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Talent Management

and
Succession Planning
2nd Edition

James A. Cannon
Rita McGee

Chartered Institute

of

Personnel

and

Development

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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Published by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development,


151 The Broadway, London SW19 1JQ
First edition published 2007
Second edition published 2011
Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 2007, 2011
The right of James A. Cannon and Rita McGee to be identified as authors of this Work has been asserted
by them in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988
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Otherwise, all rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,
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ISBN-13 978 1 84398 173 2
The views expressed in this publication are the authors own and may not necessarily reflect those of the CIPD.
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Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development


151 The Broadway, London SW19 1JQ
Tel: 020 8612 6200
E-mail: cipd@cipd.co.uk
Website: www.cipd.co.uk
Incorporated by Royal Charter Registered charity No. 1079797

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

Jim Cannon PhD, FCIPD, FCMI Jim Cannon specialises in organisation


development and has consulted with organisations in the UK and around the
world. He works as a coach to individual executives, as well as facilitating events
designed to improve the effectiveness of teams and organisations. Jim runs an
extensive range of training courses for the Chartered Institute of Personnel and
Development (CIPD) as well as other organisations. He was a guest lecturer at
the University of Geneva.
He is a fellow of two Institutes (CIPD and CMI), former special adviser to the CIPD,
past Manpower Society prize-winner, British Psychological Society (BPS) member
and trustee of Trinity (a charity concerned with homelessness) and the Tracy Trust.
He has written several books including Cost Effective Personnel Decisions,
the Database Directory, Giving Feedback, Making the Business Case, and
workbooks such as Team Based Problem Solving and the Career Review
workbook. He has co-authored with Rita McGee three toolkits: Organisation
Development and Change, Creating Organisation Capability and the first edition
of Talent Management and Succession Planning.
You can visit his website, Cannon Associates, at www.cannassoc.com

Rita McGee, FCIPD Rita McGee specialises in the strategic development of


human resource functions. Previously HR Director of the Pepe Group, she has
also worked for Kingfisher and BTR (currently known as Invensys). Rita works
as a consultant, trainer, facilitator and executive coach. She has designed and
delivered training in talent management to major international organisations. She
has consulted in the UK and internationally on the development of business and
human resource strategy including talent management and succession planning.
She runs public courses for the CIPD as well as other organisations. She has
worked in Europe, Asia, the USA and Africa.
Rita is a Chartered Fellow of the CIPD.
You can visit her website, RMG Consulting, at www.rmgconsulting.com
iii

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

About the Authors

About the Authors

The authors would like to thank the following people for their help and advice:
Melvyn Payne, Director of Advanced People Strategies
(www.advancedpeoplestrategies.co.uk) for his support and gaining
permission from Hogan International to use information about the
Challenge Tool
Carole Pemberton, an executive coach (www.carolepemberton.com), for
her guidance on coaching and for providing permission to use materials
designed by her
Terry Gillen for granting permission to use his materials
Abi Sugden at the CIPD for her support and guidance on this second edition
Sumayya Patel at the CIPD for her patience and professional management of
the editing stages

The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development is the leading


publisher of books and reports for personnel and training professionals,
students, and all those concerned with the effective management and
development of people at work. For details of all our titles, please contact the
Publishing Department:
tel. 020 8612 6204
e-mail publish@cipd.co.uk
The catalogue of all CIPD titles can be viewed on the CIPD website:
www.cipd.co.uk/bookstore

Tools matrix

Introduction to the second edition

ix

Bibliography

xxi

THE TOOLS
1 Foundation Tools

Tool no. 1

Creating your own organisational definition of talent

Tool no. 2 How to decide which approach is best for your


organisation 10
Tool no. 3

A checklist for a talent management strategy

14

Tool no. 4

Conducting a talent management audit

21

Tool no. 5

Examples of talent management processes

27

Tool no. 6

A checklist to help clarify roles

31

Tool no. 7

Readiness for change

40

2 Business strategy and planning

45

Tool no. 8

Where is the organisation going?

45

Tool no. 9

What factors will affect the future?

52

Tool no. 10 What are the potential future scenarios for which the
organisation should plan?

56

Tool no. 11

Determining what is core and non-core to your activities

62

Tool no. 12

Critical success factors

67

Tool no. 13

Core competence

70

Tool no. 14

Creating a competency profile

79

Tool no. 15

Are HR activities supporting your core competence?

90

Tool no. 16

Demand and supply planning

98

Tool no. 17

Workforce planning in a complex world

105

Tool no. 18 Improving productivity by tightening your practices in


talent management

126
v

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

Contents

Contents

Contents

3 Planning succession

137

Tool no. 19 How to identify critical roles

137

Tool no. 20

144

What are the different succession planning methods?

4 Planning talent

157

Tool no. 21

What talent does the organisation value?

157

Tool no. 22

What talent does the organisation already have?

167

Tool no. 23

Talent pools

179

Tool no. 24 How to keep track of talent

186

5 Assessing performance

193

Tool no. 25

Methods of assessment

193

Tool no. 26

Assessing competence from achievements

200

Tool no. 27

Forced ranking

209

6 Assessing potential

213

Tool no. 28

Assessing potential in growth and in decline

213

Tool no. 29

Assessing levels of work

230

7 Acquiring talent

237

Tool no. 30

Becoming an employer of choice

237

Tool no. 31

Resourcing strategies

244

Tool no. 32

Dealing with those who hoard talent

261

8 Developing talent

269

Tool no. 33

What a development plan looks like

269

Tool no. 34

Development activities

276

Tool no. 35 Creating your own talent management development


programme 288
Tool no. 36

Talent derailers and how to keep talent on track

293

Tool no. 37

Tough choices for tough times identifying the core talent 301

Tool no. 38

Tough choices for tough times giving difficult messages

306

Tool no. 39 Giving feedback (having constructive career conversations


Tool no. 40

with people in the talent pool)

314

Career coaching

320
vi

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

your top talent

330

Tool no. 42

Niche development of talent

339

Tool no. 43

Talent self-development

344

9 Managing talent

355

Tool no. 44

Managing talent

355

Tool no. 45

Problems and concerns that must be addressed

374

Tool no. 46

Rigour in performance management

383

Tool no. 47 Outsourcing an activity to existing staff moving into


self-employment 387
Tool no. 48 Template for developing a business plan for an outsourced
business 393
Tool no. 49

Talent management for high flyers

407

10 Retaining talent

419

Tool no. 50

419

Retaining talent

Tool no. 51 Managing retrenchment in general and specifically of


Tool no. 52

your key talent

441

Building engagement in low-morale situations

449

11 Evaluating the effectiveness of the approaches adopted

457

Tool no. 53

Evaluating your success

457

Tool no. 54

Training line managers as talent managers a programme 462

vii

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

Contents

Tool no. 41 Identifying mentors and working with them to develop

Tools matrix
Tools matrix

Tool
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54

Foundation

Planning and
evaluation

Assessment
of talent

Developing
talent

Managing
talent

Retaining
talent

viii

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

In the first edition, we wrote of the following case:


Jane walked into her bosss office. Here is my resignation, she said.
But why? asked John. You have just been promoted to a grade 2. We sent
you on that advanced management programme and in maybe a few years
you can get a promotion to grade 3. Is that not worth waiting for?
Frankly, no, said Jane. I appreciate what you have done for me, but I
dont want to climb the grade ladder. I want more flexibility to work on the
projects I want. I want to work more from home to be with my children.
I also believe that my skills are going to be enhanced by doing a greater
variety of work.
Oh, said John...
Welcome to the new world of talent management where the old assumptions
about what people value in work are falling down. It was Winston Churchill
who predicted that future empires would be of the mind, and in a world
where knowledge industries are the engines of global growth software,
financial services, consultancy he might have added that it will be the
battles for minds that dominate the future. Indeed, the proportion of
a companys assets that are intangible continues to grow. Knowledge
industries need, at most, a computer as their physical asset base with the rest
represented by the abilities of the people and the goodwill generated by a
track record.
As we look at the world in 2011, it doesnt seem so far removed from the
issues of today. But consider another case:

ix

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

Introduction to the second edition

Introduction to the
second edition of Talent
Management and Succession
Planning

Introduction to the second edition

The CEO called his HR director. I think we need to press ahead urgently with
the new product launch, so we need to recruit new staff immediately.
But that will take weeks to hire the new staff. Also given our union
agreement, we need to retrain the old staff. This could take months.
We dont have months if we are to stay in the race. Our global competitors
dont seem to be so constrained.
Ah...

While it remains true that a fast-moving competitive world still demands new
approaches to two major problems all organisations face a more independent
mindset of staff who are less prepared to wait for an organisations timing
of jobs and rewards, and at the same time, organisations requiring staff
to be ready just in time for new projects the response of employers has
to be tighter still. Organisations and people require much greater flexibility
than in the past and we have to find new tools to manage these challenges.
Talent management is the title of the discipline which incorporates a range
of activities that can be used to address these problems. Succession planning
has for many been relegated to the too difficult box and for this reason
we have given it prominence in this Toolkit; it is however a subset of talent
management.
Talent management
Talent management is the process by which an organisation identifies, manages
and develops its people now and for the future. It is concerned with:
developing a strategy to determine what the organisation needs to meet the
current and future demands of the business plan
establishing processes to measure competence required and available
creating a range of developmental tools and processes to provide tailored
approaches depending on the individual needs of employees
identifying ways to obtain and retain those who are critical to success
establishing suitable approaches to deal with those who no longer fit
organisation requirements
x

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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updated and refined to deliver high performance, now and in years to come.
Talent management has a bias towards focusing on individual needs to
bring out the potential of each and recognises the necessity of retaining key
personnel in a competitive labour market. The mindset of talent management
is based on the assumption that there is potential in each and every one, and
any approach should be to try to release that. In addition, there are certain key
competences an organisation requires for sustainable competitive advantage
and the aim is to identify, retain and nurture them.
Succession planning
Succession planning has, by contrast, a bias towards satisfying organisation
requirements. There is an assumption that failing to satisfy the majority of
requirements from internally developed personnel is unlikely to provide the
optimally effective organisation.
Succession planning is concerned with:
identifying posts that are critical to success and how best to satisfy future
requirements
developing strategies to determine the optimum mix of internal and external
recruitment.
Facilitation of the Tools
This Toolkit contains 54 Tools to help managers meet various needs and draws
on the experience of practitioners and academics alike. The Tools that follow
can be used in different ways, as:
a stimulus for individual reflection
the basis for a meeting or workshop where relevant people use the Tools
to consider collectively developing talent management and succession
planning. In this scenario, there will invariably be the need for facilitation.
We suggest you pick and mix to meet your circumstances. The list is not
exhaustive, so please add to it from your own experience and share it with us
too at www.cannassoc.com or www.rmgconsulting.com
xi

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of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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Introduction to the second edition

measuring the impact these strategies have so that policy can be continually

Introduction to the second edition

Scope of the Toolkit


To assist the reader, each Tool is laid out in the same format as below:
Introduction
Aim of the Tool
What it is
When to use
Materials needed
Procedure for using it
Evaluating its uses
Links to other Tools
References (where applicable)
The Tool
Why a revised Toolkit now?
With the advent of the banking crisis and the subsequent world recession,
organisations across the world have had to make cuts, yet like never before the
retention and continued development of key people in critical roles is the key
to survival. We have included additional Tools that reflect this new reality, in
particular the necessity of finding creative ways of retaining relationships while
still letting some people go. What is different this time round is more attention
to managing the relationship beyond just paying compensation. However, more
focused planning tools help to reduce the surplus that might have arisen with
looser concepts of talent pools and so can assist in retaining the most vital skills.
Borrowing from the manufacturing industry, with their ideas of lean production
and just-in-time material handling, talent management ideas are more focused
on just-in-time development rather than longer periods spent in, say, a business
school.
Strategic skills that are likely to be required in the economy in the
future
A further reason is the realisation of critical skill shortages in the future and the
need to encourage talent development in every way. The following skills are
xii

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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might become scarce (source: National Strategic Skills Audit, 2010). It behoves
organisations to ensure they continue to grow and retain such skills:
Given technology is a major driver of change, technical skills in the growing
array of technical specialisms will be required.
Globalisation will place demands on linguistic and culturally attuned skills.
The environmental and sustainability agendas will continue to place pressure
on those who can manage such systems. The skills required include a range
of technical, environmental, legal and customer-oriented competences.
The continued sophistication of consumers demands greater differentiation
of products and services. Micro-segmentation, as it is sometimes called,
demands higher standards in product design, manufacturing quality and
after-sales service. This in turn demands greater skills in design, manufacture
and customer service. Such a shift in the economy also demands greater
professional support in areas such as law, accountancy, PR, consulting,
advertising, facilities management, call centres, health and social work,
retailing, catering and hospitality.
Certain sectors are likely to experience greater growth and they are likely to be
most vulnerable to demands for talent. These include the following:
Low-carbon industries are likely to grow, with a consequent demand for
leadership, project management and innovation skills.
The recovery in the financial services sector is likely to demand an increase
again in highly qualified knowledge workers.
The digital economy will demand creative and business skills.
Life sciences in all its forms from pharmaceuticals and biotech to genetics
will demand scientific and managerial skills. The growth in contract research
brings demands for negotiation and customer service skills.
The creative industries, often with an abundance of creative talent
sometimes lack the commercial skills to exploit fully the creative output.
They will look for an array of commercial skills.
Retail, a major engine of the economy, will continue to demand skills in
customer-facing roles as well as new skills in deploying technology, logistics
and ethical sourcing.
xiii

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and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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Introduction to the second edition

likely to be in demand in the economy in the future and so in general terms

Introduction to the second edition

Tourism already employs over 2.5 million people (Tourism: Overview and
Prospects.ac.uk) and is expected to grow with demands for customer-facing,
teamworking, communications and customer management skills.
We reported in the last edition: Whilst there is a reasonable understanding
of the nature of talent management and succession planning, Veredus (2005)
noted a staggering 74% of respondents reported that their organisation did
not have a well developed plan. In their research they reported that many felt
they lacked the necessary skills in house to get it right. We regret to say that
that position still seems to be the same, though more people claim to have a
talent management programme.
Back in 2006, the CIPD had identified five levels of maturity in organisational
talent management:
1 No talent management strategies or formally developed practices
2 Isolated/tactical local pockets of talent management activities
3 Integrated and co-ordinated talent management for particular segments of

the organisation
4 Talent management strategies designed to deliver corporate and HR

management strategies
5 Talent management strategy informs and is informed by corporate strategy.

(Source: Talent Management: Understanding the dimensions. CIPD (2006))


There is no systematic and coordinated approach in the public and private
sectors to developing and nurturing the next generation of business leaders
(Veredus, 2006).
Another survey identified that only 51% of respondents undertake talent
management activities, though only 20% report having a formal definition for
it (Clake and Winkler, 2006).
A significant change that has occurred in both the acquisition and assessment of
talent is the development of social networks and the explosion in largely publicly
available data about people. Articles such as We googled you (HBR case study,
June 2007) highlight what is available. The police regularly look at a persons
Facebook and mobile phone records when faced with a crime suspect, as it gives
the most up-to-date picture of a persons associates and where they have been.
xiv

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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potential use in understanding a persons career and life outside work, though it
carries all the risks of miscarriages of justice. Furthermore, such transparency of
a persons life gives little room for the possibility of learning from mistakes and
subsequent redemption.
This revised Toolkit seeks to address these needs by providing a step-by-step
guide on how to do it with a range of further Tools to deal with our times.
Why is talent management important?
In many mature markets there is an ongoing war for talent, a phrase first
coined by the consultancy McKinsey (Michaels et al., 2001) and which has now
entered the management lexicon. This war is spurred on by a number of forces
shaping our world. The main drivers are as follows:
Continuing growth in specialisation in all disciplines associated with the
explosion of knowledge. This results in a smaller pool of experts in any
one field from which to draw, and the necessity of finding, developing
and retaining the skills needed. But there is also a greater pressure on
sophisticated and broader levels of skill. McKinsey has argued that many more
jobs require high levels of judgement based on integrating large amounts
of complex data. To take one example, an IT manager 20 years ago was
concerned with technology and getting software in on time and to budget.
Now, we expect that same manager to take a balanced score card approach
(Kaplan and Norton, 1996) to their performance, balancing the needs of
many different stakeholders financial, customer, internal processes, people
and the ability to change and keep up to date. This all adds up to greater
complexity and greater demand for managers who are more broadly skilled.
Limited flexibility of organisations to train from scratch, which encourages
a search in the labour market for experienced staff. The influence of the
Internet and the spread of globalisation, impacting so many walks of life,
have resulted in a decline in the possibility of being successful when you are
second best. Businesses increasingly have to survive in markets that become
characterised by winner takes all. Doing so requires the best people, and
quickly.
xv

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Introduction to the second edition

Vault.com points the way to ever-exploding repositories of data. This is of

Introduction to the second edition

The pressures for getting the mix of skills right in an organisation arising
from the diversity agenda. Diversity has real business benefits from a closer
alignment with customer profiles as well as the synergistic benefits of mixing
different thinking styles and backgrounds. Managing diversity can be tough
though. In London, teachers and health workers have to contend with
dozens of cultures requiring new and more sophisticated communication
skills and cultural sensitivity.
A shortage of the right skills is an endemic problem in most advanced
industrial societies. In the UK, in a recent conference presentation by
Gerwyn Davies (CIPD, 2011), recruitment difficulties were being reported
despite the contraction of 60% in manufacturing, 52% in construction and
47% in public administration (source: ONS Labour Force Survey, May 2011).
He concluded by saying that Talent management [is] set to become more
important.
In 2011, it was noted that despite high unemployment over the last two
years, more than half (52%) believe that competition for talent is even
greater as the pool of available talent to hire has fallen sharply (2010: 41%;
2009: 20%). (Gerwyn Davies, CIPD (2011) Resourcing and talent planning
survey, available at www.cipd.co.uk/surveys.)
In America, the Corporate Executive Board, an education and research
foundation, identified that some 62% of HR managers worried about
company-wide talent shortages (source: Economist, 2006, 2011). They
reported greater difficulties in recruitment measured by increasing time
to fill vacancies and also declining quality. This shortage is due in part to
education and vocational training strategies that have failed to deliver
what the changing economy requires. The shortages are being felt across
the globe. Countries like China and India are trying to attract back their
people, who have dispersed across the world, to fuel their rapidly growing
economies.
The change in the psychological contract. Historically this contract is based
on a pact of job security in return for high commitment and loyalty. It has
been replaced by one based increasingly, for the employer, on high job
demands for as long as required in return for higher pay. For the employee,
the deal is based on commitment as long as it suits in return for a job that
xvi

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of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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than the organisation needs talented people, said one entrepreneur. It could
be argued that a consultant with half a dozen clients has greater job security
than an employee with one boss.
The more bounded flexibility that the workforce increasingly exhibits is a
final pressure. The growth in dual-career families, the search for worklife
balance among the X and Y generations, and the desire for many more
ingredients to be satisfied in the ideal job, all encourage staff to be more
choosy on what they do and for whom they work. This was highlighted in
the world economic forum in Davos:
Companies will have to treat their employees like volunteers: every
day they have to provide compelling reasons why their most talented
employees should keep coming to work (Financial Times, 2006).
Finding community-building talent is the single most precious resource in
the modern world (Financial Times, 2006).
The framework for developing a talent management strategy
1 The starting point is to establish the business case for devoting resources

to the activity. The lack of endeavour in this area is partly due to a lack of
resources devoted to it. Using some of the Tools to create a clear linkage
between the organisations goals and the competence required to deliver
them will help to make the case. In some organisations it might be useful
to pull together a team to work on talent management. Organisations
like Standard Chartered have their Human Capital management team and
the Cabinet have set up a group to study the subject. The responsibility
for initiating action has to come from the top, and while HR will play an
essential role in facilitating the process, it is every managers responsibility
to be identifying and nurturing the talent in their area of responsibility. Jack
Welch at General Electric (GE) made talent development a major priority and
GE is among many companies that have established in-house universities
and other study institutes.
2 Recognising your core competence and the talent required to sustain it in

the future will help to focus on the key talents that are essential. While
broader development activities designed to release the potential for all staff
xvii

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Introduction to the second edition

fits individual needs right now. Talented people need the organisation less

Introduction to the second edition

might be going on, focusing on those areas which are going to make a
difference limits the scope of the work to be done.
3 Developing processes for assessing performance and potential that are

robust and subject to scrutiny and audit is vital as a base. It is wise not
to overlook the hidden talent within the organisation, which often lies
unexploited. This data will provide the foundation stone for future planning
and actions, so needs to be sound.
4 Identifying and scrutinising the processes you use for acquiring, developing

and retaining talent can help in establishing clearer quality criteria for the
future.
5 Embedding a cycle of planning, review and decision-making about talent

as part of the regular management review processes will help to keep the
subject in focus.
Focusing first on those areas that will give you the most return for your effort
is likely to lead to lower initial investment. We must, however, avoid the danger
of bureaucratising the process and burying it in a welter of forms. Ultimately,
talent management and succession planning are concerned with stimulating
informed conversations about people and creating the best outcomes possible.
In 2011, just over half of survey participants report having a formal resourcing
strategy. Larger organisations are most likely to have a resourcing strategy
(CIPD, 2011).
Making the business case
But what is the case for investing in talent management and succession
planning? The present low rate of activity, despite the almost universal
acceptance of the need to do it, implies that the business case has not
been made. Yet much anecdotal evidence in the press, and more serious
research (CIPD, 2006), points to organisations of all types failing to meet their
potential through skill shortages, leadership weaknesses and organisational
ineffectiveness.
The case for talent management and succession planning rests on several
arguments:
The cost of unfilled vacancies and replacement costs
Hewitt Associates (quoted by Brittain, 2006) suggest that turnover can cost
xviii

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or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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of 15,000 a time, many of the activities suggested in this book are easily
justified by modest improvements in turnover.
The opportunity cost of foregoing the advantage to be gained by
high-performing individuals
In key roles, marginal improvements in performance can have dramatic
impacts on the bottom line. The engineer who anticipates a quality problem
and institutes a redesign of the product before the customer complaints
arrive, or the sales manager who finesses a sales campaign because she
knows what the customer needs are, all point to the value of competence in
critical roles. It is useful to ask two questions of any role in the organisation:
If this role did not exist, would the organisations effectiveness be
impaired?
If there were only poor or mediocre performance from the role
incumbents, would the organisations performance suffer?
Releasing discretionary effort
In an increasingly service-oriented world, ensuring that customer-facing
staff give of their best is crucial. A bad service experience is relayed to
more people than a good one. Some studies indicate that a determinant
of how staff treat customers is the way in which staff are treated by their
organisations. Talent management, at a minimum, demonstrates to staff an
acknowledgment of their value and contribution now and potentially for
the future. Feeling valued and recognised are key motivators and important
to retention.
Employee choices
Where critical skills are scarce, employees have choices. In a mobile
society where employability is a growing requirement for survival in the
labour market, prospective employees will increasingly make their choice
of employer based on their development practices. They may ask of
themselves: Will I get from this organisation the training and development I
need to further my career and make me employable in the future, especially
if this job comes to an end prematurely?
It should be noted that the business case for focusing on those individuals most
likely to add value may result in hard choices, but is likely to give the best return
xix

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Introduction to the second edition

between 30 and 150% of annual salary. At an average replacement cost

Introduction to the second edition

for your investment. In a recent survey (CIPD, 2011) it was found that only 28%
of respondents used a whole workforce approach to talent management.
How much will talent management and succession planning cost?
Several factors should be taken into account in developing the budget:
How vulnerable is the organisation if key roles are not filled or key
individuals not retained? The greater the vulnerabilities, the greater the
justification for investing in development schemes and succession planning.
How scarce is critical talent? The more the business relies on people that are
difficult to find in the marketplace, the greater the justification for investing
in retention strategies.
What lead times do you have to correct problems? Where staff are on
short notice periods and are easily mobile, the greater is the justification for
investing in planning and strategies to cover key positions quickly.
Whatever our budget, focusing on priorities will always be necessary. How do
we decide? In Tool 37 we will discuss different approaches to different staff
segments.
Ultimately, not everything can be measured or justified with hard data. The
manager of the twenty-first century will need to make decisions based on best
judgement formed from all the data available.
However, those who choose to ignore talent management in a world where
knowledge is increasingly the driver of so many organisations, and indeed
economies, do so at their peril.

xx

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or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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Bibliography
London: CIPD.
Bones, C. (2006) The talent paradox in Reflections on the 2006 learning and
development survey. London: CIPD
Boudreau, J. W. and Ramstad, P. M. (2006) Talentship and HR measurement and
analysis: from ROI to strategic change. Human Resource Planning. Vol. 29,
No. 1, pp2533
Bowman, C. (2004) Talk at the Cabinet War Rooms, 20 September, London
Boyatzis, R. (1982) The Competent Manager: Model for effective performance.
London: John Wiley and Sons
Brittain, S. (2006) Talent Management. Selection and Development Review, Vol.
22, No. 3, June
Buckingham, M. and Coffman, C. W. (1999) First Break All the Rules. Simon
and Schuster
Cannon, J. A. (1996) Giving Feedback: Speaking into a persons life. Cannon
Associates (www.cannassoc.com)
Cannon, J. A. (2003) Moving into self-employment. Unpublished PhD thesis,
Birkbeck College, London University
Cannon, J. A. (2004) The Career Review Workbook. Cannon Associates (www.
cannassoc.com)
Cannon, J. A. (2006) Making the Business Case. London: CIPD
Cannon, J. A., McGee, R. and Standford, N. (2010) Organisation Design and
Capability Building. London: CIPD.
Carrington, L. (2006) The talent paradox. Human Resources, February
CIPD (2005) Competency and competency frameworks fact sheet
CIPD (2005) Flexible working: impact and implementation an employee survey
CIPD (2005) Annual Recruitment, retention and turnover survey. www.cipd.
co.uk/surveys
CIPD (2006) Annual Recruitment, retention and turnover survey. www.cipd.
co.uk/surveys
CIPD (2006) Talent Management. Understanding the dimensions. London: CIPD
CIPD (2010) Talent Perspectives
CIPD (2010) Fighting back through talent innovation
CIPD (2011) Resourcing and talent planning survey. www.cipd.co.uk/surveys
xxi

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and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

Bibliography

Baron, A., Clake, R., Turner, P. and Pass, S. (2010) Workforce Planning Guide.

Bibliography

Clake, R. and Winkler, V. (2006) Reflections on Talent Management. London:


CIPD
Clutterbuck, D. (2004) Everyone Needs a Mentor. London: CIPD
Clutterbuck, D., Megginson, D., Garvey, B., and Stokes, P. (2005) Mentoring in
Action. London: Kogan Page
Collins, J. (2001) Good to Great (1st ed.). Random House.
Coulu, D., Joerres, J. A. and Fertik, M. (2007) We googled you. Harvard
Business Review. June.
Davies, G. (2011) Resourcing and talent planning survey, available at www.cipd.
co.uk/surveys. London: CIPD
Economist (2006) The battle for brainpower. 7 October
Fayol, H. (1917) General and Industrial Management (English version, 1949).
Wikipedia
Financial Times (2006) The view of the future from Davos. January
Fisher, K. & Fisher, M. D. (2001) The Distance Manager. McGraw Hill
Galbraith, J. (1995) Designing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Groysberg, B., McLean, A. and Nohria, N. (2006) Are leaders portable? Harvard
Business Review 84, No. 5, May
Garvey, B. Stokes, P. and Megginson, D. (2009) Coaching and Mentoring,
Theory and Practice. London: Sage
Hallam University (2006) Coaching and mentoring unit. www.shu.ac.uk/
research/ciod/3/index.html
Herzberg, F. (1968) One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard
Business Review, Vol. 6, Issue 1, Jan/Feb, p53
Hirsch, W. and Jackson, C. (1994) Successful Career Planning in a Week. Hodder
Arnold Hodder & Stoughton
Honey, P. and Mumford, A. (2000) The Learning Styles Helpers Guide.
Maidenhead: Peter Honey Publications Ltd
Ingham, J. (2006) Closing the talent management gap. Strategic HR Review,
Vol. 5, No. 3, March/April.
Jonker, J. (1995) Toolbook for Organisational change. Van Gorcum
Kaplan, R. and Norton, D. P. (1996) The Balanced Scorecard: Translating strategy
into action. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press
Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and
development. Prentice Hall
xxii

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and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

Leonard-Barton, D. (1992) Core capabilities and core rigidities: a paradox in


managing new product development. Strategic Management Journal. Vol. 13.
Lombardo, M. M. and Eichinger, R. W. (2000) The Leadership Machine:
Architecture to develop leaders for any future. New York: Lominger Ltd Inc.
Mapper. Talent planning IT system form. www.360partnership.com
Marchand, B., Shannon, P. and Koumans, J. (2004) Building the talent pipeline
at Microsoft. Workspan. October
Michaels, E., Handfield-Jones, H. and Axelrod, E. (2001) The War for Talent.
McKinsey. (Harvard Business School Press)
Morton, L. and Ashton, C. (2005) Managing talent for competitive advantage.
Strategic HR Review, Vol. 4, Issue 5. July/August
National Strategic Skills Audit. (2010) London: UK Commission for Employment
and Skills.
Pemberton, C. (1997) Strike a New Career Deal. Harlow: Pearson
Pemberton, C. (2006) Coaching to Solutions. Butterworth Heinemann
People Management (2006) Low attrition causes headache for IBM. July
People Management (2006) Be clear about mentoring. November
Pearn, M. and Kandola, R. (1993) Job Analysis. London: IPM
Rothwell, W. (2005) Effective Succession Planning: Ensuring leadership
continuity and building talent from within. Amacom
Searle (2003) Selection and Recruitment: A critical text. London: Macmillan
Stamp, G. (1988) Longitudinal research into methods of assessing managerial
potential. Technical report 819, US Army Research Institute for the
Behavioural and Social Sciences
Stamp, G. (1989, 2004) The individual, the organisation and the path to mutual
appreciation. Personnel Management, July 1989, Republished by BIOS in 2004
Stuteley, R. (2002) The Definitive Business Plan. London: Prentice Hall
Talent Management: Team Tactics. Personnel Today, 27 June 2006
Tregoe, B. and Zimmerman, J. (1980) Top Management Strategy. London: John
Martin
Tourism: an overview. (2011) Prospects.ac.uk
Tulgan, B. (2001) Winning the Talent Wars. New York: Norton
Ulrich, D. and Brockbank, W. (2005) The work of HR part one: people and
performance. Strategic HR Review, Vol. 4, Issue 5, July/August
xxiii

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and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
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or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

Bibliography

Lazarus. (1991) Emotion and Adaptation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bibliography

Veredus (2006) Talent Management The capacity to make a difference. www.


veredus.co.uk
Whiddett, S. and Hollyforde, S (2003) A Practical Guide to Competencies: How
to enhance individual and organisational performance. London: CIPD
Whitmore, J. (1996) Coaching for Performance. London: Nicholas Brealey
Publishing
Zhou, J. and Shalley, C. (2008) Handbook of organizational creativity. Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Other books and papers not referenced but of relevance to talent
management
Berger, L. and Berger, D. (2004) The Talent Management Handbook. New York:
McGraw Hill
Cowie, J. (2005) Succession Planning. London: Incomes Data Services
Dychwald, K. (2006) Workforce Crisis: How to beat the coming shortage of
skills and talent. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press
Guy, E. (2006) Tales of Talent: How to harness your peoples talent to achieve
your organisations vision. Lean Marketing Press
Kermally, S. (2004) Developing and Managing Talent: A blueprint for business
survival. Thorogood.
McCartney, C. and Garrow, V. (2006) The talent management journey. Research
report. Roffey Park
McCartney, C. and Holbeche, L. (2002) The management agenda. Research
report. Roffey Park
Munro, A. (2005) Practical Succession Management: How to future-proof your
organisation. Gower
Peters, T. (2005) Essentials: Talent. London: Dorling Kindersley
Shenaz, Kelly-Rawat and Waldock, T. (2004) The 18 Challenges of Leadership: A
practical, structured way to develop your leadership talent. FT/Prentice Hall

xxiv

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or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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Creating your own


organisational definition
of talent
Facilitators notes
Introduction
Although there can be little argument that most people have potential, in
succession planning and talent management we have to be able to differentiate
between people on the basis of their potential. This Tool provides prompts to
help you through the process of defining talent and potential. It also identifies
possible risks in having ill-defined definitions.
There are several components to consider when creating a definition of talent,
including measures of current performance, outputs or results. Many definitions
also include measures of potential, and indeed, one common definition of
talent is the capability of someone who demonstrates both high performance
and high potential. Some organisations focus on promotability, rating their top
talent as those who are both high-performers and highly promotable. Finally,
other definitions focus on inputs or competencies.
Any definition can quickly lose currency. Regular reviews are required to ensure
that the right talent is being nurtured to meet the business needs.
Aim of the Tool
To help clarify definitions of talent and potential.

Creating your own definition of talent tool number 1

Section 1
Foundation Tools

1
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Foundation tools

What it is
Checklists against which an organisation can create its definition.
When to use it
In the early stages of creating the talent management and succession planning
processes.
Materials needed
None.
Procedure for using it
Step 1: Consider the reasons for creating a definition of talent.
Step 2: Identify the possible risks associated with different definitions.
Step 3: Draft a definition that best suits the organisational context.
Step 4: Check the definition out with employees and managers.
Step 5: Regularly check the currency of the definition.
Evaluating its uses
People will understand what the organisation means when it refers to talent.
Links to other Tools
Most of the following Tools use a definition of talent.

1
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Why does an organisation need to create its own


definitions?
to ensure that it sets out exactly what talent management is aiming to
achieve
to clarify what is excluded
to focus the allocation of resources
to help prioritise development
to provide clarity for employees so they can assess themselves
to enable organisations to segment/classify staff accurately
to benchmark against other organisations.
What are your reasons?

What are the risks when creating definitions?


Political/cultural/ethical
There is a question about whether it is acceptable to differentiate between
people and to categorise some as low-talent and label others as talent.
It may be acceptable for a US company to use a forced ranking system,
threatening to fire the bottom 10%, but would that be accepted in central or
local government in the UK?
Legal
Employment law is getting more, not less, complex, and employees enjoy
greater legal protection with myriad employment rights. Definitions have to
work within the legal framework, and indeed, many organisations had to
amend their definitions when age discrimination legislation was introduced.
Company policies like employees with a minimum of four and a maximum of
ten years experience will be considered for the high-potential cadre could be
argued to discriminate on the basis of age at both ends of the spectrum.

Creating your own definition of talent tool number 1

The Tool

1
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Foundation tools

Motivational
Many although not everyone in an organisation want to be on the
high-flyer list, and a definition that is too narrow can alienate people. For
example, one organisation defines talent as people who can move two
positions or more, which limits the numbers considerably. Once the definition
is created, it sets out the organisations intentions with regard to talent. Those
people who are not covered but who are still essential to the business need
to know where they stand and how they are valued. Consideration must also
be given to labelling and the effects of removing a label. Someone who is
high-potential for two years and who then has this label removed will most
likely feel demotivated. There is no easy solution to this problem, but the risk of
losing talented people dictates that care is taken in crafting and communicating
the definition.
Brand
Where the organisation is knowledge- or human-capital-based there may be an
expectation that everyone is talented. Creating a definition that has currency
with all of the interested parties can be difficult. There are also risks attached
to the external brand clients of a creative agency may only want to work with
the most talented people, regarding the brand thereafter in a bad light if they
turn out to be not as talented as expected. It can also impact on the employer
brand. For example, top graduates from the best universities who join a major
consulting firm will have expectations that they will be highly valued. To find
out later that there are different classes of talent may alienate them and cause
future recruitment problems.

Drafting the definition


What is the talent that the organisation needs talent for what?

1
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What are the political/cultural/ethical considerations or restrictions?

What about the legal considerations?

What are the brand values? How will you reflect those in the definition?

Are all segments of the workforce included? If not how will you handle
each?

Who will be excluded, and why?

Creating your own definition of talent tool number 1

Are there any organisational issues/norms that will influence the definition?

1
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Foundation tools

Can people be removed? Do you want to make it clear their place is only
secured by ongoing performance?

What are the links to your competency/capability or other frameworks?

How many people does your organisation expect/need to be top talent?

Are there any other issues that should be considered?

General definitions
Talent

Innate ability, aptitude or faculty, esp. when unspecified; above-average


ability
Collins English Dictionary

1
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Possible but not yet actual; capable of being or becoming but not yet in
existence; latent; latent but unrealised ability or capacity
Collins English Dictionary
Promote

To further or encourage the progress or existence of ... to raise to a


higher rank, status, degree, etc
Collins English Dictionary
Promotable

Capable of moving upwards in the organisation


The authors definition

Organisational examples
Talent is demonstrated by:
High performance consistently demonstrated high ability across time and
a range of experiences
High potential potential ability over and above that currently required

Talent

We will focus on candidates with sufficient growth potential to


advance the business, and specifically on those with high level general
management potential
Potential

Those people who are capable of moving two or more places upwards
in the organisation

Creating your own definition of talent tool number 1

Potential

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Foundation tools

The talent matrix


A commonly used model for defining talent is the talent/potential matrix.
High

Talent

Top
talent

Talents
may lie
elsewhere

Future talent
or possible
talent

Outputs
and
results

Low
Low

Input capability

High

Notes:
In the above model, the term capability has been used as denoting a broader
concept than competence. Capability embraces all those elements that an
individual brings to a job, whereas competence tends to indicate a narrower
definition (see Tool 13).
Also, in the above model the authors have carefully removed the more traditional
labels that these days might seem too subjectively value-judgemental or even
pejorative (stars, high-potentials, solid citizens, plateaud, etc) but that may
still be seen in some textbooks.

Defining targets for talent


You may find it useful to define the numbers you expect or require (as a

percentage) in each sector.


8
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High

Talent

Outputs
and
results

Top
talent

60%

20%

5%

15%

Talents
may lie
elsewhere

Future talent
or possible
talent

Low
Low

Input capability

High

High

Talent

Top
talent

Talents
may lie
elsewhere

Future talent
or possible
talent

Outputs
and
results

Creating your own definition of talent tool number 1

For example:

Low
Low

Input capability
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or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

High

Foundation tools

How to decide which


approach is best for your
organisation
Facilitators notes
Introduction
Introducing talent management can be a difficult job when faced with stretched
resources and an array of approaches. In the report Talent Management:
Understanding the dimensions, the CIPD found that 75% of respondents
were doing some form of talent management. There was, however, evidence
of different strategic levels of engagement in the talent management process
shown in the model below.
Before making a final decision on which approach is best for your organisation
it may help to work through Tools 3 and 4 (the contents of which have not
been duplicated here).
Aim of the Tool
To inform your decision-making about which is the approach most suitable for
your organisation.
What it is
A set of alternative ways of approaching talent management, listing the
advantages and disadvantages of each.
When to use it
When first beginning to consider talent management
Materials needed
Budgets and organisation charts.

2
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This is to be used by senior management in a discussion about talent


management.
Evaluating its uses
Is there greater retention of key people and competitive advantage from the
quality of your organisation?
Links to other Tools
Tool 3: A checklist for a talent management strategy
Tool 4: Conducting a talent management audit
References
Talent Management: Understanding the Dimensions, CIPD (2006), page 6.

How to decide which approach is best tool number 2

Procedure for using it

2
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or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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Foundation tools

The Tool
A set of alternatives, their advantages and
disadvantages
Approach and description
Resourcing managers
Managers whose specific
remit is to manage the
development, engagement
and careers of staff

Talent manager
An individual who takes
overall responsibility for
ensuring that the organisation
has the right people in the
right job at the right time,
and has a supply of talent
coming up for the future
Talent process
A set of tools and processes
for every manager to use for
his/her people

Talent forum/committee
A group of usually senior
people who examine the
organisation as a whole and
identify a succession plan for
all roles
Risk-based replacement
A group of usually senior
people who examine
the critical roles in the
organisation and plan for
their succession

Advantages

Disadvantages

Ensures a focused and


consistent process

May cut across


existing line and
HR management
responsibilities

Frees line managers


of the task to be able
to concentrate on
performance

Is one point of
reference
Liaises with existing
structure to ensure
co-ordinated action

May cut across


existing line and
HR management
responsibilities

Makes clear that all


have a role in talent
management and lays
down a structured
approach

Requires
implementation effort
and policing

Permits a complete
review of the
organisation

Is time-consuming

Is time-efficient

Makes no allowance
that what is not critical
today may become
critical in the future

Less local knowledge


at centre of
organisational needs

Requires
implementation effort

12
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There is an expectation
that organisations will
want to move from left
to right. This may not
be appropriate for all
organisations.

Talent
management
informs and is

No talent
management
strategies,
policies or
formally
developed
practices.
Where talent is

Talent

informed by

management

corporate

strategy designed

strategy.

Integrated and

to deliver

co-ordinated

corporate and HR

talent

Individual and

management

management

pooled talent is

Isolated/tactical/

strategies.

activities for a

understood

local pockets of
talent

particular

Formal talent

segment of the

consideration

management

management

organisation.

in the strategic

activities.

initiatives linked

process.

and taken into

horizontally to HR
No overall

management and

strategy or

vertically to

plans for talent

corporate

management.

strategy-making
processes.

managed, it is
normal/
incidental.

Source: Talent Management: Understanding the Dimentions, CIPD (2006),


page6.

How to decide which approach is best tool number 2

Levels of maturity of organisational talent


management

2
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Foundation tools

A checklist for a talent


management strategy
Facilitators notes
Introduction
Talent management requires a serious commitment in time and effort, often by
senior management, if it is to have any impact. To ensure the most effective use
of time and resources there must be a strategy and a plan.
Aim of the Tool
To provide a template that can be used as the basis for writing a talent
management strategy.
What it is
A template organised under a number of headings, with key points under each.
When to use it
When preparing a case for talent management and when seeking to gain
buy-in from the top team to the subsequent strategy. The process of working
through the Tool should help to clarify the strategy.
Alternatively, use it as a checklist against which to assess your current talent
management strategy to help you identify areas in need of attention.
Materials needed
The starting point is the business plan and outputs from a number of the Tools
that are included in this Toolkit. In addition, there may be organisational data
collected in some other way that would help to identify your talent gaps, and
data from any alternative approaches you have adopted to meet the needs.

3
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Preparing a written strategy is an iterative process which involves starting


with the business plan, identifying the factors critical to success, identifying
the specific needs for talent, and then surveying the options for satisfying the
identified needs. Specifically, the process is:
Step 1
Work through the Tools contained in the preparation and business planning
sections of this Toolkit to explore your talent management issues and needs.
Alternatively, if there is good internal data on talent already available, consider
where any gaps exist against your projected needs. Use Tools 818 to determine
what you need to know.
Step 2
Complete Tool 4 Conducting a talent management audit and consider the
outputs. This will direct you towards areas for attention.
Step 3
Review all of the data and make notes about the issues that arise.
Step 4
Identify the actions you believe you should take.
Step 5
Use this tool to decide which headings and questions you should address. Select
only those headings that are relevant to your situation and add any that are not
covered here.
Step 6
Write the strategy drawing on the outputs from the Tools and your own data.

A checklist for a talent management strategy tool number 3

Procedure for using it

3
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Foundation tools

Evaluating its uses


Is the senior team committed to the resulting talent management strategy?
Is there increased internal awareness about the organisations talent
management strategy? Is the strategy implemented?
Links to other Tools
All tools.
References
With acknowledgement to A. Rennie and to a discussion around her
preparation of a workforce planning strategy paper for a leading global NGO.

3
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Writing a talent management strategy


Section 1: Introduction (see the Tools in the Foundation
section)
Why are you creating this strategy now?
What are the key points you will cover (see below)?
What will you not cover?
What is the time-frame three to five years?

Section 2: Business context (see the Tools in the Business


strategy and planning section)
What are the current changes taking place externally that impact on your
organisation?
What are the internal drivers for change?
What are the possible future scenarios that you need to plan for?
Are there any constraints that must be mentioned?
What are the significant organisational goals?
What are the likely implications of the business goals for staffing?

Section 3: Demand for and supply of talent


Demand
What is the current demand for skills?
What is the possible future demand for skills (from scenario planning see
Tool 10)?
Supply
What is the current make-up of the workforce?
Numbers employed, grade, length of service, time in role, profile of skills,
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or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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A checklist for a talent management strategy tool number 3

The Tool

Foundation tools

average age, average tenure, percentage eligible for retirement in next year,
diversity metrics, gender, race and disability
Labour turnover (wastage) rates, including retirements and resignations
Performance ratings and the proportion who are not performing
Availability of skills externally
Recruitment data eg numbers applying for roles, why people reject our
offers and go elsewhere, time to fill positions, offer rejection rates
Readiness for promotion and promotion rates.
Gaps
What are the specific skills needed?

Section 4: Budget (see the section on Making the business


case)
Are there any budget restrictions that will have implications for delivery of the
talent management plan?

Section 5: Priority for addressing gaps


What is the priority for addressing current talent management gaps?
What might impact on the order?

Section 6: Actions to fill the gaps


Offshore/outsource
Which activities are core to our business and which can be offshored or
outsourced (see Tool 11)?
Succession plan
Which roles must be earmarked for succession?
How will we identify the successors?
What percentage of key roles will have successors identified?

3
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ready at different times?


What steps are we taking to ensure that people on our succession plans
understand their place on the plan and what they must do to stay on the plan?
Create specific talent pools
technical
leadership
general.
Acquire talent recruitment
Are there any roles that must be filled from outside the organisation? Why?
What percentage do you want to appoint internally/externally?
What sources will you use?
Where will you most likely find the people you need?
Develop talent training, redeployment, reassigning
What support can we offer to train, re-deploy or reassign people?
Are there any generic training needs?
Is there a leadership development need?
Are there ladders for progressive development?
What are the specific training needs?
What steps are you recommending?
Manage talent
Are current people accurately assessed?
What steps can we take to improve the assessment of the existing talent
pools?
What steps do we need to take to move people forward?
How good are managers at segmenting their talent pool?
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A checklist for a talent management strategy tool number 3

What are the essential roles for which we must have a supply of successors

Foundation tools

How about giving feedback could more be done to improve performance?


(See Tool 39.)
Exit talent
What strategy do we need to remove the people who do not demonstrate
the talents we must have for the future?
Are there any people/areas that should be removed completely? Why?

Section 7: The implementation plan


Outline the principles and the philosophy that should underpin the talent
management and succession planning strategy.
Summarise the key priorities moving forward.
Provide an overview of the plan.

Section 8: Assigning responsibility for delivery of the


strategy/plan
See Tool 6: A checklist to help clarify roles.

3
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Facilitators notes
Introduction
Even the most gifted people have off days. When talented people experience
more off days than good days, the organisation has a problem and has to
consider why normally great employees are derailing. This Tool draws on the
work of the Centre for Creative Leadership (www.ccl.org), which has been
observing top talent for over 30 years and has developed insights about which
behaviours can, if not addressed, derail promising talent.
Other useful work in this area comes from Lombardo and Eichinger (2000), who
suggest that there are three major derailing themes: trouble with others (such
as insensitivity, arrogance, betrayal of trust and lack of ethics), trouble with
change (inability to adapt and blocked learning), and trouble with delivering
results (poor administration and performance management).
Aim of the Tool
To identify behaviours which could, if left unchecked, result in a talented person
derailing.
What it is
A checklist of the key derailers adapted from the work of the CCL.
When to use it
Once a year as part of the talent review or the appraisal process.
More regularly for career coaching sessions or as part of a development activity.
When a manager, coach, HR or learning and development practitioner notices
behavioural issues and decides to face the issue.

Talent derailers and how to keep talent on track tool number 36

Talent derailers and how


to keep talent on track

36
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Developing talent

Optional use: for an employee to assess himself or herself prior to a talent


management discussion, career coaching session or the annual appraisal.
Materials needed
The Tool, and any data on current performance and specific feedback.
Procedure for using it
1 Use the derailment checklist to identify specific issues to discuss.
2 Have an early conversation do not allow the issue to fester. The

assessment is discussed with the employee and agreements are reached on


actions the employee will take to change the behaviour.
3 If the person shows a lack of self-awareness, use instruments to help increase

self-awareness for example, 360-degree feedback or psychometric tools.


4 When the person recognises the issue, help him/her to identify development

activities that will help improve his/her performance.


5 Consider providing performance coaching to help focus on the cause of the

derailer and to reveal actions that will bring the person back on track.
6 If the problem is significant, and the person is a potentially valuable asset,

consider providing counselling or encouraging the employee to seek


counselling. This is only appropriate where the person is facing deeper
psychological issues.
Evaluating its uses
People stay with the organisation and develop to their full potential.
People who derail are quickly brought back on track.
Links to other Tools
Tool 33: What a development plan looks like
Tool 34: Development activities
Tool 39: Giving feedback (Having constructive career conversations with people in
the talent pool)

36
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or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
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www.ccl.org
Lombardo and Eichinger (2000) The Leadership Machine: Architecture to
develop leaders for any future. New York: Lominger

Talent derailers and how to keep talent on track tool number 36

References

36
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Developing talent

The Tool
This Tool is intended to help you find out what it is that is evidently derailing
someone. It represents both a means of assessment and a checklist to identify
matters to discuss with the person being derailed.
Name of person being assessed:
Name of assessor: Date:

Someone who is potentially being derailed (or who may be derailing others):
1 does not recognise when he/she has

pushed things too far or said too much

2 does not resolve conflicts among or

with colleagues or subordinates

3 is a poor delegator, and likes to do

things alone

4 gets irritated easily with those they

see as less able

5 has difficulty in finding like minds,

not fitting in with the crowd

6 lacks confidence in presenting his or

her case

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

36
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Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

9 involves himself/herself in too much

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

10 has a highly developed sense of

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

he/she sees as outside his/her area


of responsibility
8 lets things slip through the cracks

because he/she doesnt like detail

values that leads him/her to overfocus on a particular issue: may lead


to moral outrage
11 is perceived as very ambitious and

overly interested in the next job

12 is abrasive

13 can make others feel stupid or

diminished

14 can explode under pressure

Talent derailers and how to keep talent on track tool number 36

7 resents being asked to do things

36
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Developing talent

15 does not like changes in what is

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

17 has failed to deliver on promises

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

18 has a strong sense of identification

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

19 does not sell or persuade well

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

20 has to win

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

21 has trouble adapting to those with

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

being asked of him/her

16 displays a sort of whats the

point? depression, which might


follow failure

with his/her boss, to the detriment of


others

a different style

22 likes to contribute, even if his/her

knowledge base is slight

36
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he/she is having on others

24 does not have a sound understanding

of the micro- or macro-economic


issues affecting the organisation

25 has little interest in or knowledge of

technology

26 has a laid-back style which others

see as lack of commitment

27 does not spend time building

relationships outside his/her own


work area

28 is prone to perfectionism, which

results in procrastination

29 is prone to moving the goalposts,

to the confusion of others

30 is prone to self-sacrifice, which

results in lost sense of time or

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

worklife imbalance

Talent derailers and how to keep talent on track tool number 36

23 finds it difficult to read the impact

36
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Developing talent

31 is prone to shorter or longer periods

of alcohol or drug abuse or excessive


sexual activity

32 [other:]

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

Has he/she
exhibited this
behaviour?
Yes or No:

Example

36
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Facilitators notes
Introduction
People who are considered high potential in good times may not deliver under
different circumstances. Leaving them in place may undermine the talent
management process. How do we identify those we should keep and those to
let go?
It should be noted that each situation will be different, calling for careful,
considered judgement. A recent case came to light of an organisation in the
transport sector that had spent millions on redundancy payments only to find
that months later they were rehiring. They had cut staff numbers to the bone
but failed to identify and retain their core talent. When the upturn came they
were ill prepared. So the context is important and many factors will need to be
considered. These include the following.
What is the organisation design once the cost reduction is complete? Is it
viable given the structure of roles and responsibilities that are left? Of course
it is jobs that are redundant in the first instance and only once the people
are fitted as best you can to the new roles will some become surplus and
so possibly made redundant. If roles change radically, it may be necessary to
recruit while at the same time letting people go.
The financial viability of the organisation under the existing cost structure
and the rate of return that would arise from a redundancy exercise once
all the elements are considered should have been taken into account. This
requires a detailed costbenefit analysis and should include some weighting
for the intangibles such as the impact on morale, ability to retain key
talent or to attract it again when the upturn comes. While there may be
some surrogate measures of these factors such as engagement surveys,
absenteeism, etc, it is hard to quantify these items. One approach is to carry
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Tough choices identifying the core talent tool number 37

Tough choices for tough


times identifying the
core talent

37

Developing talent

out the cost benefit using the hard data and then consider whether these
intangibles might change the action you take in any way.
Coupled with the first point, and indeed the critical factor, is some estimate
of time required before profitability resumes. The usual strategy is to stop
recruitment and reduce by natural wastage. However, that often results in
the most employable leaving, reducing the talent pool and capability of the
organisation.
Who is essential to retain? In some organisations where specific knowledge
is vital to success and a small number of key employees are essential for
survival, then it might be easier to determine. However, in many other
organisations the knowledge required is more diffuse, making it harder to
determine who should stay. The death of a thousand cuts is a common
trap where continual cost reduction leaves the organisation unbalanced and
incapable of functioning effectively. The more support services are cut, for
example, the more the front line has to do for itself, reducing their capacity
in what might be seen as more important work.
Whether any of the strategies suggested in Tool 51 may delay or even
eliminate the need for these decisions.
Aim of the Tool
Part 1: This Tool identifies some of the characteristics that serve managers well
but derail them when times are tough (see also Tool 36). Strengths become
weaknesses in situations where other strengths are more important. Weaknesses
and flaws that didnt matter before or were forgiven because of other strengths
become central in tough times. Success can lead to arrogance and an inability
to change. It is, however, necessary to make the judgement about whether
any of these strengths have become weaknesses in the context in which the
organisation is operating. These are not universal truths, rather pointers for
investigation and consideration once you have completed the analysis.
Part 2: This Tool helps to identify those who might need to go.
What it is
Checklists of characteristics.

37
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When considering selective redundancy.


Materials needed
Assessment information on possible candidates.
Procedure for using it
When drawing up a list of possible individuals, though recognise the need to
temper such a list with legal and employee relations considerations.
Evaluating its uses
Does it help to identify those the organisation can afford to lose?
Links to other Tools
Tool 39: Giving feedback (Having constructive career conversations with people in
the talent pool)
Tool 51: Managing retrenchment in general and specifically of your key talent

Tough choices identifying the core talent tool number 37

When to use

37
303

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

Developing talent

The Tool
Part 1
Below are some of the characteristics that may give rise to problems in tough times.
Characteristics that may prove
successful in good times

How these characteristics may appear


in tough times

Positive team relationships built on


likeability and charm

May avoid actions that impair friendly


relationships
May be seen as manipulative and false

Strong track record of delivery


arising from narrow focus on key
deliverables using a tried-andtested approach

May find difficulty in changing tack and


coming up with different innovative
approaches, especially those which are not
ideal but are the best in the circumstances

Technical competence that


outshines others and is tolerated
for individualistic or maverick
behaviour

Under pressure may cause team dissension


and conflict, at a time when pulling
together is of paramount importance

Loyalty and commitment to the


organisation demonstrated by
working long hours and doing
whatever is asked

May lead to burnout from the belief that


working even harder is the answer

Ambition shown by desire to


invest in whatever will assist career
development and future promotion

May increase destructive competition for a


more limited range of roles in the future

Strong operational focus on


delivery today

May fail to understand the broader


strategic issues the organisation faces
Operates only in their silo and fails to build
strong relationships across the organisation

High degree of control with few


mistakes and variances to plan

Fails to delegate and empower through


little trust in others

Energy and enthusiasm

May become unpredictable when


enthusiasm is unsustainable

Cautious in decision-making

May become indecisive and lacking in


confidence

Reserved

May become isolated and difficult to


engage when stressed

Pushing the boundaries in an


innovative way

Actions may become dangerous when a


more cautious approach might be called for

37
304
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Copyright Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Copyright waived.

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore

This section considers how we should work with such problems. In particular, is
the situation recoverable or are people at risk?
Question

Answer yes

Answer no

Do they demonstrate both capacity and


willingness to address the issues?

Stay

Go

Is their skill set relevant/required for


future roles?

Stay

Go

Is their level of competence core and


job-related skills sufficient for the
future?

Stay

Go

Is there evidence of flexibility and


adaptability?

Stay

Go

Do they demonstrate learning agility?

Stay

Go

Do they have strong and positive


interpersonal relationships?

Stay if required in
future roles. May
be less relevant in
technical or more
individual roles

Go

Do they display resilience under


pressure?

Stay

Go

In managerial roles can they take the


tough decisions required and carry
people with them?

Stay

Go

Do they readily accept organisation


changes in the interests of the
organisation rather than themselves?

Stay

Go

Are there other factors to consider?

Tough choices identifying the core talent tool number 37

Part 2

37
305
This document can be downloaded as a Word document from www.cipd.co.uk/tsm
Copyright Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Copyright waived.

A sample from Talent Management and Succession Planning 2nd Edition by James A Cannon
and Rita McGee. Published by the CIPD. Copyright CIPD 2010. All rights reserved. No part
of this excerpt may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. www.cipd.
co.uk/Bookstore