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A

RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT


ON
TO STUDY THE WELFARE MEASURES
PROVIDED TO THE WORKERS
IN
VERKA MILK PLANT AT LUDHIANA

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS


FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF COMMERCE (2014-2016)
SUBMITTED BY
CHAITANYA THAPAR
MBA 2nd SEM
SUBMITTED TO
PANJAB UNIVERSITY
CHANDIFGARH

KAMLA LOHTIA S D COLLEGE LUDHIANA


AFFILIATED TO PANJAB UNIVERSITY, CHANDIGARH

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is a great privilege to express my sincere and profound
gratitude to Prof.______________for providing the authority
letter on the behalf of Kamla Lohtia Snatan Dharam College
Ludhiana for the project to be undertaken at Milk Plant
(Ludhiana)
I am beholden to Lecturer_______________for according kind
permission to take up this project. I am grateful to him from
the core of my heart for his wholehearted support, which
has made the study possible.
I will be failing in my duty if I dont express my sincere
gratitude to Mr. S.D. Sood (Deputy Manager) for giving me
timely suggestions and help. I sincerely thanks for his
suggestions, consistent and generous help. His encouraging
and cheering words inspired me from time to time.
I also thank the staff members and MIS department for
providing the required information for and their timely help,
as they will remain in my mind forever

Chaitanya Thapar

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title
Acknowledgement
Certificate
Company Profile

Introduction of the Project


Objectives
Research Methodology
Analysis & Interpretation
Findings
Recommendations
Limitations of the study
Conclusion
Annexure
Bibliography

COMPANY
PROFILE

COMPANY PROFILE

INTRODUCTION
The Punjab State Cooperative Milk Producers Federation
Limited popularly known as MILKFED Punjab, came into
existence in 1973 with a twin objective of providing
remunerative milk market to the Milk Producers in the State by
value addition and marketing of produce on one hand and to
provide technical inputs to the milk producers for enhancement
of
milk
production
on
the
other
hand.
Although the federation was registered much earlier, but it
came to real self in the year 1983 when all the milk plants of
the erstwhile Punjab Dairy Development Corporation Limited
were handed over to Cooperative sector and the entire State
was covered under Operation Flood to give the farmers a better
deal
and
our
valued
customers
better
products.
Today, when we look back, we think we have fulfilled the
promise to some extent.The setup of the organisation is a three
tier system, Milk Producers Cooperative Societies at the village
level, Milk Unions at District level and Federation as an Apex
Body at
State level. MILKFED Punjab has continuously
advanced towards its coveted objectives well defined in its
byelaws.

The working of the plant is in two shifts: 1.) Morning Shift: -

8:00 A.M. TO 11 A.M.

2.) Evening Time:- 8:30 P.M. TO 11.30 P.M.

Sh.
(IAS
Chairman

Amarjit

Singh

Sidhu
Retired)

EXISTING BOARD OF DIRECTORS


1.

2.

3.

Sh.
Amarjit
Chairman

Singh

Sidhu 9.

Sh.
S.K.
Financial
Commissioner
(Govt. Nominee)

Sandhu
(Coop.),

Sh.
Arunjit
Registrar,
Cooperative
Societies,
(Govt. Nominee)

4.

Dr.
G.
Financial
Commissioner
Govt. of Punjab.

5.

Sh.
Manjit
Managing
Milkfed, Punjab.

Singh

6.

Sh.
Manager
(NDDB Nominee).

S.

7.

8.

10.

Miglani 11.

Sh.
Sukhjinder
Director,
Milk Union Patiala.

Singh,

Sh.
Jarnail
Director
Milk Union Sangrur.

Singh

Milk
Administrator

Union,

Ferozepur.

Punjab.

Vajralingam 12.
(AH&D)

Brar,

IAS 13.
Director

Milk
Administrator

Union,

Faridkot.

Sh.
Sandhura
Director,
Milk Union, Bathinda.

Singh,

Attari 14.
(CS)

Sh.
Singara
Director
Milk Union,Jalandhar.

Singh

Sh.
Yadwinder
Director
Milk Union, Amritsar.

Singh 15.

Sh.
Karnail
Director,
Milk Union, Ropar.

Sh.
Harbhajan
Director
Milk Union, Hoshiarpur.

Singh 16.

Milk
Zone Vacant

Union,

Singh,

Ludhiana.

Objectives
a)To bring prosperity to Milk Producers in the State through
assured market and remunerative prices all round the
year.
b) To provide fresh hygienic milk to urban consumers at
reasonable rates.
c) To ensure viability and growth of Milk Unions by converting
surplus milk into products and ensure their marketing.
d) To modernize existing Plants and upgrade technology from
time to time.

Mission Statement
To Support the Milk Producers in uplifting their rural economy,
make all the Milk Unions viable and ebsure quality Milk & Milk
Products to consumers.

Vision Statement
The vision for the next five years is to triple the turnover the
federation from level of Rs. 1742 crores in 2011-12 to Rs.
5000 crores in 2016-17.
Ensure grass root level presentation of the Cooperative
movement.
Increase Economies of scale in Milk Unions (Procurement/
Marketing)
Capacity expansion and modernization of the dairy plants.
Serious thrust on increasing marketing orientation .

Network
COOPERATIVE MILK
PRODUCERS UNIONS

BRANCH SALE OFFICES

LUDHIANA
DISTT.CO-CHANDIGARH
OP.MILK
PODUCERS MANAGING DIRECTOR, MILKFED, PUNJAB, SCO 153-155,
UNION
LTD. SECTOR 34-A, CHANDIGARH- 160022 PH. 91-0172-5041806,
Milk Plant Jagraon Road Milk5041810 FAX 0172-2604302.
Plant.Ludhiana141004.
Ph. 0161 2552060
GURDASPUR DISTT. CO-OP.R.S.M.
MILK
PRODUCERSMILKFED,
PUNJAB
UNIONLTD.
Milk
Plant,PH.(O)91-0172-5041862,
Gurdaspur143521. E-mail milk-hod @chd.nic.in
Ph-01874 223436

CHANDIGARH160022
FAX
91-0172-5041861

ROPAR
DISTT.CO-OP.MILKJAIPUR
PODUCERS
UNION
LTD. INCHARGE, BRANCH OFFICE, E 11, SURAJ POLE, ANAJ MANDI,
Milk Plant SAS Nagar, Mohali-JAIPUR, RAJISTHAN
160055
Ph- 0172 2271836
FEROZPUR
DISST. CO-HARIDWAR
OP.MILK
FARIDKOT INCHARGE,
BRANCH
OFFICE,
DISTT
.COOP.
MILKHARIDWAR -249401 UTTRAKHAND
PRODUCERS
UNION
LTD.
Post.
Box.
No.
12,
FEROZEPUR
CITY,
Ph- 01632 279053.

466,

VIKAS

COLONY,

AMRITSAR
DISTT. CO-OP.GUWAHATI
MILK
PRODUCERSINCHARGE, BRANCH OFFICE, K.R.CHOUDHURY ROAD, P.O.
UNION.LTD.
BHARALUMUKH, KUMARPARA, GUWAHATI 781009 (ASSAM) PH.
Milk Plant Verka Amritsar. 0361 2488831
Ph0183

2264450/
2263072
PATIALA
DISTT.
CO-OP.GHAZIABAD
MILK
PRODUCERSINCHARGE, BRANCH OFFICE, BASEMENT SHOP NO.16-17-18
UNION.LTD. Patiala 147001 YAMUNOTRI
COMMERCIAL
COMPLEX,
AMBEDKAR
MARG,
Ph- 0175 2363592.
GHAZIABAD 201001 (U.P) PH. 0120 2793889
DOABA DISTT. CO-OP. MILKAMBALA
PRODUCERS
UNION.LTD. INCHARGE, BRANCH OFFICE, 28, JAGGI COMPLEX, SENA NAGAR,
Milk Plant G.T.Road, Bye Pass,MODEL
TOWN
CROSSING,
AMBALA
CITY
Jalandhar
-8PH. 0171-2521362
Ph-0181 2603151
HOSHIARPUR DISTT. CO-DELHI
OP.
MILK
PRODUCERS INCHARGE,

BRANCH

OFFICE,

VERKA

HOUSE,

9-10,

MAIN

UNION.LTD
GURDWARA ROAD, KAROL BAGH, NEW DELHI- 110005 TELEFAX
Milk
Plant
P.B.No.
17011-28752074
Hoshiarpur146001
Ph- 01882 238157
SANGRUR DISTT. CO-OP.CALCUTTA
MILK
PRODUCERS INCHARGE, BRANCH OFFICE, 64, BALLY GUNJE GARDENS,
UNION.LTD.
CALCUTTA 700019 TELEFAX 033-2447625
Milk Plant P.B.No,9 Sangrur148001
Ph-01673 250386.
FARIDKOT DISTT. CO-OP.MUMBAI
MILK
PRODUCERS INCHARGE, BRANCH OFFICE, PREM ESTATE, SANT SAVTA PATH
UNION.LTD
NO.1 MUSTAFA BAZAR, MAZGAON, MUMBAI 400010
Kotkapura Road, Faridkot TELEFAX 022-23738625
151203.
Ph- 01639- 250386.
BHATINDA DISTT. CO-OP.JAMMU
MILK
PRODUCERS INCHARGE, BRANCH OFFICE, 554
UNION.LTD
JAMMU 180004 PH 0191- 2452613
Milk Plant Dabewali Road,
Bhatinda
-151001
Ph0164

2211834,
2212679.

A,

GANDHI

NAGAR,

AHMEDABAD
INCHARGE, BRANCH OFFICE, F-16, VIJAY PLAZA COMPLEX,
OPPOSITE ABAD DAIRY, KANKARIA ROAD, AHMEDABAD3800022. PH:079-25453312

SERVICE UNITS

MILK
PLANTPARWANOO
Industrial
Area-1
ChdINCHARGE, BRANCH OFFICE, PLOT NO. 88, SECTOR I,
-160002.
Ph0172
2nd FLOOR, BAGGA BUILDING, NEAR POST OFFICE, PARWANOO
2650271, 2650410.
(H.P) PH. 01792-232391
SUTLEJ
BET
ROPAR,
Ph-01881 220264.

FARM,

CATTLE
FEED
PLANT
POST BOX NO. 28, Ghaniake-Banger,
Batala-143505.
Ph-1871 266738/ 266741.
CATTLE FEED PLANT AND
FROZEN SEMEN STATION,
Post Box No.8,
Khanna.
Distt.Ludhiana
Ph-01628230752

ANNUAL TURNOVER
The annual turnover of Milkfed which was Rs.1934 crores in the
year 2012-13 has hit the level of Rs.2083 crores in the year
2013-14.

Results
EQUITY PARTICIPATION:
The paid-up equity of Milkfed as on 31.3.2014 was to the tune of Rs.30.72 crores which comprises of
Rs.15.72 crores from the cooperative members and balance Rs.15.00 crores from State Government.
PARTICULARS

UNIT

FUNCTIONAL SOCIETIES CUMMU.NOS.

MEMBERSHIP

CUMMU.NOS IN
LACS

09-10

10-11

11-12

12-13

13-14

6474

6822

7370

7122

7205

3.65

3.75

3.92

3.93

4.01

AVG. DAILY MILK PROC

LKG SPD

9.49

10.48

11.46

12.31

11.50

PEAK MILK PROC

LKG SPD

14.88

14.47

17.76

17.17

17.03

A.I. CLUSTER SOCS.

COOMU.NOS.

647

696

742

754

786

M.Ts.

1579

2233

3902

2068

1406

M.Ts.

100898

92631

87280

82526

67907

7.27

7.94

8.60

8.63

9.28

FODDER SEED
SUPPLIED
CATTLE FEED SOLD

AVG..DAILY CITY SUPPLY LLPD


SALE OF SFM

LAC PKTS/BTLS

63.86

55.53

58.77

54.33

56.00

SALE OF SWEET LASSI

LAC PACKETS

37.57

34.61

34.66

33.08

31.52

SALE OF ICE-CREAM

LAC LITRES

18.59

19.19

17.32

17.11

16.26

EXPORTS

RS.IN LACS

1085

1149

1723

2005

2567

TURNOVER

RS.IN CRORES

1255

1745

1742

1934

2183

Products
Milkfed has formulated company specifications for its
milk & milk products to provide standard and quality
of products to consumers.
Milk
Cheese & Paneer
Fresh Drinks
Ghee & Butter
Icecream
Milk Powder
Fresh Products
Skimmed Milk Powder
Indigeneous Sweets
Skimmed Milk Powder
Packing
Price List

Marketing
MILKFED is serving nation wide consumers
through its net work of Regional offices and very
strong Distribution channels. MILKFED markets a
wide range variety of Verka products which
include liquid milk, skimmed milk powder, whole
milk powder, ghee, butter, cheese, lassi, SFM, Ice
Cream, etc. The annual turn over of MILKFED has
crossed Rs.2183 crores. Verka is a brand leader
in milk powders and SMP marketed by MILKFED
commands a premium price over powders
manufactured by competitors which include
multi-national as well as private trade and other
Cooperative Federations. Now Verka is known for
its quality, freshness, purity and of course its
home made taste.

EXTENSION OF THE BRAND


After winning faith of innumerable consumers,
Verka did not stop. Changing times brought
new trends, needs, tastes and hopes. Verka,
dynamic as ever too acquired newer forms of
adding values to milk and milk products. Apart
from introducing new variants of UHT long shelf
life milk and SFM in carry away bottles, Milkfed
has a plan to add more variety of flavours in
SFM. VERKA Ice Cream in different flavours and
packagings is available in the market. Many new

products are in pipe line.In true sense, milk had


never meant so much before.

Procurement
MILK PROCUREMENT NETWORK:
Working on "Anand Pattern" the process of
organizing societies at village level started in
Punjab as early as 1978. Presently, there is
strong Network of about 7385 ( as on 31.3.2014)
Milk Producers Cooperative Societies organized
at village level. About 4.10 Lakh milk producer
members are attached to these societies. Fresh
milk is procured from the milk producers twice a
day through village level societies directly
without the assistance of any middleman.
INPUT SERVICES:
It is one of the fundamental objectives of
MILKFED to carry out activities for promoting
milk production in the State. In view of this,
various technical input services like veterinary
health care, artificial insemination services,
vaccination, supply of VERKA balanced cattle
feed and quality fodder seed etc. are provided
for enhancing milk production and economic
development of farming community.
CATTLE INDUCTION PROGRAMME:
Government of Punjab has identified dairy sector
as thrust area for rural development. Recently,

Milkfed Punjab has signed memorandum of


understanding (MOU) with State Bank of India,
State Bank of Patiala and Oriental Bank of
Commerce for providing loan up to Rs.50,000/without any collateral security to milk producer
farmers for purchase of milch cattle on soft
terms and low rate of interest.
CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION PROGRAMME:
For improving quality of raw milk right from milk
producer's level, a massive programme called
"CMP" has been launched under which 460 Bulk
Milk Coolers have been installed in the societies
and many more in pipe line. Besides, more than
1769 Automatic Milk Collection Stations and 2400
EMT/MAS have been provided to the societies for
bringing efficiency and total transparency in the
system. Traditional manual method of milk
testing at society level is being replaced with
Electronic Milk Testers.
WOMEN DAIRY PROJECT:
Household level dairying is largely the domain of
women especially in small and marginal
household families. In view of this fact, Milkfed
has undertaken Women Dairy Project in six Milk
Unions namely Hoshiarpur, Ropar, Patiala,
Jalandhar, Ludhiana and Amritsar with an
objective to empower rural women in the field of
dairy. This Programme is being implemented
under Support to Training & Employment
Programme (STEP) with the assistance of
Government of India. Under this programme,
1043 women societies with 50876 women
beneficiary members will be organized.
SETTING UP OF BIG COMMERCIAL DAIRY FARMS:

In order to enhance the milk production and


making the dairy farming a profitable and
sustainable profession, Milkfed has planned to
establish at least ten progressive big dairy farms
in each Milk Union by arranging soft terms loans
from the banks.

MILK PLANT PRODUCTS

Milk Plant has to maintain company specifications for its


milk and milk products to provide standard and quality of
products to consumers.
In Milk Plant Mohali

four different kinds of milk are

processed and packed.

(I)

Standard Pasteurized Milk.

(II)

Pasteurized Double Tonned Milk

(iii) Pasteurized Skimmed Milk


(iv) Premium (Full Cream) Milk
Paneer
Curd

Lassi
Kheer
Ghee
Cheese

NOTE ON COOPERATIVE DAIRY IN PUNJAB


India becoming a member of the WTO and with recent removal of
the Quantitative Restrictions (QR), by the Government of India, the
days of protection are over. Now Indian milk and milk products are
highly vulnerable to international competition. The Indian Dairy
sector is at a transnational phase wherein it is gradually emerging
from being a social household industry to a commercial sector.
Although the dairy and animal husbandry in India are as old as the
civilization, it has always been perceived as support system to
households and not considered as commercial enterprise. In
contrast, in the developed nations, dairy is a core business wherein
every part of the milch animal is utilized for value addition to derive
best economic benefits. Technology interventions take place from
the grass root levels in the breeding, animal feed, health care milk
production and enhancement, milk collection and transportation and
of course processing and marketing. The business enterprise
ecosystem is therefore organized and mechanized from the farm to
the consumer. A critical component of the chain remains taking care
of hygiene, cleanliness and quality that are essential parameters for
extending shelf life as soon as the milk comes out of the udder. In

India Dairy being a subsystem of agriculture, the animal, form an


economic perspective, is primarily a converter of agriculture waste
into a saleable product called milk. Majority of our milk production is
localized, and practiced predominately by landless labourers, small
and marginal farmers. Due to lower input, labour and energy costs,
the milk production cost, in India, is one of the lowest in the world.
India is the largest milk producer in the world, which is at present 81
million tones per annum, amount to 13.81% of global milk
production (579 million tones per annum) and holding largest
number of milch animals (both buffalo and cow) which is around
86.862 millions. We also have one of the lowest milk production
costs on the world.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT

MANAGER (HR & ADMN.)

DEPUTY
MANAGER
(ADMN.)

DEPUTY
MANAGER
(HR)

SENIOR
ASSTT.

JUNIOR
ASSTT.

SENIOR
ASSTT.

JUNIOR
ASSTT.

CLERK

CLERK

CLERK

CLERK

INTRODUCTION
OF THE
PROJECT

INTRODUCTION OF THE PROJECT


This project has been undertaken by me to judge the
working of the Human Resource Department of Milk Plant,
S.A.S. Nagar. I have been assigned the project on various
welfare measures provided to the workers of Milk Plant
(Mohali).

Employee

welfare

is

an

important

facet

of

industrial relations, the extra dimension, giving satisfaction


to the worker in a way which even a good wage cannot.
The

International

Labour

Organisation

defined

labour

welfare as such services, facilities and amenities as


adequate

canteens,

rest

and

recreation

facilities,

arrangement of travel to and from work, and for the


accommodation of workers employed at a distance from
their

houses

and

such

other

services,

amenities

and

facilities which contribute to improve the conditions under


which workers are employed.

OBJECTIVES
The labour welfare work aims at providing such service
facilities

and

amenities

as

would

enable

the

workers

employed in industries/factories to perform their work in


healthy congenial surroundings conductive to good health
and high morale.
1.

It is partly humanistic, for it enables the workers to


enjoy a fuller and richer life.

2.

It is partly economic because it improves the efficiency


of the workers, increases its availability where it is
scarce

and

keeps

them

contented.

It,

therefore,

minimizes the inducement to form or join unions and to


resort to strike.
3.

The aim is partly civic because it develops a sense of


the responsibilities and dignity among the workers and
thus makes them worthy citizens of the nation.

Labour welfare has two sides, negative and positive. On the


one hand it is associated with the counteracting of the
harmful

effects

of

large-scale

industrialization

on

the

personal family and social life of the worker, while on the


other, the positive side, it deals with the provision of
opportunities for the worker and his family for a socially and
personally

good

life.

In

other

words,

Labour

welfare

services counteract the handicaps to which the workers


are exposed both in their work life and folk-life and provide
opportunities and facilities for a harmonious development of
all-round personalities.

EMPLOYEE WELFARE MEASURES


Employee

or

labour

welfare

is

comprehensive

term

including various services, benefits and facilities offered to


employees by the employer. Through such generous fringe
benefits the employer makes life worth living for employees.
The welfare amenities are extended in addition to normal
wages and other economic rewards available to employees
as per the legal provisions.
According to Dr. PARANDIKAR
Labour welfare work is work for improving the health,
safety and general well being and the industrial efficiency of
the workers beyond the minimum standard laid down by
labour legislation.
Welfare measures may also be provided by the government,
trade unions and non-government agencies in addition to
the employer. The basic purpose of labour welfare is to
enrich the life of employees and keep them happy and
contented. Welfare measures may be both statutory and
voluntary. Labour laws require the employer to extend
certain

benefits

to

employees

in

addition

to

wages.

Voluntary benefits are the result of employers generosity,


enlightenment and philanthropic feelings.

SCOPE OF LABOUR WELFARE


THE LABOUR INVESTIGATION COMMITTEE
Anything done for intellectual, physical, moral and economic
betterment of the workers, whether by employers, by

government or by other agencies over and above what is


laid down by law, what is normally expected on the part of
the

contracted

benefits

for

which

workers

may

have

bargained.

THE COMMITTEE ON LABOUR WELFARE


Today, welfare is generally accepted by employers. The state
steps in to widen the area of applicability only. Welfare is
being looked at as a social right of workers. The committee
described it as social security measures that contribute to
improve the conditions under which workers are employed in
India. Labour welfare includes both statutory as well as nonstatutory activities under taken by employers, trade unions
and both the central and state governments for the physical
and mental development of workers.

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LABOUR WELFARE


WORK
These are the following(a) It is the work, which is usually undertaken within the
premises or in the vicinity of the undertaking for the benefit
of the employees and the members of their families.
(b) The work generally includes those items of welfare,
which are over and above what is provided by statutory
provisions, or required by the custom of the industry or what
the employees expect as a result of a contract of service
from the employers.
(c) The purpose of providing welfare amenities is to bring
about the development of the whole personality of the
worker- his social, psychological, economic, moral, cultural
and intellectual development to make him a good worker, a
good citizen and a good member of the family.
These facilities may be provided voluntarily by progressive
and enlightened entrepreneurs at their own accord out of
their realization of social responsibility towards labour, or
statutory

provisions may

compel

them

to make

these

facilities available, or these may be undertaken by the


government or trade unions, if they have the necessary
funds for the purpose.
Labour welfare is a very broad term, covering social
security and such other activities as medical aid, crches,
canteens,

recreation,

housing,

adult

education,

arrangements for the transport of labour to and from the


work place.
It may be noted that not only intra-mural but also extramural,

statutory

as

well

as

non-statutory

activities,

undertaken by any of the three agencies- the employers,


trade unions or the government for the physical and
mental development of a worker, both as a compensation for
wear and tear that he undergoes as a part of the production
process and also to enable him to sustain and improve upon
the basic capacity of contribution to the processes of
production, which are all the species of the longer family
encompassed by the term labour welfare.

IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYEE WELFARE

The importance for the labour welfare arises from the very
nature of the industrial system which is characterized by two
basic factors- the conditions under which work is carried on
are not congenial for health and secondly when a labourer
joins an industry, he has to work in an entirely strange
atmosphere which creates problems of adjustment. These
two factors are like the long arm of the job and the
social invasion of the factory.

The working environment in a factory/mine adversely affects


the workers health because of the excessive heat or cold,
noise, odour, fumes, dust and lack of sanitation and pure air
lead to occupational hazards. These have, therefore, to be
held in check by providing ameliorative services, protective
devices and compensatory benefits following of accident or

injury or disablement. This has been referred to as the long


arm of the job which stretches out its adverse effects on the
workers long after his normal eight hour work. Hence the
importance for provision of welfare services within the
premises of the factory, mine of plantation arise.
When a worker, who is infact a ruralite, comes to work in a
factory, has to work and live in unhealthy, congested
factories and slum areas, with no outdoor recreational
facilities. To escape from the trying conditions of his tedious
and tiresome job, he absents himself, becomes irregular and
often indisciplined. Hence the need for providing the welfare
services

arises.

For

whatever

improvements

in

the

conditions of work and life of the employees, whatever leads


to increasing adaptation of the worker to his job, and
whatever makes him fully contented lessen his desire or
need to leave the factory for a time and lighten for him the
burden of this social invasion of the factory.
There is a social reason also as pointed out by the labour
investigation

committee,

the

provisions

of

canteens

improves the physique, entertainment reduce the incidence


of vices, medical aid and maternity and child welfare
services improve the health of the workers and bring down
the rates of general, maternal and infantile morality, and
education facilities increase their mental efficiency and
economic productivity.

PROVISIONS UNDER THE FACTORIES ACTThe need for labour welfare was strongly felt by the Royal
Commission on labour as far back as in 1931, primarily
because of lack of commitment to industrial work among
factory workers and the harsh treatment they received from
their employers. This need was emphasized, in free India, by
the constitution which contain the following articles in this
regard :

ARTICLE 41: The state shall, within the limit of its economic
capacity and development, make effective provisions for
securing the right to work to education, and to public
assistance in cases of unemployment, old-age, sickness, and
disablement and in other cases of undeserved want.

ARTICLE 42: The state shall make provision for securing


the just and humane conditions of work and for maternity
relief.

ARTICLE 43: The state shall endeavour to secure, by


suitable legislation or economic organization or in any other
way, to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise,
work, a wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard
of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural
opportunities, and in particular, the state shall endeavour to
promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative
basis in rural areas.

THE FACTORIES ACT:


The act was first conceived in 1881 when legislation was
enacted to protect children and to provide health and safety
measures. Later, hours of work were, sought to be regulated
and were, therefore, incorporated in the act in 1911. The act
was

amended

and

enlarged

in

1934

following

the

recommendations of the Royal Commission of labour. A more


comprehensive legislation to regulate working conditions
replaced the act in 1948.
The welfare amenities provided under the factories act 1948
are given below:
(a)

Washing facilities (S.42)

(b)

Facilities for storing and dry clothing (S.43)

(c)

Sitting facilities for occasional rest for workers who are


obliged to work standing (S. 44)

(d)

First-Aid boxes or cupboards one for every 150


workers and ambulance facilities, if there are more than
500 workers (S.45)

(e)

Canteens if employing more than 250 workers (S. 46)

(f)

Shelters, rest rooms and lunch rooms, if employing over


150 workers Welfare officer, (S.47)

(g)

Creche, if employing more than 30 women (S. 48)

(h)

Welfare officer, if employing 500 or more workers (S.49)

THE VARIOUS WELFARE MEASURES PROVIDED IN MILK


PLANT, MOHALI ARE:
These welfare measures are provided inside the work place:
1.

Neighbourhood safety and cleanliness, attention to


approaches.

2.

Housekeeping, up keeping of premises compound


wall, lawns, gardens and so forth, egress and ingress,
passages and doors, whitewashing of walls and floor
maintenance.

3.

Workshop

(room)

temperature

and

sanitation
humidity,

and

cleanliness,

ventilation,

lighting,

elimination of dust, smoke, fumes and gases.


4.

Control of effluents.

5.

Convenience

and

comfort

during

work,

that

is,

operatives posture, seating arrangements.


6.

Distribution of work hours and provision of rest hours,


meal times and breaks.

7.

Workers safety measures, that is, maintenance of


machines and tools, fencing of machines, providing
guards,

helmets,

aprons,

goggles

and

first-aid

equipment.
8.

Safety of necessary beverages and pills and tablets,


that is salt tablets, milk and soda etc.

9.

Notice boards, posters, pictures, slogans, information


and communication

10.

Wash basins, bathrooms

11.

Canteen services

12.

Management of workers cloak rooms, rest rooms

13.

Medical examination of workers

14.

Economic services include bonus schemes, provident


fund, gratuity and pension, reward and incentives,
workmens compensation for injury, family assistance in
times of need.

15.

Labour

Management

committee,

safety

Participation

committee,

includes

canteen

works

committee,

consultation in welfare area, in production area, in the


area of administration, and in the area of public
relations.
16.

Washing

facilities

include

adequate

and

suitable

facilities (separately and adequately screened for the


use of male and female workers) are provided to them.
17.

There is a provision for keeping cloth of workers not


worn during the working hours and for the drying of
wet clothing in respect of any factory.

18.

Suitable arrangements for sitting are to be provided


and maintained for all workers who are obliged to work
in a standing position.

19.

Welfare officer handles the welfare department which


involve various welfare measures given to the workers
so that they feel satisfied.

20.

Extra wages for over time. It means where a worker


works in a factory for more than 9 hours in any day or
more than 48 hours in any week, he shall in respect of
overtime work be entitled to wages at the rate of twice
his ordinary rate of wages. It is one of the significant
welfare measure given to the workers.

VOLUNTARY WELFARE MEASURES:


There are certain employers especially in the organized
sector of industry, who have promised a wide variety of
welfare amenities and services to their employees. A brief
account of such welfare measures is given below:
EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES:
The pace of economic and social progress of a particular
country largely depends on the quality of its work force.
Education plays a very important part in motivating and
enabling the working population for changes necessary for
accelerated progress and for their mental and physical
development. This has been recognized in our social and
economic

planning

and

suitable

financial

outlay

on

education has been made in the different five- year plans.


Improvement in the quality of the industrial work force
demands accelerated pace of economic development for
which education of workers, their families and their children
is very essential.
MEDICAL FACILITIES:
Employers, whether in public or private sectors have been
providing medical facilities for their workers and their
families, even before the introduction of E.S.I. Scheme. The

workers in departmental undertakings are more or less


governed by the medical rules applicable to government
servants, or such other facilities, both indoor and outdoor.
The committee on labour welfare has recommended that in
the case of smaller units, medical facilities should be
provided on joint basis by a group of employers in scattered
areas.

The

institutions

like

industrial

co-operatives,

industrial estates can play an important role in providing


medical facilities to the workers by a joint drive.

TRANSPORT FACILITIES:
Transport facilities to workers residing at a long distance are
essential to relieve them from strain and anxiety. Such
facilities also provide greater opportunity for relaxation and
recreation, and help in reducing the rate of absenteeism.
The practice followed with regard to transport facilities
varies from country to country. The legal imposition to
provide these facilities has been rare and limited to certain
special circumstances. In some of the developing countries
there

are

statutory

measures

requiring

employees

to

provide transport facilities to their employees. In certain


developing countries transport facilities are also provided
through collective agreements.

RECREATIONAL FACILITIES:
Recreation is commonly taken to be the opposite of work. It
has an important bearing on the individuals personality as
well as his capacity to contribute to social development. It
affords the worker an opportunity to develop his sense of
physical and mental discipline. Music, dance, drama, games

and sports, paintings, carvings, are different forms of


recreation. The importance of recreation in creating a
healthy climate for industrial peace and progress has been
emphasized by several study teams. In India, a variety of
recreational facilities have been provided in more than one
way, statutorily, voluntarily and also by different welfare
agencies, and to some extent by trade unions as well.
Broadly speaking, these can be divided into two parts,
namely,
(a)

Recreational

amenities

provided

by

the

industrial

organizations inside or near the work place, and


(b)

Amenities provided on community basis

HOUSING FACILITIES:
Housing is the primary need of workers family in civilized
life. Without a roof to cover his head, the worker naturally
feels frustrated about his poor standard of living in big
cities. Good houses mean possibility of home life, happiness
and health; bad houses spell squalour, drink, diseases,
immorality, crime etc. Overcrowding of people in dark
quarters in slum areas is mainly responsible for the outbreak
of

tuberculosis.

accommodation,
introduced
government

in

Recognising
an

1952.

offers

the

industrial
Under
loans

housing

this
to

need
scheme,

industrial

constructing houses at concessional rates.

for

housing

scheme
the

was

central

workers

for

OTHER FACILITIES:
These are basically intended to improve the comfort level of
workers while at work and include the following:
CANTEEN, RESTROOMS AND LUNCHROOM:
Canteens established inside factories generally offer food at
subsidized rates. In modern organizations, food courts
offering a variety of continental and inter continental cuisine
have become quite popular in recent times.
WASHING
FACILITIES,
CONCESSIONS:

MEDICAL

AID,

LEAVE

TRAVEL

Most factories have first-aid facilities to take care of minor


injuries.

Reimbursement

of

medical

expenses

actually

incurred is also increasingly favoured nowadays.


CONSUMER COOPERATIVE STORES:
The Indian Labour Conference in 1963 recommended the
setting up of consumer cooperative stores in all industrial
establishments including plantations and mines employing
300 or more workers. The employer is expected to extend
help in the form of share capital, working capital, loans at
concessive rates etc.
AGENCIES FOR WELFARE WORK:
There are several agencies involved in labour welfare work.
Besides central and state governments, employers, unions
and social organizations work as agencies for extending
welfare facilities to the workers.

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT:
The central government tries to extend its helping hand
through various Acts covering the safety, health and welfare
of workers. The Factories Act, 1948, Mines Act, 1952,
Shipping Act, 1948 etc; provide for canteens, crches,
restrooms, washing facilities, etc. Labour welfare officers
oversee the welfare activities closely and ensure justice to
workers. Statutory welfare funds are created to provide
housing, educational, recreational and medical facilities to
workers.

STATE GOVERNMENTS:
Governments in different states and union territories offer
welfare facilities to workers. In Assam, a statutory welfare
fund

is

created

for

offering

medical,

educational,

recreational and other facilities to plantation workers. In


Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, labour welfare centres are
administered by welfare boards. However, the number of
these welfare

centers is not inadequate to serve the

growing needs of workers at various places. These centres


do not have adequate funds and dedicated staff to carry out
welfare work.

EMPLOYERS:
Medical,
extended
industries

educational,
in

paper,

also,

associations.

by

The

equipped

hospital

centres

and

recreational
sugar,
the

steel
of

Jamshedpur,

dispensaries

cement,

employees

management
in

facilities

in

also

engineering

and

TISCO

are

employees
runs

well

supported

by

health

different

residential

localities.Family

planning

clinics,

credit

societies,

gymnasiums, clubs, crches, canteens, schools are also set


up by TISCO For the benefit of workers.
TRADE UNIONS:
The contribution of trade unions in India towards labour
welfare activities is not significant. Poor finances, multiple
unionism, , multiple unionism, often come in the way of
undertaking labour welfare work enthusiastically. Though we
cannot expect much from the trade unions in the field of
welfare, they can at least identify the minimum facilities
needed by workers and bring the same to the notice of
government

and

representative

the
of

employers.
the

They

workers

and

can

act

secure

as

the

implementation of statutory measures.


OTHER AGENCIES:
The overall picture regarding labour welfare work in India is
somewhat distressing. Welfare amenities have not been
properly provided, except in units managed by progressive
employers or in modern units where the latest technology
demands maintenance of adequate standards. The letter of
the law has also not been strictly observed in most units,
owing to poor supervision.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research

Methodology

refers

to

the

logic

behind

the

methods used in context of our research study and explains


why we are using particular method or technique. There are
many methods from which we can acquire the details about
the Milk Plant. Following are the various parameters, which
had been employed to prepare this project report.
1.

Research Design

Statistical Design

2.

Data Collection

Primary

as

well

as

secondary data
3.

Sampling Method

Probability Sampling

4.

Nature Of Universe Studied

Workers

as

well

as

HR

Department
5.

Sampling Area

Welfare Measures provided


to the workers

6.

Sampling Unit

Individual

7.

Size Of Sample

50

8.

Scale Used

Likert Scale

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


1.)

WELFARE MEASURES IN THE ORGANISATION:OPTIONS


YES
NO

NO.OF RESPONDENTS
35
15

%
70%
30%

0%
30%

YES
NO
70%

INTERPRETATION:
Almost 70% of the workers feel that they work in a
comfortable surrounding whereas some loopholes are there
in sanitation measures.

2.)

VENTILATION,HYGIENE AND SANITATION MEASURES:-

OPTIONS
SATISFIED
PARTLY

NO.OF RESPONDENTS
25

%
50%

SATISFIED
DISSATISFIED

10
15

20%
30%

0%
30%
SATISFIED
50%

PARTLY
SATISFIED

0%

DISSATISFIED
20%

INTERPRETATION:
Almost 50% of employees are not satisfied with ventilation,
hygiene and sanitation measures which is a serious matter
and the company needs to do something about it.

3.)

FLEXIBILITY OF WORKING HOURS:-

OPTIONS
YES
NO

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

30

60%

20

40%

0%

40%
YES
NO

60%

INTERPRETATION:
The

concept

of

flexible

working

hours

has

not

been

implemented uniformally in that 40% of employees are


not satisfied, as there is no change in their working
hours.

4.)

PROVISION OF SAFETY EQUIPMENT:OPTIONS


YES
NO

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

35

70%

15

30%

0%
30%

YES
NO
70%

INTERPRETATION:
30% of employees have not been provided with the safety
equipment. This needs to be looked on priority.

5.) MEDICAL CHECK-UPS:-

OPTIONS
YES
NO

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

40

80%

10

20%

0%
20%

YES
NO

80%

INTERPRETATION:
1/5 of employees have not been subjected to the medical
check up. This may be owing to their absence from the
company on the days of medical check up. The system
needs

to

checkups.

be

streamlined

to

ensure

100%

medical

6.)

ADEQUATE MEDICAL FACILITIES:-

OPTIONS
YES
NO

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

40

80%

10

20%

0%
20%

YES
NO

80%

INTERPRETATION:
80% employees stated in the affirmative because medical
checkups and medical camps are arranged from time to
time whereas 20% employees were dissatisfied.

7.)

MEDICAL PROVISIONS FOR EMPLOYEES FAMILIES:-

OPTION
S
YES
NO

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

40

80%

10

20%

0%
20%

YES
NO

80%

INTERPRETATION:
80% employees were satisfied, whereas 20% demand more
facilities not only for their children but also for other
dependents.

8.)

CULTURAL AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES:-

OPTIONS
USUALLY
ANNUALLY
SOMETIME
NONE

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

25

50%

10%

15

30%

10%

10%

0%

USUALLY
30%

50%

ANNUALLY
SOMETIME
NONE

10%

INTERPRETATION:
There appears to be no regular schedule for holding of
cultural events. These need to be conducted in an
organized manner.

9.)

HEALTHY WORKING CONDITIONS:-

OPTIONS
YES
NO

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

25

50%

25

50%

0%

50%

50%

YES
NO

INTERPRETATION:
Almost 50% of employees are not happy with the working
conditions which is primarily due to unsatisfactory
hygienic and maintenance conditions.

10.) SEPARATE WASHING FACILITIES FOR MEN AND WOMEN:-

OPTIONS
YES
NO

NO. OF RESPONDENTS

25

50%

25

50%

0%

50%

50%

YES
NO

INTERPRETATION:
Almost

50%

of

the

employees

are

satisfied

whereas

remaining are dissatisfied because washing facilities are


not separately provided for men and women which leads
to the wastage of the time of the employees.

11.) FACILITIES FOR SITTING AT THE PLACE OF WORK:-

OPTIONS
YES
NO

NO.OF RESPONDENTS
35
15

%
70%
30%

0%
30%

YES
NO
70%

INTERPRETATION:
In the case of 30% of workers, this provision has not
been made. This facility should be provided in respect
of all the workers.

12.) FACILITY PROVIDED FOR THE SUDDEN INJURY OR


ACCIDENT:OPTIONS
FIRST-AID
AMBULANCE
BOTH
NONE

NO.OF RESPONDENTS
10
10
25
5

10%

0%

%
20%
20%
50%
10%

20%

FIRST-AID
AMBULANCE
20%
50%

BOTH
NONE

INTERPRETATION:
Almost 50% of the workers are provided with both the
facilities whereas 10% were not at all aware about the
sudden medical help.

13.) FULFILLMENT OF PURPOSE OF CANTEEN:OPTIONS


YES
NO
CAN'T SAY

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

35

70%

10

20%

10%

10%

0%

20%
YES
NO
CAN'T SAY
70%

INTERPRETATION:
1/5 of workers feel that canteen is not performing the
purpose for which it has been established.

14.) QUALITY OF CANTEEN PRODUCTS:OPTIONS


NO.OF RESPONDENTS
GOOD
25
SATISFACTORY
13
UNSATISFACTOR
Y

12

%
50%
25%
25%

0%
24%

50%

GOOD
SATISFACTORY
UNSATISFACTORY

26%

INTERPRETATION:
Almost 25% of the employees are not satisfied with the
quality of canteen products. The company should look into
this aspect.

15.) RATES CHARGED IN THE CANTEEN:NO.OF


OPTIONS
REASONABLE
UNREASONABLE
HIGHLY

RESPONDENTS
25
15

%
50%
30%

UNREASONABLE

10

20%

0%
20%

0%

REASONABLE
50%

UNREASONABLE
HIGHLY
UNREASONABLE

30%

INTERPRETATION:
Half of the employees are not happy with the rates being
charged by the canteen. The company should look into this
aspect so that the employees are satisfied.

16.) SUGGESTION OR COMPLAINT BOX:-

OPTIONS
YES
NO

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

25

50%

25

50%

0%

50%

50%

YES
NO

INTERPRETATION:
Almost half of the employees are not aware of the existence
of suggestion/ complaint box. The company should publicise
the same and encourage the employee to make use of this.

17.) INITIATION OF SUITABLE ACTION ON THE COMPLAINTS/


SUGGESTIONS:OPTIONS
YES
NO
SOMETIMES

NO.OF RESPONDENTS
25
13
12

%
50%
26%
24%

0%
24%

50%

YES
NO
SOMETIMES

26%

INTERPRETATION:
Almost 50% of the employees are not satisfied with the
action taken by the company on their complaints.

FINDINGS
1.)

Majority of the workers feel that they work in a


comfortable surrounding, whereas some loopholes are
there in sanitation measures.

2.)

Half of the workers are not satisfied with ventilation


and hygiene measures.

3.)

The concept of flexible working hours has not been


implemented uniformally.

4.)

Some employees have not been provided with safety


equipment.

5.)

A few of the employees have not been subjected to the


medical check up, mostly owing to the absence, on the
days of medical check up.

6.)

Almost 1/5 of employees are not satisfied with the


medical facilities concerning their families.

7.)

There appear to be no regular schedule for holding of


cultural events.

8.)

Washing facilities have not been adequately provided


separately for men and women.

9.)

In some cases, facility for sitting at the place of work


has not been provided to the employees.

10.) Both first aid and ambulance facility are not provided in
all the cases.

11.) A few of the workers feel that canteen is not performing


the purpose for which it has been established. Besides,
almost of employees are not satisfied with quality of
products in the canteen.
12.) Almost half of the employees are not satisfied with the
canteen rates which they find to be unreasonable/
highly unreasonable.
13.) Half of the employees are not aware of the existence of
suggestion / complaint box.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1.)

Some loopholes are there in hygiene and sanitation


measures which should be removed by taking required
actions, by the welfare department.

2.)

The

concept

of

flexible

working

hours

should

be

implemented uniformally.
3.)

Required safety equipment should be provided to all


the employees.

4.)

The

system

of

medical

check

ups

needs

to

be

streamlined to ensure 100% medical check ups.


5.)

Company should make provisions for providing medical


facilities for the families, to the satisfaction of all the
employees.

6.)

Cultural and recreational facilities should be provided in


an organized manner.

7.)

Separate washing facilities should be provided for men


and women.

8.)

Sitting facility should be provided in respect of all the


workers.

9.)

First aid and ambulance facilities should be provided in


all the cases and all employees be made aware about
the same.

10.) Proper quality of products should be provided in the


canteen, to the satisfaction of all the employees.

11.) Company should ensure that reasonable rates are


charged in the canteen.
12.) Company should publicise the existence of suggestion/
complaint box and encourage the employees to make
use of the same.
13.) Company should ensure that suitable actions are taken
on the complaints of the employees.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

1.)

TIME CONSTRAINTS:

The working of the plant is such that there is a little or no


time for providing information regarding the welfare
department. This is one of the major limitation as far as
training is concern.
2.)

UNNATURAL CIRCUMSTANCES:

Due to the lack of proper timings & busy schedule, its not
possible for the trainers to retrieve hundred percent
information from the department & officials. So there
cannot be a congenial flow of information between the
trainers & officials.

3.)

NON- PARTICIPATION OF RESPONDENTS:

Due to indifferent behaviour their role has shrunk to nonparticipation by the employees. There is more stress on
the workings of the departments and less concern is
shown for the trainers

CONCLUSION

In Milk Plant Mohali, welfare measures are provided to the


workers in an organized manner. On the basis of the analysis
on the welfare measures provided to the workers, some
loopholes are there in various kinds of amenities. Like
hygiene and sanitation require major form of improvement.
Regarding the provision of safety equipment, it needs to be
looked as a priority. The system of medical check ups needs
to be streamlined. Cultural events needs to be conducted
into an organized manner. The quality of canteen products
as well as rates charged on them should be adequate. One of
the

major

drawback

is

lack

of

awareness

about

the

suggestion/ complaint box among the employees of Verka


Milk Plant, Mohali.

ANNEXURE
Q1) Are you happy with the welfare measures in the
organization?
A)

Yes

B)

No

Q2) Are

you

satisfied

with

ventilation,

hygiene

and

sanitation measures?
A)

Satisfied

B)

Dissatisfied

C)

Partly Satisfied

Q3) Do you have flexible working hours?


A)

Yes

B)

No

Q4) Does the company provides required safety equipment


for use in plant and machinery?
A)

Yes

B)

No

Q5) Is regular medical checkup come out for the employees?


A)

Yes

B)

No

Q6) Are the medical facilities adequate?


A)

Yes

B)

No

Q7) Is there medical provision or regular medical check up


for employees family?
A)

Yes

B)

No

Q8) Does your company hold cultural events or recreational


activities?
A)

Usually

B)

Annually

C)

Sometimes

D)

None

Q9) Does the company provide good or healthy working


conditions?
A)

Yes

B)

No

Q10)Are the washing facilities available to you?


A)

Yes

B)

No

Q11)Have facilities for sitting been provided at your place of


work?
A)

Yes

B)

No

Q12)What facility is given when a sudden injury or accident


occurs?
A)

First-Aid facility

B)

Ambulance facility

C)

Both

D)

None

Q13)Is canteen fulfilling its purpose?


A)

Yes

B)

No

C)

Cant say

Q14)How is the quality of canteen products?


A)

Good

B)

Satisfactory

C)

Unsatisfactory

Q15)what do you think of the rates charged in the canteen?


A)

Reasonable

B)

Unreasonable

C)

Highly Unreasonable

Q16)Is there any suggestion/complaint box for getting


employees suggestions and complaints?
A)

Yes

B)

No

Q17)Does

the

company

take

suitable

action

on

complaints or suggestions, given by the employees?


A)

Yes

B)

No

C)

Sometimes

the

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.

Human Resource Management, Excel Publishers


-

2.

Human Resource Management, Kataria Publishers


-

3.

A.P.VERMA

Elements of Mercantile Law, Sultan Chand Publishers


-

4.

V.S.P. Rao

N.D. Kapoor

Aspects of Labour Welfare and Social Security, Himalaya


Publishers
-

A.M. Sarma