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J. S. Lawler

University of Tennessee-Knoxville

J. W. McKeever and P. J. Otaduy*

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

The submitted manuscript has been authored and prepared by a contractor of the U.S. Government, the Oak Ridge

National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC0500OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce

the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes.

Switched Reluctance Motor

Digest

Light electric/hybrid electric vehicles, such as passenger vehicles, have a modest constant power

speed range (CPSR) requirement, perhaps 4 or 6:1 [1]. Such performance can be achieved with

traction drives incorporating a variety of popular motor types. For passenger vehicle

applications, the switched reluctance motor (SRM) is often ruled out based on torque pulsations,

mechanical vibration, and acoustical noise. Recent work has achieved some vibration

suppression with the SRM controller [2]. Although substantial research has been directed toward

resolving some of these problems [3], the SRM has not gained wide acceptance for consideration

in passenger vehicle applications. Traction drives for heavy electric vehicles such as buses,

tanks, heavy trucks, and off-road vehicles may require a CPSR as large as 10:1 or more. The

SRM has a CPSR that is typically greater than what can be achieved with other popular motor

types. In addition, vibration and noise considerations are less of a concern in heavy vehicles.

Consequently, the SRM should be a serious candidate for application in heavy vehicles requiring

a large CPSR.

Most SRM traction drives discussed in the literature were directed toward passenger vehicle

applications and reported maximum CPSR values of 10:1 [4]. Because heavy vehicles may

require a CPSR of over 10:1, it is important that the SRM be capable of this type of operation.

Conventional methods for SRM operation employ what may be called discontinuous

conduction, for which the current in each motor winding starts at zero and returns to zero during

each stroke [5]. When this operating strategy is used, torque and power production decline and

the CPSR is limited [6]. Suggestions for extending the CPSR of the SRM are to use a bias

winding or a bias current or to employ continuous conduction [7]. In continuous

conduction, the current in each winding starts and ends at a value larger than zero during each

stroke. Discussion of the details of operation in the continuous conduction mode at high speeds,

which are not available in the literature, will be presented in this paper using a linear magnetics

model to show how effective the method is in extending the CPSR of the SRM. This assertion is

confirmed by comparing results obtained with the linear model with those using the conventional

model incorporating saturation. The analysis of the linear model shows that, when all speedsensitive loss mechanisms are neglected and continuous conduction is employed during highspeed operation, the CPSR of the SRM is infinite. This is in contrast to discontinuous current

operating strategies, which have a finite CPSR even when speed-sensitive losses are neglected.

Speed-sensitive losses include core losses, rotational losses, and skin effect in the winding

resistance. As speed increases, a greater portion of the winding current is used to supply these

losses, thereby determining the CPSR limit of any practical drive to a finite value. Motor design

techniques to limit speed-sensitive losses, such as laminating the rotor and reducing lamination

thickness in the stator, are well understood [5, 8, 9].

The paper is organized into five sections including the introduction. In the second section we

discuss an example SRM design that is used for illustration. The example motor is rated at

320 hp with a base speed of 250 rpm and is intended for a heavy vehicle traction application

requiring a CPSR of 26:1.

For a given peak current, the maximum torque that can be produced by the SRM is determined

by the area between the aligned and unaligned flux linkage plots. For the example motor and a

peak current of 600 A, the maximum area is shown in Fig. 1. The enclosed area is 2472 J. The

maximum torque that could possibly be developed with a peak current of 600 A is 9442 Nm. If

this torque can be developed at the specified base speed of 250 rpm, then the developed power

would be 247.2 kW (331.4 hp). The ability to operate at this torque and power level at the

specified base speed will depend on having an adequate dc supply voltage.

Fig. 1. Maximum coenergy of the example 8/6 SRM for a peak current of 600 A.

Figure 2 shows phase a current and an energy plot of i ( t ) vs. ( t ) for the example motor when

operating from a 700-Vdc supply at speeds of 125 and 250 rpm. In the figure, n is the relative

speed which is speed divided by base speed. The figure shows that the 700-Vdc supply is

adequate to produce the 320 hp required at base speed (250 rpm) without exceeding the 600-A

peak and 425-Arms rating of the example motor.

a=9.5o, d=31.5o.

a=11.25o, d=32.75o.

Fig. 2. Phase A current and coenergy plot for the example 8/6 SRM at low speed for Vdc=700 V.

In the third section, we show the difference between co-energy of the example SRM when driven

at high speed by the conventional discontinuous conduction method and when driven in the

continuous conduction mode.

Comparing the co-energy plots of the discontinuous and continuous conduction cases in Fig. 3

shows the mechanism for increasing power production by continuous conduction. For

discontinuous conduction, the current at the beginning of each stroke is zero; and at low current

level, there is not much separation between the aligned and unaligned flux linkage curves.

Therefore, the co-energy or area enclosed by the vs i plot is small. In continuous conduction,

the current at the beginning of each stroke is nonzero; the operation in the - i plane is shifted to

a higher current where there is greater separation between the aligned and unaligned flux linkage

curves, resulting in greater area in the vs. i plot and therefore greater power production. The

plots of Fig. 3 also indicate that a small change in dwell, one degree in this case, can result in an

abrupt transition from discontinuous to continuous conduction. In the absence of winding

resistance, a dwell of 50% is necessary to sustain continuous conduction. Below this level the

conduction will be discontinuous with low current and power production; and above this level

the motor current and power production increase dramatically. Although it is not shown here,

extending the dwell beyond the level required to trigger continuous conduction results in

substantial increase in rms current and a reduction in power. The authors will address the need

for precise control over the dwell angle in a companion paper.

a. Discontinuous conduction,

a=22.5o, d=30o.

b. Continuous conduction,

a=22.5o, d=31o.

Fig. 3. Phase A current, voltage, and coenergy for the example 8/6 SRM at 6500 rpm (n=26) for Iset=600 A.

The energy plots of Fig. 3 show that magnetic saturation is not a critical factor in high-speed

operation, with or without continuous conduction. In the discontinuous conduction case, the

phase current magnitude is simply too small to involve the nonlinearity at any rotor position. In

the continuous current case, there are periods when the phase current is substantial, a peak of

4

611.7 A in this case. However observe from the i ( t ) vs. ( t ) plot for the continuous current

case that when the phase current is large, the rotor position is in the vicinity of the unaligned

state where magnetic saturation is not experienced. In the vicinity of the aligned position, where

magnetic saturation can be a factor, the phase current is relatively small. In fact, the peak current

corresponds exactly to the unaligned position, while the minimum current corresponds exactly to

the aligned position. Thus, magnetic saturation is not a critical factor in high-speed operation

with or without continuous conduction.

In the fourth section we present the linear model analysis of the high-speed continuous

conduction mode of operation. Figure 4 shows waveforms for one stroke of the SRM with linear

magnetics operation at high speed in the continuous conduction mode.

La

Inductance

L

Lu

Winding voltage

r

Flux linkage

0+Vs r/2

L uip

0

0 = Luip

Current

ip

i0

-20

I

Vs a

II

0

+20

III IV

Regions

+40

L u i p

Vs

Vs

i0 =

L

L

+ 2 r + u

a

L

position in continuous conduction at high speed.

Analytic expressions are derived relating the coenergy, rms and average motor current, and

average developed power to the parameters of the motor drive. The expressions are

I rms ( , a* ) = i p 1

2 Lu

1 ,

r La

2 2L u L a

+

lim I avg (, a ) = i p 1

ln , and

r r L L u

L

L

a r + 1 + a r a + u

L

2 2L u

L 2

+

lim Pavg (, a ) = qVs i p 1

ln

.

L u L a

r r L

L

L

(1)

(2)

(3)

There is an optimal advance angle to maximize this power, which can be found by setting the

derivative of Eq. (3) with respect to a to zero to find

3

4

a* = r .

(4)

For the example motor, the optimal advance would be 22.5o. Using Eq. (4), the maximum power

at infinite speed is

2

Lu La r L

*

Pavg

ln

= qVs i p 1

+4

.

r

r L L 4 La Lu

(5)

Thus the power does not decay to zero as speed increases when continuous conduction is used

during high-speed operation, showing that the SRM is capable of sustained high power operation

at high speed. This result is only useful if the motor current is similarly well behaved at high

speed, which is the case as indicated by Eqs. (1) and (2). Consequently, if speed sensitive losses

are neglected, the SRM has an infinite CPSR when continuous conduction is permitted during

high-speed operation.

In the final section we conclude that in the absence of speed-sensitive losses the CPSR of the

SRM is infinite. Thus, the SRM is a candidate motor in traction drives for vehicles where a large

CPSR is required. Such applications are generally heavy vehicles that are more tolerant of the

vibration and acoustical noise associated with SRMs than are low-CPSR applications such as

passenger vehicles.

It was shown that magnetic saturation is not a significant factor in continuous conduction, and

the phenomenon can be accurately analyzed using a linear magnetic model. Analysis of the

linear model resulted in analytic expressions relating average motor power and average and rms

current to the parameters of the motor/drive. These relations may guide the design of SRMs

optimized for operation in high-CPSR applications. The analytic expressions also provide

insight into how to control the SRM in the continuous conduction mode at high speed.

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