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Angelica A.

Nicola Faye Manipon
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Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in Wiltshire, England, about 2 miles (3 km) west of Amesbury and 8
miles (13 km) north of Salisbury. One of the most famous sites in the world, Stonehenge is the remains of a ring of
standing stones set within earthworks. It is in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age
monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.
Archaeologists believe it was built anywhere from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Radiocarbon dating in 2008 suggested that
the first stones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BCwhilst another theory suggests that bluestones may have been
raised at the site as early as 3000 BC.
The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated
to about 3100 BC. The site and its surroundings were added to the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1986 in
a co-listing with Avebury Henge. It is a national legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument. Stonehenge is
owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage, while the surrounding land is owned by the National Trust.
Archaeological evidence found by the Stonehenge Riverside Project in 2008 indicates that Stonehenge could have
been a burial ground from its earliest beginnings. The dating of cremated remains found on the site indicate that
deposits contain human bone from as early as 3000 BC, when the ditch and bank were first dug.
The Oxford English Dictionary cites lfric's tenth-century glossary, in which henge-cliff is given the meaning
"precipice", or stone, thus the stanenges or Stanheng "not far from Salisbury" recorded by eleventh-century writers
are "supported stones". William Stukeley in 1740 notes, "Pendulous rocks are now called henges in Yorkshire...I
doubt not, Stonehenge in Saxon signifies the hanging stones."[10] Christopher Chippindale's Stonehenge Complete
gives the derivation of the name Stonehenge as coming from the Old English words stn meaning "stone", and either
hencg meaning "hinge" (because the stone lintels hinge on the upright stones) or hen(c)en meaning "hang" or
"gallows" or "instrument of torture" (though elsewhere in his book, Chippindale cites the "suspended stones"
etymology). Like Stonehenge's trilithons, medieval gallows consisted of two uprights with a lintel joining them,
rather than the inverted L-shape more familiar today.
The "henge" portion has given its name to a class of monuments known as henges.[10] Archaeologists define henges
as earthworks consisting of a circular banked enclosure with an internal ditch.[11] As often happens in
archaeological terminology, this is a holdover from antiquarian use, and Stonehenge is not truly a henge site as its
bank is inside its ditch. Despite being contemporary with true Neolithic henges and stone circles, Stonehenge is in
many ways atypicalfor example, at more than 7.3 metres (24 ft) tall, its extant trilithons supporting lintels held in
place with mortise and tenon joints, make it unique.
Mike Parker Pearson, leader of the Stonehenge Riverside Project based at Durrington Walls, noted that Stonehenge
appears to have been associated with burial from the earliest period of its existence:

Stonehenge was a place of burial from its beginning to its zenith in the mid third millennium B.C. The cremation
burial dating to Stonehenge's sarsen stones phase is likely just one of many from this later period of the monument's
use and demonstrates that it was still very much a domain of the dead.


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For Stonehenge to stay strong, we must keep its cleanliness. Stonehenge lives for a long time. We must do
something, for the next generation to see it.

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