:5
2:4
The distance travelled was 30.5 km.

259

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Equations and logarithms

Example

13

The surface area of a sphere is SA 4pr 2, where r is the radius. Find, correct to one decimal
place, the radius of a sphere with surface area 40 m 2.

Solution
When r 40:
40 4pr 2
10 pr 2
10
r2
p
3:183 . . .
p
r 3:183

r is positive

1:784 . . .
 1:8 m
The radius of the sphere is 1.8 m.

Exercise 7-05
See Example 12

## Equations and formulas

1 The formula for the circumference of a circle is C 2pr, where r is the radius. Find, correct to
one decimal place:
a the circumference of a circle with radius 2.4 m
b the radius of a circle whose circumference is 200 cm
2 The perimeter of a rectangle is P 2(l w). Find the width of a rectangle whose perimeter is
58 m and length is 12 m.
3 The formula for converting speed expressed in m/s to a speed expressed as km/h is k 3.6M,
where M is the speed in m/s. Calculate in m/s the speed of a car travelling at 110 km/h.
4 Use the formula from question 3 to convert each speed to km/h.
a 10 m/s

c 50 m/s
m
5 The average of m and n is A n. If two numbers have an average of 28 and one of them
2
is 13, find the other number.

See Example 13

b 24 m/s

## 6 The formula for converting a temperature recorded in F to a temperature in C is

5
C F  32. Convert each temperature to C, correct to the nearest degree.
9
a 80F
b 32F
c 212F
d 102F
M
7 The body mass index (BMI) of an adult is B 2 , where M is the mass in kilograms and h is
h
the height in metres. Find, correct to one decimal place:
a the BMI of Dean who is 1.85 m tall and has a mass of 72 kg
b the mass of a person with a BMI of 24, who is 2.1 m tall.
8 The volume of a sphere is V 4 pr 3 , where r is the radius. Find, correct to one decimal place,
3
the radius of a sphere with a volume of 500 m 3.

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ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

9 The average speed in km/h of a car is given by the formula S D, where D is the distance
T
covered in kilometres and T is the time taken in hours. Find, correct to the nearest whole
number:
a the distance travelled, if a car maintains a speed of 87.2 km/h for 5 hours
b the time taken, if a distance of 650 km is covered at a speed of 91 km/h
10 The cost, \$C, of hiring a car is C 45 0.15d, where d is the number of kilometres travelled.
Calculate:
a the cost of hiring a car to travel 350 km
b the distance travelled, if the cost is \$138.
11 The surface area of a cylinder is given by the formula SA 2pr 2 2prh. Calculate, correct to
one decimal place, the height of a cylinder with surface area 1255.38 cm 2 and radius 9 cm.

Example

## Change the subject of the formula:

b v 2 u 2 2as to s
a A 1 bh to h
2

## Changing the subject

of a formula

a 2 k to a
a 10

Solution

u 2 2as v 2
2as v 2  u 2
s
c

v2  u2
2a

a2
k
a 10
a 2 ka 10
ak 10k
a  ak 10k  2
a1  k 10k  2
10k  2
a
1k

9780170194662

NSW
Video tutorial

14

1
a A bh
2
1
bh A
2
bh 2A
2A
h
b
2
2
b v u 2as

Stage 5.3

MAT10NAVT10005
Worksheet
Changing the subject
of a formula
MAT10NAWK10211

## Swapping sides so that h appears on the LHS.

Multiplying both sides by 2.
Dividing both sides by b.

## Swapping sides so that s appears on the LHS.

Subtracting u 2 from both sides.
Dividing both sides by 2a.

## Multiplying both sides by a 10.

Expanding
Moving the a-terms to the LHS, the 2 to the RHS.
Factorising a from the LHS.
Dividing both sides by 1  k.

261

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Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3
See Example 14

Exercise 7-06
1

a x 2y 5
y
d m
3 5
ay  k
c
g
2 r
y
j x
k

b m py k
e D K  My
y 3 4m

5
3
k n d
5y
h

c P  ky 8
5 8y
4
f
d
i xy 2 5 w
r
yk
l T
c

## Change the subject of each formula to the variable indicated in brackets.

b s ut 1 at 2 [a]
c v u at [a]
a a 2 b 2 c 2 [b]
2
d V 4 pr 3 [r]
e A p(R 2  r 2) [R]
f A prl pr 2 [l]
3
p
g S 180(n  2) [n]
h 1 1 1 [r]
i x b 2  4ac [b]
x r s
ap  1
j x y 5  3x [x]
k m 5A
[A]
l S
[p]
p
2A n
m X(a b) Y(a  b) [a]
n 5 x 2 [x]
o y u bx [b]
3x a
u ab

## Investigation: Restricting values of variables

1 Consider the formula x 2 y 2 4.
a Explain why the least value that x can take is 2 and the largest value that x can take is 2.
b Does the same restriction apply to the values
that the variable y can take? Explain why.
p

x2 .
c By making y the subject, show that y  4p
d Are the values that x and y can take in y  4  x2 different from the values that
they can take in x 2 y 2 4? Give reasons.
2 a If Z r
ax2, what range of values can Z, a and x take?
b If x Z , what range of values can Z, a and x take?
a
3 a In the formula A pr 2, explain why there are no restrictions on r but A  0.
b Make r the subject of the formula given that the formula is for the area of a circle.
Have the restrictions on the variables r and A changed?
p
4 a What are the restrictions on the variables x and y in the formula y 16  x2 ?
b Change the subject of the formula to x. Are the restrictions on the variables the same
as for part a? Explain.
5 Consider the formula y 1 .
x3
a What are the restrictions on the variables x and y? Give reasons.
b Make x the subject of the formula. Are the restrictions on the variables the same as in
part a or different? Explain.
c Compare your answers to the above questions with those of other students in

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## 7-07 Graphing inequalities on a number line

Worksheet
Graphing inequalities
MAT10NAWK10045

An inequality looks like an equation except that the equals sign () is replaced by an inequality
symbol >, , < or .
2x  7 15 is an equation. There is only one value of x that makes it true.
2x  7  15 is an inequality. There is a range of values of x that make it true.

Summary
> means is greater than
< means is less than

##  means is greater than or equal to

 means is less than or equal to

The inequality x  3 is read x is greater than or equal to 3 and includes 3 and all the numbers
above 3, such as 3.01, 4, 10, 20 000, etc.
The inequality x > 3 is read x is greater than 3 and means all the numbers above 3, but not 3.
Inequality
x>3
x<3
x3
x3

In words
x is greater than 3
x is less than 3
x is greater than or equal to 3
x is less than or equal to 3

Meaning
Values above 3
Values below 3
Values above and including 3
Values below and including 3

For convenience, we can represent all the values in an inequality using a number line.

Example

15

## Graph each inequality on a number line.

a x1

b x<5

c x > 3

Solution
a x  1 means that x can be any number greater than 1 or equal to 1.
3

## The filled circle at 1

means we include 1.

b x < 5 means that x can be any number less than 5, but not including 5.
3

## The open circle on 5 means

that 5 is not included.

c x > 3 means that x can be any number greater than 3, but not including 3.
3

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Equations and logarithms

Exercise 7-07
See Example 15

## Graph each inequality on a separate number line.

a x2
b x < 3
c x1
e x4
f x>0
g x  2
Write the inequality illustrated by each number line.
a

x
2

x
0

10 8 6 4 2

x
10 8 6 4 2

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

A x > 2.5
4

d x>7
h x < 10

B x < 2.5

C x < 3.5

D x > 3.5

a

3 2 1

10 12

9 6 3

10 8 6 4 2

3 2 1

3 2 1

10 15 20 25

x
x
x
x

## Investigation: The language of inequalities

Work in pairs to complete this activity.
Use inequality symbols to write each statement algebraically.
a The minimum height (H) for rides at an amusement park is 1.3 m.
b The speed limit in a school zone is 40 km/h.
c To be eligible to vote, you must be at least 18 years old (A age).
d The overseas tour is only for people whose age (A) is from 18 to 35.
e The cost (A) of a tennis racquet will be at least \$95 but no more than \$360.
f A new flute (F) costs at least \$475.
g The price of units (U) in a new block start at \$240 000.

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10 10A

## Investigation: Solving inequalities

We have solved equations by doing the same thing to both sides (keeping the equation
balanced). Will this method work with inequalities, such as x 4 > 10 or 6x < 13?
1 Start with an inequality that is true, such as 7 > 4.
2 Add 5 (or any number you choose) to both sides of the inequality; for example 7 > 4
becomes 12 > 9. Is the new inequality true or false?
3 Subtract 9 (or any number you choose) from each side of the original inequality; for
example 7 > 4 becomes 2 > 5. Is the new inequality true or false?
4 Multiply both sides of the original inequality by 4 (or any positive number you choose);
for example 7 > 4 becomes 28 > 16. Is the new inequality true or false?
5 Divide both sides of the original inequality by 2 (or any positive number you choose);
for example 7 > 4 becomes 31 > 2. Is the new inequality true or false?
2
6 Multiply both sides of the original inequality by 3 (or any negative number you choose);
for example 7 > 4 becomes 21 > 12. Is the new inequality true or false?
7 Divide both sides of the original inequality by 4 (or any negative number you choose),
for example 7 > 4 becomes 13 > 1. Is the new inequality true or false?
4
8 Which of the six operations used in questions 2 to 7 can be used on inequalities to give
a true result?
9 Which of the six operations used in questions 2 to 7 cannot be used with inequalities
because they give a false result?
10 Copy and complete the following inequality statements.
a 6<8
6 3 3 < 8 3 ___ (multiplying both sides by 3)
[ 18 __ 24
b 10 > 4
10 4 2 __ 4 4 __ (dividing both sides by 2)
[ __________
Does the inequality sign (< or >) stay the same when multiplying or dividing by a
positive number?
11 a Is it true that 5 < 8?
b Multiply both sides by 2. Is it true that 10 < 16?
c What needs to be reversed to change 10 < 16 into a true inequality statement?
d Copy and complete the following to make a true inequality statement: 10 ______ 16.
12 a Is it true that 18 > 6?
b Divide both sides by 3. Is it true that 6 > 2?
c What needs to be reversed to change 6 > 2 into a true inequality statement?
d Copy and complete the following to make a true inequality statement: 6 ____ 2.
13 Copy and complete:
When multiplying or d__________ both sides of an inequality by a n__________
number, the inequality sign must be r__________.

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Equations and logarithms

## 7-08 Solving inequalities

Worksheet
Inequalities review

Example

16

MAT10NAWK10046

## Solve each inequality and graph its solution on a number line.

a 2x  10  16
b 2(y  1)  12
c w 3 > 1
2

Solution
a

2x  10  16
2x  10 10  16 10
2x  26
2x 26

2
2
x  13
x

10 11 12 13 14 15

2y  1  12
2y  2  12
2y  2 2  12 2
2y  14
2y 14

2
2
y7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

w3
> 1
2
w3
3 2 > 1 3 2
2
w 3 > 2
w 3  3 > 23
w > 5
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1

Summary
Inequalities can be solved algebraically in the same way as equations, by using inverse
operations. However, when multiplying or dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative
number, you must reverse the inequality sign.

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for the A

Example

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

17

## Solve each inequality.

a 1  2x  11

b 4r<7

c a5>4
3

Solution
a

1  2x  11
1  2x1  111
2x  12
Dividing both sides by a negative number
reverses the inequality sign.

2x 12

2
2
x6
b

4r <7
4r4<74
r < 3
r
3
>
1 1
r > 3

## Dividing both sides by a negative number

reverses the inequality sign.

a5
>4
3

a5
3 3 < 4 3 3
3
a 5 < 12

## Multiplying both sides by a negative

number reverses the inequality sign.

## a 55 < 125

a < 17

Exercise 7-08
1

Solving inequalities

## Solve each inequality and graph its solution on a number line.

a x1>6
d x  20
5
g 4a  2
j

3a 1  10

b 3y  12

c m42

e 12x < 60

f 5y > 20

h 3w  30

i 8a 5  45

k 6a 4  2

l 3w  3 < 12

b 5(m  4)  10
e w  2 > 1
5
4m  2
 6
h
3
k 11  5y  9  6y

c 2(y 5)  6
f 2a 1 < 3
3
i 3 x < 10
5
l 2(3 5a)  5(4 a)

See Example 16

## Solve each inequality.

a 3(x 2)  9
d x12
2
2m 1
3
g
3
j 3 2x < 9 x

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Equations and logarithms

See Example 17

3x  2
 1 ? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.
5
B x  1
C x1
D x   11
A x0
3
3
Solve each inequality and graph its solution on a number line.
What is the solution to

a 5x2
d 7m7
5

b 15 > 7  y
e 2p>8

c 1  k < 12
f t 6  10

k 4
3
e 4  3w > 7

c 5t >12

## Solve each inequality.

a 2x < 6
d x  4
3
g 8  5a < 3
j

p 2
< 2
3

h 2d  3 > 8
k 1  3m < 9  5m

## Just for the record

f 4y 3  11
i 5w>2
3
l 3(3x 4)  6(1  2x)

## Film and game classification

In Australia, films, publications and computer games are rated by the Classification Board.
Films and videos are rated G, PG, M, MA15 or R18, with each category containing a list of
guidelines related to the films use of violence, coarse language, adult themes, sex and nudity.
General (G) means suitable for all ages. Children can watch films
classified G without adult supervision.
Parental guidance (PG) means that parental guidance is recommended
for persons under 15 years of age. These films contain material that may
be confusing or upsetting to children, but not harmful or disturbing.
Parents should watch the film with their children or preview it to check
elements such as language used or inappropriate themes.
Mature (M) means recommended for mature audiences, 15 years and
over. The film or computer game may contain material that is harmful
or disturbing to children, but the impact is not so strong as to require
restriction.
Mature accompanied (MA15) means legal restrictions apply to persons
under the age of 15. Children are not allowed to see MA15 films unless
accompanied by a parent or guardian, because they contain material
that is likely to be harmful or disturbing to them.
Restricted (R18) means legally restricted to adults, 18 years and over.
It applies to films that deal with issues and scenes that require an
adult perspective, and so are unsuitable for persons under 18 years
of age. A person will be asked for proof of age before buying, hiring
or viewing films or computer games in this category.
1 Each of the classifications is represented by a logo (as shown) with the letter inside
a particular shape. What shape is each logo?
2 Write each classification category as an inequality.

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10 10A

## Investigation: Power tables

1 Copy and complete this table of powers of 2 from 0 to 20.
0

x
2x

20

2 Use the table to calculate 32 3 128. Explain the method you used.
3 Use the table to calculate:
a 16 3 1024
b 128 3 2048
c 256 3 64
d 4096 3 32
4 Use the table to calculate 262 114 4 8192. Explain the method you used.
5 Use the table to calculate:
a 16 384 4 512
b 128 4 8
c 8192 4 1024
d 1 048 576 4 65 536
When powers are used this way in calculations, they may be called logarithms.

Stage 5.3

7-09 Logarithms

Puzzle sheet

The logarithm of a number is the power of the number, to a given positive base.
For example, the logarithm of 256 to the base 2 is 8, written log2 256 8, because 2 8 256.

Example

MAT10NAPS00059
Puzzle sheet

18

Logarithms 2
MAT10NAPS00060

## Evaluate each expression.

a log3 81

Logarithms 1

b log4 16

c log10 10 000

Solution
a log3 81 means 3 ? 81
3 to the power of what equals 81?
4

Since 3 81
then log3 81 4.

b log4 16 means 4 ? 16
4 to the power of what equals 16?

Since 4 2 16
then log4 16 2.

## c log10 10 000 means 10 ? 10 000

Since 10 4 10 000
then log10 10 000 4.

Summary
If y a x, then loga y x
where a is the base, a > 0, x is the power, and y > 0.
Since a > 0, a x > 0 and y > 0.
Logarithms are only meaningful for positive numbers, y.
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Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3

Example

19

a 243 3 5

b 0.01 10 2

c 2 83

d p qr

Solution
a 243 3 5
[ log3 243 5
c

b 0.01 10 2
[ log10 0.01 2

d p qr
[ logq p r

2 83
1
) log8 2
3

Example

20

Solution
logn m x
[ m nx

Exercise 7-09
See Example 18

See Example 19

b log2 8
a log5 25
e log3 243
f log10 1000
j log3 6561
i log2 64

d log2 16
h log6 36
l log8 512

b 4 3 64
f 32 1
9
1
j 162 4

c 10 000 10 4

d 252 5

g 83 4
3

k 92 27

## Write each expression in index form.

b log10 10 1
c logp3 27 6
e log2 64 6
f log3 1 4
g log5 1 3
81p
125
1
3
1
i log100 10
j log5 5 5
k log8 2
2
2
3
Why cant you find the logarithm of a negative number or zero?
a log5 125 3

270

c log7 49
g log5 125
k log10 1000 000

## Write each expression in logarithmic form.

a 5 2 25
e 1 24
16
p
1
2 44
i

See Example 20

Logarithms

h 0.01 10 2
1
l p1 62
6
p
d log2 8 2 3:5
p
h log8 2 1
6
1
l log100
1
100

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ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

## 7-10 Logarithm laws

Stage 5.3

The index laws from Chapter 5, Products and factors, are related to the logarithm laws.

Summary
The logarithm of a product is equal to the sum of the logarithm of each factor.
loga (xy) loga x loga y
For example, log2 (8 3 4) log2 8 log2 4.
This law corresponds to the index law a m 3 a n a mn.
Proof:
Let m loga x and n loga y.
[ x a m and y a n
[ xy a m 3 a n a m n
) loga xy m n
loga x loga y

Summary
The logarithm of a quotient is equal to the difference between the logarithm of each term.
 
x
loga x  loga y
loga
y
 
For example, log3 243 log3 243  log3 27
27
This law corresponds to the index law a m 4 a n a mn.
Proof:
Let m loga x and n loga y.
[ x a m and y a n
x am
) n amn
y a
 
x
mn
) loga
y
loga x  loga y

Summary
The logarithm of a term raised to a power is equal to the power multiplied by the logarithm
of the term.
loga x n n loga x

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Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3

## For example, log4 8 2 2 log4 8

This law corresponds to the index law (a m) n a mn.
Proof:
Let m loga x
[ x am
) xn am n
amn
) loga xn mn
loga x 3 n
n loga x

Summary
Properties of logarithms
loga a x x
loga a 1, because a 1 a

Proof:
 
1
loga
log x1
x
 loga x

Example

loga 1 0, because a 0 1
 
1
 loga x
loga
x

21

Video tutorial
Logarithm laws
MAT10NAVT10001

## Evaluate each expression.

a log5 0.04

Solution

272

b log2 5  log2 10


c 2 log3 6  log3 4

## d log5 10 log5 2  log5 4


4
a log5 0:04 log5
100
 
1
log5
25
 
1
log5 2
5
log5 52
2


5
b log2 5  log2 10 log2
10
 
1
log2
2
log2 21
1

log3 36  log3 4
 
36
log3
4
log3 9
2

## d log5 10 log5 2  log5 4 log5 10 3 2  log5 4

log5 20  log5 4
 
20
log5
4
log5 5
1

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for the A

Example

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A
Stage 5.3

22

## Simplify each expression.

a 6 loga a loga a 4  loga a 9

## b log2 x log2 w  2 log2 y

log3 a 3
5 log3 a

Solution
a 6 loga a loga a 4  loga a 9 6 3 1 4  9
1
b log2 x log2 w  2 log2 y log2 xw  log2 y 2
 
xw
log2 2
y
3
3 log3 a
c log3 a

5 log3 a 5 log3 a
3

Example

23

## Given log10 7  0.8451, find the value of each expression.

a log10 49

b log10 700

c log10 (0.07)

Solution
a log10 49 log10 7 2
2 log10 7

## b log10 700 log10 7 3 100

log10 7 log10 100
 0:8451 2
2:8451

 2 3 0:8451
1:6902


7
c log10 0:07 log10
100
log10 7  log10 100
 0:8451  2
1:1549

Exercise 7-10
1

Logarithm laws

## Evaluate each expression.

b log10 1000
a log2 128
p
e log2 2
f log3 1
9
i log8 2 log8 4
j log4 32  log4 2
l

## log5 200  log5 8

9780170194662

m log2 18  2 log2 3

c log8 64
g log10 0.0001
k log10 4 log10 25

d log5 1
5
h log2 1
16

See Example 21

## n 3 log10 2 log10 12.5

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Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3

See Example 22

See Example 23

## Simplify each expression.

a logx 5 logx 6

b logx 10  logx 2

d 2 logx 4  logx 8

e logx 10 logx 4

g logx 4

a log10 16
e log10 0.4

b log10 400
f log10 160

c log10 4000
g log10 2.5

d log10 p
2
h log10 40

## Evaluate each expression.

a log3 4 log3 15  log3 20

## e 2 log10 2  (log10 5 log10 8)

f log100 50  log100 5
h 5 log8 2 1 log8 4
2
p
1
j
log2 125  3 log2 3 80
3

## g 2 log5 10 (log5 50  log5 40)

p
1
i
log4 25  2 log4 20
2
5

c 3 logx 2
f 1 logx 100
2
i 1 logx 8 logx 18
2

## Simplify each expression.

b loga a 3
a loga a 2 3 loga a
d

loga x 7
loga x

e loga y 3  3 loga y

c 5 loga a  loga a 4
p
f loga x  loga 1
x

## 7-11 Exponential and logarithmic equations

Worksheet
Logarithms review
MAT10NAWK10212

Exponential equations are equations like 3 x 243, where the variable is a power.
Logarithms can be used to solve exponential equations rather than using a guess-and-check method.
The log key on your calculator can be used to evaluate log10 x, that is, logarithms to the base 10.

Puzzle sheet
Exponential equations

Example

24

MAT10NAPS00040

## Solve each exponential equation.

1
b 4m1 p
8 2

a 3 x 243

Solution
a 3 x 243
log10 3x log10 243

## x log10 3 log10 243

x

log10 243
log10 3

Enter on a calculator:
log 243
log 3

5
Note: The log key means log10, and for
convenience we will write log to mean log10.

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for the A

1
4m1 p
8 2


 m1 
1
p

log 4
log
8 2


1
m 1 log 4 log p
8 2
 p
m 1 log 4  log 8 2
p
 log 8 2
m1
log 4

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A
Stage 5.3

1:75
m 2:75

Example

25

## Solve 5 x 17, writing the solution correct to three decimal places.

Solution
5 x 17
log 5x log 17
x log 5 log 17
log 17
log 5
1:7603 . . .

 1:760
Logarithmic equations are equations like log5 x 3, which can be solved by rewriting the
equation in index form.

Example

NSW

26

## Solve each logarithmic equation.

a log5 x 3

b logx 18 3

Solution
a log5 x 3
3

)x5
1
3
5
1

125

9780170194662

b logx 18 3
[ 18px 3
x 3 18
2:6207 . . .
 2:62

275

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3
See Example 24

See Example 25

Exercise 7-11
1

## Solve each exponential equation.

b 5 m 78 125
a 2 k 512
p

d 5x 25 5
e 2y 1p
16 2
p

g 3k2 27 3
h 6n2 1p
216 6

c 3 d 59 049
f 4 a 128
i 91d

1p
27 3

Solve each exponential equation, writing the solution correct to three decimal places.
a 7 x 16
e 3 x 1.6
i 6 x3 29

See Example 26

b 5 x 36
f 4x 2
5
j 8 5x 4000

c 11 x 420

d 2 x 0.52

g 2 x2 47

h 3 x4 72

k 5 y 4.8

7 k5 300

## Solve each exponential equation by expressing both sides to base 2.

p
b 8 x 32
c 4x1 2
a 2 x2 16
 1x p
1
e 42x 1
f 8x1 p
g 1
2
8
4
8 2

Solve each logarithmic equation, expressing your answer correct to three decimal places where
necessary.
a log2 x 3
e log27 x

1
3

b log10 x 3
f log4 x

1
2

log4 x  32

p
d 81x 16 2
 x
h 5 1 20
2

c log5 x 2

d log4 x 3

g log10 x 3
k log4 x 3 12

h log8 x 32
l logp x 4

i log10 x  12

m logx 4 2

n logx 5 1

o logx 14 2

p logx 0.01 2

q logx 16 1

r logx 8 3

s logx 60 3

t logx 4:8 12

Use the compound interest formula A P(1 r) n to determine the number of years (to the
nearest year) it will take an investment of \$1000 to grow to \$2000, if it earns compound
interest at a rate of 6% p.a.

Penny invests \$12 000 at 1% per month compound interest. How many whole months will it
take for Pennys investment to grow to \$15 000?

with a mass of 150 grams decays according to the equation
 tsubstance

A 150 3 220 , where A (grams) is the amount remaining after t days. Find, correct to the
nearest whole number:
a the mass of substance remaining after 10 days
b the time taken for the substance to decay to half its original mass
c the time taken for the substance to decay to a mass of 20 g.

276

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D
for the A

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Power plus
1

a 2xx55xx2
3
6
4
3

1 2 0
x1 x1

2
3
4
5

a 1x4
b 2  x  3

c 12 < 4x  4

## The number of diagonals, D, in a polygon with n sides is D 12 nn  3. Show that there

is no polygon that has exactly 100 diagonals.
p
The two solutions of x 2  8x  11 0 are in the form x p  q 3, where p and q are
integers. Find p and q.
Solve each logarithmic equation.
a log a log 3 log 21
c log 7 log m log (m 12)

9780170194662

## b log x  log 4 log 5

d log (h 7)  log 3 log (h  1)

277

Chapter 7 review

n Language of maths
Puzzle sheet
Equations and
inequalities crossword
MAT10NAPS10047

check

cubic equation

exact

expand

exponential equation

factorise

formula

fraction

greater than

inequality

LHS

less than

logarithm

logarithmic equation

## lowest common multiple (LCM)

number line

RHS

solution

solve

subject

surd

variable

1 What type of equation has 2 as the highest power of x? Write an example of this type of
equation.
2 Write log7 a 3 in index form.
3 What is the difference between an equation and an inequality?
4 Why is it possible for a quadratic equation to have more than one solution?
5 When checking the solution to an equation, you need to show that LHS RHS. What does
that mean?
6 What does the inequality symbol  mean?

n Topic overview
Quiz
Equations

Copy and complete this mind map of the topic, adding detail to its branches and using pictures,
symbols and colour where needed. Ask your teacher to check your work.

MAT10NAQZ00011

Equations with
algebraic fractions

Exponential and
logarithmic equations

Logarithms

278

cubic equations

Equations and
logarithms

Solving inequalities

Equation problems

Equations and
formulas

Graphing inequalities
on a number line

9780170194662

Chapter 7 revision
1 Solve each equation.
a 3w 2 4
5
d 3m 5 10  m
6
3

y
b 7
5 4
e 2s  s 2
3 6

## 2 Solve each equation.

y1 y1 1

b
a m1m6
3
4
4
2
2
3 Solve each quadratic equation.
a y2 4
d 3m 2  3 0
g h 2  8h  9 0

b p 2  100 0
2
e 2w 10
5
h u 2 4u  77 0

c 2a 1 3a  1
2
4
f x x1
10 2
Stage 5.3

c 2m  1  m  4 4
4
3
3

## See Exercise 7-01

See Exercise 7-02

c 4x 2 36
f x 2 8x 7 0
i k 2 5k 0

## 4 Solve each cubic equation, correct to one decimal place.

x3
1:5
b 5m 3  125 0
c
a u3  7 0
2
5 Grace is three years younger than her sister Jane. Twice the sum of their ages is 4 more than
their fathers age. If their father is 54, find the ages of Grace and Jane.

Stage 5.3
See Exercise 7-03
See Exercise 7-04

## 6 The braking distance (in metres) of a bicycle travelling at a speed of v metres/second is

vv 1
: Calculate the braking distance when the speed of the bicycle is 15 m/s.
d
2
7 Make a the subject of each formula.
q
a y ax b
b P a
c M(1 a) 1  a
m
8 Graph each inequality on a number line.
a x0
b x<3
c x  2
d x > 5

## See Exercise 7-08

a y  6  10

b 2y  15
d 10  6x < 28
e a2>7
4
2
10 Write each expression in index form.
a log6 216 3

1
log2 16

4

## 11 Evaluate each expression.

b log2 3 log2 13
a log7 84  log7 12
12 If log10 3  0.4771, find the value of:
b log10 300
a log10 9

9780170194662

b 2 x 0.52

c 3a 10 > 5
f 3  5x  9
2
Stage 5.3

p
c log7 7 7 32

## See Exercise 7-09

See Exercise 7-10

c

log10 10
3

p
d log10 90

a 5 x 11

c 3 x4 105

d 16 2x 5

279