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Introduction to
Definition of Sociology

Broaden our familiarity on

sociological facts
Exposed our minds regarding the
different perspective on attaining
the truth

Importance of Sociology
Areas of Sociology
Relation of Sociology to other
Social Science
Evolution of Sociology

Definition of
Derived from the Latin word socius,
meaning associate and the Greek
word logos, meaning study of
Coined by August Comte(17981857), regarded as the father of
A science which studies human
Systematic study of groups and
societies people build and how
these affect their behavior
Focuses on various social
connections, institution,
organizations, structures and
Gather social inputs which are
composed of frequent forms and

Importance of
Obtain possible theories and
principles about society as well as
various aspects of social life
Study the nature of humanity and
examine our roles within the
Appreciate that all things are
interdependent with each other

Areas of Sociology

Social Organization
Social Psychology
Human Ecology
Applied Sociology
Population Studies
Social Change
Sociological Theory and

Relationship of
Sociology to Other
Social Science.
Political Science
History data and information
collected by historians are used in
Sociology to observe human
Political Science politicians
analyzes social behavior for both
political and policy-making
Economics analysis on economic
activities (such as GNP, savings,

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etc) is based on individual
behaviors and social interactions
Anthropology - tackles sociocultural behavior like the effects of
ethnicity, language or religion to
the way of life of an individual
Psychology - psychologist gather
pertinent data like the social
structure and cultural background
to study a persons behavior

Herbert Spencer (18201903)

Famous for coining the

expression, Survival of the
The evolution of societies is
based on the principle of natural
Change is inevitable
Societies must adapt to their
surroundings and complete to

Karl Marx (181-1883)

Evolution of
French Revolution (1787-1799)
changed the order of the social
classes in France through a series
of social and political upheavals
aimed at overthrowing the
Industrial Revolution (1800s)
was the transition movement from
agricultural works and hand
production to manufacturing

August Comte (17981857)

Scientific methods should be

applied in studying society
Two specific problems for
sociological investigations:
Social statics pertains
to the problems of order
and stability
Social dynamics refers
to the problem of social

Conflict Theory
Societies develop trough
class conflicts
The struggle between the
proletariat and the
bourgeoisie due to the
exploitation of the latter
to the former is essential
in provoking social
The only way for the
laborers to have a better
social condition is
through social revolution

Emile Durkheim
Structural Functionalism
Society is composed of
harmonious elements
such as individuals,
organizations and social
These elements must
perform their functions
according to their role in
the society
If these elements are not
in the state of

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equilibrium, then,
dysfunction may occur

Development of Sociology in
United States
Univesity of Chicago - first department
of Sociology was stablished in 1893
Robert E. Park (1864-1944)introduces
the study of City and Urban Processes
and Development
University of Chicago further welcomed
notable scholars such as heorge Herbert
Mead and john Dewey in 1894
Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) popularized
the Action Theory
Rober K. Merton (1910-2003) postulated
Theories of Deviance and developed the
concepts of "self-fullfillinf prophecy" and
"role model"

Development of Sociology in
the Philippines
Sociology course was first offered by
Father valentine Marin at the University
of Santo Tomas (1896)
Courses on penology and criminology
had been added (1900)
The University of the Philippines Offered
the first organized course in Sociology
Dean Conrado benitez was the first
Filipino to teach Sociology at UP
Felipe Gamboa tought Sociology at the
Philippines Women's College (1938)


Definition to Culture
Importance of Culture
Characteristics of Culture
Components of Culture
Major Theoretical Perspective
Ethnocentrism vs. Xenocentrism

A person may escape society for a

while, but he can never escape
-Joseph H. Fichter

Definition to Culture
Originated from the Latin word
cultura to cultivate
A complex whole which includes
knowledge, belief, customs and
any other capabilities and habits
acquired by people
A way of life, a national identity, an
attitude and consolidated beliefs
and a complex system of shared
social elements within a particular

Importance of
Design for living or a blue-print for
social behavior
Provides people with ready-made
solutions to common social
Ensures the survival of the heritage
of humankind
Develops ones attitudes and
Maintains biological functioning of
the group
No Culture can live if it attempts to
be exclusive.
-Mahatma Gandhi

Characteristics of
Culture is Shared

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Culture is learned
Culture is cumulative
Culture is diverse
Culture is symbolic
Culture is adaptive
Components of
Norms specific guidelines for
behavior based on values

Prescriptive Norm- refers to

what people should do
Proscriptive norms- suggests
what people should not do

Folkways conventions of
everyday life that members of
society are expected to follow


Mores reflect strongly-held values

and whose violation involves a
strong negative societal reaction

Technology are skills or objects

associated with some materials
and utilitarian objects

Laws are sometimes based on

mores on enacted to protect the
people from the bad effects of
outdated mores

Language a systems of symbols

with specific meanings in a given
society that allows people to
communicate with one another

Symbol refers to object, gestures,

words or images that convey a
certain idea or belief

Values refers to the standard of

the desirability of things

Major Theoretical
Perspective on
High Culture Theory by
Matthew Arnold

Culture is the study of perfection

A high culture has three immortal

Ordinary/ Popular Culture

by Raymond Williams

Culture is ordinary as it is part of

everyday life
Culture has two aspects:

The known meanings and

directions which its members
are trained to

The new observations and

meanings which are offered
and tested

High Culture in Modern


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High culture is the cultural

patterns that distinguish a societys
elite (Macionis 2003)

Social dances (Cha Cha,

Tango, Walts and etc.)
Classical music (Beethoven,
Mozart and the like)
Painting of Da Vinci,
Fernando Amorsolo
Ballet Dance

Refers to the preference for the
products, styles, or ideas of
someone elses culture rather than
of ones own
In United States , European
Products like wine and
cheese are believed to be
better than those product
Some Indian women believe
that a fairer skin is more
beautiful than their natural
brown complexion

Popular Culture in Modern

Popular culture refers to cultural
patterns that are widespread
among a societys population
(Macionis 2003)
Street dancing (break dance,
rap and hip hop)
Loose and ragged mode of
Graffiti (a.k.a vandalism)

Refers to the belied in the
superiority of ones own race and
preference for ones own culture
and products
Sinocentric view by
Nazism under Adolf Hitler

Filipino value
Definition of Terms
Origin of Filipino Values
Factors affecting the formation of
Filipino Value System
Key Values that Dominate the
Philippine Way of Life

Seven Deadly Sins by

Mahatma Gandhi

Wealth without work

Pleasure with our conscience
Knowledge without character
Commerce without morality
Science without humanity
Worship without sacrifice
Politics without principle

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Definition of Terms
Values standards of desirability
and importance of person, ideas,
actions and goals

Value Systems representation of

the dominant motivations and
basic principles of peoples

Filipino Value System

set of
values that has become part of the
Filipino Identity

Origin of Filipino
Value System


Factors Affecting the

Formation of Filipino
Value System
Home Environment
High nurturance, low

independence, and low

discipline in child rearing
Disciplinary actions come in the
form of many dos and
Children are taught to value
their family

Social Environment
Gap between the rich and the

Culture and Language

Warm and friendly culture
Open environment
Respectful name calling

Faithfulness to God/ Spirituality
Strong family ties

Achievement orientedness

Root of optimism and capacity
to accept lifes hardships
Instills attitude of resignation

Economic Environment
Poverty remains a big problem
Difficulties drive Filipinos to take
risks, work hard and survive

Political Environment
Centralized power
Political power on the hands of

the elite
Disparity in urban-rural areas

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Lack of integrity and

accountability among public

Mass Media
Advertisements emphasizing
foreign products reinforce
colonial mentality
Children watch cartoons instead
of studying
Violent games may increase
case of bullying
Social networking sites are
avenues for interaction and
learning, but also pose negative

Key Values that

Dominate the
Philippine Way of
Idea that people have to adapt

to nature and external forces

Belief that success or failure is
dependent on super natural
beings or spirits
Bahala na mentality

Allegiance to a person to get

things done
Favoritism, nepotism and fixing
in government offices/services


Advocacy to make ones own

nation distinct and separate
from the others
Challenges include national
amnesia or colony mentality
Promotion of nationalism
through education and mass

Utang na loob/ debt of

Fulfillment of an obligation to

appropriately repay a person

who has done one a favor
A person who ignored utangna-loob May be regarded as
rude or ungrateful

Willingness of members of a
community to help an
individual, a family or even
another community in times of
Originated from a common
tradition in rural areas in the

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Socialization and
Nature vs. Nurture
Agents of Socialization
Stages of Development
Theories on personality

Children Learned What They

by Dorothy Law Nolte
If children live with criticism,
They learn to condemn.
If children live with hostility,
They learn to fight.
If children with ridicule,
They learn to be shy.
If children live with shame,
They learn to feel guilty.
If children live with
They learn confidence.
If children live with tolerance,
They learn to be patient.
If children live with praise,
They learn to appreciate.
If children live with acceptance,
They learn to love.
If children live with approval,
They learn to like themselves
If children live with friendliness,
They lean the world is a nice place
In which to live

introduction to
Socialization and
Kingsley Davis Study on
Children Raised in

Six years old when discovered

in an attic
Received no human contact for
5 and years
Showed very little development
Died at age of 10

Illegitimate child
Kept in dark room with deafmute mother
Demonstrated more positive
Went to public school at the
age of 13

Process of social interaction

through which people acquire

personality and learn the way of
their society
Allows members of society to
learn patterns of thought that
are essential in social living

Form the Latin word persona
which means mask

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Totality of character attributes

and behavioral traits of a
Supreme realization of the
innate idiosyncrasy of a living

Nature vs. Nurture

Nature human behavior esteems
from their biological instincts
Nurture humans develop because
of environmental factors

Agents of
The Family
First source of social

Family members help children
become familiar with the social

The School
Inculcates vital values in life
Teaches the value of following
social rules and regulations

The religion
Powerful but sensitive
socializing agent
Religious belief is an important
part of a persons life
Influence of a religion should
not be misinterpreted

The Peer Group

Group of people of
approximately the same age,
sharing similar interest and

belonging to similar
Promotes the idea of

Mass Media
Enables access to significant
May cause confusion on the
concepts of fiction and
May harm children through
violent and inappropriate

Broadens an individuals
perception on social acceptance
and tolerance towards others
Exposes individuals to different
thought process, belief systems
and social behavior
Inculcates important values

Stages of
Childhood (birth to
Anarchic Phase characterized
by chaotic and sporadic
Monarchic Phase development
of ego, logic and abstract

Youth (puberty to 35-40)

Begins to mature sexually

Grows consciousness
Realize independence
Middle Life (41-60 years
Undergoes radical
transvaluation and metanoia
(changing ones mind)

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Acquires personal philosophy in


Old Age (60 years old and


Confrontation with death

Reduced consciousness
Approach death with either fear
or hope for rebirth

Theories on
Charles Horton Cooleys
the Looking Glass Self
A person develops his/her
concept of the self by means of
interpersonal interactions and
the perceptions of others
Three components:
1. We imagine how we
appear to others
2. We Imagine the judgment
of that appearance
3. We develop our selves
(identity) through the
judgments of others
Sigmund Freuds id, Ego, Superego
Id unconscious component of
the human psyche, cause
impulsivity to human behavior
Ego conscious component of
human psyche that deals with
the reality of life
Superego Serves as moral
arm, balances the rationality of
ego and the impulsivity of id

Ervin Goffmans
Dramaturgical Perspective
on Social Interaction

Compared a persons social life

to a theater
Six main concepts:
Front stages and back

Social Interaction,
Social Groups and
Formal Organization
Introduction to Social
Social Structure in Global
Social Groups
Formal Organizations

Introduction to
Social Interaction
Social Interaction
Process of defining and
responding to various actions
and reactions of individuals in a
certain social situation
The way persons or group act
and communicate one another
A dynamic and changing
sequence of social actions
between individuals (or groups)
who modify their actions and
reactions due to the actions of
their interactions partner/s

Components of Social

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Social Status refers to any
full range of socially defined
positions within a large group or
Ascribed Status
Statuses given to a
person without
considering his/her
talents or skills
Achieved Status
status acquired by a
person because s/he has
done something to get it
Master Status most
important position/status
of a person
Social Role refers to the set
of expectation given to a person
who occupies a certain
Role Expectations
suggestions of the
cultural norms as to how
a person holding a
particular status ought to
act or perform
Role conflict
incompatibilities between
the two
statuses/positions given
to the same person
Role Strain describe
the situation in dealing
with the conflicts on two
social statuses/position
Role Exit
disengagement to a
certain role that has been
part of ones identity
Status Set all statuses
a person hold at a given
Role Set the number of
roles attached to a single


Social Structure in
Global Perspectives
Emile Durkheims
Mechanical and
Organic Solidarity
Mechanical Solidarity

a collective
consciousness that
emphasizes group

Organic Solidarity a
collective consciousness
resting on the societys
members need to have
one another

Ferdinand Tonnies
Gemeinschaft and

Gemeinschaft - Typical
rural life characterized by
close-knit relationship
between members of
Gesellschaft the ideal
society characterized by
a modern urban life

Gehard Lenskis
Evolution Approach

Preindustrial Society
portrays the state of the
society prior to the
incoming of advantage
Hunting and
gathering societies
Agrarian societies

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Social Groups
Social Groups
Any number of people who
share the same norms, values
or expectation and interact with
each other on a regular basis
Two or more people ion social
interaction who share
expectation and responsibilities
to the group and who share a
unifying characteristic or sense
of purpose

Primary and
Secondary groups

Industrial Societies
reliance on mechanical
power and new source of
energy, centralized
workplaces, economic
interdependence and
formal education
Societies the main
output of an
postindustrial society is
services rather than
manufactured goods
Postmodern Society
a technologically
sophisticated society
preoccupied by consumer
goods and mass media

Primary groups small

number of individuals
who share an intimate
and personal relationship
Secondary groups
formal and impersonal
groups characterized by
lack of intimacy and
personal relationship

In-groups and Outgroups

In-groups refer to
groups whose members
feel they belong
Out-groups are groups
or categories to which
people feel they do not


Formal organizations large

number of people who have
bonded to efficiently fulfill
specific and special purposes
Bureaicracy coined by Max
Weber, refereds to the structure
of the organization
characterized by the following
specific elements:

Division of labor
Heirarchy of authority
Written rules and

Employment based on

Social Institutions

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Basic Concepts of
Divorce in the
The only rock I know
that stays steady, the
only institution I know
that works is the
Basic Concepts of
Definition of Family
A social institution that
unites individuals into
cooperative groups,
oversees the bearing and
raising of children
A group of people
affiliated by
consanguinity, affinity, or
Types of Family
Nuclear family
Single-parent family
Two-career family
Blended family
Adolescent family

Cohabiting family
Single adults living alone
Extended family
Gay and lesbian family

Importance of Family
Serves as the social status
indicator of an individual
Serves as a venue for
Provides relaxation through
recreational activities
Provides a proper environment
for education
Teaches children about religion
Influences other members of
the family on political decisions
Supports and looks after the
individuals physiological
demands and emotional needs
Introduces the consolidated
culture of a particular group

Forms of Marriage

Monogamy - form of marriage

that allows an individual to take
only one spouse at a time

Polygamy marriage
arrangement that includes more
than two spouses

Types of Polygamy

Polygyny - marriage of a man and

two or more wives at the same

Polyandry - marriage of one

woman to two or more men at the
same time

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Group Marriage - marriage

arrangement that involves several
males and several females

Salient Features of the

Family Code of the

Article 1 defined marriage as:

A special contract of
permanent union between a
man and a woman entered
into in accordance with law
for the establishment of
conjugal and family life

It is the foundation of the

family and an inviolable
social institution whose
nature, consequences, and
incidents are governed by

Essential Requisites for



Legal capacity of the

contracting parties who must be a
male and a female


Consent freely given at the

presence of the solemnizing officer

Formal Requisites of


Authorized Solemnizing Officer


Any incumbent member

of the judiciary within the
courts jurisdiction


Any priest, rabbi, imam,

or minister of any church or
religious sect

c.Any ship captain or airplane

chief only in the case of
Articulo Mortis


Any military commander

of a unit


Any consul-general,
consul or vice-consul

f. A city/municipal mayor
within his area of jurisdiction
2. A valid marriage license except in
marriages exempted from license
3. A marriage ceremony in the
presence of not less than two
witnesses of legal age

Divorce in the
Three Options for Dissolving a

Petition for Annulment of Marriage

Refers to voidable
marriages or marriages that
are valid until otherwise
declared by the court
Petition for Nullity of Marriage
Presupposes that the
marriage was void ab initio
or void from the beginning
Legal Separation (Relative Divorce)
Refers to the separation of
spouses from bed and board

Grounds for the Annulment

of Marriage
1. Either party (between the age of
18 to 21 years old) got married
without parental consent unless
parties freely cohabited with the
other as husband and wife after
attaining the age of twenty-one
2. Either party was of unsound mind,
unless such, freely cohabited with
the other as husband and wife
after coming to reason

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3. The consent of either party was
obtained by fraud, unless parties
lived together as husband and wife
despite the discovery of the fraud
by innocent spouse
4. The consent of either party was
obtained by force, intimidation or
undue influence, unless parties
continued to live as husband and
wife even though the force,
intimidation or undue influence
had ceased
5. The physical inability to have
sexual intercourse of either or both
parties and such circumstance is
6. Either party was afflicted with a
sexually-transmissible disease
which is serious and appears to be

Grounds for the

Declaration of Nullity of
1. Either or both parties are below
eighteen years of age
2. Marriage was solemnized by a
person not legally authorized to
perform marriages
3. There is no marriage license
4. Marriage is bigamous or
5. There was a mistake of one
contracting party as to the
identity of the other
6. The subsequent marriage is
7. Psychological incapacity

Grounds for Legal

1. Repeated physical violence or
grossly abusive conduct
directed against the petitioner,
a common child, or a child of
the petitioner

2. Physical violence or moral

pressure to compel the
petitioner to change religious or
political affiliation
3. Attempt of respondent to
corrupt or induce the petitioner,
a common child, or a child of
the petitioner, to engage in
prostitution, or connivance in
such corruption or inducement
4. Final judgment sentencing the
respondent to imprisonment of
more than six years, even if
5. Drug addiction or habitual
alcoholism of the respondent
6. Lesbianism or homosexuality of
the respondent
7. Contracting by the respondent
of a subsequent bigamous
marriage, whether in the
Philippines or abroad
8. Sexual infidelity or perversion
9. Attempt by the respondent
against the life of the petitioner
10.Abandonment of petitioner by
respondent without justifiable
cause for more than one year

Effects of Annulment and

Nullity of Marriage
1. Either spouse can remarry
2. Children born during the
existence of the marriage are
still deemed legitimate
3. Custody of the common children
shall be awarded to either or
both parents
4. The property regime shall be
dissolved and liquidated

Effects of Legal Separation

(Relative Divorce)
1. The spouses shall be entitled to
live separately from each other,

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but the marriage bonds shall
not be severed
2. The absolute community or the
conjugal partnership shall be
dissolved and liquidated but the
offending spouse shall have no
right to any share of the net
profits earned by the absolute
community or the conjugal
3. The custody of the minor
children shall be awarded to the
innocent spouse
4. The offending spouse shall be
disqualified from inheriting from
the innocent spouse by
intestate succession

Legislative History of
Absolute Divorce in the
1917 - Act No.

1943- Executive
Order No. 141

1999 - house
Bill No. 6993

2001 - Sen.
Biazon and Rep.
Divorced Bill

20025 - Former
Gabriella Rep.
Lisa Masa
Divorce Bill

2010 - House
Bill No. 1799 or
the Divorce Bill


The petitioner has been

legally separated from his or
her spouse for at least two
years at the time of the filing of
the petition and reconciliation is
highly improbable


When any of the grounds

for legal separation has caused
the irreparable breakdown of
the marriage


When one or both

spouses are psychologically
incapacitated to comply with
the essential marital obligations


When the spouses suffer

from irreconcilable differences
that have caused the
irreparable breakdown of the

Social Institutions Religion and


Basic Concepts of


Sociological Perspectives

on Religion

Grounds for Divorce under

the 2010 Divorce Bill


The petitioner has been

separated de facto from his or
her spouse for at least five
years at the time of the filing of
the petition and reconciliation is
highly improbable

World Religions
Basic Concepts of


The K to 12 Basic

Education Program

Basic Concepts of

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Definitions of Religion
From the Latin word religare
which means to bind together
Belief in God or any other
spiritual and supernatural
Unified system of beliefs and
practices relative to sacred
Embodies beliefs and
representations which
expresses the nature of a
sacred things

Types of Religious
Church - a formal religious
organization that is well
integrated into the larger
Ecclesia - a church that
is formally allied with the
Denomination - a
church that recognizes
religious pluralism
Sect - a type of religious
organization that stands apart
from the larger society
Cults - religious organizations
substantially outside a societys
cultural traditions

Seven Dimensions of
Religion by Ninian Smart

Modes of dress
5. Experiential
6. Social
7. Narrative

Perspectives on
Structural Functionalism

Postulated by Emile Durkheim

Believes that society has its
own existence beyond the lives
of the people who created it

Three main functions of religion:

Social Cohesion
Social Control
Providing Meaning and

Symbolic Interaction

Postulated by Peter Berger

Believes that religion is a
socially constructed reality

Emphasizes that religion is not

created by supernatural beings
but a result of elements that
was objectified by society as

Social-Conflict Theory

Postulated by Karl Marx

Highlights how religion draws
attention to the social ills
perpetuated by religion by
justifying inequality and
suggesting that a better life will

Emphasizes that religion

functions to maintain social
inequality by providing

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worldviews that justifies


Pagan, witchcraft religion;

World Religion

originated in England

Believes in the matriarchal

structure of faith


Known for ritual practice of

Monotheistic belief based on the

life, experiences and teachings
of Jesus Christ

World's largest religion


Monotheistic belief in the God,


Recognizes Prophet Muhammad

as the messenger of God


Oldest religious tradition in the


Believes in the force called


Believes in Karma and



Founded by Siddharta Gautama


Sees existence as suffering and

rejection of wealth as a solution
to human problems

Believes in personal spiritual

transformation as an answer to
worldly problems


Believes in one God

Emphasizes moral behavior
Considers Torah as the most
holy Jewish book



Originated in Jamaica
Worships Haile Selassie I, Emperor
of Ethiopia (1930- 1974)

Believes in the existence of one

and true god Jah


Founded by Ron Hubbard in


Emphasizes the development of

people's own natural abilities


Believes that file-sharing should

not have any restrictions

Advocates the legalization of all

forms of information piracy

Haitian Vodou

Believes in the supreme being,


Moral code centers on the vices

of dishonor and greed

New Orleans Voodoo

Emphasizes on the usage of

Gris-gris (talisman)

Involves veneration of ancestors

through rituals
Education is our passport to the
future, for tomorrow belongs to the
people who prepare for it today.
-Malcolm X

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Basic Concept of
Definition of Education
Various ways in which
knowledge, including factual
information and skills as well as
cultural norms and values, is
transmitted to members of

Kinds of Education

Formal education - process of

acquiring knowledge and skills
within an organized educational

Informal education - process

of acquiring knowledge and
skills outside the bounds of any
educational institutions

Special education - special

learning methods formulated for
the mentally challenged and
handicapped students

Adult education - process of

educating the adults particularly
with literacy, other basic skills
and various job skills

Four Stages of Formal


Nursery education
Primary or preschool education
Secondary education
Tertiary education

The K to 12 Basic
Education Program
Covers kindergarten and 12
years of basic education
Six years of primary
Four years of Junior High
School (JHS)
Two years of Senior High
School (SHS)

Provide sufficient time for
mastery of concepts and skills
Develop lifelong learners
Prepare graduates for tertiary
education, middle-level skills
development, employment, and

Main Features of the K to

12 Program
Strengthening early childhood
Making curriculum relevant to
Ensuring integrated and
seamless learning
Building proficiency through the
Mother Tongue-based
Multilingual Education
Growing up for the future
Nurturing the holistically
developed Filipinos

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Clarifications of norms
Enhancement of solidarity
Diversions of discontent
Identification of problems
Disruption of social order
Confusion of norms and values
Diversion of resources
Violation of trust

Deviance, Crime and

Social Control
Social Control


A behavior that violates

significant social norms and is
negatively valued by a large
number of people relative to
time, place, and culture
A way of defining abnormality
by seeing it as something that
goes against the norms or
standards of the society in
which the individual lives

There is no such thing as a value-free

concept of deviance; to say
homosexuals are deviant because
they are a statistical minority ... is, in
practice, to stigmatize them. Nuns are
rarely classed as deviants for the
same reason, although if they obey
their vows they clearly differ very
significantly from the great majority of
people - Dennis Altman


Types of deviance
Primary Deviance - refers to a
rule-breaking behavior wherein
a person commits a minor
violation to a certain social

Secondary Deviance - refers

to a rule-breaking behavior
wherein a person commits the
same violation twice (or more)
and people starts to label
him/her as a deviant

Biological Theories on
Deviance originates from a
persons genetic make-up
o Cesare Lombroso
o Raffaele Garofalo
o Enrico Ferri
o William Sheldon

21 | P a g e

Ectomorphs- thin
and fragile
Endomorphs - soft
and fat
Mesomorphsmuscular and
Earnest Hooton

Psychological Theories on

Deviance is the result of mental

and emotional issues
o Sigmund Freud and the
Psychoanalytic Theory
o Lawrence Kohlberg and
the Cognitive
Development Theory
Conventional stage

Travis Hirschi and the SelfControl Theory

Edwin Sutherland and the
Cultural Transmission Theory
Every crime is born of necessity. If
you want less crime, you must change
the conditions. Poverty makes crime.
Want, rags, crusts, misfortune all
these awake the wild beast in man,
and finally he takes, and takes
contrary to law, and becomes a
- Robert Ingersoll

A violation of criminal law for
which some governmental
authority applies formal

Types of crime
Professional crime - involves
persons who pursue crime as a
daily occupation

Sociological Theories on
Deviance stems from a persons
social environment, upbringing,
and socialization
Robert K. Merton and the
Social Strain Theory

Sociological Theories on
Frank Tannenbaum and the
Labeling Theory

Organized crime - refers to

the work of a group that
regulates relations between
various criminal enterprises
involved in smuggling and sale
of drugs, prostitution, gambling
and other illegal activities

White-collar crime - refers to

a crime committed by a person
of respectability and high social
status in the course of his

Victimless crime (crimes against

morality) - refers to acts that
while are deemed illegal and
deviant are not directly harming

22 | P a g e
or threatening the well-being of
other people other than the
offender him/herself

Crimes against women - refer

to illegal acts committed
against women such as rape,
prostitution and femicide

Hate crime - refers to illegal

acts committed against
members of a specific social
group based on sexual
preference, gender, race or

Social Control
Strategies and techniques in
preventing deviant human
behavior in any society

Attempts by society to regulate

Population and
Basic Concepts of Population
Relationship of Population and

The Philippine Population

Policies and Program
Population trends reflect individual
choices and collective action.
- United Nations
Population Fund

people's thoughts and behavior

Ways to encourage conformity

to society's norms

Acts of enforcing norms through

either internalization or

Types of social
Informal Social Control refers to social control carried
out by ordinary people casually
through means like laughter,
ridicule and smile

Formal Social Control - refers

to techniques and initiatives
formulated and carried out by
authority figures such as police
officers, school administrators,
and military officers to prevent
deviant acts

Basic Concepts of
Definition of Terms

Population - number of
persons occupying a certain
geographic habitat, drawing
subsistence from that habitat
and interacting with each other

Demography - the scientific

study of human populations,
including their sizes,
compositions, distributions,
densities, growth, and other
characteristics, as well as the
causes and consequences of
changes in these factors

Overpopulation - the condition

of having a population so dense
as to cause environmental
deterioration, an impaired

23 | P a g e
quality of life, or a population

woman in her

Mortality - refers to the

rate of death in a

Migration - refers to the

movement of humans
from one place to another

Modern Demographic

Originally formulated by
American demographer Warren

Depicts the transformation of

Migration rate refers to the

difference between
immigrants and
emigrants in a
certain area for a
given period
divided by 1000

the structure of a population in

a particular society
accompanying the change from
an agrarian economy to an
industrialized economy

Involves the following:

o Stage one
o Stage two
o Stage three

Process in Population

Population Change - the

difference in the size of a
population between the end and
the beginning of a given time
period (usually one year)

It involves the following;

Fertility - refers to the
natural capacity of
humans to produce

Fertility rate average number of

children born per

Theories on Population

Doomsters/Malthusian Theories
Rev. Robert Malthus - contended
that if population will continue
to grow in an uncontrolled
pattern, it will start to increase
at a faster rate than the food

Paul Erhlich - argued that rapid

population growth will have
dramatic effects on the lives of
people and the condition of the

Cornucopian Theory
o Julian Simon - argued

that population growth is

a solution and not a

24 | P a g e

Believed that the ability

of the humans to
innovate will give way to
the production of foods
and other resources that
will maximize the use of
the available raw

The human population issue is the

topic I see as the most vital to solve if
our children and grandchildren are to
have a good quality of life
-Alexandra Paul

Relationship of
Population and
Standard of
Living/Quality of Life

A complex process that

involves satisfaction of the

physical, emotional and social
needs of the people in a

High standard of living

with modern comforts in life

which includes the usage of
modern equipment and
electronic gadgets

Capacity to have bigger

budgets for food, clothing,

better housing, education for
children, good recreation and
other activities for the family

Degree to which society

is stable and live with nature

without endangering itself and

the environment for an

indefinite period of time
Edward Goldsmiths three
principal conditions of a stable

Minimum disruption of

ecological process

Maximum conservation of

material and energy and an

economy of stock rather than

A social system in which

individuals can enjoy rather

than be restricted by the first

Areas affected by
population issues
Ecology/natural resources
Waste supply and proper waste

The Commission on Population (POPCOM)

Empowered to direct a national population program

The Population Act

Enacted to become part of strategies for national development

Philippine Population Management Program (PPMP)

Focused on responsible parenthood as a mechanism to control population

Responsible Parenthood and Family Planning Program

POPCOM, DOH and LGUs were ordered to focus on responsible parenthood and
family planning programs

25 | P a g e

Family Planning
Introduction to Family Planning
Family Planning in the
Philippines: The Reproductive
Health Law

The reasonable and logical use

of contraceptive methods by
married couples so that they
can limit the size of their family
and have a quality life
Usage of birth control methods
which either prevent fertilization
or pregnancy

Components of

Family Planning

Classifications of
Contraceptive Methods
a) 1,000,000

Number of teenage girls who

either die or suffer from serious
injury, infection or disease due
to pregnancy every year
b) 215,000,000

Number of women across the

developing world who don't
have control over their fertility
c) 3,000,000
Number of babies who die
within the first 28 days of life
d) 55,000,000

Number of women giving birth

in poor countries who did not
get adequate prenatal care

Introduction to
Family Planning
Definition of Family
A process in which couples
determine the right timing and
spacing of children

Follow-Up and Referral

Family Planning in the

Philippines: The RH law
Section 4 - reproductive health
was defined as the state of
complete physical, mental and
social well-being and not merely
the absence of disease or
infirmity, in all matters relating
to the reproductive system and
to its functions and processes

Section 7 - provides that

all accredited public health

facilities shall provide a full
range of modern family
planning methods, which shall
also include medical
consultations, supplies and
necessary and reasonable
procedures for poor and
marginalized couples having
infertility issues who desire to
have children

Section 9 - stipulates that

that the National Drug

Formulary shall include
hormonal contraceptives,
intrauterine devices, injectables
and other safe, legal, nonabortifacient and effective

26 | P a g e
family planning products and

Section 11 - seeks to

integrate responsible
parenthood components in antipoverty programs

Major Provisions of the

RH Law Section 12 - ensures

maximum PhilHealth benefits
for persons suffering from
serious and life-threatening
reproductive health conditions,
including HIV/AIDS

Section 14 - provides that

adolescents shall receive age

and development appropriate
reproductive health education
integrated in relevant subjects

Section 20 - mandates

the DOH and LGUs to initiate

and sustain a heightened
nationwide multimediacampaign to raise the level of
public awareness on the prote

Natural methods
Scientific methods for
determining human fertility
through observation of a
woman's biological cycles

Includes four subtypes:


Natural Family

o Standard Days
o Lactational
Method - involves
the usage of
breastfeeding to
help release the
female hormones
which are
necessary for
Includes the following
conditions for the effectiveness
of this method:
The mother must
consider the age of her
The mother must only
feed her baby with breast
The mother must see to
it that her infant gets her
breast milk through her
She must not also have
menses since giving birth
Natural Family Planning
(NFP) - includes four subtypes:
Calendar Method
Cervical Mucus Method
Symptothermal Method
Basal Body Temperature
Coitus Interruptus
(withdrawal) - refers to a Latin
term which means interrupted
sexual intercourse; can be
done by literally withdrawing
the penis from the vagina
before ejaculation
Less effective than other natural
methods of family planning

27 | P a g e
Standard Days Method involves process of following the
duration of a females
menstrual cycle in order to
accurately determine the fertile
period (between days 8 to 19)
Requires couples to follow the
pattern below:
Not safe
Days 1-7
Days 8-19
Days 20-32

Barrier methods

Involves the process of blocking

the sperms from entering the
Includes four subtypes:
Male condoms
Female condoms

Male condom - refers to an

elongated sheet which is made
of rubber, vinyl or latex; usually
placed on the penis once it is
Various experiments reveal that
latex-made condoms are the
only contraceptives which
provide protection against
HIV/AIDS, bacteria and viruses
Female condom - refers to an
elongated rubber which is made
of polyurethane sheaths that
has rings at both ends
Should be inserted in the
female reproductive tract before
sexual intercourse
Spermicide - purports to kill the
sperm cells upon entering the
female reproductive tract Has
a failure rate as low as 3% (if

used properly) and as high as

30% (if used inaccurately)
Diaphragm - refers to a domeshaped thin rubber which is
composed of a flexible rim
Should be inserted to vagina
before sexual intercourse to
prevent sperm cells from
entering into cervix
Voluntary Sterilization
Refers to techniques or
processes intended to prevent a
person to reproduce
person to reproduce
Tubal ligation - a surgical
process wherein the fallopian
tubes are tied in order to
prevent the egg cell from
traveling to the uterus
Progestin-Only Contraceptives
Refers to contraceptives that
only contains progestogens
Norplant System - requires low
dose procedure within a specific
period of time (5 years);
composed of six match-like
sticks placed under the skin of
the womans upper arm

Refers to contraceptives that
only contains progestogens
Norplant System - requires low
dose procedure within a specific
period of time (5 years); composed
of six match-like sticks placed
under the skin of the womans
upper arm

28 | P a g e
Progestin-Only Injectable
Contraceptives (PICs) - includes
two Depo-Provera and Noristerat
Progestin-Only Pills (POPs) ideal for women who breastfeeds
or women who have sensitive
health conditions; have the ability
to suppress ovulation in about half
cycles; thickens cervical mucus
which prevents sperm cells from
penetrating to cervix

Refers to contraceptives
that include both
progestogen and estrogen
Combined Injectable
Contraceptives (CIC) composed of estrogen and
progestin which are to be
injected once a month; prevents
monthly ovulation by blocking
the penetration of sperm to the
cervical opening
Combined Oral
Contraceptives - should be
taken daily; thickens
endometrium and cervical
mucus, suppresses ovulation;
also stop the ovaries from
producing egg cells

Gender, Sexuality
and Feminism
Basic concepts of gender and
Social History of Western

Gender equality is more than a goal

in itself. It is a precondition for
meeting the challenge of reducing
poverty, promoting sustainable
development and building good
- Kofi Annan

Basic concepts of
gender and sexuality
Definition of Terms

Sex - physical attribute or body

characteristics (notably the sex
organ) which are distinct in
majority of individuals Gender
- composite of attitudes and
behavior of men and women
(masculinity and femininity)
Sexuality - encompasses
personal and social meanings

29 | P a g e
as well as sexual behavior and

describe human
sexuality during ancient

Biological vs. Cultural

Views on Gender
Biological view - gender and
sexual orientation originates
from biological factors or
hereditary factors
Cultural View - gender and
sexual orientation originated
from the social environment
from which a certain person is
exposed to

Theories on sexuality
Sigmund Freud - believed that it
is intrinsic for all individuals to
have sexual urges Two types of
o Eros - drive to live, to be
happy and to strive for
o Thanatos - or the death
drive; urge of humans
to commit sins and to go
against norms
Thomas Aquinas - believed that
the use of sexuality should be
according to its end which is
procreation; argued that lust is
a mortal sin and a capital vice
John Locke - argued that sexual
behavior is heavily influenced
by environment through
socialization and education

Social History of
Western Sexuality
Ancient Greece and Rome
Thomas W. Laqueur used
the one-sex model to

Women were perceived

as imperfect versions of

Homosexual relationship
was more accepted

Renaissance (1550-1660) - the

one-sex model persisted; many
scientists supported the claim
that the penis is just the same
as a vagina and the scrotum is
also just a uterus

Eighteenth Century characterized by the

emergence of the binary-model
of sex - the male and female

Modernity and Post-modernity

1920s - characterized by
empowerment of women, wider
acceptance of premarital sex
and change in womens
clothing style became known as
the period of sexual revolution;
characterized by the
acceptance of premarital sexual
intercourse, homosexuality and
legalization of abortion


The advocacy of women's

rights on the grounds of
political, social, and economic
equality to men

First wave of feminism

30 | P a g e

Aimed at the promotion of fair

and equal property rights for


Protested against chattel

marriage and ownership of
married women (and their
children) by their husbands

Activism revolved on acquiring

Include feminist figures such

Rebecca Walker
Layli Miller-Muro


the right of women to vote

Includes feminist figures such


Lucretia Mott
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony

A doctrine, attitude, or way of

life centered on human interests
or values
A philosophy that usually rejects
supernaturalism and stresses an
individual's dignity and worth
and capacity for self-realization
through reason

Second wave of feminism

Occurred from 1960s to 1990s

Focused on the empowerment
of women on the work force
includes feminist figures such as


Gloria Steinem
Betty Freidan

Third wave of feminism

Included various diverse groups

like women of color, lesbian,
bisexual, transgendered
women, and low income women
in the fold of feminist thoughts
Focused on the empowerment
of women in different sectors
such as in politics and business

Social Change

Basic Concepts of Social Change

Theories on Social Change
Barriers to Social Change

31 | P a g e

Basic concepts of
social change
Social change

Processes in social

Formulated by William Fielding

Ogburn Includes four steps:

o Mental ability
o Demand
o Existence of

General process of the

alteration of the structure of
Change in social structure
Any event or action that affects
a group of individuals that have
shared values or characteristics

cultural elements


Acts of advocacy for the cause

of changing society in a
normative way

Theories of social change

Factors of social change

Physical environment
Population changes
Isolation and contact
Social structure
Attitudes and values
Technological factors


Stages of Growth Model

Formulated by Walt Whitman

States that society's
development is composed of
five steps

Traditional society
Preconditions to take-off
Drive to maturity
Age of mass

32 | P a g e

Third wave - collapse of

Fascism and Marxism

Barriers to social
Neoliberal Globalization

Postulates that globalization is

vital to economic development
and social change
Argues that free trade, free
market and formal democracies
are prerequisites to a
progressive social change
Encourages all countries to be
open for international
investment partnership in order
to achieve growth

Democratic Transition

Postulates the transformation of

socioeconomic order by
adopting democratic principles
Three waves formulated by
Samuel Huntington:

First wave - consists of

French Revolution and
American Revolution

Second wave characterized by post

World war II society;
liberation of colonies

Group solidarity
Rejection of outsiders
Conformity to norms
Sectoral conflict
Lack of knowledge and

Society and
Introduction to Society
and Information
Technology Trends in
Information Technology
Computer Crimes

Information Technology
The study, design, development,
implementation, support or
management of computer-based
information systems, particularly
software applications and computer

Social Theories of
Information Technology

33 | P a g e
Social Construction of
Technology Theory technological trends and
breakthroughs do not
shape the future of
human society but it is
the human society that
shapes and determines
the advancement in
Actor-Network Theory
- believes in the
heterogeneous view of
humans and non-humans
as equal social networks
Structuration Theory defines structures as
rules and resources
organized as properties
of social systems
Systems Theory studies the historical
development of a
technology and how
people used such

Advantage of
Information Technology
Universal - the process of
globalization has become wider, easier
and faster through the rise of the
automated system
Communication - gives an
entrepreneur or business tools like
email, video conferencing, SMS, etc.,
essential to communicate efficiently
and effectively

Cost-effective - businesses turn to

the Internet for increased productivity,

greater profitability, clutter free

working conditions and global clientle
Storing and Protecting
Information - provides low-cost
business options to store and maintain
information that may be important
from a business or service point of
Creation of New Jobs - creates a
whole new field of opportunity for
skilled personnel leading to new and
interesting jobs

Trends in Information
Community - provided a modern
means for the community to come
together and cooperate in order to
achieve common community goals
and objectives
Workplace - provided availability of
information to everybody's desktop or
laptops; provided innovations such as
streaming video and audio, ecommerce, worldwide auctions,
Internet-based telephony, and desktop
Education - became the driving
force behind major reforms in
education systems; includes E-learning
system as tool for learning; includes
usage of gadgets such as tablets and
touch screen board
Medicine - computer systems have
been integrated in almost all medical
technologies to improve accuracy in
Governance - public offices and
agencies employ government
scheme for faster and easier delivery
of public services

34 | P a g e

Computer Crimes
Money Theft - involves inside
jobs to commit fraudulent alterations
of computer databases in committing
money theft
Identity Theft - involves the
stealing of ones identity whether for
monetary or personal motives
Cyber stalking - ranges from
obsessively following ones public
online account to hacking to ones
personal accounts
Copyright infringement - offenses
against ones intellectual property
Child Pornography (cybersex
crimes) - pornography that involve a
child in sexually implicit acts

Phishing - act of hacking sensitive

information such as password,
username and credit card details by
disguising as a trustworthy source
Computer Viruses - act of
replicating a particular computer
program to harm it and gain access to
its control
Computer Hacking - act of
breaking in someone elses computer
program to gain unauthorized
Cyber Terrorism - internet-based
terrorist attacks Cyber Bullying abuses done through the internet or
cell phones