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Copying

Where drawing from life develops the realism and integrity of your work, and trains
your artistic eye at the same time, copying others allows you to learn to draw in
different styles.
It is a technique that has been used for centuries by artists in order to practice and hone
their skills. If there is a particular style that you are especially keen to learn, then I
recommend making copies of the work that you admire. It teaches you how fine artists,
designers, cartoonists, architects and graffiti, manga and graphic novel artists all tackle
the visual intricacies of their particular craft. Through copying you will learn certain
techniques, and then you can change and adapt these into your own unique drawings and
artworks. There is also no reason why you cannot transfer skills that you learn from one
style into another. For example, learning traditional figure drawing will increase your
knowledge, skill and talent at understanding and representing the human form. You will
be able to realize how joints and muscles move and react, how to show stress, strength
and suppleness, and these are skills that will considerable improve the drawings that
you would produce for, say, the characters of a graphic novel.
At the core of all this are traditional drawing skills. If you wish to make great drawings
then take the time to learn and practice these skills. Even if you would prefer to always
work in a certain stylized way, if you learn these fundamentals then the standard of your
work, whatever the genre, will improve.

Goals and Targets


Learning to draw can often be helped along its way by having a few goals and targets in
mind. These will vary tremendously from person to person, but they are undoubtedly
useful motivations. Im sure you already have some idea of what you would like to
achieve. Maybe it is to draw a self-portrait, or a drawing of someone in your family, or
a certain landscape. It could be to learn to draw in a particular style, produce realistic
cartoons and Caricatures but whatever your motivation and aims, there is no reason why
you cannot achieve them with patience, practice, time and work.

Drawing Exercises
These exercises build upon and augment one another. They cover the fundamental
aspects of drawing, and as you complete each tutorial you will gain artistic skills,
knowledge and techniques that all interlink. Practicing the skills that you learn in the
Line Tutorial for example will also help with figure drawing. They are designed to be
linear, and to follow a natural progression that you will develop along. If you want to
mix it up and change them around then you are more than welcome. They have been
arranged in a way that allows these skills and important artistic facts and drawing
techniques to build up with both a structured and organic feel.
It is worth dating your work. Writing the date will allow you to easily keep track of
your progression. It is a rewarding and healthy experience to look back through your
older work, with a smile on your face, and see how much your style and ability has
changed and grown. But more about this late, first you need to start making some
drawings!
On another technical note, as you will be looking at your computer screen while you
work and follow tutorials, it is worth switching your screensaver off, so that you dont
have to worry about it later.

Chapter 1
Let's Get Started (Picking Materials
And a Proper Place)
So you are all ready to begin, well, what are the bare essentials that you need to learn to
draw? These are the few essentials that you must have in order to start. It is vital that
you have something to draw with, something to draw on, a suitable place to draw and
something to draw. At this initial stage, dont worry too much about feeling like you
have to buy some really expensive paper and graphite pencils from an art store just so
you can learn the basics. Start with what is accessible around you, and acquire
whatever you need along the way.

Pencil/Pen
For the first few exercises, any type of pencil or pen be it a biro, an ink pen or a simple
pencil will suffice. Of course if you do already have access to quality materials then by
all means use them, but it is important to state that that they arent essentials yet!

Sketchbook
A sketchbook is a must have! Not only does it keep all your drawings and exercises
together in one place, it also creates a chronology in the order of your drawings. This is
an excellent way to track your progress and development, and this idea of understanding
and learning about how you will evolve artistically is a very useful and creative
mindset to adopt right from the start.

A Working Space
You must have a smooth, strong surface to work on. This really can be anything from a
kitchen table to a state of the art drawing board. It could be a sanded plank of wood
resting on concrete blocks or a beautiful and ornate oak desk. Use whatever you have
available to you, and enjoy it for what it is.
Secondly, a decent light source is essential. This is exceptionally important; if you can
situate yourself next to a window then this is ideal, as natural light is the best option. If
you are able to, re-arrange slightly so that your work surface will catch the sunlight. If
not, or you are going to draw once the sun has set, a lamp is a great aid. It is really
worth buying a decent quality angle poise lamp so that you can change the position of
your light source to suit your drawing needs. This will also protect your eyes, as
straining your vision in a room that is too dark is not a sensible idea, and one that can
easily be avoided.

Atmosphere
When you have set up your well lit drawing space, with your materials laid out and you
feel ready to begin, take a short moment to think about this as your studio. Drawing can
be an incredibly rewarding, challenging and personal experience, so make the
atmosphere of your artistic time enjoyable and suited to your personal tastes. If you
would prefer to work with music playing, then do, it is your time and your studio, so
make it how you want it to be. Humans are creatures of habit, if we enjoy activities then
generally we are much more likely to repeat them until we incorporate them into our
lifestyle and they become familiar to us. This is exactly the same with drawing.

Copying
Where drawing from life develops the realism and integrity of your work, and trains
your artistic eye at the same time, copying others allows you to learn to draw in
different styles.
It is a technique that has been used for centuries by artists in order to practice and hone
their skills. If there is a particular style that you are especially keen to learn, then I
recommend making copies of the work that you admire. It teaches you how fine artists,
designers, cartoonists, architects and graffiti, manga and graphic novel artists all tackle
the visual intricacies of their particular craft. Through copying you will learn certain
techniques, and then you can change and adapt these into your own unique drawings and
artworks. There is also no reason why you cannot transfer skills that you learn from one
style into another. For example, learning traditional figure drawing will increase your
knowledge, skill and talent at understanding and representing the human form. You will
be able to realize how joints and muscles move and react, how to show stress, strength
and suppleness, and these are skills that will considerable improve the drawings that
you would produce for, say, the characters of a graphic novel.
At the core of all this are traditional drawing skills. If you wish to make great drawings
then take the time to learn and practice these skills. Even if you would prefer to always
work in a certain stylized way, if you learn these fundamentals then the standard of your
work, whatever the genre, will improve.

Goals and Targets


Learning to draw can often be helped along its way by having a few goals and targets in
mind. These will vary tremendously from person to person, but they are undoubtedly
useful motivations. Im sure you already have some idea of what you would like to
achieve. Maybe it is to draw a self-portrait, or a drawing of someone in your family, or
a certain landscape. It could be to learn to draw in a particular style, produce realistic
cartoons and Caricatures but whatever your motivation and aims, there is no reason why
you cannot achieve them with patience, practice, time and work.

Drawing Exercises
These exercises build upon and augment one another. They cover the fundamental
aspects of drawing, and as you complete each tutorial you will gain artistic skills,
knowledge and techniques that all interlink. Practicing the skills that you learn in the
Line Tutorial for example will also help with figure drawing. They are designed to be
linear, and to follow a natural progression that you will develop along. If you want to
mix it up and change them around then you are more than welcome. They have been
arranged in a way that allows these skills and important artistic facts and drawing
techniques to build up with both a structured and organic feel.
It is worth dating your work. Writing the date will allow you to easily keep track of
your progression. It is a rewarding and healthy experience to look back through your
older work, with a smile on your face, and see how much your style and ability has
changed and grown. But more about this late, first you need to start making some
drawings!
On another technical note, as you will be looking at your computer screen while you
work and follow tutorials, it is worth switching your screensaver off, so that you dont
have to worry about it later.

Chapter 1
Let's Get Started (Picking Materials
And a Proper Place)
So you are all ready to begin, well, what are the bare essentials that you need to learn to
draw? These are the few essentials that you must have in order to start. It is vital that
you have something to draw with, something to draw on, a suitable place to draw and
something to draw. At this initial stage, dont worry too much about feeling like you
have to buy some really expensive paper and graphite pencils from an art store just so
you can learn the basics. Start with what is accessible around you, and acquire
whatever you need along the way.

Pencil/Pen
For the first few exercises, any type of pencil or pen be it a biro, an ink pen or a simple
pencil will suffice. Of course if you do already have access to quality materials then by
all means use them, but it is important to state that that they arent essentials yet!

Sketchbook
A sketchbook is a must have! Not only does it keep all your drawings and exercises
together in one place, it also creates a chronology in the order of your drawings. This is
an excellent way to track your progress and development, and this idea of understanding
and learning about how you will evolve artistically is a very useful and creative
mindset to adopt right from the start.

A Working Space
You must have a smooth, strong surface to work on. This really can be anything from a
kitchen table to a state of the art drawing board. It could be a sanded plank of wood
resting on concrete blocks or a beautiful and ornate oak desk. Use whatever you have
available to you, and enjoy it for what it is.
Secondly, a decent light source is essential. This is exceptionally important; if you can
situate yourself next to a window then this is ideal, as natural light is the best option. If
you are able to, re-arrange slightly so that your work surface will catch the sunlight. If
not, or you are going to draw once the sun has set, a lamp is a great aid. It is really
worth buying a decent quality angle poise lamp so that you can change the position of
your light source to suit your drawing needs. This will also protect your eyes, as
straining your vision in a room that is too dark is not a sensible idea, and one that can
easily be avoided.

Atmosphere
When you have set up your well lit drawing space, with your materials laid out and you
feel ready to begin, take a short moment to think about this as your studio. Drawing can
be an incredibly rewarding, challenging and personal experience, so make the
atmosphere of your artistic time enjoyable and suited to your personal tastes. If you
would prefer to work with music playing, then do, it is your time and your studio, so
make it how you want it to be. Humans are creatures of habit, if we enjoy activities then
generally we are much more likely to repeat them until we incorporate them into our
lifestyle and they become familiar to us. This is exactly the same with drawing.

You now have a cube, and it is time to use what we learnt in the last tutorial and apply
tone in order to turn the line drawing into a three-dimensional form.
~ You can see how only three sides of the cube are visible. Take your pencil and shade
the left hand side of the cube. Press down so that a darker tone is achieved and
remember to keep all your pencil marks flowing in the same direction to achieve a
smooth even finish. When this is completed, move to the side nearest to you and again
shade the square. This time, dont apply as much pressure to the pencil and apply a
lighter tone. If you want, you can also shade a small shadow on the left hand side to
give the impression that the cube is resting on the ground. You have now successfully
managed to give an object three-dimensional form.
~ You can now continue to fill up the page with different forms. Make some larger or
smaller than others and try new shapes. You can also elongate the forms by placing the
second shape further away from the first before you join them up with the connecting
lines to make them three-dimensional. Whatever the shape, the principle remains the
same.

Ant Exercise
There is another excellent drawing exercise to try out at this point that links drawing
from life with learning to understand the form of an object. It involves thinking like an
ant and making a drawing using only one continuous line. The exercise forces you to
really look closely at what you are drawing, and although you may find the end result
interesting, the exercise itself will benefit your skills greatly in the long run. You can
use either a pencil or a pen for this, but I would recommend a ballpoint ink pen, as this
will give the most consistent line quality for your drawing. You also need a way of
timing 5 minutes, so a clock or a phone stopwatch is necessary as well.
~ Find an object that has both an interior and exterior, like a cup, or an open tin or even
something much more complicated if you are feeling adventurous. This will be your
subject.
~ Place your subject on your desk or somewhere close, where you can see it easily, in
the interests of clarity, I will say that it is a cup.
~ Now rest your pen on the paper. For the next five minutes you will draw a continuous
line that traces the path of an imaginary ant crawling all over the cup in front of you.
You have to imagine the path that would be left as the insect crawled around the back,
over the rim, inside and all around the entire outside surface of the cup and its handle.
Trace this line with your pen the entire time and never let it leave the paper. Imagine
that the ant has stood in paint, and as it walks its feet will leave little painted footprints,
your drawn line are these footprints. There is one more thing
~ You must never look at the paper and you cannot take your eyes off the cup!
After five minutes is up, your drawing is finished and you may take your pen off the
paper and look at what you have created. This sketch may look abstract, but in
completing the exercise, you are teaching your brain to think more clearly about form. If
you have the time and enjoy the challenge, it is worth repeating this exercise but change
the parameters to suit yourself and to keep it fun. Try setting a different time limit, or
drawing for the duration of a song for example. The more you experiment with this
exercise and practice it, the more your creative abilities and drawing skills will evolve
and you will reap the rewards later on.

Chapter 6
Light & Shadows
We have learnt how to draw line, tone and form. It is now time to develop these skills
by introducing light to the mix, and we will watch how it affects surfaces and changes
the way that people, buildings and objects are seen. We will learn through step-by-step
instructions how to add light and shadow to your drawings, and by the end of this
tutorial, you will also be able to draw a realistic human eye.
Light allows us to see the things that we want to draw to be seen. Seems an obvious
statement, but light also determines how they are seen. The way that a subject is lit up
has a huge effect on how we draw it. The light and shadows of an image can change the
entire mood of a drawing. It is important to remember that the direction of the light will
dictate the position of the shadows. Where the light directly hits the object, the surface
will, of course, be brighter. It is important to look at how the shadows are created and
what they look like, because it is often not what you would expect.

Chapter 3
Basic Lines (Straight, Curvy, Thickness)

The simplest place to start when learning to draw is to begin with learning a little about
the drawn line. Every child knows that when you press a pencil to a piece of paper and
move it around, you will draw a line. Not that many people known that the amount of
pressure you use, the way you h hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu hu

Negative drawing Exercise

With the previous drawing exercise we built up an image using dark tones to represent
shadows, we added shade to a white page to create a sketch. Negative drawing works
in the opposite way. With this technique you begin with a dark background and use an
eraser to create white areas, lines and highlights where the natural color of the paper
shows through. Instead of drawing the shadow, you draw the light.
~ Use the same set up as before with your light and object. You will need to redraw its
outline, in the same way as before, except this time, shade the entire object reasonably
darkly with your pencil.
~ Now shade the background a slightly lighter tone, so that you can sense a faint
difference between it and the object.
To be able to create negative drawings well, you have to think about the light and how it
makes the object look. This sounds complicated but it isnt. All it means is that you
need to look at what is happening in front of your eyes, and work from life.
When you are using an eraser to create a negative drawing, the way that you make
marks, and the amount of pressure you apply will of course affect the look of the
drawing. The principle is the same as the techniques that you use to achieve different
types of lines when drawing with a pencil, such as curved lines help to show the curve
of a sphere.
~ Work into your shaded background and pick out the areas of light on your object.
Look closely at how the light is sometimes spread evenly across the surface and
sometimes it will reflect sharply on a focused point. If you use the corner of the eraser,
you will be able to create clean precise lines that resemble this effect of the light. If you
erase too much from an area, simply grab your pencil and start to shade again.

When your drawing is finished, compare both the tonal and the negative drawing of your
object. Look at the differences and the similarities in the effects that these techniques
create.

Tip: Getting Stuck. Sometimes a drawing will go wrong, or for some reason, no matter
what you seem to do, it will not work out the way you were hoping for or expecting.
During these frustrating moments, dont be disheartened. This is a perfectly natural part
of learning to draw. Often, if you can meet these difficulties in the creative process
head on and work through them, then the quality of the final piece will often be vastly
improved. If you are experiencing difficulties, then take a break and study what you are
drawing in a different way. It often helps to put the drawing that is giving you problems
to one side and try one of the drawing exercises that you have learn. The ant drawing
exercise, for example, is less about creating a finished drawing, and more about
studying what you are drawing in depth and detail. Taking a fresh look at a problem
and tackling it in a different way can be the right way to shake you out of a rut and it
makes any mistakes in a drawing easier to identify and remedy.

Chapter 7
Proportion & Scale (Measuring,
Drawing Faces, Distorting)
Proportion in art.
Proportion and scale refer to the relationships of size between different parts of a
drawing in relation to the whole.
All objects, people, buildings and environments have their own set of proportions based
on the ways that we measure height, width, depth, weight and volume. If the correct
ratios of these proportions can be taken from the natural world and re-applied in the
drawings that we make, then they will appear natural and realistic. For example, if you
were sitting outside on a summers day and drawing a tree, and you discovered that its
width was half of its height, then this same ratio could be applied to the measurements
of your drawing and it would create a natural accuracy. If you chose to make the width
of the tree on the paper 10cm, then its height would be 20cm. This seems complicated
but dont worry, once you start practicing looking and thinking about proportion, then it
will all slot into place.
An incredibly important fact to remember is that perspective affects proportion. You
will already know that objects closer to us seem bigger than objects far away. For
example, a figure in a landscape will appear larger if that person is close to you, while
the same figure standing on a rocky mountaintop 500 meters away would seem much
smaller.

Proportional rules of the human body


There are proportional rules related to the human body, probably the most famous
example would be from Leonardo Da Vincis concept of the Vitruviun Man. You can
see this image below but Im sure that you will recognize it. This ubiquitous drawing
has appeared in everything from cartoon t-shirts in markets all over the world, through
to making an appearance in the popular TV series the Simpsons and the film adaption of
Dan Browns novel the Da Vinci Code.

One of the fundamental ideas about human proportion that the Vitruviun Man reveals is
that if you measure your own arm span, from fingertip to fingertip, then it will be the
same measurement as your height. Try this yourself and see if it is true for you. Another
rule is that the gap between your eyes is generally the same distance as one of your eyes
on its own. These rules, along with others like them, are useful to understand and be
aware of. As rough guidelines, they will help you when you sketch proportions.
However, you cannot simply rely on them to create accuracy and faithfulness to the
image of what you draw because everything is always altered by perspective.
This is why it is always necessary to look at and study what you are drawing, rather
than to merely rely on these kinds of artistic laws to ensure quality in your work.
Another objective anatomical guideline for drawing the human body is that on a standing
figure viewed from the front, the distance of the head, from the chin to the top of the
skull, will fit roughly eight times into the height of that figure. Again, this is a useful
piece of information, but this ratio only applies when the effects of perspective are not
in effect. If you were to draw this figure lying down or sitting on a chair then the effects
of perspective would change this rule. This is the same principle as the previously
mentioned figure that was standing on a distant mountaintop. He seems smaller in
comparison to a similar person standing much closer, even when we know that they are

Exercise ~ Pencil tone


~ For the first exercise, you will need a pencil and your sketchbook. Begin by
drawing a rectangle roughly 2cm high by 6cm long, it doesnt have to be precise.
~ Now start at the left hand side and shade the first cm row as dark as you can, press
the pencil firmly onto the paper and keep your lines all moving in the same direction.
~ Imagine this rectangle as a spectrum of tone. Darkness is now represented on the left
hand side; light is on the right. You need to gradually shade from the left across to the
right and ease the pressure from your hand as you move, making your strokes softer and
lighter as they move towards the light. You will finish with black on the left, white on
the right, and shades of grey in between.
You have now created a visual tonal change. Try this technique with different shapes
and different grades of pencils, the softness of 2, 3 or 4B grade pencils will give you a
good effect. You may notice how it is easier to achieve a smoother surface and tonal
change with these pencils. We will develop this in the next exercise.
~ Draw another rectangle of similar proportions to the last. Repeat the same process,
however, this time try to achieve a tonal change where the pencil marks are
untraceable. This may take more time because you have to build up the tone gradually,
dont be afraid to work on one particular area for longer than another, or to draw
several layers until you are satisfied with the result.

Crosshatching
This is an effective shading method for achieving tonal change quickly, in a sketchy and
stylized way. Crosshatching is often used in graphic novels and is a great technique to
use when sketching. The basic principle is that you shade with diagonal lines, again all
drawn together in the same direction, and that the closer they are together, the darker
that area will be. Parts with widely spaced lines will seem much lighter in your
drawings. This is the first part, next you draw another set of diagonal lines that point in
a different direction, so that the lines cross over one another. Where there are more
crossed lines, that area will be tonally darker. This can be seen in the image below.

Exercise ~ Crosshatching
~ Draw out another rectangle similar to the previous ones and start to fill it with quick
diagonal lines. Closely group them together on the left hand side then gradually space
them out as you move towards the right.
~ Again, starting at the left, draw another series of diagonal lines that cross the first
ones at a different angle.
Practice this on other parts of the page, shade areas and experiment with the length and
proximity of the lines.

Ink Washes
The final method of achieving a tonal change is to use an ink wash. Like other
concentrated liquids, the more water you mix with ink, the lighter it will become. Ink is
a great artistic material to use for creating tonal change and shade because it can be
manipulated and changed as you apply it to your drawing. By adding more water to
wet ink on your page, you can spread it out and lighten the tone. For these exercises,
place a sheet of newspaper behind the page that you will be working on in order to stop
any excess ink soaking through into the next few pages of your sketchbook.

Ink wash exercise


~ Draw 2 different shapes, a large triangle and a circle in your sketchbook and make
them big enough to almost cover the entire page. You will also need a pot of artists
ink, a medium sized paintbrush and a small pot containing some water. An old mug is
ideal, but you can just as easily use an old yoghurt pot or small container. Black Indian
ink is best for this exercise.
~ Begin by applying ink with your brush to one side of the interior of the shape. Paint
this directly from the inkpot and be generous about how much you use. While the ink is
till wet, and with a damp brush, spread the ink across to the right until the shape is fully
covered. Try to create a steady gradient between the light and the dark.
~ With your other shape, wet the surface first, before you apply the ink. You will find
that the ink will run and swirl across the page but work quickly and see if you can
achieve a similar tonal change across the surface of the shape. With these exercises you
dont have to worry about perfection, concentrate mainly on trying to create the
transition of dark to light.
Try and repeat these exercises in ways that suit you. Experiment and play. Take the
different materials and see what happens when you work with them in new ways. Tip:
Experimentation is a vital part of learning to draw. It is also an excellent way to learn
about the particular qualities and characteristics of these tools so that you gain a strong
sense of control over how to use them. Play and experimentation also creates artistic
confidence and this will, in turn, come across in your drawings.
Tone is an incredibly important aspect of drawing. It is present in almost all kinds of
artwork. When you have grasped the fundamentals, keep practicing and before long you
will be creating amazing drawings of anything you like, from detailed portraits to
intricately shaded tattoo designs and everything in between.

Chapter 5
Understanding Form
The form is the shape of an object in three-dimensional space. When sketching, people
often have a tendency to flatten the subject when they draw it on the paper.
Understanding form will give your drawings volume and body, and will make it much
easier to learn to draw excellent buildings and street scenes, as well as figures and
objects. It will also give you a solid base to learn the techniques of perspective
drawing that will be taught in the future tutorial.
Basically, in drawing, to give something form means to make it look three-dimensional.
This starts with the way that you draw it, the lines, and then is finished by the way that it
is shaded, the tone. Let's start with an example, taking the simple shape of a square; we
will make it three-dimensional by turning it into a cube. You will need a ruler and a
rubber for this exercise, if you have squared paper, that will also make the task easier,
but it is not essential.
~ First draw four lines to make a square, use a ruler and make each side 4 cm long.
~ Find the middle point of the square and mark it.
~ Use this point as the bottom right hand corner of a second square that will over
overlap the first when you draw it. A tip for drawing this second shape is to imagine
that the first square has simply been moved 2cm to the left and 2cm upwards.

~ Now join, with the ruler and your pencil, each corner of the first square to the
corresponding corner of the second. Use the shape below as guidance.

You now have a cube. Take a moment and l ook at what you have drawn. This image is
also an optical illusion. If you concentrate your eyes on each different square in turn,
you will see how it pops in and out of being at the front or the back of the cube.
~ On the same page, repeat the same steps and draw another cube in a clear area of the
paper. This time, however, only draw three lines to connect the squares together.
~ Erase the other lines until your drawing looks like the image below.

You now have a cube, and it is time to use what we learnt in the last tutorial and apply
tone in order to turn the line drawing into a three-dimensional form.
~ You can see how only three sides of the cube are visible. Take your pencil and shade
the left hand side of the cube. Press down so that a darker tone is achieved and
remember to keep all your pencil marks flowing in the same direction to achieve a
smooth even finish. When this is completed, move to the side nearest to you and again
shade the square. This time, dont apply as much pressure to the pencil and apply a
lighter tone. If you want, you can also shade a small shadow on the left hand side to
give the impression that the cube is resting on the ground. You have now successfully
managed to give an object three-dimensional form.
~ You can now continue to fill up the page with different forms. Make some larger or
smaller than others and try new shapes. You can also elongate the forms by placing the
second shape further away from the first before you join them up with the connecting
lines to make them three-dimensional. Whatever the shape, the principle remains the
same.

Ant Exercise
There is another excellent drawing exercise to try out at this point that links drawing
from life with learning to understand the form of an object. It involves thinking like an
ant and making a drawing using only one continuous line. The exercise forces you to
really look closely at what you are drawing, and although you may find the end result
interesting, the exercise itself will benefit your skills greatly in the long run. You can
use either a pencil or a pen for this, but I would recommend a ballpoint ink pen, as this
will give the most consistent line quality for your drawing. You also need a way of
timing 5 minutes, so a clock or a phone stopwatch is necessary as well.
~ Find an object that has both an interior and exterior, like a cup, or an open tin or even
something much more complicated if you are feeling adventurous. This will be your
subject.
~ Place your subject on your desk or somewhere close, where you can see it easily, in
the interests of clarity, I will say that it is a cup.
~ Now rest your pen on the paper. For the next five minutes you will draw a continuous
line that traces the path of an imaginary ant crawling all over the cup in front of you.
You have to imagine the path that would be left as the insect crawled around the back,
over the rim, inside and all around the entire outside surface of the cup and its handle.
Trace this line with your pen the entire time and never let it leave the paper. Imagine
that the ant has stood in paint, and as it walks its feet will leave little painted footprints,
your drawn line are these footprints. There is one more thing
~ You must never look at the paper and you cannot take your eyes off the cup!
After five minutes is up, your drawing is finished and you may take your pen off the
paper and look at what you have created. This sketch may look abstract, but in
completing the exercise, you are teaching your brain to think more clearly about form. If
you have the time and enjoy the challenge, it is worth repeating this exercise but change
the parameters to suit yourself and to keep it fun. Try setting a different time limit, or
drawing for the duration of a song for example. The more you experiment with this
exercise and practice it, the more your creative abilities and drawing skills will evolve
and you will reap the rewards later on.

Chapter 6
Light & Shadows
We have learnt how to draw line, tone and form. It is now time to develop these skills
by introducing light to the mix, and we will watch how it affects surfaces and changes
the way that people, buildings and objects are seen. We will learn through step-by-step
instructions how to add light and shadow to your drawings, and by the end of this
tutorial, you will also be able to draw a realistic human eye.
Light allows us to see the things that we want to draw to be seen. Seems an obvious
statement, but light also determines how they are seen. The way that a subject is lit up
has a huge effect on how we draw it. The light and shadows of an image can change the
entire mood of a drawing. It is important to remember that the direction of the light will
dictate the position of the shadows. Where the light directly hits the object, the surface
will, of course, be brighter. It is important to look at how the shadows are created and
what they look like, because it is often not what you would expect.

Understanding Shadows Exercise


Clear a space on you working area and choose a round object such as a golf ball or a
ping-pong ball. If you dont have either of these to hand, any kind of sphere will do,
even a piece of fruit. Make sure you also have a light that can be moved around easily
and held in a variety of places. If you dont have an angle poise lamp then a torch will
work, or even download a flashlight app onto your mobile phone and use that.
~ Place your object on the table in front of you and shine the light from the right hand
side. Observe closely where the shadows are cast. Now move the light closer and see
how the shadows change. Move the light further away and watch the length, direction
and tone of the shadows change once again.
~ Angle or hold the light source over the top of the object. Pay attention to the shade,
except this time, imagine how you would draw the object and the shadow in your
sketchbook, as this will be the next part of the exercise.
~ Once you have found a position for the light source that creates a scene that you would
like to draw, turn to a new page and start by drawing the outline of your object with a B
or a 2B pencil. Remember to spend a few minutes studying it first, and that while you
draw, keep looking back in order to keep your proportions in check.
~ Now this is done, take what you learnt from the previous section about tonal change
and start to shade your object. Make the darkest parts of the scene the darkest parts of
your drawing, look at where and how the light hits the object and make sure that these
are the lightest areas. Take your time. There is no need to rush and your sketch will
benefit from layers that have been slowly worked up over time.
Tip: As you are drawing a spherical object, try curving your pencil lines slightly as you
shade as this will help to give even more of an impression of roundness. As you learnt
earlier on, if you make your pencil marks softly, that atmosphere will be felt in the
overall feel of the drawing. The same is true of aggressive, fast lines creating the
associated mood in the finished artwork. This same principle applies here; curving
your lines will repeat the curved surface of the sphere, the way you draw always
matches what you draw. This is a subtle tip, but exceptionally useful.

Negative drawing Exercise

With the previous drawing exercise we built up an image using dark tones to represent
shadows, we added shade to a white page to create a sketch. Negative drawing works
in the opposite way. With this technique you begin with a dark background and use an
eraser to create white areas, lines and highlights where the natural color of the paper
shows through. Instead of drawing the shadow, you draw the light.
~ Use the same set up as before with your light and object. You will need to redraw its
outline, in the same way as before, except this time, shade the entire object reasonably
darkly with your pencil.
~ Now shade the background a slightly lighter tone, so that you can sense a faint
difference between it and the object.
To be able to create negative drawings well, you have to think about the light and how it
makes the object look. This sounds complicated but it isnt. All it means is that you
need to look at what is happening in front of your eyes, and work from life.
When you are using an eraser to create a negative drawing, the way that you make
marks, and the amount of pressure you apply will of course affect the look of the
drawing. The principle is the same as the techniques that you use to achieve different
types of lines when drawing with a pencil, such as curved lines help to show the curve
of a sphere.
~ Work into your shaded background and pick out the areas of light on your object.
Look closely at how the light is sometimes spread evenly across the surface and
sometimes it will reflect sharply on a focused point. If you use the corner of the eraser,
you will be able to create clean precise lines that resemble this effect of the light. If you
erase too much from an area, simply grab your pencil and start to shade again.

When your drawing is finished, compare both the tonal and the negative drawing of your
object. Look at the differences and the similarities in the effects that these techniques
create.

Tip: Getting Stuck. Sometimes a drawing will go wrong, or for some reason, no matter
what you seem to do, it will not work out the way you were hoping for or expecting.
During these frustrating moments, dont be disheartened. This is a perfectly natural part
of learning to draw. Often, if you can meet these difficulties in the creative process
head on and work through them, then the quality of the final piece will often be vastly
improved. If you are experiencing difficulties, then take a break and study what you are
drawing in a different way. It often helps to put the drawing that is giving you problems
to one side and try one of the drawing exercises that you have learn. The ant drawing
exercise, for example, is less about creating a finished drawing, and more about
studying what you are drawing in depth and detail. Taking a fresh look at a problem
and tackling it in a different way can be the right way to shake you out of a rut and it
makes any mistakes in a drawing easier to identify and remedy.

Chapter 7
Proportion & Scale (Measuring,
Drawing Faces, Distorting)
Proportion in art.
Proportion and scale refer to the relationships of size between different parts of a
drawing in relation to the whole.
All objects, people, buildings and environments have their own set of proportions based
on the ways that we measure height, width, depth, weight and volume. If the correct
ratios of these proportions can be taken from the natural world and re-applied in the
drawings that we make, then they will appear natural and realistic. For example, if you
were sitting outside on a summers day and drawing a tree, and you discovered that its
width was half of its height, then this same ratio could be applied to the measurements
of your drawing and it would create a natural accuracy. If you chose to make the width
of the tree on the paper 10cm, then its height would be 20cm. This seems complicated
but dont worry, once you start practicing looking and thinking about proportion, then it
will all slot into place.
An incredibly important fact to remember is that perspective affects proportion. You
will already know that objects closer to us seem bigger than objects far away. For
example, a figure in a landscape will appear larger if that person is close to you, while
the same figure standing on a rocky mountaintop 500 meters away would seem much
smaller.

Proportional rules of the human body


There are proportional rules related to the human body, probably the most famous
example would be from Leonardo Da Vincis concept of the Vitruviun Man. You can
see this image below but Im sure that you will recognize it. This ubiquitous drawing
has appeared in everything from cartoon t-shirts in markets all over the world, through
to making an appearance in the popular TV series the Simpsons and the film adaption of
Dan Browns novel the Da Vinci Code.

One of the fundamental ideas about human proportion that the Vitruviun Man reveals is
that if you measure your own arm span, from fingertip to fingertip, then it will be the
same measurement as your height. Try this yourself and see if it is true for you. Another
rule is that the gap between your eyes is generally the same distance as one of your eyes
on its own. These rules, along with others like them, are useful to understand and be
aware of. As rough guidelines, they will help you when you sketch proportions.
However, you cannot simply rely on them to create accuracy and faithfulness to the
image of what you draw because everything is always altered by perspective.
This is why it is always necessary to look at and study what you are drawing, rather
than to merely rely on these kinds of artistic laws to ensure quality in your work.
Another objective anatomical guideline for drawing the human body is that on a standing
figure viewed from the front, the distance of the head, from the chin to the top of the
skull, will fit roughly eight times into the height of that figure. Again, this is a useful
piece of information, but this ratio only applies when the effects of perspective are not
in effect. If you were to draw this figure lying down or sitting on a chair then the effects
of perspective would change this rule. This is the same principle as the previously
mentioned figure that was standing on a distant mountaintop. He seems smaller in
comparison to a similar person standing much closer, even when we know that they are

~ Next, add the hands and feet, but draw them as shapes and dont pick out individual
fingers and toes yet. You can also join and round the shapes into a more identifiable
human form. Instead of drawing in the details of the face, sketch a horizontal and
vertical line to mark the middle of the face, where the eyes would be located. The
reason behind this is that the eyes are one of the most important parts of the body that we
use to communicate. As a result, when we draw a figure we want to sketch them in.
However, the direction of the eyes and their positioning on the head has a huge impact
on the way that we look at a figure and can often upset the overall drawing if they are
positioned incorrectly. Practice drawing basic figures in this way first. Once you feel
confident that you can represent the figure, then add in all the detail, clothes, hair, eyes
etc at the end.

Chapter 13
Short Reference on Materials and
Grades
As you learn to draw, and practice increases your abilities, it is a good idea to
understand the principles of the different types of pencils, and how they are graded. The
European System, by which all pencils are generally classified, uses the letters H and
B. H stands for hardness and B stands for Blackness. HB, one of the most common
types of pencil, gives a good quality of both line and a strong tone.
F stands for the grade of pencil in between H and B. As you can probably tell from the
descriptions, B graded pencils are softer, and are great to use for larger areas of tone
and shade, whilst H grade pencils give out a precise line, and are excellent for intricate
detailed work. As you move higher through the grade of B pencils, the tone of the effect
becomes blacker. The opposite is true for H grade pencils, the harder they are, the
lighter the effect of shade that they will make. As you become more accustomed to
drawing in pencil, you will find the grades that suit your style and needs. Using
different pencils for various parts of the work can also create strong and effective
artworks.

Chapter 14
Extra Drawing Tutorial Techniques

Overlapping Sketches
This exercise is useful for building confidence in your own drawing ability. It allows
you to draw figures quickly without worrying about creating a finished artwork. You
will create multiple sketches that overlap one another, a process that forces you to clear
your mind and ignore the previous sketch that is right there in front of you on the paper.
Once you have tried this exercise a few times you will start to be able to draw with
much more confidence in a relaxed and sketchy style. For the purpose of the exercise,
we are going to use a human figure as the subject of the drawing, however this is
applicable to anything you choose to draw, so feel free to adapt to suit yourself and your
own aims. I do highly recommend that you attempt this at least once with a human
model. This doesnt have to be a life model; it could just as easily be a family member
who is chilling out watching a film, or your girlfriend/boyfriend standing talking on the
phone or something similar. It doesnt take long, so use a bit of charm and a smile and
persuade them to stand or sit still for 20 minutes so that you can practice.
You will need a piece of paper or your sketchbook for the exercise, A3 or larger is
ideal because it allows you to be expressive and free with the lines in your work. Four
different types of pencils and pens will also be needed. Pick different colors as well,
this will allow you to distinguish between the layers more easily at the end. A timer,
clock, phone stopwatch or any other tool that can alert you to when five minutes is up is
also necessary.
~ For the first sketch, position the paper portrait way up, take a pencil and draw the
figure in the centre of your page. Be expressive and work quickly, and aim to create an
impression of the person rather than a laboriously measured out anatomical drawing.
Pick out the head, hands and feet, and look at their posture. You will only have five
minutes so draw in the limbs in free, flowing lines as well as picking out small details
on their clothing. After five minutes is up, stop working and leave the drawing exactly
the way it is.
~ You will now need to kindly ask your model to switch into a slightly different pose,
they could angle their body in a new way or cross their legs, move their arms or
whatever they wish to do. The new pose doesnt need to be drastically different from
the last; it just needs to present you with a new challenge. Next, select another pen or
pencil, and remember to make sure that it is not the same color as the previous one. The
final step before you begin the second part of the exercise to rotate your
paper/sketchbook 90 degrees clockwise.

~ Start the timer and draw again, in exactly the same way as before. Centre the figure
right in the middle of the page, and draw directly on top of the previous image. This
may seem odd at first, but it is important not to be precious, as it is going to get much
messier! If this feels uncomfortable then dont worry about it, this is a feeling to work
through and it means that you are pushing yourself outside of your comfort zone,
persevere until the end of the exercise. Again stop drawing when the time is up.
~ Repeat the same steps, ask your model to change to a new pose and rotate your paper
90 degrees clockwise again. Pick a differently colored pencil/pen and draw. Complete
this cycle once more after this until you have drawn the figure four times, in four poses
with four alternately colored pencil/pens.
Stand back and take a look at your work. Rotate your paper back to the initial portrait
position and analyze the figure amongst the others. When you compare the figures, how
does the last drawing contrast and differ from the first? Is it freer and more
expressive? Drawing with a time constraint creates a bit of pressure, and this forces
your brain to pick out the parts of the person that you are drawing that it deems to be
most important, the parts that together can make up their image and personality. The
first sketch in the case of this exercise is difficult. It isnt easy to try and capture
someone in a drawing in five minutes, but as you got used to the timing aspect, did you
feel like you were drawing in a more fluid and free way? The exercise places the
figures on top of the other to make it harder for you to see what you are drawing. It is
deliberately designed to create the potential for expressive lines, amongst the numerous
other quickly sketches lines, a slightly out of proportion shoulder or a leg that is too
short cannot be focused on easily. The exercise is deliberately designed to forgive little
mistakes, and as a consequence, the hand and eye concentrates on the overall impression
of the figure.
The exercise also introduces you to how abstract drawings can still be connected to real
life people and objects, and if you have never tried an abstract drawing before, be
proud, because now you have just completed your first.

Single Line Drawing


This exercise creates a highly stylized drawing and develops both your actual drawing
ability and the way that you look at your subject. It takes a while to get used to drawing
in this style, but once you are, it is a great technique to have within your artistic skill
set. This is a popular aesthetic in graphics and fashion. It is widely used within Fine
Art in a plethora of creative and unexpected ways.
The idea is to create an artwork using a single line, in other words, by never taking your
pencil or pen off the paper. It is still possible, one you have practiced, to make large
scale and intricate drawings using a single unbroken line. Even tonal shading and cross
hatching can be achieved using this method. For this tutorial you will need a ballpoint
ink pen and your sketchbook. You will also need a subject. Pick something exciting
with plenty of detail and lines. I will use a tree for this exercise as the form of the
branches; trunk, leaves and overall shape of the tree lend themselves well to being
drawn in this way.
It is best to start slowly with this exercise. Your natural inclination will be to lift your
pen away from the paper when you reach the end of a line, you must control this feeling.
When you do reach the end of a certain point in the drawing where it seems impossible
to draw the next part without lifting the pen and starting a new line from another point,
simply retrace the line until you find another place to start. This is a little like reversing
a car down a street because it was a dead end.
When drawing, you dont have to keep an even looking line the entire time. Vary your
speed once you become more confident, and change the amount of pressure that you
apply your pen to the paper. It is worth reading through the whole exercise first before
you start to draw because it may be difficult to keep your pen on the drawing and read at
the same time.
~ Take a good, long look at the object in front of you before you start. Now pick a
point somewhere in the middle of the form of the subject and start to draw. For
example, I will begin at the centre of the tree trunk.
~ You dont need to try and draw differently than you normally would but it is
important to pay attention to the form of the tree as a three-dimensional object. Build up
the basic shape of the tree first. Draw the trunk and use this as a solid base to extend
your lines outwards and upwards as the branches and twigs. Once you have a basic
framework for your sketch, start adding the texture and detail.

Drawing texture and detail with a single line


This can seem tricky at first, because to build up texture, normally a repeated stroke,
line, crosshatch or tone is used, and this normally involves lifting your pen away from
the surface of the paper. The trick is to be light with the pen strokes that you make.
Repeated shapes also work well with these kinds of line drawings.
~ In order to draw the leaves, I simply repeat a small leaf shape many times until an
area of shade is created.
Another handy tip is to roughly mark out an area that will all be one texture, then draw a
few areas of detail and leave the rest free. This makes the drawing process quicker
without compromising quality, and creates a clever psychological trick in the mind of
the viewer. These clumps of texture will allow the viewers brain to understand that this
is the texture for that entire area of the drawing. If you provide enough information, then
the viewers mind will fill in the gaps.
~ Once you have finished your drawing, only then can you remove your pen and see the
end result properly!

Conclusion
Summing It Up - Where To Go From
Here
Drawing is one of the most expressive art forms that you can use, and its real quality
lies in its simplicity. It is a fundamental part of any artistic pursuit, and if you work on
the basics that are outlined and described in this eBook, then you will see and feel the
progress in other creative areas of your interests and life. Drawing teaches us to look,
in depth, at the world around us, giving us a creative set of tools to find a way of
understanding the places in which we live, travel through and experience. Richard
Serra, an American artist, said that to draw is to see, and to see is to draw, an
eloquent way of articulating this idea. The quote can be exemplified by the famous work
of genius all-rounder Leonardo Da Vinci, who used drawing as the tool to dissect the
world around him. He used drawing in conjunction with mathematics, engineering,
physics, biology and the natural sciences to create some revolutionary ideas about the
world that are still relevant today.
Im not saying that you need to re-invent the helicopter, but you can use drawing in
whatever way that you wish. Often, artistic instruction comes on strong and tells you
that you must paint in this or that way, or sculpt in a certain exact style, offering
singular, simplistic and boring lectures. The aim of this eBook is to teach the basics.
Dont be fooled into thinking that they are easy, because they arent. Even Michelangelo
said that if people knew how long it took me to make my work then they wouldnt call
it mastery. It takes time and like with any skill and pursuit, from weightlifting and
surfing to making films or drawing a cartoon, if you work hard on the fundamentals, the
rest will follow naturally.
Dont ever be discouraged by anyone ever telling you that your drawing doesnt look
like real life, or that it isnt accurate enough to be good. An artwork can never be
judged as good or bad, only successful or unsuccessful, and since it is you making the
drawings, you get to be the judge of those criteria. If you make a drawing and you learn
something from it, then your next one will be even better for your efforts.
To your success!

Deliberately distorting Proportion


As with everything, practice makes perfect, and this certainly applies to proportional
rules and skills. Once you begin to master these concepts and techniques, and know
when to apply them and when not, you will also be able to break them for stylistic
effect. This can be seen in the work of many artists, cartoonists, designers and other
professionals that draw, from Pablo Picasso to Ralph Steadman. This type of distortion
can especially be seen in caricatures, which you will learn how to draw later on in the
book. In any of these different areas, genres and styles of art, your ability to alter
proportions on purpose will be significantly improved by the ability to draw in
proportion first. In other words, you need to know the rules before you break them.
Once you have been drawing for a while, in whatever style you choose, you will be
surprised at just how helpful it is to know these rules and be able to apply them or alter
them to suit your own artistic needs. The technical base will give your artwork quality,
and that applies whether you are drawing fashion illustrations, photorealist portraits,
designing your own graphic novel or any other artistic drawing style.

Preview of "Digital SRL Crash Course!


- A Beginner's Guide to Understanding
Digital Photography & Take the Best
Shots of Your Life"
Introduction
Are You Ready for an Amazing Journey?
Everyone thinks theyre a photographer. Everyone thinks that simply by picking up a
smartphone camera, snapping some shots on vacation, popping an Instagram filter on
them and setting up a Flickr account, theyre automatically a photographer.
They arent. Unless you know about photography, the ins and outs, the form as an art and
as a medium for communication, youre just someone who takes photos.
Make no mistake: anyone can be a photographer. Some have an innate talent, sure, but
anyone can take the time to learn. But learning is essential.
Think of any other art form: painting, illustration, sculpture. Sure, anyone can slop paint
on a canvas. But is it always art? Is it always good? Is it always honest?
Photographer sneaks by because everyone has a camera, but to truly understand the
medium takes as much time, effort and dedication as any art form.
And its not just photography as an art, either: this breezy mentality applies also to
photojournalists (Twitter has taken care of that) and wedding photographers (who needs
one? Weve got our friend, shes got a great camera!). With the rise of pro-sumer SLR
availability has come a dearth of integrity in the field.
And, really, you know this. You know that what distinguishes professionals from

amateurs is not just the hardwareeveryones got that nowbut, rather, what one can
do with the hardware.
Its about more than just gear. Its about knowledge.
With this book, I want to equip you with the knowledge that it takes to become a
professional photographer. I want to help guide you through the maze of amateur
theatrics into something real. Any shmoe can buy a Canon EOS 5D Mark III and take
shots on automatic, but if you want to really delve into what makes the camera special,
you need to understand its points of autofocus, its full frame sensor and its white
balance modes. You need to understand what lenses to use and with what filters.
In short: you need to know your camera.
So thanks for picking up this book. I promise that, by the end of it, youll have not just a
solid understanding of cameras from a technical standpoint, but also a solid
understanding of photography as an art formwhat makes good composition, and what
shapes can create pleasing images.
I wont guide you through specific models, because even though Im writing in 2014,
you may be reading in 2015, and a hundred new models may have been released. But
well touch on a few popular current trends, like digital high dynamic range (HDR)
photography and the new wave of mirrorless cameras, which should give you a sense of
whats going on in the industry.
And even if, by the end of this book, youre still grasping at some of the concepts, dont
worry: you can always look up terms on Google for more detailed explanations, videos
and walkthroughs. This is, after all, a crash course.
So, lets get crashing.

Chapter 1
A Brief History of Digital Photography
Any good crash course ought to start at the very beginningthe beginning not only of
good digital photography sense, but of digital photography itself. Dont worry, we wont
spend too long on this chapter, but it might give you a deeper appreciation for the art
form, its capabilities and just how far its come in a relatively short span of timein
fact, proper digital cameras as we know them were only introduced in the mid- to late1990s, a far cry from their humble beginnings in the late 70s.
The first true prototype began with Kodak, engineered by a man named Steven Sasson in
1975. Sasson grabbed a Kodak movie-camera lens and combined it with some CCD
sensors and Motorola phone parts to create something the size of a small toaster oven
and weighed about as much as a large newborn baby.
Sassons prototype could capture black-and-white images on a clunky old cassette tape,
but the resolution of 0.1 megapixels was literally unheard of. The first photograph
reportedly took 23 seconds to record, to give a sense of how far technology as come.
Of course, Kodakwhich would soon fall behind in the digital photography game
didnt capitalize on this early technological feat. Kodak stuck with film all the way, and
it would come back to haunt them three decades later.
A few more filmless cameras went through experimentation phases throughout the
1970s, but nothing took off commercially until 1981, when Sony launched a magnetic
video camerathe Mavica. An analogue counterpart to film, the Mavica operated on
AA batteries, and stored photos on giant floppy disks that could store up to 50
photographs. The light sensitivity was roughly equivalent to ISO 200, and the shutter
speed fixed at 1/60th of a second.
The Mavica launched a brief period of analogue creativity in the camera world, which
was followed up by Canon to only some success. In general, analogue cameras cost
much more than their quality attested to, though photojournalists put them to good use
during major events like the 1984 Olympics, and late-decade events like Beijings
Tiananmen Square protests and the Gulf War. For standard commercial users, paying
$1,500 for poor quality didnt make sense.
After the first true digital camera was produced in 1981 by scientists at the University

of Calgary in Alberta, Canada (it was produced mainly for night sky and space
photography), Canon took the helm by commissioning a proper digital camera in 1983,
though it never went beyond trade showspresumably, it was either too expensive, not
user-friendly enough or too clunky to ship.
Either way, it would be nearly another decade before digital cameras actually hit retail
stores in 1990. It was called the Dycam Model 1, and used a CCD sensor to record
pictures digitally and upload them directly to a connected PC.
That same year, a pre-Adobe version of Photoshop was launched, roughly around the
same time some entrepreneurs began attaching digital backs to film single-lens reflex
cameras (SLRs). The digital revolution, though still in its infancy, had begun to fully
take shape.
In the early 1990s, every major tech company joined the fray with more devotion.
Kodak launched a camera called the DCS 200 with a built-in hard drive, while Nikons
N8008s offered images in both color and black and white. Apple even ventured forward
with something called the QuickTake, a collaboration with Kodak (and later Fuji) that
was the first digital camera for under $1,000, but which did not take off.
CompactFlash cards, those large chunky cards that even Canon digital Rebel SLRs stuck
with up until very recently, were introduced in the mid-90s, with Kodak once again
helming the tech charge with its innovative built-in CompactFlash technology in 1996.
But 1995 was the true year for digital camera innovation.
But it wasnt until Casio ventured forward that compact cameras became truly, well,
compact. Casios QV-10, released in 1995, offered a 1.8-inch LCD screen on the back
and a pivoting lens. It still used a CCD sensor and stored up to just under 100 color
images, but introduced the world to features like the macro preset, auto-exposure and a
self-timer.
This was also around the time that movie and sound capabilities entered the picture,
bumping up the cost of a standard compact from $1,000 to $1,500. Webcams, too,
became commercially viable in 1995, with Logitech spearheading the territory with its
VideoMan product.
Canons now-infamous PowerShot series took flight shortly after all this technology
was introduced in 1996. It boasted a larger CCD sensor than most others before it
(832x608 pixels), as well as camera mainstays like a built-in flash and optical

viewfinder, not to mention auto-white balance and an LCD screen on the back. In other
words: it was what we understand today to be what a digital camera. Canon also
figured out how to drive costs down, so they could charge a cool $949 at the start.
Since then, Nikons CoolPix and Sonys CyberShot series became serious contendors,
while Fuji, Olympus, Kodak, Casio and Panasonic would rise and fall to varying
degrees throughout the next two decades. But commercial digital photographythe
basics of itis not even 20 years old, as of this time of writing (in 2014).
That means that everything in the last two decadesevery digital SLR, mirrorless
camera, phone cam, filter and appall came flooding in a very small span of time.
We can then understand digital photography as a recent arteven though photography is
a much older one, the ability to produce magical digital artscapes, put images into
Photoshop and play around, and combine exposures quickly with methods like multiple
digital exposure and HDR, are all relatively new experiments.
Digital photographers are still figuring this game out. Even the best in the business
havent been doing it as long as youve been alive. That gives you an advantage, really:
even if youre just starting out in the world of digital photographic art, youre not nearly
as far back as you think.
Click here to check out the rest of "Digital SRL Crash Course! - A Beginner's Guide to
Understanding Digital Photography & Take the Best Shots of Your Life (with
pictures!)" on Amazon!

Ps: You'll find many more books like these under my name, Amy Taggart.
Don't miss them! Here's a short list:

bottom corner. Make this line further than you think that edge of the window will be and
extend it all the way up to meet the perspective line that flows from the top left hand
corner of the rectangle to the vanishing point.
~ Now put a dot where you want the other bottom corner of the window to be. Draw
another vertical line from this point upwards until it intersects with the same
perspective line as before. When you are drawing this window in this way, it helps to
think of it as a trapezium rather than a rectangle. You learnt earlier how perspective
vanishing points affect forms and objects that we know in our heads look a certain way,
such as the cuboids. This is the same for drawing this window; the perspective alters
the way that its shape is seen. These are both examples situations where you must draw
what you see, rather than what you think you see, because if you do, then the drawing
will not turn out well. Unlearning what we know about the way that we see and
perceive the world around us is a difficult process to work through, but all of the
drawing exercises in this book incorporate this element of drawing to some degree.
Each one, in its own way, is designed to do much more than simply leave you with a
new drawing in your sketchbook when you have finished that particular exercise. This
exercise teaches you to draw a shape that you know by its empirical measurements is a
rectangle, but in this case, with the influence of perspective, it will now be seen as a
trapezium.
~ You have three sizes of the window structurally marked out now so it is time to
complete the frame. A good tip for judging its size is to take your ruler, and keeping the
edge on the vanishing point, adjust the edge to a height that is not too big or small and
seems to fit proportionally with the rest of the corridor. When you are happy, draw in
this top line of the window and join up the top and bottom edges by tracing along the
structural vertical lines you drew earlier. You will now have a completed window.
The tricky part is to replicate the same form on the opposite wall.
~ Return to the beginning of the tutorial if you need to and follow the same steps, except
switch them over for the right hand side. Remember to draw in your structural
guidelines, this will allow you to see whether the overall drawing and the lines are
correct before you mark the lines in properly. At the end of the tutorial, it is up to you
whether you decide to leave these guidelines showing or not. I personally would, as I
believe they will reinforce the lessons that you have learnt in regards to perspective
every time you return to the sketchbook. If you would prefer not to, and you feel that a
cleaner, more succinct drawing will better help your progression, then simply erase
them.

Double-Point Perspective

Once you feel like you have grasped the concepts of single-point perspective, it is time
to move onto double-point. Initially, the introduction of another vanishing point can
seem complicated, but in reality, when you break it down, its not too hard to learn and
become proficient with. If you think back to when you drew the cuboids with a single
point perspective, you will remember that the square shapes you drew first became the
front facing sides of the cuboids, and the sides were drawn in afterwards according to
the perspective rules. Two-point perspective is needed when your object can be seen at
an angle, for example a building of the corner of a street. With this technique, the
vertical lines remain vertical in the same way that you drew when you used a single
vanishing point in your work. The difference is that each surface of an object is affected
by both vanishing points, and so they are changed from being rectangular. Again this
sounds more complicated than it actually is, and this next exercise will help to clarify
and explain these points in your mind. You will need your sketchbook, a ruler and a
pencil.

Chapter 9
Texture and Surface (Hard, Soft, Rough)
Learning to draw the texture and surface of an object realistically can really bring your
artworks to life. Generally there are three types of categories used to classify the
different surfaces that you will draw; these are hard, soft and rough.
Hard surfaces - These smooth and sleek surfaces such as metal or glass are highly
reflective. Light bounces off the surface at odd angles and this creates sharp highlights
with strong, clean edges and clear tonal contrasts between light and dark.
Soft surfaces - This category includes materials like fabrics and plant leaves, surfaces
that absorb the light and have smooth tonal transitions between the shadows and
highlights.
Rough surfaces -Tree bark is an excellent example of a rough surface. As these
surfaces are jagged, worn or heavily textured, the light hits less of the overall surface.
There will often be an uneven distribution because the surface itself is not regular and
uniform, and so there will be softer variations in tone. However, if the surface is
heavily textures, as in the example of tree bark, then there may be crevices and ridges
that will create strong contrasts between light and dark.
As you can see, the way that light reacts with a surface has a huge effect on how we
draw it. Light and texture are inextricably involved with each other, and you must think
about this when you draw. Before we start drawing, there are a few tips that make
drawing larger areas of texture much easier and more efficient. These are also good
rules for general drawing practice, so they can be applied whenever you are practicing.

Tips
Start drawing the most detailed focal point of the surface first. This will enable you to
sketch other areas in slightly less detail if you want to create tension and contrast in
your work.
If you are right handed, work from left to right to avoid accidental smudging. Reverse
this principle if you draw with your left.
Dont be scared of the dark! Avoiding making drawings too light by starting with the
dark areas and working tonally towards the light. This will allow you to use the whole
tonal spectrum from black to white, and will also add richness and depth to your work.
Use the paper as a highlight. This is a technique taken from negative drawing that is
especially useful here. Instead of drawing the parts of the surface where the tone is
brightest, dont make any marks on these areas and simply let the white of the paper
show through. You can also create highlights by erasing. When you have finished
drawing the overall tone of your subject, use your eraser to clear the areas of light by
once again letting the white of the paper show through.

Hard surfaces
When you are drawing hard, reflective surfaces, high contrasts and sharp highlights are
key to achieving lifelike representations. Think of a surface as a series of different
tones, rather than an object with borders that needs to be filled up with pencil marks.
Start at the darkest areas and gradually work your way up to the highlights.

When you draw reflective surfaces, you will also draw the surroundings that are
reflected in the surface. For example, if you wanted to draw a mirror, you would draw
whatever would be reflected in its surface. This can make these kinds of surfaces
difficult to depict, but they are a fun challenge and a rewarding experience when drawn
successfully. It is especially important to spend a lot of time looking at these kinds of
surfaces and study in detail the way that the light looks as it reacts with the faade of
your subject.

Chapter 10
Composition (Rules, Spacing & Lines)
Composition refers to the placement of the different parts of your drawing in relation to
the overall image. If you drew a picture of man and a woman together in the centre of a
piece of paper, the composition would be different to another drawing of the exact same
people standing on the left hand side for example. Composition can make or break an
artwork, and it plays a large part in a drawing feeling and looking right. There is a
selection of compositional rules that will help you to improve the positioning of the
elements of your drawings to create the effect that you desire. If you have any
experience or love of photography, then you may already be familiar with some of these
concepts. These rules do occasionally contradict one another, but as drawing is an
expressive subject, this is ok. They are creative rules, so use what works for you. I
would highly recommend learning about and using as many rules as you can and try them
out to see which ones work for your style and needs.

Rule of thirds
The human eye tends to be more attracted to images that contain an odd, rather than an
even, number of elements. When you are thinking about the compositional structure of
your drawing, imagine that the page has been divided with the lines of a grid into thirds
both horizontally and vertically. At the points where the lines meet are the best
locations to place focal points and areas of interest. If you are drawing a scene with a
flat horizon then it is generally better to put this on one of these dividing lines, leaving
the remaining two thirds of the image either above or below.
The same principle applies if you are drawing people, the composition will look more
effective if you place them to one side on a vertical lines rather than directly in the
middle.

Rule of odds
This is an extension of the rule above, based on the same principle of odd numbers
being more aesthetically pleasing that even ones. For example, if you were to draw
three little birds perched on a doorstep, it would create a more effective composition
than if you included four. This is because the human eye naturally wanders towards the
middle of a group. If you had five or nine birds, the same rule would still apply.
Another good tip for the rule of odds is that if you have a large group of people, animals
or objects on your page, then the image will seem more dynamic if you group them into
smaller collections of odd numbered congregations rather than evenly distribute them
across the page.

Leaving space
If you leave a large area of white space around a subject, then it will concentrate the
viewers attention solely on this main focus of the artwork. It will also have the effect
of elevating the importance of the subject and force the viewer to look at the texture,
detail and characteristics of your work without any distractions from the background.

Fill the frame


On the other hand, filling the picture completely also produces a strong visual effect.
Leaving no white space and drawing on every square cm of the paper can create a sense
of closeness and intensity. These two principles, at first, seem to contradict one another
but experiment with both of them and see what kinds of effects they can produce. Often
these rules are specific for creating a certain feel or look to a drawing but once you
become more experienced with using them, the more you can twist them to suit your own
needs!

Balance
This leads well into compositional balance, where these different techniques, and styles
of drawing can be combined in just the right way to create a sense of balance and style.
Balance can work in a variety of ways, as the compositional elements of a drawing that
you have learnt about are put together to create an artwork. Balance works in a variety
of ways; for example, if one of your drawings has an incredibly busy area of texture and
detail in one part of it (hopefully on a grid line dont forget the rule of thirds!) then it
would be accentuated and balanced by other areas of less intense detail. We explored
this idea earlier when we drew the stones, and this kind of contrast is a great way to add
excitement and life to a drawing.
This sense of contrast creating balance can be found in other types of textures and
themes converging in one artwork. A shiny reflective metal object could be combined
with a crude old bone or rough piece of fabric for example, and achieve similar results
to those described above. Balance is a part of composition that you will get better at
without realizing. As you develop your drawing techniques and especially your looking
ability, you will find that balancing the different parts of a drawing will become more
and more natural to you.

Lines
Finally, the way that the lines of a composition are placed will be exceptionally
important in determining how your drawing will be seen. I dont mean the texture lines
that form surfaces, but the large flowing lines that underpin the composition. For
example, an image that looks out into the distance along a deserted American highway
will lead your eye down the road and into the distance. If the road leads into the
drawing, then that is where the viewers eye will follow. If the road zooms off to the
right and out of the page, then that is where the observers gaze will be taken. This is
called implied movement. As you want people to look at your drawing and not away
from it then you must try to block these strong lines and point them where you want them
to go. You can do this by adding a perpendicular line to any strong visual lines leading
out of the picture frame. This will stop the viewers eye zooming off the page and will
redirect attention back into the picture. You can use strong lines to move attention
around your drawings, which is an incredibly effective way of creating intrigue,
narrative and depth. Knowing that the human eye naturally and unconsciously follows
these compositional lines, think about the effect that a closely detailed drawing of the
spiral of a snails shell may have on the way that a picture is seen. Thats right, this
pleasing form will pull in the gaze of an observer, like a plughole sucking spiraling
water from a sink.

Frame cropping exercise

You will firstly need to find a small frame. You can normally pick these up incredibly
cheaply from stores or supermarkets. It does not matter what the frame is made of as it
is going to become a viewing device for you to create compositions. You can even cut
a rectangular frame out of cardboard if you are feeling inventive. Find a selection of
images and drawings from magazines, books or artworks that you have created
yourself. Pick out some that are detailed and others that contain a single subject. You
will also need a digital or phone camera but no drawing materials this time.
~ The aim of this exercise is not to draw something, but to practice making new
compositions for the images that you collected by using the frame. Choose an image at
random and crop it by placing the frame on top until you have a new composition and
the picture has been changed. Try the frame in three different positions and see if you
can find a compositionally balanced new picture. Think about the rules that you have
just learned about or recapped if you were already familiar with them and try to apply
them to the exercise. After each time you place the frame and crop the image, take a
photo so that you can compare them all at the end.
~ Keep working through all the imagery that you collected and take pictures as you go.
When you finish, upload the photographs and pick the most balanced and exciting new
composition. Take a moment to think about why this composition is successful and
balanced, and analyze the reasons that you chose it based on the compositional rules
above.

Chapter 11
Drawing Figures
When you are creating figures, I cannot stress enough how important it is to look at the
person that you are drawing! You must also measuring and think about the effects of
perspective if you want to go improve your skills. The best way to think about drawing
figures is to work from the skeleton outwards.
~ Begin with rough lines to mark out the spine, shoulders, hips, head, neck and limbs.
Think about the pose that the person is in and how that angles these parts of the human
body.

~ From this point, the next phase is to flesh out the forms of the body. Keep to simple,
organic shapes that you have practiced drawing. If you feel like a part of the persons
anatomy looks wrong, then measure again and align your pencil or paintbrush with
certain parts to identify the incorrect aspect.

~ Next, add the hands and feet, but draw them as shapes and dont pick out individual
fingers and toes yet. You can also join and round the shapes into a more identifiable
human form. Instead of drawing in the details of the face, sketch a horizontal and
vertical line to mark the middle of the face, where the eyes would be located. The
reason behind this is that the eyes are one of the most important parts of the body that we
use to communicate. As a result, when we draw a figure we want to sketch them in.
However, the direction of the eyes and their positioning on the head has a huge impact
on the way that we look at a figure and can often upset the overall drawing if they are
positioned incorrectly. Practice drawing basic figures in this way first. Once you feel
confident that you can represent the figure, then add in all the detail, clothes, hair, eyes
etc at the end.

Chapter 13
Short Reference on Materials and
Grades
As you learn to draw, and practice increases your abilities, it is a good idea to
understand the principles of the different types of pencils, and how they are graded. The
European System, by which all pencils are generally classified, uses the letters H and
B. H stands for hardness and B stands for Blackness. HB, one of the most common
types of pencil, gives a good quality of both line and a strong tone.
F stands for the grade of pencil in between H and B. As you can probably tell from the
descriptions, B graded pencils are softer, and are great to use for larger areas of tone
and shade, whilst H grade pencils give out a precise line, and are excellent for intricate
detailed work. As you move higher through the grade of B pencils, the tone of the effect
becomes blacker. The opposite is true for H grade pencils, the harder they are, the
lighter the effect of shade that they will make. As you become more accustomed to
drawing in pencil, you will find the grades that suit your style and needs. Using
different pencils for various parts of the work can also create strong and effective
artworks.

Chapter 14
Extra Drawing Tutorial Techniques

Overlapping Sketches
This exercise is useful for building confidence in your own drawing ability. It allows
you to draw figures quickly without worrying about creating a finished artwork. You
will create multiple sketches that overlap one another, a process that forces you to clear
your mind and ignore the previous sketch that is right there in front of you on the paper.
Once you have tried this exercise a few times you will start to be able to draw with
much more confidence in a relaxed and sketchy style. For the purpose of the exercise,
we are going to use a human figure as the subject of the drawing, however this is
applicable to anything you choose to draw, so feel free to adapt to suit yourself and your
own aims. I do highly recommend that you attempt this at least once with a human
model. This doesnt have to be a life model; it could just as easily be a family member
who is chilling out watching a film, or your girlfriend/boyfriend standing talking on the
phone or something similar. It doesnt take long, so use a bit of charm and a smile and
persuade them to stand or sit still for 20 minutes so that you can practice.
You will need a piece of paper or your sketchbook for the exercise, A3 or larger is
ideal because it allows you to be expressive and free with the lines in your work. Four
different types of pencils and pens will also be needed. Pick different colors as well,
this will allow you to distinguish between the layers more easily at the end. A timer,
clock, phone stopwatch or any other tool that can alert you to when five minutes is up is
also necessary.
~ For the first sketch, position the paper portrait way up, take a pencil and draw the
figure in the centre of your page. Be expressive and work quickly, and aim to create an
impression of the person rather than a laboriously measured out anatomical drawing.
Pick out the head, hands and feet, and look at their posture. You will only have five
minutes so draw in the limbs in free, flowing lines as well as picking out small details
on their clothing. After five minutes is up, stop working and leave the drawing exactly
the way it is.
~ You will now need to kindly ask your model to switch into a slightly different pose,
they could angle their body in a new way or cross their legs, move their arms or
whatever they wish to do. The new pose doesnt need to be drastically different from
the last; it just needs to present you with a new challenge. Next, select another pen or
pencil, and remember to make sure that it is not the same color as the previous one. The
final step before you begin the second part of the exercise to rotate your
paper/sketchbook 90 degrees clockwise.

~ Start the timer and draw again, in exactly the same way as before. Centre the figure
right in the middle of the page, and draw directly on top of the previous image. This
may seem odd at first, but it is important not to be precious, as it is going to get much
messier! If this feels uncomfortable then dont worry about it, this is a feeling to work
through and it means that you are pushing yourself outside of your comfort zone,
persevere until the end of the exercise. Again stop drawing when the time is up.
~ Repeat the same steps, ask your model to change to a new pose and rotate your paper
90 degrees clockwise again. Pick a differently colored pencil/pen and draw. Complete
this cycle once more after this until you have drawn the figure four times, in four poses
with four alternately colored pencil/pens.
Stand back and take a look at your work. Rotate your paper back to the initial portrait
position and analyze the figure amongst the others. When you compare the figures, how
does the last drawing contrast and differ from the first? Is it freer and more
expressive? Drawing with a time constraint creates a bit of pressure, and this forces
your brain to pick out the parts of the person that you are drawing that it deems to be
most important, the parts that together can make up their image and personality. The
first sketch in the case of this exercise is difficult. It isnt easy to try and capture
someone in a drawing in five minutes, but as you got used to the timing aspect, did you
feel like you were drawing in a more fluid and free way? The exercise places the
figures on top of the other to make it harder for you to see what you are drawing. It is
deliberately designed to create the potential for expressive lines, amongst the numerous
other quickly sketches lines, a slightly out of proportion shoulder or a leg that is too
short cannot be focused on easily. The exercise is deliberately designed to forgive little
mistakes, and as a consequence, the hand and eye concentrates on the overall impression
of the figure.
The exercise also introduces you to how abstract drawings can still be connected to real
life people and objects, and if you have never tried an abstract drawing before, be
proud, because now you have just completed your first.

Single Line Drawing


This exercise creates a highly stylized drawing and develops both your actual drawing
ability and the way that you look at your subject. It takes a while to get used to drawing
in this style, but once you are, it is a great technique to have within your artistic skill
set. This is a popular aesthetic in graphics and fashion. It is widely used within Fine
Art in a plethora of creative and unexpected ways.
The idea is to create an artwork using a single line, in other words, by never taking your
pencil or pen off the paper. It is still possible, one you have practiced, to make large
scale and intricate drawings using a single unbroken line. Even tonal shading and cross
hatching can be achieved using this method. For this tutorial you will need a ballpoint
ink pen and your sketchbook. You will also need a subject. Pick something exciting
with plenty of detail and lines. I will use a tree for this exercise as the form of the
branches; trunk, leaves and overall shape of the tree lend themselves well to being
drawn in this way.
It is best to start slowly with this exercise. Your natural inclination will be to lift your
pen away from the paper when you reach the end of a line, you must control this feeling.
When you do reach the end of a certain point in the drawing where it seems impossible
to draw the next part without lifting the pen and starting a new line from another point,
simply retrace the line until you find another place to start. This is a little like reversing
a car down a street because it was a dead end.
When drawing, you dont have to keep an even looking line the entire time. Vary your
speed once you become more confident, and change the amount of pressure that you
apply your pen to the paper. It is worth reading through the whole exercise first before
you start to draw because it may be difficult to keep your pen on the drawing and read at
the same time.
~ Take a good, long look at the object in front of you before you start. Now pick a
point somewhere in the middle of the form of the subject and start to draw. For
example, I will begin at the centre of the tree trunk.
~ You dont need to try and draw differently than you normally would but it is
important to pay attention to the form of the tree as a three-dimensional object. Build up
the basic shape of the tree first. Draw the trunk and use this as a solid base to extend
your lines outwards and upwards as the branches and twigs. Once you have a basic
framework for your sketch, start adding the texture and detail.

Drawing texture and detail with a single line


This can seem tricky at first, because to build up texture, normally a repeated stroke,
line, crosshatch or tone is used, and this normally involves lifting your pen away from
the surface of the paper. The trick is to be light with the pen strokes that you make.
Repeated shapes also work well with these kinds of line drawings.
~ In order to draw the leaves, I simply repeat a small leaf shape many times until an
area of shade is created.
Another handy tip is to roughly mark out an area that will all be one texture, then draw a
few areas of detail and leave the rest free. This makes the drawing process quicker
without compromising quality, and creates a clever psychological trick in the mind of
the viewer. These clumps of texture will allow the viewers brain to understand that this
is the texture for that entire area of the drawing. If you provide enough information, then
the viewers mind will fill in the gaps.
~ Once you have finished your drawing, only then can you remove your pen and see the
end result properly!

Conclusion
Summing It Up - Where To Go From
Here
Drawing is one of the most expressive art forms that you can use, and its real quality
lies in its simplicity. It is a fundamental part of any artistic pursuit, and if you work on
the basics that are outlined and described in this eBook, then you will see and feel the
progress in other creative areas of your interests and life. Drawing teaches us to look,
in depth, at the world around us, giving us a creative set of tools to find a way of
understanding the places in which we live, travel through and experience. Richard
Serra, an American artist, said that to draw is to see, and to see is to draw, an
eloquent way of articulating this idea. The quote can be exemplified by the famous work
of genius all-rounder Leonardo Da Vinci, who used drawing as the tool to dissect the
world around him. He used drawing in conjunction with mathematics, engineering,
physics, biology and the natural sciences to create some revolutionary ideas about the
world that are still relevant today.
Im not saying that you need to re-invent the helicopter, but you can use drawing in
whatever way that you wish. Often, artistic instruction comes on strong and tells you
that you must paint in this or that way, or sculpt in a certain exact style, offering
singular, simplistic and boring lectures. The aim of this eBook is to teach the basics.
Dont be fooled into thinking that they are easy, because they arent. Even Michelangelo
said that if people knew how long it took me to make my work then they wouldnt call
it mastery. It takes time and like with any skill and pursuit, from weightlifting and
surfing to making films or drawing a cartoon, if you work hard on the fundamentals, the
rest will follow naturally.
Dont ever be discouraged by anyone ever telling you that your drawing doesnt look
like real life, or that it isnt accurate enough to be good. An artwork can never be
judged as good or bad, only successful or unsuccessful, and since it is you making the
drawings, you get to be the judge of those criteria. If you make a drawing and you learn
something from it, then your next one will be even better for your efforts.
To your success!

Amy Taggart

Preview of "Digital SRL Crash Course!


- A Beginner's Guide to Understanding
Digital Photography & Take the Best
Shots of Your Life"
Introduction
Are You Ready for an Amazing Journey?
Everyone thinks theyre a photographer. Everyone thinks that simply by picking up a
smartphone camera, snapping some shots on vacation, popping an Instagram filter on
them and setting up a Flickr account, theyre automatically a photographer.
They arent. Unless you know about photography, the ins and outs, the form as an art and
as a medium for communication, youre just someone who takes photos.
Make no mistake: anyone can be a photographer. Some have an innate talent, sure, but
anyone can take the time to learn. But learning is essential.
Think of any other art form: painting, illustration, sculpture. Sure, anyone can slop paint
on a canvas. But is it always art? Is it always good? Is it always honest?
Photographer sneaks by because everyone has a camera, but to truly understand the
medium takes as much time, effort and dedication as any art form.
And its not just photography as an art, either: this breezy mentality applies also to
photojournalists (Twitter has taken care of that) and wedding photographers (who needs
one? Weve got our friend, shes got a great camera!). With the rise of pro-sumer SLR
availability has come a dearth of integrity in the field.
And, really, you know this. You know that what distinguishes professionals from

amateurs is not just the hardwareeveryones got that nowbut, rather, what one can
do with the hardware.
Its about more than just gear. Its about knowledge.
With this book, I want to equip you with the knowledge that it takes to become a
professional photographer. I want to help guide you through the maze of amateur
theatrics into something real. Any shmoe can buy a Canon EOS 5D Mark III and take
shots on automatic, but if you want to really delve into what makes the camera special,
you need to understand its points of autofocus, its full frame sensor and its white
balance modes. You need to understand what lenses to use and with what filters.
In short: you need to know your camera.
So thanks for picking up this book. I promise that, by the end of it, youll have not just a
solid understanding of cameras from a technical standpoint, but also a solid
understanding of photography as an art formwhat makes good composition, and what
shapes can create pleasing images.
I wont guide you through specific models, because even though Im writing in 2014,
you may be reading in 2015, and a hundred new models may have been released. But
well touch on a few popular current trends, like digital high dynamic range (HDR)
photography and the new wave of mirrorless cameras, which should give you a sense of
whats going on in the industry.
And even if, by the end of this book, youre still grasping at some of the concepts, dont
worry: you can always look up terms on Google for more detailed explanations, videos
and walkthroughs. This is, after all, a crash course.
So, lets get crashing.

Chapter 1
A Brief History of Digital Photography
Any good crash course ought to start at the very beginningthe beginning not only of
good digital photography sense, but of digital photography itself. Dont worry, we wont
spend too long on this chapter, but it might give you a deeper appreciation for the art
form, its capabilities and just how far its come in a relatively short span of timein
fact, proper digital cameras as we know them were only introduced in the mid- to late1990s, a far cry from their humble beginnings in the late 70s.
The first true prototype began with Kodak, engineered by a man named Steven Sasson in
1975. Sasson grabbed a Kodak movie-camera lens and combined it with some CCD
sensors and Motorola phone parts to create something the size of a small toaster oven
and weighed about as much as a large newborn baby.
Sassons prototype could capture black-and-white images on a clunky old cassette tape,
but the resolution of 0.1 megapixels was literally unheard of. The first photograph
reportedly took 23 seconds to record, to give a sense of how far technology as come.
Of course, Kodakwhich would soon fall behind in the digital photography game
didnt capitalize on this early technological feat. Kodak stuck with film all the way, and
it would come back to haunt them three decades later.
A few more filmless cameras went through experimentation phases throughout the
1970s, but nothing took off commercially until 1981, when Sony launched a magnetic
video camerathe Mavica. An analogue counterpart to film, the Mavica operated on
AA batteries, and stored photos on giant floppy disks that could store up to 50
photographs. The light sensitivity was roughly equivalent to ISO 200, and the shutter
speed fixed at 1/60th of a second.
The Mavica launched a brief period of analogue creativity in the camera world, which
was followed up by Canon to only some success. In general, analogue cameras cost
much more than their quality attested to, though photojournalists put them to good use
during major events like the 1984 Olympics, and late-decade events like Beijings
Tiananmen Square protests and the Gulf War. For standard commercial users, paying
$1,500 for poor quality didnt make sense.
After the first true digital camera was produced in 1981 by scientists at the University

of Calgary in Alberta, Canada (it was produced mainly for night sky and space
photography), Canon took the helm by commissioning a proper digital camera in 1983,
though it never went beyond trade showspresumably, it was either too expensive, not
user-friendly enough or too clunky to ship.
Either way, it would be nearly another decade before digital cameras actually hit retail
stores in 1990. It was called the Dycam Model 1, and used a CCD sensor to record
pictures digitally and upload them directly to a connected PC.
That same year, a pre-Adobe version of Photoshop was launched, roughly around the
same time some entrepreneurs began attaching digital backs to film single-lens reflex
cameras (SLRs). The digital revolution, though still in its infancy, had begun to fully
take shape.
In the early 1990s, every major tech company joined the fray with more devotion.
Kodak launched a camera called the DCS 200 with a built-in hard drive, while Nikons
N8008s offered images in both color and black and white. Apple even ventured forward
with something called the QuickTake, a collaboration with Kodak (and later Fuji) that
was the first digital camera for under $1,000, but which did not take off.
CompactFlash cards, those large chunky cards that even Canon digital Rebel SLRs stuck
with up until very recently, were introduced in the mid-90s, with Kodak once again
helming the tech charge with its innovative built-in CompactFlash technology in 1996.
But 1995 was the true year for digital camera innovation.
But it wasnt until Casio ventured forward that compact cameras became truly, well,
compact. Casios QV-10, released in 1995, offered a 1.8-inch LCD screen on the back
and a pivoting lens. It still used a CCD sensor and stored up to just under 100 color
images, but introduced the world to features like the macro preset, auto-exposure and a
self-timer.
This was also around the time that movie and sound capabilities entered the picture,
bumping up the cost of a standard compact from $1,000 to $1,500. Webcams, too,
became commercially viable in 1995, with Logitech spearheading the territory with its
VideoMan product.
Canons now-infamous PowerShot series took flight shortly after all this technology
was introduced in 1996. It boasted a larger CCD sensor than most others before it
(832x608 pixels), as well as camera mainstays like a built-in flash and optical

viewfinder, not to mention auto-white balance and an LCD screen on the back. In other
words: it was what we understand today to be what a digital camera. Canon also
figured out how to drive costs down, so they could charge a cool $949 at the start.
Since then, Nikons CoolPix and Sonys CyberShot series became serious contendors,
while Fuji, Olympus, Kodak, Casio and Panasonic would rise and fall to varying
degrees throughout the next two decades. But commercial digital photographythe
basics of itis not even 20 years old, as of this time of writing (in 2014).
That means that everything in the last two decadesevery digital SLR, mirrorless
camera, phone cam, filter and appall came flooding in a very small span of time.
We can then understand digital photography as a recent arteven though photography is
a much older one, the ability to produce magical digital artscapes, put images into
Photoshop and play around, and combine exposures quickly with methods like multiple
digital exposure and HDR, are all relatively new experiments.
Digital photographers are still figuring this game out. Even the best in the business
havent been doing it as long as youve been alive. That gives you an advantage, really:
even if youre just starting out in the world of digital photographic art, youre not nearly
as far back as you think.
Click here to check out the rest of "Digital SRL Crash Course! - A Beginner's Guide to
Understanding Digital Photography & Take the Best Shots of Your Life (with
pictures!)" on Amazon!

Ps: You'll find many more books like these under my name, Amy Taggart.
Don't miss them! Here's a short list:

Crochet For Beginners!


Crochet Creations (Clothing, Jewelry, Gifts & More)
Cleaning And Organizing FAST!
Much, much more!

About the Author


Amy Taggart is a self defined "endless learner", devoted to helping
others to unlock their full potential all around the world.
From a very young age, Taggart understood the value and potential of
leading a healthy lifestyle, where the balance between work,
hobbies, and crafts is found. And because of her genuine
appreciation and enthusiasm for all things health-related, she has
dedicated a great deal of time and effort to researching the best of
what wellbeing programs have to offer.
In the beginning, Taggart focused on working with people in various settings and
coaching groups. Before long she became exceedingly in tune with the solutions that had
the best results for her clients issues and goals. But after years of accumulating one
expertise following another, Taggart decided she wanted to reach out to even more
individuals.
She wanted to help people on a bigger scale. For this reason she resolved to share her
extensive knowledge with people through writing and publishing books pertaining to her
vast knowledge. Currently she has authored books on such cutting-edge topics as
Crochet, Knitting, Cleaning and Organizing, and so on.
Taggart has a real passion for all the subjects she writes about and she takes the job
seriously. She knows self-development is, for a lot of people, as significant as it is for
her. But she also knows how tough it is to change ones lifestyle. With this in mind, her
aim while writing is to make the concepts and instructions as helpful and accessible to
her readers as possible. After all, for her the end objective is improving the lives of
others.