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SBEA 1313

The term structure a a form generator describes a relationship between structure and
architecture. It is a structural requirement that influences the form of buildings even though the structure
itself is not necessarily exposed. Since the development of structural technologies and the aid of
computer design software it has been possible to design buildings.
In this assignment, I understand basic principle of certain building structures. I also learn to distinguish
between Architectural and Engineering structures and I became interest in designing building with
alternative structures.



The Erasmus Bridge is a combined cable-stayed and bascule bridge in the centre of Rotterdam,
connecting the north and south parts of this city, second largest in the Netherlands. The bridge was
named after Desiderius Erasmus a.k.a. Erasmus of Rotterdam, a prominent Christian renaissance


The Seri Wawasan Bridge is one of the main bridges in Putrajaya, the Malaysian federal administrative
capital. This futuristic cable-stayed bridge which has a sail ship appearance, connects Precinct 2 on the
Core Island to the residential area of Precinct 8.


The Seri Saujana Bridge is a main bridge in Putrajaya, the Malaysian federal administrative capital. The
bridge's design is uniquecable-stayed arch bridge and it is similar to the Sydney Harbour
Bridge in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Seri Saujana connects the Core Island (Precinct 4) to the
Precinct 7 on Lebuh Sentosa highway and is strategically located at the main entrance into the Core
Island from the south via the upgraded.


The Kuala Lumpur International Airport 2 (KLIA2) is built to be Malaysia's Next Generation
Hub - International Airport Hub - that allows seamless connectivity for both local and international low-cost
plus full-service carriers. The KLIA2 is built to cater for the explosive growth in low cost travel. It is
designed to cater 45 million passengers a year, replacing the Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) once it's
ready. It is built with bigger capacity and superior facilities..


The Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin Mosque, or Iron Mosque is the second principal mosque
in Putrajaya, Malaysia after Putra Mosque. It is located in Putrajaya's Precinct 3, opposite the Palace of
Justice. Construction began since April 2004 and was fully completed on August 2009. [1] It was officially
opened by the 13th Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin on 11 June 2010.[2]
The mosque was built to cater to approximately 24,000 residents including the government servants
working around the city center as well as areas within Precincts 2, 3, 4 and 18. Tuanku Mizan Zainal
Abidin Mosque's area is twice that of Putra Mosque, which is located 2.2 kilometres north.


The 802-metre-long (2,631 ft) bridge across the New Meuse was designed by Ben van Berkel and
completed in 1996. The cable-stayed bridge section has a single 139-metre-high
(456 ft) asymmetrical white pylon with a prominent horizontal base, earning the bridge its nickname "The

This bridge is selected because it is the worlds longest swing bridge. Other than that, the bridge is very
iconic as it has the slender 139 meter high steel pylon, that rests on either side of the bridge deck. Two
sets of sixteen cables run to the deck, and two thick cables anchor the pylon at the rear.

Erasmus Bridge is the largest and heaviest cable-stayed bridge in Western Europe, and also has one of
the largest panels of its type in the entire world. Its length is 800 meters, and the pylon is fastened by 32
stays to keep everything in place. The fixed area of the bridge is 284 meters, with a 139 meter tall pylon
that is secured by 16 cables on each side, and has two thick cables that link the pylon to the rear of the
bridge. The movable part of the bridge on the southern end is 50 meters long, and most of its 31 meters
across is used for the tram and for cyclists. In order to maintain its integrity over the long-term, steel was
used for every part of the bridge, including its cable, pylon, and deck. Also, steel was used for the entire
construction process since concrete was very expensive. A bridge of this size and importance needs to
stand up to time and the elements. However, just after the bridge opened to traffic, it was discovered that
the bridge would start to swing under very heavy rain and wind conditions. In order to minimize weather
effects in the future, shock absorbers were installed and, since then, has not been an issue.


The concrete bridge is a combination of cable backstays and structural steel tie back. It is a dual three
lane carriageways of 18.6m width each, comprising 3 x 3.5m width lanes, 0.5 m hard shoulder, 0.5m
marginal strip. The median is 4 m wide and walkway cum cycle track width is 5.1m giving a total width of
37.2m at the centre of the bridge.


One of the unique points of the Seri Wawasan Bridge is the fact that the bridge is designed to look like a
cable-stayed bridge, allowing it to stand out from the other bridges as the building designs look different
with the common bridges we can find anywhere else in Malaysia and even in your own home country.



The bored pile system was chosen due to its reliability in resisting the horizontal forces. In bore piling, all
piles are cast in site. The ground will be bored and keep as hollow by assist of steel casing. The steel
casings are screwed together in section


The inverted Y shape pylon has an overall height of 96.6m from top of the pile-cap level. The foundation
of the pylon is 4~4.5m thick reinforced concrete pile-cap supported by 76 nos. The selection of inverted
Y has limited the second order effect of forces and increase the structural capacities at the lower part
which is subjected to high axial loads and moments.


The bridge deck is a twin call in-situ pre-stressed reinforced concrete box girder with two transverse rib
wings spaced at every 5m, and 1.5m deep edge beams to accommodate the cable stay anchorages. The
designer used the state of art finite element tools to carry out the structural analysis to understand the
actual distribution of loads and the behavior of the bridge.


There are thirty pairs of front stays and twenty one pairs of back stays. All of the front stays supporting the
main span are arranged in a fan shape. All of the front stays have anchored within the hollow pylon and
were stressed from the lower adjustable anchorage point nearest to the pylon creating a cross-over effect
from side elevation view.


Seri Saujana is a new concept of the cable-stayed arch bridge. The bridge is controlled by the principal
design parameters to reflect a transparent, elegant and futuristic slender looking structure, with an overall
single span of 300m and total width of 32m. There are dual three lane carriageways. The deck level
varies from RL 35.25m at abutment to RL 35m at centre of the bridge.

Seri Saujana is a unique combination of cable stay and steel arch design which seems a kind of belt and
braces approach to keeping the bridge aloft. Its taut cables remind me of a giant harp. The bridge has
grey and white main stay cables and blue back stays. The design always show a futuristic and out of
norma of Malaysian culture.

The overall structure scheme is of a continuous pre-stressed concrete box girder deck spanning between
a singular central plane of a cable stays, and two planes of hangers running parallel to stays along the
edge of the deck. The stays are supported by inclined concrete pylons, which in turn are anchored by two
planes of back stays. The hangers are suspended by two steel inclined arches, which ends are tried
through the deck. Both pylons and arches sit on abutments at their side of the lake.


The cable stay system for supporting a deck itself a relatively modern bridge form, the system employed
in this bridge is not initially obvious. Firstly there will have been a debate on the number of spans required
for a total span of 300m. For this distance it would be common to use three, with the piers spaced
proportionally close to the embankments, with a larger main span. In many cases there are tables/graphs
which can be referred to in order to achieve the most economic arrangement of bridge and element
variables such as spans, heights etc. In this case there is only a single span, which I assume was to span
the entire lake without the need for any intermediate piers. Without these side spans, it does make the
analysis slightly more straightforward, as the loaded region is only the main span, the potential effects
adverse or beneficial of loading the side spans are avoided, as this section of carriageway sits inland.


The two inclined arches appear parabolic in shape constructed from 2.2m diameter rolled steel sections,
inclined to the point they almost meet at their peak, 34m over the mid span of the deck. They are braced
together using longitudinal and tangential stiffeners, forming a K shape. The hangers are therefore
inclined from the arches picking up the edges of the deck. The hangers would have to be symmetrically
spaced and the tensions distributed evenly along the arch to attempt to ensure both arches were evenly


The foundations of the main abutments which the pylon and arches both sit consist of a 25.5m long pile
cap, with 82 1.3m diameter piles. This seems quite large, but if the structures systems mentioned before
are all designed correctly should only be designed to resist vertical loading which evidently much be

pretty high, as there should be very little moment, and all the horizontal forces should balance. The back
stay are anchored into earth filled concrete boxes, designed to counterweight the tensions in the stays.


The new KLIA2 terminal is measured to be at least 257,000 sqm, with 60 gates, 8 remote stands, 80
aerobridges, plus a retail space of 32,000 sqm to accommodate 225 retail outlets. Costing around 4
billion Malaysia Ringgit, the KLIA2 was scheduled to be opened on 28 June,2013. Due to construction
delay, the new KLIA2 terminal is officially opened on 2 May 2014

This building was choosen because it is equipped with the Skybridge. klia2 Skybridge, the first in Asia and
only the third in the world, was completed after the last piece of its structure was installed. To mark the
completion of the Skybridge construction, members of the media and key stakeholders were invited to
witness the installation of the roof thrust of the Skybridge structure, symbolizing the whole connection of
the Sky Bridge is completed.

The Skybridge steel structures were erected and connected in stages where the whole bridge was divided
into two sections, to allow for full passenger segregation implementation at the terminal. In structural point
of view, the proposed skybridge provides a means of lateral resistance to the building towers. The floor
systems made of slab act as a horizontal diaphragms with very large stiffness in the horizontal direction.
They help to distribute the lateral load into vertical structural elements such as walls and columns apart
from resisting vertical load.
Other than the skybridge, the arched forms of the roof structure will promote natural cooling by
harnessing the laminar airflow over it surface and channel rainwater for collection and use in building


The mosque was built to cater to approximately 24,000 residents including the government servants
working around the city center as well as areas within Precincts 2, 3, 4 and 18. Tuanku Mizan Zainal
Abidin Mosque's area is twice that of Putra Mosque, which is located 2.2 kilometres north

I choose this building of the present of arc that support the roof part of the building. The right material is
used to make sure the support structure combine naturally with other structures.

The structure of the mosque was executed using steel framing system which is one type of industrialized
building systems. The mosque was built using approximately 6,000 tonnes of steel, or seventy percent of
the entire building.The architectural style of the mosque is the Islamic modern style. The main entrance is
reinforced with Glass Reinforced Concrete to increase the integrity of the structure and uses fine glass to
create an illusion of a white mosque from afar.

As the conclusion, I have learnt various types of structure from different types of building from
around the world. I understand basic principle of certain building structures. I also learn to distinguish
between Architectural and Engineering structures and I became interest in designing building with
alternative structures. From the simple structure to the complex structure. The structure is the main things
that keep the buildings stand still. Inverted Y pylon from Erasmusburg bridge, reinforced concrete box
girder from Seri Wawasan bridge, cable stayed system in Seri Saujana bridge, the skybridge from
KLIA2, and the arc from Iron Mosque Putrajaya. The learnt structure can be used in my future design.


Walther, R. and Houriet, B. (1999), Cable

Stayed Bridge 2nd Edition, Thomas Telford, London

Tomlinson, M.J. (1995), Foundation Design & Construction - 6th Edition,

Longman, Harlow, England

Troisky, M.S. (1988), CableStayed Bridges Theory and Design 2nd Edition, BSP, London
Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin Mosque,
Erasmus Bridge
KLIA 2 Info
LEE Chang Long , A Study and Evaluation on Seri Wawasan Bridge
in Putrajaya, Malaysia.