It has exercise and examples of equations and logarithms.

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It has exercise and examples of equations and logarithms.

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Equations

and

logarithms

Historically, algebra dates back to ancient Egypt and

Babylon where linear and quadratic equations were solved.

In ancient Babylon, quadratic equations were solved by very

similar methods to those still relevant and taught today.

Logarithms were developed in the seventeenth century and

are still in use, most recognised in the pH, decibel and

Richter scales.

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Shutterstock.com/WitR

for the A

n Chapter outline

7-01 Equations with algebraic

fractions

7-02 Quadratic equations

x 2 bx c 0

7-03 Simple cubic equations

ax 3 c*

7-04 Equation problems

7-05 Equations and formulas

7-06 Changing the subject of

a formula*

7-07 Graphing inequalities on

a number line

7-08 Solving inequalities

7-09 Logarithms*

7-10 Logarithm laws*

7-11 Exponential and

logarithmic equations*

*STAGE 5.3

9780170194662

n Wordbank

Proficiency strands

U

F

R

(power of 3), such as 4x 3 500

a power, such as 3 x 243

U

U

U

F

F

F

PS R

PS R

R

C

C

C

example, log10 1000 3, meaning that the logarithm of

1000 to base 10 is 3, because 1000 10 3

U

U

U

U

F

F

F

F

C

R

R

R

R

C

C

C

are not equal, involving algebraic expressions and an

inequality sign (>, , <, or )

quadratic equation An equation involving a variable

squared (power of 2), such as 3x 2 6 69

solution The answer to an equation, inequality or

problem, the correct value(s) of the variable that makes

an equation or inequality true

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

solve simple quadratic equations using a range of strategies

substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown

solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line

(STAGE 5.3) use the definition of a logarithm to establish and apply the laws of logarithms

(STAGE 5.3) solve simple exponential equations

solve linear equations and problems involving equations

(STAGE 5.3) solve linear equations involving complex algebraic fractions

(STAGE 5.3) solve simple cubic equations of the form ax 3 c

(STAGE 5.3) change the subject of a formula

(STAGE 5.3) solve simple logarithmic equations

SkillCheck

Worksheet

StartUp assignment 6

a 4a 5 2a 19

MAT10NAWK10040

Equations with

algebraic fractions

MAT10NAVT10026

c 4(2 x) 24

b y 2 10y 16

e w 2 10w 21

c m 2 m 56

f x 2 2x 24

a k 2 5k 4

d u 2 8u 65

Video tutorial

b 3x 2 4

5

Example

Puzzle sheet

Equations code puzzle

MAT10NAPS10041

Puzzle sheet

Equations order activity

MAT10NAPS10042

Puzzle sheet

Solving linear

equations 1

MAT10NAPS00035

Puzzle sheet

Solving linear

equations 2

MAT10NAPS00036

248

a 2m m 2

3

2

b 2a 4 2

5

3

Solution

a 2m m 2

3

2

Multiply both sides by a common multiple of the denominators to remove the fractions.

The lowest common multiple (LCM) of 3 and 2 is 6, so multiply both sides by 6.

2m m

632

6

3

2

2m

m

62 3

63 3

12

31

21

4m 3m 12

m 12

solution is correct.

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D

for the A

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

b 2a 4 2

5

3

Multiply both sides by 15, the LCM of 5 and 3.

2a 4

2

3

5

3 15

3 15

51

31

32a 4 10

6a 12 10

6a 2

2

a

6

1

3

Example

Stage 5.3

Solve 2n 1 3n 2 5

3

2

Video tutorial

Equations with

algebraic fractions

Solution

2n 1 3n 2

5

3

2

2n 1

3n 2

63

6 3 5

62

31

21

MAT10NAVT10026

4n 2 9n 6 30

5n 8 30

5n 38

38

n

5

3

7

5

Exercise 7-01

1

3y

9

a

5

See Example 1

b 2a 2

9

c m56

2

d k 2 11

5

n5

10

3

y1

2

4

x1

2 10

4

y1

63

5

i m213

5

x670

5

2x 1

10

5

3m 2

6

4

51 n

13

2

41 d

1 71

3

3

8n 1

24

3

9780170194662

249

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

a 2k 5

3

4

y2 y1

e

5

2

3y 2 2y 1

i

3

4

3a

a

m

1

2 3

b 3w 2

10 5

a

5a1

f

3

8

j ww7

5 2

2y y

4

n

5 3

c 5x 10

2

3

p2 p5

g

5

2

k w w 15

2 5

a

o 3a 2

3 4

d x1x1

2

4

2y 1 y 1

h

5

4

l 2w w 4

3

4

a 4m m 2

5

3

A m 10

B m 12

C m 30

7

D m4

3

B m5

C m5

3

D m2

3

b m 1 3 2m

2

5

A m1

Stage 5.3

See Example 2

a x 1 2x 0

4

7

d x3x26

5

2

7 2a a 1

g

6

5

2

j a 10 5 2a 1

5

4

2

p2 p1

10

3

4

e 3x 10 x 2 11

3

2

6a 1 a 2

h

8

4

3

b

c m 2 m 1 12

3

4

3y 1 y 2

4

f

4

3

w3 w1 1

i

6

5

3

iStockphoto/Lagui

An equation in which the highest power of the variable is 2 is called a quadratic equation;

for example, x 2 5, 3m 2 7 10, d 2 d 6 0 and 4y 2 3y 8.

250

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D

for the A

ustralian Curriculum

Solving ax 2 c

10 10A

Worksheet

Equations review

Summary

MAT10NAWK10043

p

p

p

x c which means x c and x c

Example

3

Video tutorial

a m 2 16

b 3x 2 75

c 3m 2 12 0

MAT10NAVT10028

Solution

a m 2 16

p

m 16

4

b 3x 2 75

75

x2

3

2

x 25

p

x 25

5

Example

Simple quadratic

equations

c

3m 2 12 0

3m 2 12 12 0 12

3m 2 12

12

m2

3

2

m 4

p

m 4

2

9

Solution

5x 2

25

9

5x 2 25 3 9

225

225

x2

5

45p

x 45

pp

9 5

p

3 5

9780170194662

As a surd

251

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Example

Solution

7x 2 88 0

7x 2 88

88

x2

7

r

88

x

7

x 3:54562 . . .

3:5

Solving x 2 bx c 0 by factorising

To solve quadratic equations of the form x 2 bx c 0, we need to factorise the quadratic

expression on the LHS, which we learnt in Chapter 5, Products and Factors.

Example

Video tutorial

Quadratic equations

by factorising

MAT10NAVT10029

Solve x 2 5x 6 0.

Solution

x 2 5x 6 0

(x 2)(x 3) 0

The LHS has been factorised into two factors, (x 2) and (x 3), whose product is 0.

If two numbers have a product of 0, then one of the numbers must be 0.

) x2 0

) x 2

or

or

x3 0

x 3

Check:

When x 2,

LHS (2) 2 5 3 (2) 6 0

RHS 0

Therefore LHS RHS.

When x 3,

LHS (3) 2 5 3 (3) 6 0

RHS 0

Therefore LHS RHS.

252

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D

for the A

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Summary

When solving quadratic equations by factorising, the following property is used.

If pq 0, then p 0 or q 0.

Example

7

Video tutorial

a x2 x 2 0

c a 2 2a 0

Simple quadratic

equations

b u 2 3u 28 0

d p 2 5p 24

MAT10NAVT10028

Solution

a x2 x 2 0

(x 2)(x 1) 0

) x20

or

)x2

or

x10

x 1

b u 2 3u 28 0

(u 7)(u 4) 0

) u70

or

u40

) u 7

or

u4

[ The solution to u 2 3u 28 0 is u 7 or u 4.

c a 2 2a 0

This requires a simpler factorisation as there

are only two terms, both involving a.

a(a 2) 0

)a0

or

a20

)a0

or

a2

[ The solution to a 2 2a 0 is a 0 or a 2.

d p 2 5p 24

p 2 5p 24 0

( p 8)(p 3) 0

) p80

or

p30

)p8

or

p 3

[ The solution to p 2 5p 24 is p 8 or p 3.

and making the RHS 0

Note: Quadratic equations of the form ax 2 bx c 0 will be met in Chapter 11, Quadratic

equations and the parabola.

9780170194662

253

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Quadratic equations x 2 bx c 0

Exercise 7-02

See Example 3

b x 2 400

a m 2 144

2

f w 2 16 0

e y 10

2

a

8

j 5k 2 180

i

2

k2

w2

m

0:5

2:5

n

2

10

q 4x 2 1

See Example 4

See Example 5

See Example 6

x 2 x 30 0

d 2 2d 0

k 2 7k 0

m 2 3m

u 2 2u 8

o 5y 2 5

d 2 60 204

m2

9

4

y2

t

2 18

5

3k 2

58

4

b y 2 5y 4 0

e x 2 2x 3 0

c y 2 16y 48 0

f x 2 3x 40 0

b

e

h

k

n

x 2 8x 16 0

x 2 3x 10 0

y 2 5y

a 2 24a 80

x 2 x 42

c

f

i

l

o

x 2 5x 66 0

n 2 4n 0

v 2 12v

n 2 10n

p(p 9) 20

a x 2 9

2

d 9w 1 1

2

NSW

k 3w 2 300

a

d

g

j

m

Stage 5.3

d k 2 169 0

h t2 9 7

Solve each quadratic equation, writing the solution in exact (surd) form where necessary.

2

a 5m 2 20 0

b 4a 36

c m 2 28

9

2

2

d 9k 2 10 13

e k 6

f 3k 27

16

10

Solve each quadratic equation, writing the solution correct to two decimal places where necessary.

2

b 2x 23

c 6y 2 0.726

a 9m 2 2 32

5

2

d 2w 20

e 3a 2 11 267

f 2y 2 14 63

5

Solve each quadratic equation.

a x 2 3x 2 0

d x 2 x 12 0

See Example 7

r 2p 2 3 21

c y 2 225

g x 2 10 14

b 2k 2 5 9

2

e 4d 8

3

c 3m 2 8 4

2

f 5a 3 2

2

An equation in which the highest power of the variable is 3 is called a cubic equation, for example,

x 3 12, 2m 3 1 25, d 3 14 4 and x 3 3x 2 5x 4 0.

Summary

The cubic equation x 3 c has one solution: x

254

p

3

c

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D

for the A

Example

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Stage 5.3

a y 3 64

b p 3 50

c 2x 3 2000

Solution

a y 3 64

p

3

y 64

4

b p 3 50

p

p 3 50

c 2x

2000

2000

x3

2

1000

p

x 3 1000

10

Example

Solve each cubic equation, writing the solution correct to one decimal place.

2y 3

11

b

a 11x 3 102 0

7

Solution

a 11x 3 102 0

11x 3 102

102

x3

11

9:272 . . .

p

x 3 9:272:::

2:1008 . . .

2:1

b 2y 3

11

7

2y 3 11 3 7

77y 3

77

2

38:5

p

y 3 38:5

3:3766 . . .

3:4

9780170194662

255

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3

See Example 8

Solve each cubic equation, writing the solution in exact form where necessary.

a

d

g

j

See Example 9

Exercise 7-03

x3 1

u 3 8

h 3 11

7m 3 448

m 3 125

y 3 729

k 3 48

4x 3 81

c

f

i

l

a 3 1331

n 3 20

5m 3 75

12x 3 480

Solve each cubic equation, writing the solution correct to one decimal place.

a w 3 16 0

b m 3 6 22

c 5m 3 1080 0

x3

5x 3

9

120

f

3

7

3

3

3x 3 10

h 2x 0:2048

i 7a 10 121

4

5

9

7x 3

10

a 3 0.064 0

k

l 5t 3 46 370

9

Does a cubic equation of the form ax 3 c always have a solution?

When is the solution to x 3 c positive?

d 3t 3 10 87

g

j

3

b

e

h

k

a

b

d Can x 3 c have two solutions?

Example

10

At a concert, an adults ticket costs $5 more than twice the cost of a childs ticket. The total

cost for 3 adults and 7 children is $327. Find the cost of a childs ticket and an adults ticket.

Solution

Let the cost of a childs ticket be $c.

[ Cost of an adults ticket $(2c 5)

32c 5 7c 327

6c 15 7c 327

unknown quantity.

Forming an equation.

Solving the equation.

13c 15 327

13c 312

c 24

A childs ticket costs $24.

) Cost of an adults ticket 2 3 $24 5

$53

[ A childs ticket costs $24 and an adults ticket costs $53.

Check: 3 3 $53 7 3 $24 $327.

256

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D

for the A

Example

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

11

Jennifer is 7 years older than Amy. Ten years from now, the sum of their ages will be 43.

How old are they now?

Solution

Let x Amys age now.

[ Jennifers age now x 7.

In 10 years time:

Amy

Jennifer

Now

x

x7

In 10 years time

x 10

x 7 10 x 17

x 10 x 17 43

2x 27 43

2x 16

Amy is 8 now.

x8

Jennifers age now 8 7

15

Amy is 8 years old now and Jennifer is 15 years old now.

[ Check: In 10 years time, the sum of their ages will be 18 25 43.

Exercise 7-04

Equation problems

For each question, write an equation and solve it to answer the problem.

1 A rectangle is four times as long as it is wide. The perimeter of the rectangle is 250 cm. Find

the dimensions of the rectangle.

2 The equal sides of an isosceles triangle are twice as long as the other side. The perimeter of the

triangle is 90 mm. Find the lengths of the sides of the triangle.

3 At the football match, an adults ticket costs $6 more than twice the cost of a childs ticket. The

total cost for 3 adults and 5 children is $249. Find the cost of a childs ticket and an adults ticket.

See Example 10

5 The sum of three consecutive even numbers is 288. Find the numbers.

6 Sanjay is nine times the age of his son, Anand. In 5 years he will be four times the age of

Anand. How old are they now?

See Example 11

7 When 15 is subtracted from three times a certain number, the answer is 63. What is the number?

8 The product of 2 and a number is the same as 12 subtract the number. Find the number.

9 The sum of the present ages of Vatha and Chris is 36. In 4 years time, the sum of their ages

will equal twice Vathas present age. How old are they now?

10 Four consecutive numbers have a sum of 858. Find the numbers.

11 Find x.

(2x + 45)

5(x 12)

9780170194662

257

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

12 Manoris bag has 10-cent and 20-cent coins. She has 202 coins with a total value of $31.90.

How many 20-cent coins does Manori have?

13 If 17 more than a number is 5 more than three times the number, what is the number?

3(x + 2)

x3

15 The sum of Scotts age and his mothers age is 45. In 5 years time, three times Scotts age less

9 will be the same as his mothers age. Find the present ages of Scott and his mother.

16 One angle in a triangle is double the smallest angle, and the third angle in the triangle is

5 more than four times the smallest angle. Find the size of each angle.

17 A large container of water is 7 full. After 15 L has been taken out, the container is 2 full.

8

3

When full, how many litres does the container hold?

18 The total cost of a school camp for Year 10 students was $21 280. Each teacher paid $185 to

attend and each student paid $165. There was one teacher for every 15 students. Find the

numbers of teachers and students that attended the camp.

Mental skills 7

Multiplying decimals

1

a 3 8 = 24, so 3 0.8 = 2.4

The number of decimal places in the answer is equal to the total number of decimal places

in the question. Also, the answer sounds reasonable because, by estimation:

3 3 0.8 3 3 1 3 (2.4 3)

b 6 5 = 30, so 0.6 0.5 = 0.30 = 0.3

1 dp + 1 dp = 2 dp

By estimation, 0:6 3 0:5 0:5 3 0:5 1 3 1 1 0:25

2

2 4

(0.3 0.25)

2 dp + 1 dp = 3 dp

By estimation, 0:07 3 0:3 0:07 3 1 0:02

3

258

(0.021 0.02)

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D

for the A

10 10A

a 0.7 3 5

e 8 3 0.1

i 0.3 3 0.8

ustralian Curriculum

b 12 3 0.2

f 0.03 3 0.9

j 0.2 3 0.06

d (0.6) 2

h 1.1 3 8

l 0.07 3 0.4

c 0.4 3 0.3

g 4 3 0.05

k 9 3 0.2

Given that 15 3 23 345, evaluate each product.

a 1.5 2.3 = 3.45

b 150 0.23 = 15 10 0.23 = 15 0.23 10 = 3.45 10 = 34.5

0 dp + 2 dp = 2 dp

(Estimate: 150 0.23 150 0.2 = 150 1 = 30)

5

2 dp + 0 dp

= 2 dp

(Estimate: 0.15 2300 0.2 2300 =

4

1

5

2300 = 460)

a 3.9 3 17

e 3.9 3 1.7

i 3900 3 1.7

b 39 3 170

f 390 3 1.7

j 39 3 1.7

c 39 3 0.17

g 3.9 3 0.17

k 39 3 0.017

d 0.39 3 1.7

h 3.9 3 170

l 0.39 3 0.17

A formula is an equation that describes a relationship between variables. For example, the formula

for the perimeter of a rectangle is P 2(l w), where P is the subject of the formula and appears

on the LHS of the sign.

Example

Puzzle sheet

Getting the right

formula

MAT10NAPS10044

12

The cost, $C, of a taxi trip is C 5 2.4d, where d is the distance travelled in kilometres.

a Find the cost of a taxi trip if the distance travelled is 15 km.

b Find the distance travelled by the taxi if the cost of the trip was $78.20.

Solution

a When d 15:

C 5 2:4 3 15

41

The cost was $41.

9780170194662

b When C 78.20:

78:20 5 2:4d

73:20 2:4d

73:20

d

30:5

2:4

The distance travelled was 30.5 km.

259

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Example

13

The surface area of a sphere is SA 4pr 2, where r is the radius. Find, correct to one decimal

place, the radius of a sphere with surface area 40 m 2.

Solution

When r 40:

40 4pr 2

10 pr 2

10

r2

p

3:183 . . .

p

r 3:183

r is positive

1:784 . . .

1:8 m

The radius of the sphere is 1.8 m.

Exercise 7-05

See Example 12

1 The formula for the circumference of a circle is C 2pr, where r is the radius. Find, correct to

one decimal place:

a the circumference of a circle with radius 2.4 m

b the radius of a circle whose circumference is 200 cm

2 The perimeter of a rectangle is P 2(l w). Find the width of a rectangle whose perimeter is

58 m and length is 12 m.

3 The formula for converting speed expressed in m/s to a speed expressed as km/h is k 3.6M,

where M is the speed in m/s. Calculate in m/s the speed of a car travelling at 110 km/h.

4 Use the formula from question 3 to convert each speed to km/h.

a 10 m/s

c 50 m/s

m

5 The average of m and n is A n. If two numbers have an average of 28 and one of them

2

is 13, find the other number.

See Example 13

b 24 m/s

5

C F 32. Convert each temperature to C, correct to the nearest degree.

9

a 80F

b 32F

c 212F

d 102F

M

7 The body mass index (BMI) of an adult is B 2 , where M is the mass in kilograms and h is

h

the height in metres. Find, correct to one decimal place:

a the BMI of Dean who is 1.85 m tall and has a mass of 72 kg

b the mass of a person with a BMI of 24, who is 2.1 m tall.

8 The volume of a sphere is V 4 pr 3 , where r is the radius. Find, correct to one decimal place,

3

the radius of a sphere with a volume of 500 m 3.

260

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D

for the A

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

9 The average speed in km/h of a car is given by the formula S D, where D is the distance

T

covered in kilometres and T is the time taken in hours. Find, correct to the nearest whole

number:

a the distance travelled, if a car maintains a speed of 87.2 km/h for 5 hours

b the time taken, if a distance of 650 km is covered at a speed of 91 km/h

10 The cost, $C, of hiring a car is C 45 0.15d, where d is the number of kilometres travelled.

Calculate:

a the cost of hiring a car to travel 350 km

b the distance travelled, if the cost is $138.

11 The surface area of a cylinder is given by the formula SA 2pr 2 2prh. Calculate, correct to

one decimal place, the height of a cylinder with surface area 1255.38 cm 2 and radius 9 cm.

Example

b v 2 u 2 2as to s

a A 1 bh to h

2

of a formula

a 2 k to a

a 10

Solution

u 2 2as v 2

2as v 2 u 2

s

c

v2 u2

2a

a2

k

a 10

a 2 ka 10

ak 10k

a ak 10k 2

a1 k 10k 2

10k 2

a

1k

9780170194662

NSW

Video tutorial

14

1

a A bh

2

1

bh A

2

bh 2A

2A

h

b

2

2

b v u 2as

Stage 5.3

MAT10NAVT10005

Worksheet

Changing the subject

of a formula

MAT10NAWK10211

Multiplying both sides by 2.

Dividing both sides by b.

Subtracting u 2 from both sides.

Dividing both sides by 2a.

Expanding

Moving the a-terms to the LHS, the 2 to the RHS.

Factorising a from the LHS.

Dividing both sides by 1 k.

261

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3

See Example 14

Exercise 7-06

1

a x 2y 5

y

d m

3 5

ay k

c

g

2 r

y

j x

k

b m py k

e D K My

y 3 4m

5

3

k n d

5y

h

c P ky 8

5 8y

4

f

d

i xy 2 5 w

r

yk

l T

c

b s ut 1 at 2 [a]

c v u at [a]

a a 2 b 2 c 2 [b]

2

d V 4 pr 3 [r]

e A p(R 2 r 2) [R]

f A prl pr 2 [l]

3

p

g S 180(n 2) [n]

h 1 1 1 [r]

i x b 2 4ac [b]

x r s

ap 1

j x y 5 3x [x]

k m 5A

[A]

l S

[p]

p

2A n

m X(a b) Y(a b) [a]

n 5 x 2 [x]

o y u bx [b]

3x a

u ab

1 Consider the formula x 2 y 2 4.

a Explain why the least value that x can take is 2 and the largest value that x can take is 2.

b Does the same restriction apply to the values

that the variable y can take? Explain why.

p

x2 .

c By making y the subject, show that y 4p

d Are the values that x and y can take in y 4 x2 different from the values that

they can take in x 2 y 2 4? Give reasons.

2 a If Z r

ax2, what range of values can Z, a and x take?

b If x Z , what range of values can Z, a and x take?

a

3 a In the formula A pr 2, explain why there are no restrictions on r but A 0.

b Make r the subject of the formula given that the formula is for the area of a circle.

Have the restrictions on the variables r and A changed?

p

4 a What are the restrictions on the variables x and y in the formula y 16 x2 ?

b Change the subject of the formula to x. Are the restrictions on the variables the same

as for part a? Explain.

5 Consider the formula y 1 .

x3

a What are the restrictions on the variables x and y? Give reasons.

b Make x the subject of the formula. Are the restrictions on the variables the same as in

part a or different? Explain.

c Compare your answers to the above questions with those of other students in

your class.

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ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Worksheet

Graphing inequalities

MAT10NAWK10045

An inequality looks like an equation except that the equals sign () is replaced by an inequality

symbol >, , < or .

2x 7 15 is an equation. There is only one value of x that makes it true.

2x 7 15 is an inequality. There is a range of values of x that make it true.

Summary

> means is greater than

< means is less than

means is less than or equal to

The inequality x 3 is read x is greater than or equal to 3 and includes 3 and all the numbers

above 3, such as 3.01, 4, 10, 20 000, etc.

The inequality x > 3 is read x is greater than 3 and means all the numbers above 3, but not 3.

Inequality

x>3

x<3

x3

x3

In words

x is greater than 3

x is less than 3

x is greater than or equal to 3

x is less than or equal to 3

Meaning

Values above 3

Values below 3

Values above and including 3

Values below and including 3

For convenience, we can represent all the values in an inequality using a number line.

Example

15

a x1

b x<5

c x > 3

Solution

a x 1 means that x can be any number greater than 1 or equal to 1.

3

means we include 1.

b x < 5 means that x can be any number less than 5, but not including 5.

3

that 5 is not included.

c x > 3 means that x can be any number greater than 3, but not including 3.

3

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263

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Exercise 7-07

See Example 15

a x2

b x < 3

c x1

e x4

f x>0

g x 2

Write the inequality illustrated by each number line.

a

x

2

x

0

10 8 6 4 2

x

10 8 6 4 2

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

A x > 2.5

4

d x>7

h x < 10

B x < 2.5

C x < 3.5

D x > 3.5

a

3 2 1

10 12

9 6 3

10 8 6 4 2

3 2 1

3 2 1

10 15 20 25

x

x

x

x

Work in pairs to complete this activity.

Use inequality symbols to write each statement algebraically.

a The minimum height (H) for rides at an amusement park is 1.3 m.

b The speed limit in a school zone is 40 km/h.

c To be eligible to vote, you must be at least 18 years old (A age).

d The overseas tour is only for people whose age (A) is from 18 to 35.

e The cost (A) of a tennis racquet will be at least $95 but no more than $360.

f A new flute (F) costs at least $475.

g The price of units (U) in a new block start at $240 000.

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10 10A

We have solved equations by doing the same thing to both sides (keeping the equation

balanced). Will this method work with inequalities, such as x 4 > 10 or 6x < 13?

1 Start with an inequality that is true, such as 7 > 4.

2 Add 5 (or any number you choose) to both sides of the inequality; for example 7 > 4

becomes 12 > 9. Is the new inequality true or false?

3 Subtract 9 (or any number you choose) from each side of the original inequality; for

example 7 > 4 becomes 2 > 5. Is the new inequality true or false?

4 Multiply both sides of the original inequality by 4 (or any positive number you choose);

for example 7 > 4 becomes 28 > 16. Is the new inequality true or false?

5 Divide both sides of the original inequality by 2 (or any positive number you choose);

for example 7 > 4 becomes 31 > 2. Is the new inequality true or false?

2

6 Multiply both sides of the original inequality by 3 (or any negative number you choose);

for example 7 > 4 becomes 21 > 12. Is the new inequality true or false?

7 Divide both sides of the original inequality by 4 (or any negative number you choose),

for example 7 > 4 becomes 13 > 1. Is the new inequality true or false?

4

8 Which of the six operations used in questions 2 to 7 can be used on inequalities to give

a true result?

9 Which of the six operations used in questions 2 to 7 cannot be used with inequalities

because they give a false result?

10 Copy and complete the following inequality statements.

a 6<8

6 3 3 < 8 3 ___ (multiplying both sides by 3)

[ 18 __ 24

b 10 > 4

10 4 2 __ 4 4 __ (dividing both sides by 2)

[ __________

Does the inequality sign (< or >) stay the same when multiplying or dividing by a

positive number?

11 a Is it true that 5 < 8?

b Multiply both sides by 2. Is it true that 10 < 16?

c What needs to be reversed to change 10 < 16 into a true inequality statement?

d Copy and complete the following to make a true inequality statement: 10 ______ 16.

12 a Is it true that 18 > 6?

b Divide both sides by 3. Is it true that 6 > 2?

c What needs to be reversed to change 6 > 2 into a true inequality statement?

d Copy and complete the following to make a true inequality statement: 6 ____ 2.

13 Copy and complete:

When multiplying or d__________ both sides of an inequality by a n__________

number, the inequality sign must be r__________.

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Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Worksheet

Inequalities review

Example

16

MAT10NAWK10046

a 2x 10 16

b 2(y 1) 12

c w 3 > 1

2

Solution

a

2x 10 16

2x 10 10 16 10

2x 26

2x 26

2

2

x 13

x

10 11 12 13 14 15

2y 1 12

2y 2 12

2y 2 2 12 2

2y 14

2y 14

2

2

y7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

w3

> 1

2

w3

3 2 > 1 3 2

2

w 3 > 2

w 3 3 > 23

w > 5

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1

Summary

Inequalities can be solved algebraically in the same way as equations, by using inverse

operations. However, when multiplying or dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative

number, you must reverse the inequality sign.

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for the A

Example

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

17

a 1 2x 11

b 4r<7

c a5>4

3

Solution

a

1 2x 11

1 2x1 111

2x 12

Dividing both sides by a negative number

reverses the inequality sign.

2x 12

2

2

x6

b

4r <7

4r4<74

r < 3

r

3

>

1 1

r > 3

reverses the inequality sign.

a5

>4

3

a5

3 3 < 4 3 3

3

a 5 < 12

number reverses the inequality sign.

a < 17

Exercise 7-08

1

Solving inequalities

a x1>6

d x 20

5

g 4a 2

j

3a 1 10

b 3y 12

c m42

e 12x < 60

f 5y > 20

h 3w 30

i 8a 5 45

k 6a 4 2

l 3w 3 < 12

b 5(m 4) 10

e w 2 > 1

5

4m 2

6

h

3

k 11 5y 9 6y

c 2(y 5) 6

f 2a 1 < 3

3

i 3 x < 10

5

l 2(3 5a) 5(4 a)

See Example 16

a 3(x 2) 9

d x12

2

2m 1

3

g

3

j 3 2x < 9 x

9780170194662

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Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

See Example 17

3x 2

1 ? Select the correct answer A, B, C or D.

5

B x 1

C x1

D x 11

A x0

3

3

Solve each inequality and graph its solution on a number line.

What is the solution to

a 5x2

d 7m7

5

b 15 > 7 y

e 2p>8

c 1 k < 12

f t 6 10

k 4

3

e 4 3w > 7

c 5t >12

a 2x < 6

d x 4

3

g 8 5a < 3

j

p 2

< 2

3

h 2d 3 > 8

k 1 3m < 9 5m

f 4y 3 11

i 5w>2

3

l 3(3x 4) 6(1 2x)

In Australia, films, publications and computer games are rated by the Classification Board.

Films and videos are rated G, PG, M, MA15 or R18, with each category containing a list of

guidelines related to the films use of violence, coarse language, adult themes, sex and nudity.

General (G) means suitable for all ages. Children can watch films

classified G without adult supervision.

Parental guidance (PG) means that parental guidance is recommended

for persons under 15 years of age. These films contain material that may

be confusing or upsetting to children, but not harmful or disturbing.

Parents should watch the film with their children or preview it to check

elements such as language used or inappropriate themes.

Mature (M) means recommended for mature audiences, 15 years and

over. The film or computer game may contain material that is harmful

or disturbing to children, but the impact is not so strong as to require

restriction.

Mature accompanied (MA15) means legal restrictions apply to persons

under the age of 15. Children are not allowed to see MA15 films unless

accompanied by a parent or guardian, because they contain material

that is likely to be harmful or disturbing to them.

Restricted (R18) means legally restricted to adults, 18 years and over.

It applies to films that deal with issues and scenes that require an

adult perspective, and so are unsuitable for persons under 18 years

of age. A person will be asked for proof of age before buying, hiring

or viewing films or computer games in this category.

1 Each of the classifications is represented by a logo (as shown) with the letter inside

a particular shape. What shape is each logo?

2 Write each classification category as an inequality.

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10 10A

1 Copy and complete this table of powers of 2 from 0 to 20.

0

x

2x

20

2 Use the table to calculate 32 3 128. Explain the method you used.

3 Use the table to calculate:

a 16 3 1024

b 128 3 2048

c 256 3 64

d 4096 3 32

4 Use the table to calculate 262 114 4 8192. Explain the method you used.

5 Use the table to calculate:

a 16 384 4 512

b 128 4 8

c 8192 4 1024

d 1 048 576 4 65 536

When powers are used this way in calculations, they may be called logarithms.

Stage 5.3

7-09 Logarithms

Puzzle sheet

The logarithm of a number is the power of the number, to a given positive base.

For example, the logarithm of 256 to the base 2 is 8, written log2 256 8, because 2 8 256.

Example

MAT10NAPS00059

Puzzle sheet

18

Logarithms 2

MAT10NAPS00060

a log3 81

Logarithms 1

b log4 16

c log10 10 000

Solution

a log3 81 means 3 ? 81

3 to the power of what equals 81?

4

Since 3 81

then log3 81 4.

b log4 16 means 4 ? 16

4 to the power of what equals 16?

Since 4 2 16

then log4 16 2.

Since 10 4 10 000

then log10 10 000 4.

Summary

If y a x, then loga y x

where a is the base, a > 0, x is the power, and y > 0.

Since a > 0, a x > 0 and y > 0.

Logarithms are only meaningful for positive numbers, y.

9780170194662

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Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3

Example

19

a 243 3 5

b 0.01 10 2

c 2 83

d p qr

Solution

a 243 3 5

[ log3 243 5

c

b 0.01 10 2

[ log10 0.01 2

d p qr

[ logq p r

2 83

1

) log8 2

3

Example

20

Solution

logn m x

[ m nx

Exercise 7-09

See Example 18

See Example 19

b log2 8

a log5 25

e log3 243

f log10 1000

j log3 6561

i log2 64

d log2 16

h log6 36

l log8 512

b 4 3 64

f 32 1

9

1

j 162 4

c 10 000 10 4

d 252 5

g 83 4

3

k 92 27

b log10 10 1

c logp3 27 6

e log2 64 6

f log3 1 4

g log5 1 3

81p

125

1

3

1

i log100 10

j log5 5 5

k log8 2

2

2

3

Why cant you find the logarithm of a negative number or zero?

a log5 125 3

270

c log7 49

g log5 125

k log10 1000 000

a 5 2 25

e 1 24

16

p

1

2 44

i

See Example 20

Logarithms

h 0.01 10 2

1

l p1 62

6

p

d log2 8 2 3:5

p

h log8 2 1

6

1

l log100

1

100

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for the A

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Stage 5.3

The index laws from Chapter 5, Products and factors, are related to the logarithm laws.

Summary

The logarithm of a product is equal to the sum of the logarithm of each factor.

loga (xy) loga x loga y

For example, log2 (8 3 4) log2 8 log2 4.

This law corresponds to the index law a m 3 a n a mn.

Proof:

Let m loga x and n loga y.

[ x a m and y a n

[ xy a m 3 a n a m n

) loga xy m n

loga x loga y

Summary

The logarithm of a quotient is equal to the difference between the logarithm of each term.

x

loga x loga y

loga

y

For example, log3 243 log3 243 log3 27

27

This law corresponds to the index law a m 4 a n a mn.

Proof:

Let m loga x and n loga y.

[ x a m and y a n

x am

) n amn

y a

x

mn

) loga

y

loga x loga y

Summary

The logarithm of a term raised to a power is equal to the power multiplied by the logarithm

of the term.

loga x n n loga x

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271

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3

This law corresponds to the index law (a m) n a mn.

Proof:

Let m loga x

[ x am

) xn am n

amn

) loga xn mn

loga x 3 n

n loga x

Summary

Properties of logarithms

loga a x x

loga a 1, because a 1 a

Proof:

1

loga

log x1

x

loga x

Example

loga 1 0, because a 0 1

1

loga x

loga

x

21

Video tutorial

Logarithm laws

MAT10NAVT10001

a log5 0.04

Solution

272

b log2 5 log2 10

c 2 log3 6 log3 4

4

a log5 0:04 log5

100

1

log5

25

1

log5 2

5

log5 52

2

5

b log2 5 log2 10 log2

10

1

log2

2

log2 21

1

log3 36 log3 4

36

log3

4

log3 9

2

log5 20 log5 4

20

log5

4

log5 5

1

9780170194662

N E W C E N T U R Y M AT H S A D V A N C E D

for the A

Example

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Stage 5.3

22

a 6 loga a loga a 4 loga a 9

log3 a 3

5 log3 a

Solution

a 6 loga a loga a 4 loga a 9 6 3 1 4 9

1

b log2 x log2 w 2 log2 y log2 xw log2 y 2

xw

log2 2

y

3

3 log3 a

c log3 a

5 log3 a 5 log3 a

3

Example

23

a log10 49

b log10 700

c log10 (0.07)

Solution

a log10 49 log10 7 2

2 log10 7

log10 7 log10 100

0:8451 2

2:8451

2 3 0:8451

1:6902

7

c log10 0:07 log10

100

log10 7 log10 100

0:8451 2

1:1549

Exercise 7-10

1

Logarithm laws

b log10 1000

a log2 128

p

e log2 2

f log3 1

9

i log8 2 log8 4

j log4 32 log4 2

l

9780170194662

m log2 18 2 log2 3

c log8 64

g log10 0.0001

k log10 4 log10 25

d log5 1

5

h log2 1

16

See Example 21

273

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3

See Example 22

See Example 23

a logx 5 logx 6

b logx 10 logx 2

d 2 logx 4 logx 8

e logx 10 logx 4

g logx 4

a log10 16

e log10 0.4

b log10 400

f log10 160

c log10 4000

g log10 2.5

d log10 p

2

h log10 40

a log3 4 log3 15 log3 20

f log100 50 log100 5

h 5 log8 2 1 log8 4

2

p

1

j

log2 125 3 log2 3 80

3

p

1

i

log4 25 2 log4 20

2

5

c 3 logx 2

f 1 logx 100

2

i 1 logx 8 logx 18

2

b loga a 3

a loga a 2 3 loga a

d

loga x 7

loga x

e loga y 3 3 loga y

c 5 loga a loga a 4

p

f loga x loga 1

x

Worksheet

Logarithms review

MAT10NAWK10212

Exponential equations are equations like 3 x 243, where the variable is a power.

Logarithms can be used to solve exponential equations rather than using a guess-and-check method.

The log key on your calculator can be used to evaluate log10 x, that is, logarithms to the base 10.

Puzzle sheet

Exponential equations

Example

24

MAT10NAPS00040

1

b 4m1 p

8 2

a 3 x 243

Solution

a 3 x 243

log10 3x log10 243

x

log10 243

log10 3

Enter on a calculator:

log 243

log 3

5

Note: The log key means log10, and for

convenience we will write log to mean log10.

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for the A

1

4m1 p

8 2

m1

1

p

log 4

log

8 2

1

m 1 log 4 log p

8 2

p

m 1 log 4 log 8 2

p

log 8 2

m1

log 4

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Stage 5.3

1:75

m 2:75

Example

25

Solution

5 x 17

log 5x log 17

x log 5 log 17

log 17

log 5

1:7603 . . .

1:760

Logarithmic equations are equations like log5 x 3, which can be solved by rewriting the

equation in index form.

Example

NSW

26

a log5 x 3

b logx 18 3

Solution

a log5 x 3

3

)x5

1

3

5

1

125

9780170194662

b logx 18 3

[ 18px 3

x 3 18

2:6207 . . .

2:62

275

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Equations and logarithms

Stage 5.3

See Example 24

See Example 25

Exercise 7-11

1

b 5 m 78 125

a 2 k 512

p

d 5x 25 5

e 2y 1p

16 2

p

g 3k2 27 3

h 6n2 1p

216 6

c 3 d 59 049

f 4 a 128

i 91d

1p

27 3

Solve each exponential equation, writing the solution correct to three decimal places.

a 7 x 16

e 3 x 1.6

i 6 x3 29

See Example 26

b 5 x 36

f 4x 2

5

j 8 5x 4000

c 11 x 420

d 2 x 0.52

g 2 x2 47

h 3 x4 72

k 5 y 4.8

7 k5 300

p

b 8 x 32

c 4x1 2

a 2 x2 16

1x p

1

e 42x 1

f 8x1 p

g 1

2

8

4

8 2

Solve each logarithmic equation, expressing your answer correct to three decimal places where

necessary.

a log2 x 3

e log27 x

1

3

b log10 x 3

f log4 x

1

2

log4 x 32

p

d 81x 16 2

x

h 5 1 20

2

c log5 x 2

d log4 x 3

g log10 x 3

k log4 x 3 12

h log8 x 32

l logp x 4

i log10 x 12

m logx 4 2

n logx 5 1

o logx 14 2

p logx 0.01 2

q logx 16 1

r logx 8 3

s logx 60 3

t logx 4:8 12

Use the compound interest formula A P(1 r) n to determine the number of years (to the

nearest year) it will take an investment of $1000 to grow to $2000, if it earns compound

interest at a rate of 6% p.a.

Penny invests $12 000 at 1% per month compound interest. How many whole months will it

take for Pennys investment to grow to $15 000?

A radioactive

with a mass of 150 grams decays according to the equation

tsubstance

A 150 3 220 , where A (grams) is the amount remaining after t days. Find, correct to the

nearest whole number:

a the mass of substance remaining after 10 days

b the time taken for the substance to decay to half its original mass

c the time taken for the substance to decay to a mass of 20 g.

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for the A

ustralian Curriculum

10 10A

Power plus

1

a 2xx55xx2

3

6

4

3

1 2 0

x1 x1

2

3

4

5

a 1x4

b 2 x 3

c 12 < 4x 4

is no polygon that has exactly 100 diagonals.

p

The two solutions of x 2 8x 11 0 are in the form x p q 3, where p and q are

integers. Find p and q.

Solve each logarithmic equation.

a log a log 3 log 21

c log 7 log m log (m 12)

9780170194662

d log (h 7) log 3 log (h 1)

277

Chapter 7 review

n Language of maths

Puzzle sheet

Equations and

inequalities crossword

MAT10NAPS10047

check

cubic equation

exact

expand

exponential equation

factorise

formula

fraction

greater than

inequality

LHS

less than

logarithm

logarithmic equation

number line

quadratic equation

RHS

solution

solve

subject

surd

variable

1 What type of equation has 2 as the highest power of x? Write an example of this type of

equation.

2 Write log7 a 3 in index form.

3 What is the difference between an equation and an inequality?

4 Why is it possible for a quadratic equation to have more than one solution?

5 When checking the solution to an equation, you need to show that LHS RHS. What does

that mean?

6 What does the inequality symbol mean?

n Topic overview

Quiz

Equations

Copy and complete this mind map of the topic, adding detail to its branches and using pictures,

symbols and colour where needed. Ask your teacher to check your work.

MAT10NAQZ00011

Equations with

algebraic fractions

Exponential and

logarithmic equations

Logarithms

278

Quadratic and

cubic equations

Equations and

logarithms

Solving inequalities

Equation problems

Equations and

formulas

Graphing inequalities

on a number line

9780170194662

Chapter 7 revision

1 Solve each equation.

a 3w 2 4

5

d 3m 5 10 m

6

3

y

b 7

5 4

e 2s s 2

3 6

y1 y1 1

b

a m1m6

3

4

4

2

2

3 Solve each quadratic equation.

a y2 4

d 3m 2 3 0

g h 2 8h 9 0

b p 2 100 0

2

e 2w 10

5

h u 2 4u 77 0

c 2a 1 3a 1

2

4

f x x1

10 2

Stage 5.3

c 2m 1 m 4 4

4

3

3

See Exercise 7-02

c 4x 2 36

f x 2 8x 7 0

i k 2 5k 0

x3

1:5

b 5m 3 125 0

c

a u3 7 0

2

5 Grace is three years younger than her sister Jane. Twice the sum of their ages is 4 more than

their fathers age. If their father is 54, find the ages of Grace and Jane.

Stage 5.3

See Exercise 7-03

See Exercise 7-04

vv 1

: Calculate the braking distance when the speed of the bicycle is 15 m/s.

d

2

7 Make a the subject of each formula.

q

a y ax b

b P a

c M(1 a) 1 a

m

8 Graph each inequality on a number line.

a x0

b x<3

c x 2

d x > 5

a y 6 10

b 2y 15

d 10 6x < 28

e a2>7

4

2

10 Write each expression in index form.

a log6 216 3

1

log2 16

4

b log2 3 log2 13

a log7 84 log7 12

12 If log10 3 0.4771, find the value of:

b log10 300

a log10 9

9780170194662

b 2 x 0.52

c 3a 10 > 5

f 3 5x 9

2

Stage 5.3

p

c log7 7 7 32

See Exercise 7-10

c

log10 10

3

p

d log10 90

a 5 x 11

c 3 x4 105

d 16 2x 5

279

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