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MMS Architecture

Approved Version 1.3 13 Sep 2011

Open Mobile Alliance


OMA-AD-MMS-V1_3-20110913-A

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Use of this document is subject to all of the terms and conditions of the Use Agreement located at
http://www.openmobilealliance.org/UseAgreement.html.
Unless this document is clearly designated as an approved specification, this document is a work in process, is not an
approved Open Mobile Alliance specification, and is subject to revision or removal without notice.
You may use this document or any part of the document for internal or educational purposes only, provided you do not
modify, edit or take out of context the information in this document in any manner. Information contained in this document
may be used, at your sole risk, for any purposes. You may not use this document in any other manner without the prior
written permission of the Open Mobile Alliance. The Open Mobile Alliance authorizes you to copy this document, provided
that you retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained in the original materials on any copies of the materials
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Each Open Mobile Alliance member has agreed to use reasonable endeavors to inform the Open Mobile Alliance in a timely
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However, the members do not have an obligation to conduct IPR searches. The declared Essential IPR is publicly available
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Contents
1.

SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

2.

REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................................. 6
2.1
NORMATIVE REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................... 6
2.2
INFORMATIVE REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 6
3. TERMINOLOGY AND CONVENTIONS ...................................................................................................................... 8
3.1
CONVENTIONS ............................................................................................................................................................. 8
3.2
DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................................................................ 8
3.3
ABBREVIATIONS .......................................................................................................................................................... 8
4. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................................... 10
4.1
USE CASES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR MMS V1.3 ................................................................................................... 10
5. MMS MESSAGING FRAMEWORK ............................................................................................................................ 11
5.1
EXAMPLE USE CASE ................................................................................................................................................. 12
5.2
DEPENDENCIES .......................................................................................................................................................... 13
6. MMS CLIENT / MMS PROXY-RELAY (MMSM) INTERFACE .............................................................................. 14
7.

MMS INTERNET EMAIL INTERWORKING (E INTERFACE)............................................................................. 16


7.1
SENDING MESSAGES TO INTERNET EMAIL SERVERS .............................................................................................. 16
7.2
RECEIVING MESSAGES SENT FROM INTERNET EMAIL SYSTEMS............................................................................ 16
7.3
RETRIEVING MESSAGES FROM INTERNET EMAIL SERVERS ................................................................................... 16
8. MMS PROXY-RELAY TO PROXY-RELAY (MMSR) OPERATION ...................................................................... 17
8.1
DISCOVERY OF PEER MMS PROXY-RELAY ELEMENTS.......................................................................................... 17
8.2
MESSAGE FLOWS BETWEEN COOPERATING MMS PROXY-RELAYS ...................................................................... 17
9. MMS CLIENT-SIDE STRUCTURE ............................................................................................................................. 18
10.
MMS ADDRESSING .................................................................................................................................................. 20
10.1 INTERNET ADDRESSING ............................................................................................................................................ 20
10.2 WIRELESS NETWORK ADDRESSING ......................................................................................................................... 20
11.
MMS PRESENTATION ............................................................................................................................................. 21
11.1 MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION CONCEPTS ................................................................................................................ 21
11.2 PRESENTATION EXAMPLES ....................................................................................................................................... 21
11.2.1
WML.................................................................................................................................................................. 21
11.2.2
SMIL .................................................................................................................................................................. 21
12.
SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS.............................................................................................................................. 22
13.
CONTENT ADAPTATION ........................................................................................................................................ 23
13.1 DETERMINING NEED FOR CONTENT ADAPTATION .................................................................................................. 23
13.2 CONTENT ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES ........................................................................................................................ 23
14.
ADDITIONAL SERVICE DESCRIPTIONS ............................................................................................................ 24
14.1 CHARGING AND BILLING IN MMS ........................................................................................................................... 24
14.2 DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT.............................................................................................................................. 24
14.2.1
Forward Lock ..................................................................................................................................................... 24
14.2.2
Combined Delivery ............................................................................................................................................ 24
14.2.3
Separate Delivery ............................................................................................................................................... 24
15.
OMA MMS PROTOCOL DOCUMENTS ................................................................................................................ 25
APPENDIX A.
CHANGE HISTORY ............................................................................................................................... 26
A.1
APPROVED VERSION 1.3 HISTORY ........................................................................................................................... 26

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Figures
Figure 1: Example Message with Multimedia Content ........................................................................................................ 10
Figure 2: MMS Network Representation .............................................................................................................................. 11
Figure 3: Implementation of MMSM InterfaceUsing WAP 1.x Gateway ............................................................................ 14
Figure 4: Implementation of MMSM Interface Using HTTP Based Protocol Stack ........................................................... 15
Figure 5: General WAP Client Architecture ......................................................................................................................... 18
Figure 6: Application Registration Process ........................................................................................................................... 19

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1. Scope
The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a result of continuous work, provided by the WAP Forum originally and
succeeded by the Open Mobile AllianceTM (OMA), to define an industry-wide specification for developing applications that
operate over wireless communication networks. The scope for the OMA is to define a set of specifications to be used by
service applications. The wireless market is growing very quickly, and reaching new customers and services. To enable
operators and manufacturers to meet the challenges in advanced services, differentiation and fast/flexible service creation, the
OMA defines a set of protocols in transport, security, transaction, session and application layers. For additional information
on the WAP/OMA architecture, please refer to Wireless Application Protocol Architecture Specification [WAPARCH].
Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is a system application by which a client is able to provide a messaging operation
with a variety of media types. The service is described in terms of actions taken by the MMS Client and its service partner,
the MMS Proxy-Relay, a device which operates as a WAP Origin Server for this specialised service. Additional service
aspects are supported by the MMS Server as well as other messaging servers, such as an email server and wireless messaging
systems (e.g. SMSC). This specification defines application-level protocol activities that take place to realise the MMS
service within the OMA environment.
This document is part of the OMA MMS version 1.3 specification suite for the client transaction framework and complies
with the requirements and service behaviours described in the technical specifications of the 3rd Generation Partnership
Project (3GPP) and the 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2). These include the service aspects of MMS and the
functional description of MMS which are contained in [TS22140] and [TS23140] from 3GPP, and [SR0064] and
[XS0016200] from 3GPP2.

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2. References
2.1

Normative References

None; this is an informative document.

2.2

Informative References

[EFI]

Wireless Application Protocol, EFI Framework, WAP-231-EFI, WAP Forum. URI:


http://www.openmobilealliance.org

[MMSCONF]

MMS Conformance Document, Version 1.3, OMA-TS-MMS-CONF-V1_3, Open Mobile


AllianceTM. URI: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[MMSENC]

Multimedia Messaging Service, Encapsulation Protocol, Version 1.3, OMA-TS-MMS- ENC,


Open Mobile AllianceTM. URI: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[MMSCTR]

Multimedia Messaging Service, Client Transactions, Version 1.3, OMA-TS-MMS-CTR,


Open Mobile AllianceTM. URI: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[MMSRD]

MMS Requirements Document, Version 1.3, OMA-RD-MMS-V1_3, Open Mobile


AllianceTM. URI: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[OMACP]

OMA Client Provisioning Enabler Release, Version 1.1, OMA-Client_Provisioning-V1_1,


Open Mobile AllianceTM. URI: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[OMADM]

OMA Device Management Enabler Release, Version 1.1.2, OMA-DM -V1_1_2, Open
Mobile AllianceTM. URI: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[OMADRM]

Digital Rights Management, Version 1.0, OMA-Download-DRM-v1_0, Open Mobile


AllianceTM. URI: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[PKI]

Wireless Application Protocol, Public Key Infrastructure Definition, WAP-217-WPKI, WAP


Forum. URI: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[RFC1869]

SMTP Service Extensions http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1869

[RFC1870]

SMTP Service Extension for message size declaration http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1870

[RFC1939]

Post Office Protocol Version 3, J. Myers, May 1996. URI:


http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1939.txt

[RFC2060]

Internet Message Access Protocol Version 4rev1, M. Crispin, December 1996. URI:
http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2060.txt

[RFC2616]

Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP/1.1, R. Fielding et al., June 1999. URI:


http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2616.txt

[RFC2633]

S/MIME Version 3 Message Specification. URI: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2633.txt

[RFC2821]

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, J. Klensin, April 2001. URI:


http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2821.txt

[SMIL]

"Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL 2.0)", W3C Recommendation 07


August 2001. URI: http://www.w3.org/TR/smil20/

[SR0064]

Multimedia Messaging Service Stage 1, Requirements, 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2,


S.R0064, URI: http://www.3gpp2.org/Public_html/specs/

[STIAD]

Standard Transcoding Interface Architecture, Version 1.0, OMA-AD_STI-V1_0, Open


Mobile AllianceTM. URI: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

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[TS22140]

Multimedia Messaging Service: Service aspects; Stage 1, 3rd Generation Partnership Project
TS 22.140 Release 6. URI: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/

[TS23140]

Multimedia Messaging Service: Functional description; Stage 2, 3rd Generation Partnership


Project TS 23.140 Release 6. URI: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/

[TS32200]

Telecommunication Management: Charging Management: Charging Principles, 3rd


Generation Partnership Project TS 32.200 Release 5. URI: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/

[TS32235]

Telecommunication Management: Charging Management: Charging data description for


application services , 3rd Generation Partnership Project TS 32.235 Release 5. URI:
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/

[TS32270]

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) Charging, 3rd Generation Partnership Project TS


32.270 Release 6. URI: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/

[UAPROF]

Wireless Application Protocol, User Agent Profile, WAP-248-UAProf, WAP Forum. URL:
http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[WAPARCH]

Wireless Application Protocol, Architecture Specification, WAP-210-WAPArch, WAP


Forum. URL: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[WAPWAE]

Wireless Application Environment Overview, WAP-190-WAE, WAP Forum. URI:


http://www.openmobilealliance.org

[WIM]

Wireless Application Protocol, Wireless Identity Module, WAP-260-WIM, WAP Forum.


URI: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[WML]

Wireless Markup Language Specification, WAP-155-WML, WAP Forum. URI:


http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[WP-TLS]

Wireless Application Protocol, TLS Profile and Tunneling, WAP-219-TLS, WAP Forum.
URL: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[WSP]

"Wireless Application Protocol, Wireless Session Protocol Specification", WAP-203-WSP,


WAP Forum. URL: http://www.openmobilealliance.org

[WTLS]

Wireless Application Protocol, Wireless Transport Layer Security Specification, WAP-261WTLS, WAP Forum. URL: http://www.openmobilealliance.org/

[XS0016200]

MMS Stage 2, Functional Description, 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2, X.S0016-200.


URI: http://www.3gpp2.org/Public_html/specs/

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3. Terminology and Conventions


3.1

Conventions

This is an informative document, which is not intended to provide testable requirements to implementations.

3.2

Definitions

Application

An implementation of a related set of functions that perform useful work, often enabling one or more
services.

Email Server

A generic class of servers that nominally hosts email services that operate using the SMTP, POP and/or
IMAP protocols.

Multimedia Messaging
Service (MMS)

A system application by which a WAP client is able to provide a messaging operation with a variety of
media types.

MMS Client

The MMS service endpoint located on the WAP client device.

MMS Proxy-Relay

A server which provides access to various messaging systems. It may operate as a WAP origin server in
which case it may be able to utilise features of the WAP system.

MMS Server

A server that provides storage services and operational support for the MMS service.

MMS Protocol Data Unit


(PDU)

MMS PDUs are the messages defined in the MMS Encapsulation Specification.

3.3

Abbreviations

CDR

Charging Data Record

DRM

Digital Rights Management

EFI

External Functionality Interface, for details see [EFI]

Email

Electronic mail

ESMTP

Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

HTTP

HyperText Transfer Protocol, for details see [RFC2616]

IMAP

Internet Message Access Protocol, for details see [RFC2060]

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

MIME

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

MM

Multimedia Message

MMS

Multimedia Messaging Service

MSISDN

Mobile Station ISDN Number

OMA

Open Mobile AllianceTM

OTA

Over The Air

PDU

Protocol Data Unit

PEP

Performance Enhancing Proxy

PKI

Public Key Infrastructure, for details see [PKI]

POP

Post Office Protocol, for details see [RFC1939]

SMIL

Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language

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S/MIME

Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

SMS

Short Message Service

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, for details see [RFC821]

TLS

Transport Layer Security, for details see [WP-TLS]

WAP

Wireless Application Protocol

WIM

WAP Identity Module, for details see [WIM]

WML

Wireless Markup Language

WSP

Wireless Session Protocol, for details see [WSP]

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4. Introduction
The Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), as its name implies, is intended to provide a rich set of content to subscribers in
a messaging context. It supports both sending and receiving of such messages by properly enabled client devices. An
example of such a message is shown in Figure 1 below.

"See what I saw in Paris


when I went on holiday."

Arc De Triomphe

Display of
Text and Picture

Played or Spoken
Sound

Figure 1: Example Message with Multimedia Content

The Multimedia Messaging Service is viewed as a non-real-time delivery system. This is comparable to many messaging
systems in use today. Prime examples include traditional email available on the Internet and wireless messaging systems
such as paging or SMS. These services provide a store-and-forward usage paradigm and it is expected that the MMS will be
able to interoperate with such systems.

4.1

Use Cases and Requirements for MMS V1.3

The MMS V1.3 release builds upon the existing MMS V1.2 specifications. The Use Cases and Requirements for MMS V1.3
have been documented in [MMSRD]. The requirements can be categorized into the following:

Advanced Contents

Templates and Interactivity

Extensibility

Evolution

The MMS Architecture as defined in this document enables all the requirements documented in [MMSRD]. The impact on
the MMS Architecture on account of the V1.3 requirements is as follows:

Support for Advanced Contents includes support for DRM. A description of DRM has been included as part of the
Additional Service Descriptions.

MMS Extensibility requires supporting service-specific clients and general-purpose clients of varying capabilities.
The MMSA interface has been defined to enable such clients.

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5. MMS Messaging Framework


A key feature of MMS is the ability to support messaging activities with other available messaging systems. This is shown in
Figure 2 below which shows an abstract view of an MMS network diagram. It is expected that specific MMS networks may
have one or more such connections as well as include specific messaging services not directly represented (e.g. fax or voice
mail systems).

Legacy Wireless
Messaging systems

MMS
Server
Application

MMSA

MMSS
Internet

MMS
Client

Email
Server

MMSM
MMS Proxy
Relay

MMSR
Application

MMSS

MMSA

MMS
Client

MMSM

Other MMS
Systems

Figure 2: MMS Network Representation

Note that although Figure 2 identifies various interfaces, their mention in this document is only to provide an understanding
of the overall system. The OMA Specifications are focused on the client transaction framework and do not cover the
definition of other interfaces.
The system elements shown in Figure 2 can be summarised as follows:

MMS Client This is the system element that interacts with the user. It is expected to be implemented as an
application on the users wireless device.

Application This system element may interact with the MMS Client in order to transport application specific
data via MMS.

MMS Proxy-Relay This is the system element that the MMS Client interacts with. It provides access to the
components that provide message storage services, and it is responsible for messaging activities with other
available messaging systems. Some implementations may combine this component with the MMS Server.

MMS Server This system element provides storage services for MM messages. Some implementations may
combine this component with the MMS Proxy-Relay.

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Email Server This system element provides traditional Internet email services. It supports the SMTP protocol
to send messages as well as POP and/or IMAP protocols to retrieve messages.

Legacy Wireless Messaging Systems This system element represents various systems that currently exist in
support of wireless messaging systems. This would include paging and SMS systems that provide messaging to a
large number of subscribers.

The interfaces shown in the diagram are described as follows:

5.1

MMSM the interface defined between the MMS Client and the MMS Proxy-Relay, see section 6, [MMSCTR]

MMSS - the interface defined between the MMS Server and the MMS Proxy-Relay. A well-defined interface
may not exist when the MMS Server and MMS Proxy-Relay are combined into a single component. This
interface is not defined in the OMASpecifications.

MMSR - the interface defined between MMS Proxy-Relays of separate MMS Systems, see section 8. This

MMSA - the interface defined between the MMS Client and an application. This interface is not defined in the
OMA Specifications. See Section 9 for more information.

E - the standard email interface used between the MMS Proxy-Relay and internet-based email systems utilising

L - the interfaces used between the MMS Proxy-Relay and legacy wireless messaging systems. As there are

and [MMSENC].

interface is not defined in the OMA Specifications. [TS23140] defines a reference point called MM4, which may
be used to implement MMSR.

SMTP, POP and IMAP transport protocols, see section 7. This interface is not defined in the OMA
Specifications.
various such systems, this is viewed as being a set of interfaces. This interface is not defined in the OMA
Specifications.

Example Use Case

The following example information flow for a use case is provided to further illustrate the functions and roles of the various
system elements in the MMS framework. The example given here concerns end-to-end MMS messaging between terminals.

1.
2.

User activates MMS Client (assumed to be available on terminal).


User selects or enters MM target address(es).

3.

User composes/edits MM to be sent.

4.

User requests that MM is sent.

5.

MMS Client submits the message to its associated MMS Proxy-Relay via the MMSM interface.

6.

MMS Proxy-Relay resolves the MM target address(es).

7.

MMS Proxy-Relay routes forward the MM to each target MMS Proxy-Relay via the MMSR interface.

8.
9.

The MM is stored by the MMS Server associated with the target MMS Proxy-Relay.
Target MMS Proxy-Relay sends a notification to target MMS Client via the MMSM interface.

10. Target MMS Client retrieves the MM from the MMS Server.
11. Target MMS Client notifies target user of new MM available.
12. Target user requests rendering of received MM.
13. Target MMS Client renders MM on target users terminal.
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Note that steps 1-3 and 12-13 concern the User Interface on the terminal which is considered implementation dependent and
therefore outside the scope of this specification. Also note that steps 10 and 11 could occur in reverse order depending on
MMS Client implementation, that is, an MM retrieval policy could cause the MMS Client to retrieve an MM only when so
allowed by the user.
The above use case, as well as many others, is supported by MMS. The MMS features and functions described in the
subsequent sections include:

The MMSM, E, and MMSR interfaces. See sections 6, 7 and 8.

The MMS client-side structure, which is involved during MM composition, sending, receiving, presentation and
rendering. See section 9.

MMS addressing aspects, which have implications for all the MMS defined interfaces and system elements in the
MMS framework. See section 10.

MM presentation, which may be used when rendering an MM on an MMS Client. See section 11.

Security services that may be available to the MMS application on a per-link or end-to-end basis. See section 12.

Content adaptation services that an MMS system may be able to provide before delivering an MM. See section 13.

5.2

Dependencies

The Multimedia Messaging Service is dependent on services defined in other enablers released by OMA and specifications
from various OMA affiliates. These dependencies include:

The use of Transfer, Push and Secure Transport services [WAPARCH] to exchange PDUs between the MMS Client
and the MMS Proxy-Relay.

The use of User Agent Profile [UAPROF] for capability and preference information related to MMS.

The use of Client Provisioning [OMA-CP] and/or Device Management [OMA-DM] for configuring MMS related
parameters on the device.

The use of Digital Rights Management [OMADRM] to control the consumption of the media objects transferred via
MMS.

The use of the Standard Transcoding Interface [STIAD] by the MMS Proxy-Relay for transcoding of MMS
messages.

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6. MMS Client / MMS Proxy-Relay (MMSm) Interface


As shown in Figure 2, the MMS Client interacts with the MMS Proxy-Relay. This operation is consistent with the WAP
model where the MMS Proxy-Relay operates as an Origin Server (Pull Operations) or as a Push Initiator (Push Operations).
The relationship between the MMS Client and MMS Proxy-Relay is shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 below for two different
configurations of the WAP architecture and protocol stacks. Figure 3 assumes use of the WAP 1.x architecture; in this case
the messages that transit between the two components are normally transferred using a wireless transport such as WSP
between the MMS Client and the WAP Gateway, and then transit over HTTP from the WAP Gateway to the MMS ProxyRelay.

Wireless
Network

Internet
/Intranet

WAP
Gateway

MMS
Client
Payload
WSP

MMS
Proxy-Relay
Payload
HTTP

Figure 3: Implementation of MMSM InterfaceUsing WAP 1.x Gateway

This link representation includes a few items that need to be described. The MMS Proxy-Relay is the network entity that
interacts with the user mailbox and is responsible for initiating the notification process to the MMS Client. The WAP
Gateway provides standard WAP services needed to implement MMS in the original WAP architecture, these include: WSP
invocation of HTTP methods; WAP PUSH services; OTA security; and Capability Negotiations (UAProf).
The above figure also shows a payload that is carried by WSP and HTTP. This payload represents the MMS application
layer PDUs, which are described in the MMS Message Encapsulation document [MMSENC]. It is expected that this data
will be transported in its entirety between the MMS Proxy-Relay and the Users Terminal.
In a different architectural configuration HTTP is used to carry MMS PDUs directly between the MMS Client and the MMS
Proxy-Relay, and a gateway is only needed for push functionality. The following figure outlines such an implementation of
MMSM; note that the gateway needed for push services is omitted from the figure. Also note that a PEP (e.g. a WAP 2.0
HTTP Proxy) may be included in the MMSM link to provide performance enhancements, as described in [WAPARCH].

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Wireless
Network

Internet
/Intranet

MMS
Client

MMS
Proxy-Relay
Payload
HTTP

Payload
HTTP

Figure 4: Implementation of MMSM Interface Using HTTP Based Protocol Stack

The MMS application layer is the same in the different architectural configurations; the differences are contained in the two
transport stacks, i.e., the WSP based protocol stack and the HTTP based protocol stack.
The MMS system is guided by activities between the MMS Client and MMS Proxy-Relay. These activities are described in
the MMS Client Transaction document [MMSCTR] and the MMS Encapsulation document [MMSENC].

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7. MMS Internet Email Interworking (E Interface)


One of the important links on the Network Diagram is the connection of the MMS Proxy-Relay to Email Servers connected
via the Internet. This connectivity works in both directions.

7.1

Sending Messages to Internet Email Servers

For sent MMs, the MMS Proxy-Relay will submit the message to the addressed host using the SMTP protocol. The MM will
be converted to standard Internet MIME format to permit the various media components to be carried consistently into the
Internet environment. The MMS specific header fields will be converted into appropriate headers by prepending an X-Mms to the header name. This will permit MMS aware systems to understand the fields while not being problematic for nonMMS aware systems.

7.2

Receiving Messages Sent from Internet Email Systems

Received messages will be similarly converted. The MIME part of the message will be converted to the MMS format.
Similarly, any headers found with a prefix of X-Mms- can be converted back to the associated MMS header.

7.3

Retrieving Messages from Internet Email Servers

It will be important for MMS Clients to be able to retrieve messages that are stored on Internet Email servers. This is
normally done through the use of the POP or IMAP protocols. Such retrievals are performed by the MMS Proxy-Relay (this
is one of the proxy roles), which will then convert the data into an appropriate MMS format.

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8. MMS Proxy-Relay to Proxy-Relay (MMSr) Operation


MMS systems provide services and capabilities that are different than other messaging systems. Relays are expected to
provide certain services and capabilities in order to allow for MM messaging between clients on different systems.
Additionally the relays are also required to exchange information on supported services and capabilities. The ability to
provide such services and capabilities and to exchange information about the same is likely to become more important in the
future.
If the MMS Proxy-Relay to Proxy-Relay operation is based on Internet email approaches, then SMTP/ESMTP may be used
for the interconnect. Alternatively, the interconnect may employ some other suitable communication protocol.

8.1

Discovery of Peer MMS Proxy-Relay Elements

Before any efficient activities can be performed between cooperating MMS Proxy-Relays, an MMS Proxy-Relay will need to
know that it is communicating with another MMS Proxy-Relay. Depending on the protocols used between these elements,
different methods may be utilised. For example, when using normal SMTP email, the capability reporting schemes of the
ESMTP [RFC1869]* and [RFC1870]* negotiation scheme would be the expected method.
* Note that ESMTP is specified across a large number of RFCs and those listed above, together with SMTP, simply define a
framework that may be extended. Other specific aspects of ESMTP can be found by reading the relevant RFC related to the
feature of interest.
With the awareness that an MMS Proxy-Relay is communicating with a peer component, they may be able to perform
additional operations that could improve the efficiency or extend the communication capabilities between them. The
effective or negotiated capabilities that could be supported between peer systems will be communicated as part of the
discovery process.

8.2

Message Flows between Cooperating MMS Proxy-Relays

The MMS Proxy-Relays will be responsible for extending the current data flows that have been documented for MMS Client
to MMS Proxy-Relay (home system) to reach the MMS Proxy-Relay (target system) at another MMS system. These
extended message flows could operate over SMTP or other communication protocols. The communication between these
elements will utilise the MMS header fields available from the MMS Clients as well as new ones specifically for the peer
MMS Proxy-Relay link.

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9. MMS Client-Side Structure


The general model of how the MMS Client fits within the general WAP Client architecture is depicted in Figure 5.

Application Framework
(WAE User Agent, Push Dispatcher, MMS Client)

Network
Protocols

Content
Renderers
(Images,
Multimedia, etc.
)

Common Functions
(Persistence, Sync,
etc.)

WIM

EFI

Figure 5: General WAP Client Architecture

The MMS Client is responsible for the composition and rendering of multimedia messages. MM rendering is performed by
utilising the appropriate content rendering service. The content formats that are to be supported for MMS are documented in
[MMSCONF]. The MMS Client is also responsible for sending and receiving MMs by utilising the message transfer services
of the appropriate network protocols.
The MMS Client, as described in the MMS specifications, is not dependent on, but may use, the services of the other
components shown in Figure 5, i.e. the Common Functions, WIM and EFI [EFI].
Applications may use an MMS Client to submit and receive application specific data via MMS. In order to achieve this
applications initially need to register with the MMS Client, i.e. they need to negotiate the amount and format of information
to be exchanged between these two entities. The registration process may be either an inherent process (e.g., in the
applications integration into a mobile phone), or the initial step after the installation of an (e.g., downloadable) application.
The details for this are not defined in the OMA Specifications. Figure 6 gives an abstract example of an application
registration process:
1) Installation of the application on the device.
2) Negotiation of details over the MMSA interface.
3) End of registration process: the application may now choose to transport application data via MMS.

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MMS Client

Application

1
2
3
MMSA

Figure 6: Application Registration Process

[MMSENC] defines headers that indicate that a MMS PDU contains application-specific data. The means of transferring this
data between the MMS Client and the application is implementation-dependent.
If an MMS Client receives an MMS PDU that contains an application identifier (X-Mms-Applic-ID) the MMS Client is
responsible to route the received MMS information to the destination application according to the negotiated details upon
application registration process. The MMS Client is not required to understand the auxiliary application information XMms-Aux-Applic-Info; this information is intended for internal use of the destination application only.
Additional information about the general WAP Client architecture is available in the current [WAPWAE] document.

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10.MMS Addressing
An important aspect of messaging systems is the ability to address the users in a way that can be efficient for the system as
well as meaningful for the senders of messages. This balance is difficult to achieve.

10.1 Internet Addressing


In the Internet world, where bandwidth is not a primary consideration, addresses are normally expressed in the email address
paradigm. In this scheme, addresses look like user@system where the system specification may be a domain name or a fully
qualified host address. In general, this scheme provides users the ability to have a complete and unique address in an
unbounded text string. This scheme is very common and such addresses are routinely printed on business cards.

10.2 Wireless Network Addressing


In the wireless world, where bandwidth efficiency is critical, short address lengths and ease of user entry on limited keypads
are the hallmarks of the various systems. For example, in GSM networks, a users address is based upon the MSISDN
number utilised by the device. Similarly, in many paging systems, users are assigned PINs that would permit a caller to
deposit a message.
The MMS addressing model, as defined in [MMSENC], makes such a more direct or efficient addressing scheme available to
MMS subscribers and services. This is seen as particularly important for interoperability with legacy systems such as the
above mentioned, and e.g. for mobile-to-mobile operation.
As message traffic has increased to wireless systems from the wireline world, most such systems have deployed servers that
provide external entities the opportunity to address their email to the wireless subscribers directly. Many such systems utilise
an ID@carrier approach to setting these addresses for access from email systems.
MMS employs an extensible addressing scheme that permits a variety of addressing paradigms to be supported. More
specific details on addressing can be found in the MMS encapsulation specification [MMSENC].

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11.MMS Presentation
11.1 Multimedia Presentation Concepts
The concept of MMS presentation means the ordering, layout, sequencing and timing of multimedia objects on the terminal
screen and other devices such as a speaker. The sender of the multimedia message can use MMS presentation to organise the
multimedia content in a meaningful order and to instruct how the multimedia objects are rendered at the receiving terminal.
Today, terminals generally have small screens and limited audio capabilities. In the future, however, it can be expected that
the capabilities of terminals will improve making full multimedia presentations possible. The use cases for MMS
presentation include advertisements, news flashes etc. To allow content providers to create multimedia presentations
compatible with as many terminals as possible, it is important that MMS presentations are handled consistently, and
consideration is given to the current and future capabilities of terminals and their interoperability.
MM presentation is optional, as some terminals have very limited presentation capabilities. However, receiving terminals
may still be able to render the received multimedia content as long as they support the media types in the message, even if the
presentation instructions, such as sequencing, layout and timing information, are not supported. [MMSCONF] specifies the
MM presentation support expected from terminals.

11.2 Presentation Examples


There are various alternatives for presentation language, most notably [WML] and Synchronised Multimedia Integration
Language SMILTM [SMIL].

11.2.1

WML

The WML presentation for multimedia messaging offers the same sequencing and layout capabilities as with browsing.

11.2.2

SMIL

The SMILTM provides extended capabilities, such as timing of multimedia objects as well as animation.
The SMILTM is a simple XML-based language that consists of a set of modules that define the semantics and syntax for
certain areas of functionality. Examples of these modules are layout module, timing and synchronisation module and
animation module. A SMILTM profile is a collection of modules particular to an application domain. The SMILTM basic
profile is a lightweight profile providing limited number of modules and thus is particularly relevant to multimedia
messaging.
The MMS presentation language is transferred in the same message that the multimedia objects are transferred. Thus, a
multimedia message is a compact package of multimedia objects and optional presentation information. The presentation
language contains pointers (e.g., URLs) to the multimedia objects in the message.

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12.Security Considerations
The MMS service is primarily an application level service. As such, it is able to build upon various security services
available to applications. For example, in the original WAP architecture which employs a WAP Gateway the communication
between the MMS Client and a WAP Gateway may be encrypted by use of the services available from the WTLS service
layer. Other security services may be accomplished by use of other defined security services that are available to the
appropriate components.
Example security services include:

TLS

The TLS [WP-TLS] transport layer security protocol provides for secure data transmission between
the MMS Client and the MMS Proxy-Relay in architectural configurations that employ HTTP based
protocol stacks for MMSM implementation. TLS may also be used between the WAP Gateway and
the MMS Proxy-Relay when MMSM is implemented in the original WAP architecture.

WTLS

The WAP WTLS [WTLS] transport layer security protocol provides for secure data transmission
between the MMS Client and the WAP Gateway when MMSM is implemented in the original WAP
architecture.

WIM

The WAP Identity Module [WIM] is used in performing WTLS and application level security
functions, and especially, to store and process information needed for user identification and
authentication.

PKI

Public Key Infrastructure [PKI] refers to the infrastructure and procedures required to enable the
trust relationships needed for the authentication of servers and clients.

S/MIME

Secure MIME [RFC2633] provides a means of handling the encryption of MIME components.
S/MIME provides a set of security services that includes authentication, message integrity, nonrepudiation of origin (using digital signatures), privacy and data security (using encryption).

The MMS does not provide its own specific security support and while the usage of TLS and WTLS with MMS is defined by
[MMSCTR], it does not mandate these or any other specific security solutions. Though it may be possible to encrypt the
contents of a message, the lack of widespread support for these security mechanisms raises the possibility that complete endto-end security for MMS messages (i.e., between MMS Clients) as well as per-link security for control activities between
MMS Client and MMS Proxy-Relay may be not be present.
An aspect of the MMS user interface is that of conveying information related to the security and/or authentication of
messages received or to be sent. As with some Internet browsers, iconic representations are available to provide basic
information to users regarding the security of the viewed message. Additional details regarding the message can normally be
viewed as well. Such schemes would be desirable for MMS Clients but are not being mandated at this time.

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13.Content Adaptation
One of the possible services that an MMS system may be able to provide is content adaptation. In effect, there may be the
opportunity to convert, replace or delete certain data elements from a multimedia message before delivering it to the MMS
Client.

13.1 Determining Need for Content Adaptation


Such service may be prompted for a variety of reasons:

Device Capability Devices may have limitations that may prevent them from being able to handle some data
elements in an MMS message. These limitations may be based upon content type, characteristics or size (e.g.
buffer space).

Bandwidth Considerations Certain data types may be inappropriate for a particular type of bearer (e.g.
streaming over SMS). Such considerations may be based upon factors set by a user or a network operator.

Roaming Considerations There may be issues having various multimedia data conveyed over an alternate
carriers network. There may be service constraints or pricing considerations that may impact the delivery of
message elements. Such filtering should occur at the home system.

There are various services that may assist the MMS system to determine whether content adaptation is needed. In particular,
the WAP UAProf [UAPROF] provides a mechanism to inform the MMS Proxy-Relay with information about the MMS
Client. This information relates to characteristics of the device and serving network.

13.2 Content Adaptation Activities


Various forms of content adaptation may be performed. For example, graphic images may be removed, scaled or colour
converted.
Specific content adaptation services are beyond the scope of the MMS specifications.

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14.Additional Service Descriptions


14.1 Charging and Billing in MMS
The charging criteria possible to use for WAP services and/or MMS are fundamentally different from those traditionally used
in telecom, such as measuring of connection time or data volume. These can of course still be used to charge on the bearer
level and thereby indirectly to charge end-users for MMS. However, it is predicted that a number of different charging
methods and their combination will be used to fulfill each individual service providers requirements.
Since MMS standards are technical specifications that define an interface protocol, the issue of charging and/or billing is
outside the scope of the MMS specifications. [TS32200], [TS32235] and [TS32270] are good references that provide the
overall architecture of a charging related system for MMS and CDR generation for MMS.
Instead of addressing a full charging/billing model, MMS can provide some hooks for charging, whereby a service provider
may be able to implement a charging system based on for example [TS23140] (i.e. information present in the MM may be
used for charging). Reply-Charging is one example of such an enabler in MMS. Reply-Charging enables a user of the MMS
to take over the charge for the sending of a reply-MM to their submitted MM from the recipient. The detailed service
description of this feature can be found in [TS23140].

14.2 Digital Rights Management


The scope of OMA Digital Rights Management [OMADRM] is to enable the controlled consumption of digital media objects
by allowing content providers to express usage rights, e.g., the ability to preview DRM content, to prevent downloaded DRM
content from being illegally forwarded (copied) to other users, and to enable superdistribution of DRM content.
The following three DRM methods are supported for MMS: Forward Lock, Combined Delivery and Separate Delivery.
Specific requirements placed on the MMS Client and the MMS Proxy-Relay with respect to DRM are documented in
[MMSCONF].

14.2.1

Forward Lock

By encapsulating the media object inside a forward-lock message, the content owners can prevent users from copying objects
outside the target device. The forward-locked object is wrapped in a forward-lock envelope to invoke a DRM agent in the
target device. When the device receives an object inside a forward-lock message, the device disables the ability to copy the
protected object outside the device. This means that the user cannot redistribute the object to other devices and other users.
The object is locked inside the device, until deleted by the user.

14.2.2

Combined Delivery

When the combined delivery method is used with MMS, a rights object and a media object are wrapped into a DRM message
and delivered to the target device as a single multimedia object within an MMS message. Combined delivery rights and
media objects cannot be redistributed, they are always treated as if they are forward locked.

14.2.3

Separate Delivery

In the Separate Delivery method, the protected media object is converted into encrypted DRM Content Format (DCF) prior to
inclusion within an MMS message. The rights object, with the key for decryption, is delivered using a separate WAP Push.
Media objects in encrypted DRM Content Format may be redistributed. This process is referred to as superdistribution.
Rights objects cannot be redistributed.

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15.OMA MMS Protocol Documents

MMS Architecture
This document. This is to be a starting point for anybody wanting to know more about MMS.

MMS Client Transactions


The document [MMSCTR] describes the operation of the MMS messaging system as it operates between the MMS
Client and the MMS Proxy-Relay when MMS protocol version 1.3 is used.

MMS Encapsulation Protocol


The document [MMSENC] describes version 1.3 of the protocol operating between the MMS Client and the MMS
Proxy-Relay.

MMS Conformance Document


The document [MMSCONF] describes version 1.3 of the minimum set of requirements and guidelines for end-toend interoperability.

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Appendix A. Change History


A.1

Approved Version 1.3 History


Reference

OMA-AD-MMS-V1_3-20110913-A

Date
13 Sep 2011

Description
Status changed to Approved by TP:
OMA-TP-2011-0329-INP_MMS_V1_3_ERP_for_final_Approval

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