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2004KumbakonamSchoolfire

Coordinates:105812N792512E

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

2004KumbakonamschoolfireaccidenthappenedinaschoolinKumbakonamtowninThanjavur
districtinIndianstateofTamilNadu.Atotalof94studentsoftheprimarysectionoftheKrishna
EnglishMediumSchoolwereburnttodeathintheirclassroomasthethatchedroofcaughtfireon16
July2004.[2][3]Theaccidentwastheoneofthefourmajorfireaccidentsandlargestschoolaccident
inTamilNadu,andsecondintermsofcasualtiesforfireincidentsinschoolsinIndia.

KumbakonamSchoolfire

AcommitteesetupunderretiredJudgeSampathfoundoutthatthemajorreasonfortheheavycasualty
isthefalsetacticsofthemanagementtobringtheothertwoschoolstudentstotheaidedprimary
schooltomisleadtheinspectingauthoritiesaboutthestudentteacherratio.TheChiefMinisterwho
visitedthesiteorderedwithdrawalofrecognitionofthethreeschools,prosecutionontheschool
authoritiesandthecorrespondent,SuspensionoftheChiefEducationalOfficer,theDistrict
ElementaryEducationalOfficerandtheAssistantElementaryEducationalOfficerofThanjurschool
district.Acompensationof onelakhwasprovidedtothekinsofthevictims, 25,000totheseverely
injuredand 10,000tootherinjuredfromtheChiefMinistersPublicReliefFund.Thedistrict
administrationarrangedaprimaryschoolinNathamvillageandaccommodated46studentsunderthe
EducationalGuaranteeSchemeofthegovernment.
ThestategovernmentconstructedamemorialparknearPalakarai,theCauverybridge,in
Kumbakonaminmemoryofthelostlives,whichwasopenedon6June2010.Thegovernment
allottedhousingplotsto59homelessparentsofthedeceasedofthetotal89.
Thetrialofthecasestartedafteralongdelayon24September2012intheThanjavurdistrictsessions
court.Thecasehad21accusedandhad488witnessesthatincluded18childrenaffectedinthe
accident.Theheadmaster,Prabharanandthreeothersturnedapprovers.Atotalof17peoplewere
chargesheetedinthecase,whichincludedseventeenincludedPulavarPalanichamy,hiswifeand
correspondentofschoolSaraswati,threeteachers,sixofficersintheeducationdepartment
(elementary),theKumbakonammunicipalcommissioner,townplanningofficerandfourassistantsin
theeducationdepartment.OnJuly30,2014,Thanjavurdistrictsessionscourtsentencedschool
founderPulavarPalanichamytolifeimprisonmentandfinedRs51,65,700.Tenothersincluding
schoolstaffandofficialsfromthemunicipalityandeducationdepartmentofthestate,weresentenced
tofiveyearimprisonment.Elevenaccused,includingthreeteacherswerereleasedfromthecase.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Kumbakonam_School_fire

Date

16July2004[1]

Location

Kumbakonam

Coordinates 105812N792512E
Cause

Fire

Deaths

94

Charges

21
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Contents
1Background

Verdict

1(lifeterm),8(fiveyearsjail),1
(twoyearsjail)

Convictions 10

2Theaccident
3Investigation
4Aftermath
5Trial
6Verdict
7Seealso
8Notes
9References

Background
Therewerethreeschoolsnamely,SriKrishnaAidedPrimarySchool,SaraswathyNurseryandPrimarySchoolandSriKrishnaGirlsHighSchool,
operatinginthesamebuildinginKasiramanstreetinKumbakonamintheSouthIndianstateofTamilNadu.Theschoolwaslocatedamidstresidential
buildings,15m(49ft)awayfromaroad.[4]Theschoolhadasmallgate4ft(1.2m),immediatelybeyondwhichtheclassroomswerelocated.The
classroomsdidnothaveanypartitionandattheendoftheclassrooms,therewasastage.Onthenorthwestsideofthestagewasthenoonmealkitchen
andacyclestand,bothofwhichwerethatchedstructures.[5]ThenorthernwinginthegroundflooraccommodatedtheSaraswathyNurseryandPrimary
School,whichhadsixclasses,oneeachforLKG,UKG,I,II,IVandV.Therewasanotherentrancetotheschoolontheeasternside.Thebuildingsin
thenurseryandprimaryschoolshadnoventilation.Neartheeasternentrance,therewasanarrowstaircase4.5ft(1.4m)leadingtothefirstfloorofthe
building.Thelayoutofthefirstfloorwassimilartothegroundfloorwhereclasseshadnoseparationandexitwasthroughanarrowcollapsibledoor.
Thelowerendoftheclassonthewesternsidewasconnectedtothenoonmealkitchenthatchedroofandthecyclestandroof,wheretheaccident
occurred.TheSriKrishnaGirlsHighSchoolhad179,SriKrishnaAidedPrimarySchoolhad477andSaraswathyNurseryandPrimarySchoolhad126
studentinitsroles,totalingtoastrengthof782students.Thesecondfloormeasured62.5ft(19.1m)*13ft(4.0m)andhadclassesforstandardsVI,
VII,VIIIandtheIXofthegirlshighschool.Thethirdfloorhadanopenterracehavingawatertank.[6]

Theaccident
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On16July2004,thefiretragedyoccurredonthatchedroofstructureoftheschool.Theschoolstartedat9:15andduringoneofthebreaksat10:30,one
ofthegirlsnoticedthefireandalertedtheteacherandthenewsspreadtootherclasses.[7]Thefiresparkedfromthemiddaymealkitchenthatchand
spreadtotheupperlevel,whichalsohadthatchedroofsandspreadrapidly.Thenarrowstaircasehadsundrymaterial,thatpreventedexitofchildren.
Thestaircasewasalsoclosetothekitchen.Thekitchendidnothavegasstovesandfirelogswereusedforcooking.Theschoolwasovercrowded,
having900childreninitsroles.[7][8][9]Thethatchesandthesupportingbamboopolescaughtfireandfellonthechildrenandalsoblockedtheexit.The
fireservicewasinformedat11a.m.andthepersonnelarrivedinafewminutes.Butsincetheywereunpreparedforsuchlargescalefire,therescue
serviceswerenotthateffective.Thelocalsalsohelpedbybreakingtheconcretewindow.[7]Theinjuredchildrenwereadmittedtothegovernment
hospitalinKumbakonamandsomeofthemlatergotshiftedtoThanjavurMedicalCollegehospital.Thedeceasedkidsweretakenforpostmortemtothe
governmenthospital.Bynight,76childrenwerereportedkilledintheaccidentandthedistrictadministrationhandedoverthebodiestotheparents.The
Collectorofthedistrictarrangedfortemporarywardsinthegovernmenthospitaltoeasetheparentstoidentifytheirwards.Thediggingofgraveswent
ontill2a.m.withtheadditionaldiggersarrangedbythedistrictadministration,bywhen56bodieswereburied.On16July,additionaldoctorsarrived
fromKilpaukMedicalCollege,JIPMERMedicalCollegeHospital,C.M.C.,Vellore,SalemandCoimbatoretotreattheinjured.Thecasualtyincreased
to90,89ofwhomwereidentifiedandhandedovertotheparents.Someoftheinjuredkids,asrequestedbyparents,wereshiftedtoprivatehospitalsin
Kumbakonam,MaduraiandChennai.Intotal,therewere65werestillundergoingtreatmenton16July,4ofwhomdiedsubsequently,makingthetotal
tollto94.[10]

Investigation
ThestategovernmentdeputedacommitteeunderJusticeK.Sampathtoinquireintothecircumstancesandcausesleadingtothefireaccidenton20July
2004.Thecommitteeassumedofficeon1August2004andwasconstitutedwithexpertmembersDr.RaniKandhaswami,FormerPrincipal,Lady
WillingtonInstituteofAdvancedStudiesinEducation,Chennai,S.K.Saxena,FireOfficer,MadrasAtomicPowerStation,Kalpakkam,K.Vijayan,
InstituteofMentalHealth,Chennai,andP.A.Annamalai,retiredHeadMaster.[11]
Thecommitteewasgivenatimelineoffourmonths,butextendedforfourtimesandwasabletofinallycompletedon30June2005.Theinvestigations
foundoutthattheschoolwasnotinspectedbytheeducationalofficialforthreeyears.Thefireofficialsreportedthatthebuildinglawswerenotfollowed
astheschoolhadathatchedkitchenandclassroomroof,noemergencyexitsanditwasa"deathtrap".[12][13]Theschoolhadtofollowminimumsafety
standards,thechapterIVonfireandsafetyofNationalBuildingCodeofIndia2005andIS14435:1997,thecodeofpracticeoffiresafetyineducational
institutions.[14]ApublicinterestlitigationwasfiledintheSupremeCourtofIndiabyAvinashMehrotraquotingtheaccidentandpleadingprotectionof
lifeandsafetyofschoolchildrenacrossvariousschoolsinIndia.[12][15]
Theschoolteacherswerenottrainedproperlytohandlethesituation.Theinvestigationrevealedthattheroleofteacherswashighlyquestionable.One
viewheldthatmostofthemfoundwaystoescapethemselvesratherthansavingthechildrenasmostofthemcameoutunscathed.Someofthe
eyewitnessbythekidsrevealedthattheteachersaskedthemtoremainintheclasses.Anotherviewheldthattheteacherstriedtheirbesttorescuethe
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childrenandsomeofthemaskedthechildrentostayintheclassesfeelingitistheregularsmokethatisemnatingoutofthekitchen.[8][10]
Thecommitteefoundoutthatthemajorreasonfortheheavycasualtyisthefalsetacticsofthemanagementtobringtheothertwoschoolstudentstothe
aidedprimaryschooltomisleadtheinspectingauthoritiesaboutthestudentteacherratio.Themanagementwasheldresponsibleforthewholeaccident.
Thereportpointedoutthattheteacherswerenottrainedindisastermanagementandtheprohibitedthatchstructurewasclosetotheclassrooms.Italso
statedthattheschoolshadinadequateexitfacilitiesandhadnofirefightingcapabilities.PulavarPalanichamy,theowneroftheschools,usedhispolitical
cloutandcoalescedwiththemunicipalandtherevenuedepartmentofficialsgettingthepermitsfortheschools.Vijayalakshmi,thenoonmealorganizer
andalsotheteacheroftheEnglishMediumschool,washeldaccountablefornotperformingherdutiesoftakingsafetyprecautions.Vasanthi,thehead
cooklightedtheovenintheabsenceofherassistant,Sivasankari,whousuallylightsit.TherewascontrastingreportsonwhetherSivasankariwas
presentintheschoolduringtheevent.TheTahsildarofKumbakonamTaluk,Paramasivam,wasreported"dishonest"forgrantinglicenceunderthe
TamilNaduPublicBuildings(Licensing)Act,1965totheschool.ThecharteredengineerJayachandranwasalsohelddishonestofgivingstability
certificatetothebuildingwithoutvisitingtheschoolonce.Theadditionalassistanteducationalofficer,Madhavanandhissuperior,T.Thandavan,the
deputyeducationalofficerforallowingtheschooltorunwithoutrecognitionfor6years.Sivaprakasam,theassistantelementaryeducationofficer,was
heldaccountableforallowingMadhavan,whowasnotcompetenttoallowpermittotheschool.Balaji,thedeputyeducationelementaryofficerwas
accusedofcarelesslypassingthepaperssignedbyMadhavan.ThelocalhealthofficerrDr.Sivapunyamwasaccusedofgivingfalsesanitarycertificate
totheschool.Annadurai,afriendofPulavarPalanichamywasaccountedforadvisingcircumventionofrules.Pingapani,thedeputyeducationalofficer,
whoinspectedthehighschool,didnotshowinterestinlearningthatthesamecampushadaprimaryschoolactingbeyondrules.Theotherofficerswho
wereearlierresponsibleforpermittingthenurseryschoolagainsttherulesduring1999,namely,Shanmughavelu,Sethuramachandran,Chandrasekharan
andDr.Palanivelu.TheDeputyelementaryeducationalofficer,Durairajandassistantelementaryeducationalofficer,Balakrishnan,wereheldless
culpableforknowingaboutthethatchedstructureandtheexargeratedattendance,butnotinitiatinganyaction.[16]

Aftermath
TheaccidentwastheoneofthefourmajorfireaccidentinthestatefollowingtheBrihadeeswarar
Templefireon7June1997,when60peoplewerekilled,Erwadifireincidenton6August2001that
killed30mentallychallengedpeopleandfireatmarriagehallon23January2005atSrirangam
where30peopleincludingthebridegroomwerekilled.[8]Theaccidentwasthesecondintermsof
casualtiesforfireincidentsinschoolsaftertheonein1995inDabwali,MandiinSirsaDistrictofthe
HaryanaState,where400peoplewerekilledinaschoolfireduringaprizedistributionceremonyof
theDAVPublicSchool.ItisthelargestschoolaccidentinTamilNadu,followedbyaprivateschool
buildingcollapseinaprivateschoolinMaduraiduringthe1950sthatkilled35girlsandinjured137
others.[12]TheaccidentraisedseveralquestionsontheTamilNaduEducationalDepartmentonthe
safetyruleimplementation,trainingofschoolteachersincivildefenseandenforcementofrules
impartingeducation.[18]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2004_Kumbakonam_School_fire

Prayerfordepartedchildrenof
Kumbakonam
"Ohdearlittleones!Ohdearlittleones!
Foryou,parentshadgloriousdream!
AndYouwereallimmersedinyourowndreams
Yet,Agniengulfedyouandallthosedreams
TakingyoutoAlmighty'sdivinepresence
Usually,departedoldparentsandburiedbysons
Whereas,Kumbakanam,sawasadscene!
Cryingparentsburyingburyingtheirlittleones!!
OhAlmighty!showyourgraceonthoselittleones
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AndkeeptheminThyholiestpresence!!
TheChiefMinisterwhovisitedthesiteorderedwithdrawalofrecognitionofthethreeschools,
OhAlmighty!blessthoseparentswailingingrief
prosecutionontheschoolauthoritisandthecorrespondent,SuspensionoftheChiefEducational
Tohavethestrengthtobearthisgreatloss
Officer,theDistrictElementaryEducationalOfficerandtheAssistantElementaryEducational
MayThycompassionandgracepervadeallsouls
OfficerofThanjurschooldistrict.Acompensationof onelakhwasprovidedtothekinsofthe
Andbringdownthepainandwipeawaythetears
victims, 25,000totheseverelyinjuredand 10,000tootherinjuredfromtheChiefMinisters
OhAlmighty!showyourgraceonthoselittleones"
PublicReliefFund.Counsellingsessionswerearrangedtothechildrenaffectedbythetraumaand
~A.P.J.AbdulKalam,Prayerfordeparted
arrangementsweremadetofacilitatethesurvivingchildrentojoinotherschools.Acentralminister
childrenofKumbakonam,2004[17]
alsovisitedthesiteonbehalfofthePrimeMinisterofIndia.Thereliefannouncedbythestateand
centralgovernmentweredisbursedon17July2004.Thedistrictadministrationarrangedaprimary
schoolinNathamvillageandaccommodated46studentsundertheEducationalGuaranteeSchemeofthegovernment.[10]

YadavaCollegeconstructedaparkinmemoryofthe94childrenbyplanting94saplingsandtermedin
KumbakonamParkinanideatocreateenvironmentalawarenessamongfuturegenerations.[19]Thestate
governmentconstructedamemorialparknearPalakarai,theCauverybridge,inKumbakonaminmemoryofthelost
lives.TheparkwasopenedbythethenDeputyChiefminister,M.K.Stalinon6June2010.Theparkwas
constructedatacostof 19lakh,housingchildren'samusementequipmentinanareaof7,300sqft(680m2).[20]
Thegovernmentallottedhousingplotsto59homelessparentsofthedeceasedofthetotal89.Acharitabletrust
namedAmrithahelpedconstructhousesintheplotsandthecolonywasnamedAmrithapuram.In2012,25families
ofthevictimsconstructedanAmrithaVinayagartempleinthepremisesinmemoryofthelostlives.Thetemplewas
consecratedon21June2012.[21]

Kumbakonamschoolfire

Trial
Thetrialofthecasestartedafteralongdelayon24September2012intheThanjavurdistrictsessionscourt.Thecasehad21accusedandhad488
witnessesthatincluded18childrenaffectedintheaccident.Theheadmaster,Prabharanandthreeothersturnedapprovers.Therewasapetitionfiledin
thecourttoincludethethencollectorofdistrict,JRadhakrishnan,andthreeothersinthecase,butwasdismissed.[22]Atotalof17peoplewere
chargesheetedinthecaseandweresettofacetrial.TheseventeenincludedPulavarPalanichamy,hiswifeandcorrespondentofschoolSaraswati,three
teachers,sixofficersintheeducationdepartment(elementary),theKumbakonammunicipalcommissioner,townplanningofficerandfourassistantsin
theeducationdepartment.Theeducationdepartmentofficialswereaccusedofnegligenceoftheirdutiesandthelowerlevelofficersforconspiringwith
theofficialsforobtainingandrenewingthelicenses.Thethreeteacherswereaccusedofshowingnegligenceshowntowardsrescuingthechildren.
PulavarPalanichamy,Saraswatiandthethreeteachersfiledpetitionsinthelowercourttodischargethemfromthecase.Theirpleawasdismissedboth
inthelowercourtandMadrasHighCourton14July2012.[23]
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Verdict
ThetrialwasconcludedonJuly17,2014.OnJuly30,2014,ThanjavurdistrictsessionscourtsentencedschoolfounderPulavarPalanichamytolife
imprisonmentandfinedRs51,65,700.Palanichamy'swifeandschoolcorrespondentPSaraswathi,headmistressJSanthalakshmi,noonmealorganizer
RVijayalakshmi,cookRVasanthiweresentencedfiveyearsimprisonment.Officialsindistrictelementaryeducationoffice,officerRBalaji,his
assistantSSivaprakasam,superintendentTThandavanandassistantGDurairajwerealsosentencedfiveyearsjail.TotalfineofRs52,57,000was
imposedandorderedthecompensationofRs50,000toparentsofeachvictim.[24][25]
Thecharteredengineer,BJayachandranwassentencedtwoyearsinjailandafineofRs50,000butlaterthecourtsuspendedhispunishment.Thecourt
clearedchargesofotherelevenaccused,includingthreeteachers,sixeducationdepartmentofficialsandtwomunicipalityofficers.[24][25]
ThebenchofMadrasHighCourtinMaduraiallowedtheappealfiledbythestategovernmentagainstthereleaseof11accusedinthecaseon13
September2014.TheelevenwhowereacquittedbythePrincipalDistrictCourtwereB.Palaniswamy,theDistrictElementaryEducationalOfficer,R.
Narayanaswamy,theDistrictEducationalOfficer,J.Radhakrishnan,theAssistantElementaryEducationalOfficer,V.Balasubramanian,theAssistant
ElementaryEducationalOfficer(Nursery),K.BalakrishnanandG.Madhavan,AdditionalAssistantElementaryEducationalOfficers,P.Devi,R.
MahalakshmiandT.Anthoniammal,theteachersoftheschool,R.Sathiyamoorthy,thethenKumbakonamMunicipalCommissionerandK.Murugan,
theTownPlanningOfficer.[26]

Seealso
MahamahamStampede

Notes
1. ^"Chronologyofmajorfireaccidents"(http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P32531606241.html).HindustanTimes(NewDelhi,India).9December2011.Retrieved
30November2013.viaHighBeam(subscriptionrequired)
2. ^"83childrenkilledinschoolfireinKumbakonam"(http://in.rediff.com/news/2004/jul/16tn.htm).Rediff.com.17July2004.Retrieved30November2013.
3. ^"87childrendieinschoolfire"(http://www.hindu.com/2004/07/17/stories/2004071707570100.htm).TheHindu.17July2004.Retrieved30November2013.
4. ^InquiryCommissionreport2005,p.103
5. ^InquiryCommissionreport2005,p.107
6. ^InquiryCommissionreport2005,p.111114
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7. ^abcInquiryCommissionreport2005,p.115
8. ^abcTeets2007,p.1034
9. ^Ramaswamy2007,p.67
10. ^abcInquiryCommissionreport2005,p.116117
11. ^InquiryCommissionreport2005,pp.12
12. ^abcWalsh2011,pp.5152
13. ^Banerjee2006,p.298
14. ^Walsh2011,p.57
15. ^D.,Bhandari(13April2009)."AvinashMehrotravsUnionOfIndia&Ors.on13April,2009"(http://indiankanoon.org/doc/232115/).IndianKanoon.Retrieved
30November2013.
16. ^InquiryCommissionreport2005,p.133138
17. ^Kalam,A.P.J.Abdul(2004)."PrayerfordepartedchildrenofKumbakonam"(http://www.abdulkalam.nic.in/prayer_departed_child.html).NationalInformatics
Centre.Retrieved30November2013.
18. ^B.K.2005,p.190
19. ^"ParkinmemoryofKumbakonamfirevictims"(http://www.hindu.com/2004/08/24/stories/2004082416370300.htm).TheHindu(Madurai).23August2004.
Retrieved30November2013.
20. ^"Stalininaugurateschildren'spark"(http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamilnadu/stalininaugurateschildrenspark/article448420.ece).TheHindu
(Kumbakonam).7June2010.Retrieved30November2013.
21. ^"ParentsconstructtempleforKumbakonamfirevictims"(http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/20120616/madurai/32268766_1_kumbakonamfire
victimsfireaccident).RGokul,TNN(Kumbakonam:TheTimesofIndia).16June2012.Retrieved30November2013.
22. ^"StudentdeposesinKumbakonamschoolfirecase"(http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/20121005/madurai/34278377_1_firecasefireaccident
kumbakonamschoolfire).TNN(TheTimesofIndia).5October2012.Retrieved30November2013.
23. ^"HCdismisseddischargepleaof17accusedinschoolfirecase"(http://www.hindustantimes.com/indianews/kumbakonamschoolfirecasehcdismisses
dischargepleasof17accused/article1888798.aspx).PTI(Madurai:TheHindustanTimes).14July2012.Retrieved30November2013.
24. ^abRajaram,R.(Jul30,2014)."SchoolheadgetslifeterminKumbakonamtragedy,10convicted"(http://m.thehindu.com/news/national/tamilnadu/ten
convictedinkumbakonamschoolfirecase/article6263457.ece/).TheHindu.RetrievedJul31,2014.
25. ^abGokul,R(Jul30,2014)."Kumbakonamfiretragedy:Schoolfounder,wifeandeightotherssentencedtojail"(http://m.timesofindia.com/india/Kumbakonam
firetragedySchoolfounderwifeandeightotherssentencedtojail/articleshow/39290360.cms).Thanjavur.RetrievedJul31,2014.
26. ^S.,MohamedImranullah(13September2014)."StatefilesappealinKumbakonamfirecase".TheHindu(Madurai).
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References
B.K.,Khanna(2005).AllYouWantedToKnowAboutDisasters(http://books.google.com/books?
id=GwGlBIJyNoIC&pg=PA189&dq=kumbakonam+school+fire&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8IqsUpu4E6mqsATKuoDQBg&ved=0CEAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=kumbak
onam%20school%20fire&f=false).NewIndiaPublishing.ISBN9788189422134.
Teets,RobertL.(2007).ProfitableManagementfortheSubcontractor(http://books.google.com/books?
id=hDImGr74HIIC&pg=PA103&dq=kumbakonam+school+fire&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8IqsUpu4E6mqsATKuoDQBg&ved=0CEYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=kumbako
nam%20school%20fire&f=false).NewDelhi.ISBN9780070633872.
Walsh,Vincent(2011).SupremeCourtonChildren(http://books.google.com/books?
id=uOYDBdA9ueoC&pg=PA51&dq=kumbakonam+school+fire&hl=en&sa=X&ei=gc64UqrzE
i82gWowICQAQ&ved=0CG8Q6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=kumbakonam%20school%20fire&f=false).SocioLegalInformationCent.ISBN9788189479725.
Ramaswamy,Vijaya.HistoricalDictionaryoftheTamils(http://books.google.com/books?
id=H4q0DHGMcjEC&pg=PA67&dq=kumbakonam+school+fire&hl=en&sa=X&ei=gc64UqrzE
i82gWowICQAQ&ved=0CHMQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=kumbakonam%20school%20fire&f=false).ScarecrowPress.ISBN9780810864450.
Banerjee,AbhijitVinayakBenabou,RolandMookherjee,Dilip(2006).UnderstandingPoverty(http://books.google.com/books?
id=orUKBRD8Sj4C&pg=PA298&dq=kumbakonam+school+fire&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5ue4Uv7MB
2G2wWX_4GIDg&ved=0CEUQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=kumbakonam%20school%20fire&f=false).OxfordUniversityPress.ISBN9780199885459.
K.,Sampath(30June2005)(PDF).
JusticeK.SampathInquiryCommissionreportonKrishnaSchoolFire
(http://www.tn.gov.in/schooleducation/Inquiry_Commission/part1_1to139.pdf)(Report).
http://www.tn.gov.in/schooleducation/Inquiry_Commission/part1_1to139.pdf.

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