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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Lecture 5: Fatigue IV
Homework Review
Interpreting Constant Life Diagrams
Constructing Constant Life Diagrams
Component Design for Fluctuating Loads
Review
Homework & Reading Assignment

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Objectives
After this lecture and associated homework,
you will be able to:
Interpret a Constant Life diagram.
Calculate the fatigue life for fluctuating
stresses using Constant Life diagrams.
Construct a Constant Life diagram from the
S-N curve.
Apply Constant Life diagrams to the design
of parts with a fluctuating load profile.
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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Homework Review
1. Determine the mean stress and stress
amplitude of an application that cycles
between -350 and 780 MPa? Sketch the
stress vs. time profile.
2. Determine the minimum stress and stress
amplitude of an application with a mean
stress of 925 MPa and a maximum stress of
1190 MPa. Sketch the stress vs. time profile.

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Constant Life Diagram Review


The horizontal axis is mean stress m.
The vertical axis is stress amplitude a.

Sy

Sy

-Sy

-Sy

Sy

Sy

-Sy

-Sy

Sy

Sy

-Sy

-Sy

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Designing for Fatigue


An S-N Curve is needed to
design parts for fatigue
applications involving fully
reversing loads.

Fatigue Strength S f (ksi)

160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

1.E+07

1.E+08

1.E+09

Life N (cycle s)

A Constant Life diagram is


needed to design parts for
fatigue applications
involving fluctuating loads.

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Fatigue Strength Diagram for 7075-T6 Aluminum

Ref. Juvinall Figure 8.19.

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Fatigue Strength Diagram for Alloy Steels


Applicable to AISI 4340, 4130, 2330, 8630.

Ref. Juvinall Figure 8.17.

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 1
If a test specimen made from normalized 4130 steel with an
ultimate strength of 100 ksi is subject to a maximum bending
stress of 90 ksi and a minimum stress of 0, what is the expected
fatigue life? Sketch the stress vs. time profile.
Find N

Given : max = 90 ksi = 90% Su min = 0

N = 104 cycles

90 ksi
0

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 2
For an normalized 4130 test specimen with Su=100 ksi, what is the
maximum stress that can be applied for 106 cycles if the loading is
of the zero-to-max-to-zero type? Sketch the stress vs. time profile.
Find max for N = 106 cycles Given : min = 0

max = 70% Su = 70 ksi

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 3
For a quenched and tempered 4340 test specimen with an ultimate
strength of 180 ksi, what life is expected from a fluctuating load
with a mean stress of 90 ksi and a stress amplitude of 80 ksi?
Sketch the stress vs. time profile.
Find N Given : m = 90 ksi = 50% Su a = 72 ksi = 40% Su
104 < N < 3 104

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 4
For a hardened 4340 test specimen with Su=230 ksi what is the
highest stress amplitude that can be applied with a superimposed
tensile stress of 184 ksi if infinite life is required? Sketch the stress
vs. time profile.

Find a

Given : m = 184 ksi = 80% Su ; N > 107

a = 10% Su = 23 ksi
184 ksi
0

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 5
Use the empirical
relationships discussed to
construct the S-N Curve and
the Constant Fatigue Life
diagram in Excel for a
precision steel part with an
ultimate strength of 150 ksi, a
yield strength of 120 ksi,
commercially polished
surface. All cross-section
dimensions are under 2 in,
and the loads are axial.
Assume that actual fatigue
test data is not available.
Ref. Juvinall Sample Problem 8.1.

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 5
Analysis :
Su = 150 ksi; S y = 120 ksi
For steel, S n = 0.5Su
For axial loading, S f , N =1000 = 0.75Su CT , and CL = 1
For a ground surface, CS = 0.9
For a diameter<2 in, axially loaded, CG = 0.9
Assume CT = 1; CR = 1
S n = 0.5Su = 0.5 150 ksi = 75 ksi
S n = S nCLCG CS CT CR = 75 ksi 1 0.9 0.9 1 1 S n = 61 ksi
S f , N =1000 = 0.75Su CT = 0.75 150 ksi 1 S f , N =1000 = 112 ksi
This is all that is needed to draw the predicted S-N curve, which shows
fatigue behaviour for fully fully-reversing loads only.
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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 5 ( S-N Curve)


160

Fatigue Strength S f (ksi)

150

S-N Curve Data


N
Sf (ksi)
1.E+00
150

S f , N =1 = Su = 150 ksi

Su

140

1.E+03

111

Sf,N=1000

130

1.E+06

61

Sn

1.E+09

61

Sn

S f , N =103 = 112 ksi

120
110

S f , N =104 = 94 ksi

100
90

S f , N =105 = 77 ksi

80
70
60
50
40
30

S f , N =106 = S n = 61 ksi

These values can be


read from this S-N
curve to construct the
Constant Life Diagram.

20
10
1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

1.E+06

1.E+07

1.E+08

1.E+09

Life N (cycles)
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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 5 (Constant Life Diagram )

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 5 (Constant Life Diagram )


Constant Life Line Data
m

140

Stress Amplitude a (ksi)

120
N=103

112

94
77
61

-120
0
150

N=10

a
4

N=10
112
112
0

N=10
94
94
0

N=10
77
77
0

N=10
61
61
0

100
80

N=105
N=106

60
40
20
0

-120 -100

-80

-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

Mean Stress m (ksi)

80

100

120

140

160

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 5 (Constant Life Diagram )


Yield Envelope
m
a

Stress Amplitude a (ksi)

140
120
3

112

N=10
4

94
77
61

N=10

100

N=106

(-Sy,0)

120

(0,+Sy)

120

(+Sy,0)

This line represents


combinations of m & a that
result in a max=Sy. I.e.,
yielding occurs above this
loading, no yielding below.

80

N=105

-120

60
40
20
0

-120 -100

-80

-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

Mean Stress m (ksi)

80

100

120

140

160

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 6 Designing a Part for Fluctuating Loads

A round tensile link is subjected to fluctuating load profile


between 1000 lb and 5000 lb. It is a precision member,
so CG=0.9 can be used, with commercially-polished
surfaces. The material is steel, Su=150 ksi, Sy=120 ksi,
so that the S-N curve and Constant Life diagram from the
previous question can be used. A safety factor of 2 is
required.
Find the diameter required for infinite life, and the
diameter required for a life of 1000 cycles. No yielding
should be permitted.

Ref. Juvinall Sample Problem 8.2.

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 6 (Constant Life Diagram)

Stress Amplitude a (ksi)

140
120
N=103

112

94
77
61

N=10

100
80

N=105
N=106

60
40
20
0

-120 -100

-80

-60

Ref. Juvinall Sample Problem 8.2.

-40

-20

20

40

60

Mean Stress m (ksi)

80

100

120

140

160

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 6 Analysis
First, identify m , a :
nFmax n 5000 lb f
=
A
A
n 1000 lb f
nF
The minimum stress in the part min = min =
A
A
n 5000 lb f n 1000 lb f
+
n 3000 lb f
max + min
A
A
=
m =
m =
A
2
2
n 5000 lb f n 1000 lb f

n 2000 lb f
max min
A
A
=
a =
a =
2
2
A
So the ratio a m = 2 3 = 0.666, for whatever the area must be.
The maximum stress in the part max =

Draw a line with this slope on the Constant Life diagram.


Such a line represents all possibile combinations of
mean stress and stress amplitude for the required load profile.
Also Area A =

d2
4

n 3000 lb f

Ref. Juvinall Sample Problem 8.2.

n 2000 lb f

d =

n 12,000 lb f

n 8000 lb f

a
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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 6 (Infinite Life)

Stress Amplitude a (ksi)

This line represents the combinations of m & a that describe


140
the given load profile, from 1000 lb
to 5000 lb.
a/m=0.667
m

120
N=103

112

94
77
61

N=10

100

a=0.667m

150

100

a=0.667m

a/m =0.667

80

N=105
N=106

60
40
20
0

-120 -100

-80

-60

Ref. Juvinall Sample Problem 8.2.

-40

-20

20

40

60

Mean Stress m (ksi)

80

100

120

140

160

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 6 (Infinite Life)

Stress Amplitude a (ksi)

Small diameters will be associated with large stresses, on this


line far away from the origin. Large
140diameters will result in
small stresses, on this line near the origin.

120
N=103

112

94
77
61

N=10

100
a/m =0.667

80

N=105
N=106

60
40
20
0

-120 -100

-80

-60

Ref. Juvinall Sample Problem 8.2.

-40

-20

20

40

60

Mean Stress m (ksi)

80

100

120

140

160

22

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 6 (Infinite Life)

Stress Amplitude a (ksi)

140

d=

120

94

N=10

100

N=106

61

a/m =0.667

80

N=105

77

2 12,000 lb f
in 2
=

1
54,000 lb f

d = 0.369 in

N=103

112

n 12,000 lb f

60
40

m=56 ksi & a =38 ksi


will cause yielding, and
produce a life of about
106 cycles. d=0.369 in

20
0

-120 -100

-80

-60

Ref. Juvinall Sample Problem 8.2.

-40

-20

20

40

60

Mean Stress m (ksi)

80

100

120

140

160

23

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 6 (No Yielding)

Stress Amplitude a (ksi)

140

d=

120

94

N=10

100

N=106

61

a/m =0.667

80

N=105

77

2 12,000 lb f
in 2
=

1
71,000 lb f

d = 0.328 in

N=103

112

n 12,000 lb f

60
40

m=71 ksi & a =48 ksi


will cause yielding, and
produce a life of about
104 cycles. d=0.328 in

20
0

-120 -100

-80

-60

Ref. Juvinall Sample Problem 8.2.

-40

-20

20

40

60

Mean Stress m (ksi)

80

100

120

140

160

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Problem 6 (N=1000)

Stress Amplitude a (ksi)

140

d=

120

94

N=10

100

N=106

61

a/m =0.667

80

N=105

77

2 12,000 lb f
in 2
=

1
80,000 lb f

d = 0.309 in

N=103

112

n 12,000 lb f

60

m=80 ksi & a =53 ksi


will produce a life of 103
cycles, but with
considerable yielding.
d=0.309 in

40
20
0

-120 -100

-80

-60

Ref. Juvinall Sample Problem 8.2.

-40

-20

20

40

60

Mean Stress m (ksi)

80

100

120

140

160

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Summary: S-N Curves


An S-N Curve is needed to design parts for fatigue
applications involving fully reversing loads.
An estimated S-N Curve can be constructed from
ultimate strength.
It is more accurate to use real fatigue test data.
S-N Curve Estimated from Ultimate Strength
(better than nothing; used for prototypes)

S-N Curve Based on test data


(preferred for serious design)

Fatigue Strength S f (ksi)

160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
1.E+00

1.E+01

1.E+02

1.E+03

1.E+04

1.E+05

Life N (cycles)

1.E+06

1.E+07

1.E+08

1.E+09

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Summary: Constant-Life Diagrams


A Constant Life diagram is needed to design parts
for fatigue applications involving fluctuating loads.
An estimated Constant Life diagram can be
constructed from the S-N curve.
It is more accurate to use real fatigue test data.
Constant Life diagram constructed from the S-N curve
(better than nothing; used for prototypes)

Constant Life diagram based on test data


(preferred for serious design)

27

MECH1641 Machine Design II

Homework and Reading Assignment


For next class, review these notes then answer the
questions below:
1.

For a 4340 test specimen with Su=150 ksi, what is the


predicted life for a fully reversing stress of 90 ksi?

2.

What is the maximum stress that will provide the same


life if the load profile is changed to a zero-to-max-to-zero
type?

3.

What stress amplitude will provide the same life if the


load profile is fluctuating with a maximum stress of 105
ksi?

4.

Also, do these problems from Juvinall, chapter 8, by


creating Excel S-N curves: 8.19, 8.20, 8.23, 8.25 (Excel
constant-life diagram required for this last problem.)

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MECH1641 Machine Design II

Closing Notes

Quiz 2 (4%) is on Friday January 25.


Test 1 (20%) is on Friday February 22.

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