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Operations and Maintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline

When equalizing the movement of air in both directions as indicated by the streamers, the evacuation of the pipeline should continue for fifteen minutes.

Conduct gas test with a combustible gas indicator for the presence of gas in and around the access opening or in the ends of the pipe. If no gas is indicated, the pipeline is available for cutting “cold” operation.

The movement of air into the access hole of open ends of the pipe must be maintained throughout the cutting and welding operation.

Prior to cutting out cylindrical piece of pipe, reduce the air mover rate so as to minimize spark travel in the pipe. Before severing, the pipe should be restrained by clamps, side boom or blocking.

When the cutting has been completed, the air mover may be adjusted to a rate required for the next operation. The air mover should be adjusted to a rate that will minimize welding problems on the replacement pipe. Control the pressure settings on the air movers to control vacuum on the pipeline and eliminate blow in of welds as the pipeline is closed to the atmosphere by welding.

Upon completion and acceptance of the welds, remove air mover equipment and return pipeline to service after purging the pipeline with natural gas.

Air Gage Compressed Discharge Induced 8 10 12 16 24 20 30 36 Mover Pressure
Air
Gage
Compressed
Discharge
Induced
8
10
12
16
24
20
30
36
Mover
Pressure
Air SCFM
Air
Air
Size
PSIG
SCFM
SCFM
Plug Valve
Inch
Full size
access hole
w/ air supply
Plug valve
with air
with gas
supply
supply
20
19.0
274
255.0
30
26.4
397
370.6
40
33.4
496
462.6
3
50
40.8
561
520.2
60
49.8
614
561.2
70
60.0
681
621.0
80
72.4
736
663.6
20
48.0
900
852.0
30
91.0
1350
1259.0
40
141.0
1800
1658.0
6
50
192.0
2250
2058.0
60
242.0
2700
2458.0
70
293.0
3150
2857.0
30
149.0
2900
2751.0
42
214.0
3700
3486.0
10
55
262.0
4240
5879.0
70
342.0
5050
4708.0
81
398
5560
5162.0

Source: AGA Purging Principle and Practice 1975.Table 8-2.

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2.17 Safety Related Condition Report

CODE REFERENCE: Title 49 CFR Sections 191.23, 191.25, 192.485 and 192.605(d)

PURPOSE: To define safety related conditions and establish responsibilities for reporting safety related conditions on company pipelines.

GENERAL: Safety related conditions involving pipeline facilities shall be reported to the Production Coordinator as soon as they are noted. The Production Coordinator will determine if the condition is reportable under the provisions of CFR 49 Section 191.23.

Designated operating personnel will look for possible safety related conditions while conducting routine operating functions and when following applicable procedures for inspections and surveillance.

The Production Coordinator or designated operating personnel will complete the Safety Related Conditions Report form. If completed by operating personnel, it must be provided to the Production Coordinator as soon as possible, but not more than five (5) working days after discovery.

The Production Coordinator is responsible for evaluating safety related conditions and reporting to governing agencies. Reports must be received by the governing agencies no later than five (5) working days after the day of determination or ten (10) days after the day of discovery.

If a possible safety related condition is discovered which results in taking the facility out of service due to an incident before determination and not more than five (5) working days from discovery, the reporting requirements of this procedure are eliminated.

DEFINITIONS “Safety Related Condition” as described in the criteria below is a condition, which lies within 200 yards of any building intended for human occupancy or outdoor place of assembly, or within the right-of-way of an active railroad, asphalt or concrete paved road, street or highway.

“Discovery Date” is the date that a condition is identified that may be classified as a safety related condition under this procedure, but requires additional evaluation or analysis.

“Determination Date” is the date when a condition evaluation results in the conclusion that is a safety related condition.

“Working Days” are Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays.

SAFETY RELATED CONDITION CRITERIA - The following are safety related conditions reportable under CFR 49 Part 191.23, applicable to pipeline facilities:

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1. On a pipeline that operates at hoop stress of 20% or more of its Specified Minimum Yield Strength when:

General corrosion has reduced the wall thickness to less than that required for the Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure, and for the Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure, and

Localized corrosion pitting to a degree where leakage might result.required for the Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure, and 2. Unintended movement or abnormal loading by environmental

2. Unintended movement or abnormal loading by environmental causes, such as earthquake, landslide, or flood that impairs the serviceability of pipeline or the structural integrity or reliability of a facility that contains, controls or processes gas.

3. Any material defect or physical damage that impairs the serviceability of a pipeline that operates at a hoop stress 20% or more of its Specified Minimum Yield Strength.

4. Any malfunction or operating error that causes the pressure of a pipeline containing gas to rise above its Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure plus the build-up allowable for operation or pressure limiting or control devices.

5. A leak in a pipeline that is characterized by the need for immediate corrective action to protect the public or property and that constitutes an emergency.

6. Any safety related condition that could lead to an imminent hazard and causes (either directly or indirectly by remedial action of the Company ), for purposes other than abandonment, a 20% more reduction in operating pressure or shutdown of operation of a pipeline that contains or processes gas.

7. Reduction in pressure as a precaution to avoid an unsafe condition for the following activities is not reportable:

Abandonment of pipeline facilities,condition for the following activities is not reportable: Routine maintenance or construction, Facilitate inspection

Routine maintenance or construction,is not reportable: Abandonment of pipeline facilities, Facilitate inspection for potential problems, Avoid

Facilitate inspection for potential problems, inspection for potential problems,

Avoid problems related to external loading from blasting or subsidence,construction, Facilitate inspection for potential problems, Provide for safe line movement. Using the above listed

Provide for safe line movement.related to external loading from blasting or subsidence, Using the above listed criteria, personne l who

Using the above listed criteria, personnel who perform operation and maintenance activities should be able to recognize conditions that may be potentially safety related.

REPORTING OF SAFETY RELATED CONDITIONS- Report safety-related conditions to PHMSA and CPUC for all safety related conditions resulting from defects outlined above regardless of when the condition is repaired. Use WGS Form 108 Safety Related Condition Report and provide the following information:

Condition Report and provide the following information: Name and principal address of Company Gas O&M.doc

Name and principal address of Company

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Date of reportOperations and Maintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline Name, job title, and business telephone number of person

Name, job title, and business telephone number of person submitting the reportMaintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline Date of report Name, job title, and bus iness telephone number

Name, job title, and business telephone number of person who deter mined that the condition exists iness telephone number of person who determined that the condition exists

Date condition was discovered and date condition was first determined to existnumber of person who deter mined that the condition exists Location of condition, with reference to

Location of condition, with reference to the State (and town, city, or county), and as appropriate, nearest street address, survey station number, milepost, landmark, or name of pipeline. as appropriate, nearest street address, survey station number, milepost, landmark, or name of pipeline.

Description of the condition, including circumstances leading to its discovery, any significant effects of the condition on s afety, and the name of the commodity transported significant effects of the condition on safety, and the name of the commodity transported or stored.

The corrective action taken (including reduction of pressure or shutdown) before the report is submitted and the planned follow-up or future corrective action, including the anticipated the report is submitted and the planned follow-up or future corrective action, including the anticipated schedule for starting and concluding such action.

A safety related condition is not reportable if:

It becomes an incident before the deadline for filing the safety related condition report. Report the situation per Section 2.2 “Incidents e for filing the safety related condition report. Report the situation per Section 2.2 “Incidents – Reporting and Control” of this manual.

It exists on a pipeline that is more than 220 yards from any building intended for human occupancy or outdoor place of assembly, except that reports are required for conditions within human occupancy or outdoor place of assembly, except that reports are required for conditions within the right-of-way of an active railroad, paved road, street, or highway.

It is corrected by repair or replacement in accordance with applicable safety standards before the deadline for filing the safety related condition report, except that reports are standards before the deadline for filing the safety related condition report, except that reports are required for the conditions in “SAFETY RELATED CONDITION CRITERIA” above, other than localized corrosion pitting on an effectively coated and cathodically protected pipeline.

Designated operating personnel shall contact the Production Coordinator promptly if a possible safety related condition is discovered.

Operating personnel shall provide relevant information on an expedited schedule to support the timely submission of report to the PHMSA. The Safety Related Condition Report form is to be used as a communication tool by Operating Personnel to provide proper information to the Production Coordinator. If the Production Coordinator determines that a reportable safety related condition exists, then he/she shall complete the form. In either case, the form must be completed and a report submitted within five (5) working days after the condition is discovered, but not later than one (1) working day after determination.

The Production Coordinator will evaluate and confirm the reportability of a condition. If

a condition is determined to be reportable, the Production Coordinator will submit the

necessary written report to the appropriate agencies and to the D.O.T./PHMSA within five (5) working days (not including Saturday, Sunday or Federal holidays) of determination, but not later than ten (10) working days after discovery of the condition, at the following address:

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Office of Pipeline Safety Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration U.S. Department of Transportation Information Resources Manager PHP-10 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE. Washington, DC 20590-0001

Telephone 800-424-8802

CPUC Reporting:

Copies of all reports submitted to the Secretary of Transportation shall be submitted to the Commission concurrently.

RECORDS: For intrastate pipelines, and in states where the state is an Agent for the D.O.T., a report copy will be sent to the applicable state agency and CPUC.

Copies of Safety Related Conditions Report form and reports to the D.O.T./PHMSA and other agencies will be sent to the applicable Company offices.

A copy of all correspondence related to reported conditions will be kept the office experiencing the incident for five (5) years.

Reports on all corrective action taken will be kept by the local office for at least five years.

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2.18 Security of Facilities

CODE REFERENCE: 192.179(b)(1), 192.605(a)

PURPOSE: To protect the health and well being of members of the public who may trespass on a company pipeline facility.

GENERAL: Pipeline facilities can be very dangerous places to those untrained and those oblivious of the danger. Security of a facility may not only keep these people out but may also deter the saboteur or vandal.

SECURITY OF STORAGE AREAS - Jurisdictional facilities such as breakout storage facilities, well pads, etc. on pipelines shall be secured by installing a fence around each facility appropriate for the area. Normally this would include a fence approximately six feet high around the perimeter of the facility or around the above ground components of the facility not otherwise secured. All gates providing access to the facility shall be equipped with locking devices and shall be kept locked when the facility is unmanned. If a facility is manned continuously, locking gates are not required.

SECURITY OF BLOCK VALVES - All mainline block valves and any other valves that has the potential of over pressuring or causing a release of the pipeline product if opened or closed unexpectedly are located in secured areas with locked facilities and/or 24 hour security.

SECURITY OF PUMP STATIONS - Pump stations shall be secured in the same manner as storage areas. In addition to the general security provided by the fencing, additional security is recommended in the form of locking such things as the doors to electrical switchgear buildings, offices, transformers and other electrical equipment carrying voltages greater than 220 volts.

SECURITY OF RECTIFIERS - Rectifiers installed along the pipeline shall be installed in an enclosure equipped for locking and be kept locked at all times.

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2.19 Tapping Pipelines under Pressure

CODE REFERENCE: Title 49 CFR Sections 192.151, 192.155, and 192.627

PURPOSE: To establish the requirements necessary for the installation of hot taps on pipelines under pressure.

GENERAL: Hot tapping is the installation of a branch connection with a valve on an existing pipeline while the facility is in service and under pressure.

The Production Coordinator or Engineer will be responsible for the design of the tap and the maximum allowed pressure in the carrier pipe when welding and cutting the tap.

The tapping machine used and the fittings installed shall be designed to meet or exceed the operating pressure of the line being tapped.

The Project Engineer will be responsible for procedures to be followed in making hot taps and for installation of the tap.

Split tapping tees will normally be used for branch connections. Saddles will only be used if tapping tees cannot be obtained.

The term saddle shall include reinforcing saddles, wrap around saddles, or wrap around pipe, saddles, and proprietary fittings.

Only qualified welders and crewmembers will be utilized in the hot tapping procedure.

All welding performed in the installation of the tap shall be done in accordance with the API 1104.

PROCEDURE:

CONDITION OF THE PARENT PIPE - If there is a question concerning the type of existing pipe at a proposed tap location, the Production Coordinator will provide assistance in identifying the type of pipe.

Visually inspect the external of the pipe in the area for the defects such as corrosion, mechanical damage, etc.

The pipe to be tapped shall be free of laminations and free of any significant external or internal corrosion.

The wall thickness of the pipe to be tapped must be 0.156 inch or greater, as determined with an ultrasonic thickness gauge.

The pipe to be tapped shall not operate at a temperature above 200º Fahrenheit.

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TAP LOCATION - The tap location must be at least 5 feet from a bend on a straight section of pipe so as to minimize secondary stresses due to shifting of the main line.

The outside edge of the hot tap nipple will be a minimum of two (2) inches from the longitudinal seam of the parent pipe and shall be a minimum distance of six (6) inches from a girth weld.

Generally, hot taps will be installed on the side; however, where prevailing circumstances warrant, they may be installed on the top of the parent pipe.

The tap shall not be made through any weld circumferential or longitudinal seam weld, or its heat - affected zone. If inspection reveals that the proposed location of the tap falls in a bend or in a weld, another location shall be selected.

INSTALLATION OF HOT TAP NIPPLE AND VALVE

SPECIFICATIONS – To provide added structural strength to the branch connection point, unless otherwise specified, pre-tested heavy wall thickness pipe will be used for all hot tap nipples as follows:

For tap sizes 8” and above, ½” wall thickness minimum, a minimum of 35,000 psi specified minimum yield strength (SYMS) up to SMYS of the carrier pipe, seamless, minimum length specified minimum yield strength (SYMS) up to SMYS of the carrier pipe, seamless, minimum length 8-1/2”.

For tap sizes 6” and under, use schedule 80 wall thickness, minimum of 35,000 psi SYMS, seamless, minimum length 6- 1/2”. psi SYMS, seamless, minimum length 6-1/2”.

All hot tap nipples must be cut from pipe that has been pretested to a pressure specified by the Production Engineer.

Nipple length will be a minimum of one diameter except in larger sizes where the length is limited by tapping machine travel.

All valves used in tapping three (3) inches and larger pipe diameters will be flanged. Valves smaller than three (3) inches pipe diameter may be threaded.

PREPARATION AND WELDING OF HOT TAP NIPPLE

FIT-UP WELDING - The hot tap nipple will be fitted, beveled and welded only by a qualified welder.

The hot tap nipple will be fitted and beveled to provide equal spacing around the circumference of the nipple. The nipple should be beveled at an exaggerated angle in the throat area to allow sufficient clearance for filling in this area.

Complete penetration of the root bead is necessary; however, excessive penetration is

undesirable due to interference with the cutter head of the tapping machine.

An inside

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pass of the weld joining the nipple to the parent pipe will not be permitted. For assurance of proper nipple weld, the saddle tap nipple should be installed prior to installing the valve.

Extreme care will be exercised to maintain a true 90-degree angle between the axis of the parent pipe and to maintain a straight centerline between the nipple and valve in order to maintain the proper position of the cutter head during the tapping operation.

All moisture and condensation shall be dried from the carrier pipe and the saddled end of the hot tap nipple by heating immediately before welding commences.

TESTING AND INSPECTION

LEAK TEST – Each hot tap fabrication shall be hydrostatically tested. Pretested pipe may be used.

Prior to installation of the weld saddle or split tee, each hot tap installation will be subjected to a leak test within the following pressure range:

Maximum Test Pressure - 10% above line pressure existing at point of tap. Minimum Test Pressure - Line pressure existing at point of tap.

During the test, the weld and valve body will be closely examined for pinhole leaks and other defects.

Radiographic inspection of butt welds is necessary. The fillet weld joining the hot tap nipple to the carrier pipe is to be examined visually and, at the discretion of the welding inspector, it can be inspected for surface defects utilizing the magnetic particle or penetrant testing methods.

INSTALLATION OF SPLIT TAPPING TEE

INSTALLATION AND WELDING – The split tee shall be installed using a chain and jack or similar arrangement to insure a snug fit around the parent pipe.

The longitudinal welds shall be made first. The welder shall begin at the center of the saddle and work toward the ends. Each welder shall make each pass, including the stringer bead, for the entire length of the weld before successive passes are added. No connecting weld will be made between the split tee and the parent pipe along the longitudinal seam (using a backing piece when possible).

Weld the ends of the split tee to the parent pipe.

The extruded outlet of the split tee reinforcement will be butt welded to the hot tap nipple or flange.

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COMPLETION OF HOT TAP – The tapping machine will be bolted to the flange of the valve. If a horizontal tap is being made, the tapping machine shall be supported so that no stress will be placed on the hot tap nipple and valve. Extreme care is to be exercised in properly aligning and operating the tapping machine. The hole will then be cut in the carrier pipe to complete the hot tap.

Each hot tap fabrication with the connected tapping machine shall be hydrostatically leak tested prior to cutting the hole. Pressure shall be limited to prevent overstressing the carrier pipe from external pressure and overpressuring the tapping machine.

The hole will then be cut in the carrier pipe to complete the hot tap.

COATING ASSEMBLY – Upon completion of the tap the entire assembly is to be thoroughly cleaned, primed, and coated with a coating that is compatible with the coating system on the carrier pipe.

INSTALLATION OF FULL ENCIRCLEMENT REINFORCING SADDLE

PREPARATION – The effectiveness of a full encirclement reinforcing saddle depends upon a snug fit around the carrier pipe. Maximum surface contact between the outside of the carrier pipe and the inside of the saddle is necessary prior to welding the two halves of the saddle together.

To accomplish the snug fit it might be necessary to grind a smooth groove inside the saddle to fit the longitudinal weld of the carrier pipe. The saddle thickness shall not be reduced to less than the thickness of the parent pipe. The groove in the saddle must be such that the longitudinal parent pipe weld will not contact the bottom of the groove before the inside of the saddle contacts the outside of the carrier pipe.

INSTALLATION AND WELDING – The saddle shall be installed using a chain and jack or similar arrangement to insure a snug fit around the carrier pipe and the hot tap nipple.

The longitudinal welds shall be made first. The welder shall begin at the center of the saddle and work toward the ends. The welder shall make each pass, including the stringer bead, for the entire length of the weld before successive passes are added. No connecting weld will be made between the reinforcement and the parent pipe (use a backing piece when possible).

The extruded outlet of the reinforcement will be fillet welded to the hot tap nipple.

Do not weld the ends of the reinforcing saddle to the carrier pipe.

COMPLETION OF HOT TAP – The tapping machine will be bolted to the flange of the valve. If a horizontal tap is being made, the tapping machine shall be supported so that no stress will be placed on the hot tap nipple and valve. Extreme care is to be

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exercised in the properly aligning and operating the tapping machine. The hole will then be cut in the carrier pipe to complete the hot tap.

COATING ASSEMBLY – Upon completion of the tap the entire assembly is to be thoroughly cleaned, primed, and coated with a coating that is compatible with the coating system on the parent pipe. Special care should be taken to effectively seal the ends of the full encirclement saddle so that no moisture can penetrate and enter the area between the saddle and parent pipe. This is extremely important since the ends of the saddle are not welded to the parent pipe.

CONCRETE SUPPORT – Horizontal tap installations will be supported by concrete foundations extending back and under the line being tapped, placed on firm soil and installed as soon as possible after the side connection is welded in place.

RECORDS: Submit as-built documentation for updating of drawings.

On buried pipeline, complete WGS Form 109 Pipeline Leak Repair Form.

A record shall be made of each hot tap installed on a pipeline, and records shall be retained for the life of the pipeline in the appropriate file.

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SECTION 3.0 – PIPELINE MAINTENANCE

Operations and Maintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline

SECTION 3.0 PIPELINE MAINTENANCE

3.1 Abandonment or Inactivation of Facilities

CODE REFERENCE: Title 49 CFR Section 192.727

PURPOSE: To establish minimum requirements for the abandonment of natural gas pipeline facilities.

DEFINITIONS - Abandoned facilities are those which have been determined to have no present or future use, and have ceased operation, either due to deterioration or because they are not needed for gas transportation use now or in the future. An abandoned pipeline is a pipeline that is physically separated from its source of gas and is no longer maintained under CFR 49 Part 192.

Inactive facilities are those that have ceased operation, but may be returned to service in the future. An inactive pipeline is maintained under Part 192.

GENERAL:

individual basis.

Facilities to be abandoned will be evaluated and handled on an

All applicable Federal, State, county, and local regulations or ordinances shall be complied with in the abandonment of gas facilities.

Physically remove all abandoned facilities if practical. If this is not feasible, sever below grade and remove all aboveground piping and equipment.

Pipeline facilities abandoned in place will not be maintained and should not be considered for reactivation for service at a later date.

PROCEDURE ABANDONMENT: Facilities to be abandoned shall be disconnected from all potential sources and supplies of gas, such as other pipeline mains, producer's piping, crossovers, control lines, metering and regulating stations, etc. by a physical separation. All associated valves shall be locked and tagged closed and/or disconnected.

Abandoned facilities shall be purged of natural gas. If air is used as a purging medium, precautions shall be taken to ensure that a combustible mixture is not present after purging and that the mixture cannot ignite during purging.

After purging, the abandoned pipeline must be sealed at both ends, using one of the following methods:

Normal end closures,be sealed at both ends, using one of the following methods: Welding steel plate to pipe

Welding steel plate to pipe ends,using one of the following methods: Normal end closures, Gas O&M.doc 6/20/13 Section 3.1 Abandonment or

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Pinching the ends closed and welding shut, orOperations and Maintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline Plugging the ends with a suitable material. Abandoned pipelines

Plugging the ends with a suitable material.Gas Pipeline Pinching the ends closed and welding shut, or Abandoned pipelines may be filled with

Abandoned pipelines may be filled with air, inert gas, inhibited water, Bentonite Clay (drilling mud), sand slurry, lean cement slurry or other inert materials.

Any valves left in the abandoned segment should be closed. If there are few line valves, and the segment is long, consideration should be given to cutting and plugging the segment at intervals.

All aboveground piping, valves, meters, and risers should be removed from the abandoned segment.

Any belowground valve boxes or vaults should be filled with compacted inert material. Acceptable backfill material includes but is not limited to native material, sand slurry or lean cement slurry.

PROCEDURE - INACTIVE PIPELINES: Protect inactive facilities using cathodic protection or other means to prevent deterioration. Generally, pipelines should remain filled with natural or inert gas and be pressurized above atmospheric pressure.

Inactive facilities must be treated the same as active facilities and all requirements of the Operating and Maintenance Procedure Manual for Gas Pipelines requirements must be carried out on inactive facilities.

Inactive, unmaintained facilities may be returned to service after a thorough engineering review, testing and conversion to service.

RECORDS: Complete a WGS Form 110 Pipeline Abandonment Form and send to the Production Coordinator for filing and historical reference.

Update drawings with abandonments or removals.

Pipelines that have been removed, or abandoned in-place and sold, will be eliminated from the drawings. Other in-place abandonments need to be indicated on drawings as being abandoned-in-place.

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3.2 Blowdown of Pipelines

CODE REFERENCE: Title 49 CFR Sections 192.179, 192.629, and 192.751

PURPOSE: To establish criteria for identifying obstructions, which may be present at blowdown locations, and to establish safety practices to follow when purging or blowing down gas facilities.

GENERAL: Whenever a pipeline or pipeline facility filled with gas is blown down as a result of a scheduled construction or maintenance project, it is necessary for personnel to exercise extreme safety precautions during the blow down activities.

The identification of blow-off locations that are close to overhead or other obstruction (i.e. electrical lines, building, etc.) is necessary so that precautions can be taken to provide safe conditions during blowdown operations.

When practical, the attempt should be made to prevent having electric transmission lines installed near blowdown valves. If the electric transmission lines cannot be moved and the blowdown connections cannot be employed to direct the gas away from the electric transmission lines, then the blowdown must be done at a location where the safety conditions can be met, possibly at another blow off valve.

Affected compressor station compressor, suction and discharge piping shall be isolated, blowndown, and purged prior to work on the compressor or piping. Compressors and piping shall be purged of air per Section 2.16 of this manual prior to recommissioning.

PROCEDURE:

IDENTIFICATION OF BLOW-OFF LOCATIONS - Identify blow-off locations where precautions should be taken during a blowdown.

Mark each such location with a sign indicating “Controlled Blowdown Required Due to Overhead or Adjacent Facilities”.

BLOWDOWN PLANNING - Prepare a plan and review it with the crew prior to purging or blowing down a gas facility. Discuss any hazards involved, such as power lines, public highways and railroads.

Use silencers in populated areas when necessary.

Post warning sign where appropriate.

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Notify the following regarding the time and place before blowing pipeline gas to atmosphere:

People living/working in the area; /working in the area;

Public agencies such as the county sheriff, local police or fire department as required; as required;

Facilities supplying the pipeline and receiving from the pipeline which will be interrupted . nd receiving from the pipeline which will be interrupted.

Traffic control, if required, should be performed by local law enforcement officials on all preplanned activities.

Ensure that appropriate fire extinguishing equipment is available at strategic locations.

Do not begin work until communications have been established with personnel diverting traffic and among personnel at the ends of pipeline sections being blown down or purged.

BLOWDOWN OPERATIONS - Blow down of natural gas, which has been odorized, should not be performed in a heavily populated area. If there is no alternate location where the odorized gas can be vented to atmosphere, consideration should be given to flaring (burning) the gas.

Employees and other personnel in the vicinity of the blowdown shall wear adequate safety equipment, including eye and ear protection.

Be careful not to provide a source of ignition for the escaping gas, such as smoking, electric tools, sparks, etc.

All valves should be opened and closed in a steady, controlled manner.

Do not exhaust gas, at any time, into overhead electrical wires or into the atmosphere when an electrical storm is in the vicinity.

Prevent a hazardous mixture of gas and air in the pipeline.

Control gas pressure using experienced personnel. Do not allow unauthorized contractor or Company employees to operate valves.

Locate personnel a safe distance upwind.

Block or divert traffic as gas may “drift” across public roadways.

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Locate vehicles or equipment, which might cause ignition, at least 500 feet upwind from a horizontally severed pipeline. (Do not allow vehicles or equipment anywhere except upwind of the severed pipeline.)

Do not allow vehicles closer than 100 feet upwind from a vertical blow-off. (Do not allow vehicles anywhere except upwind of a blow-off.)

Continue using these precautions throughout the entire blow-off period, until all valves are shut and flow has stopped, and until all gas has had time to disperse.

If

required, a useful formula in estimating blowdown gas losses, is as follows:

V

= (ID) 2 (Pressure) (Length) (1.97)

where V = Volume of gas blown down, standard cubic feet (Divide by 1000 to obtain MCF)

ID = Pipe Inside Diameter, inches (ID = OD - 2 times wall thickness)

Pressure = Initial Pipeline Pressure, PSIA Length = Pipeline length, miles (Divide feet by 5,280, if necessary)

RECORDS: File pre-job safety plan and tailgate meeting roster.

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3.3 Clearing Pipeline Freezes and Ice Blocks

CODE REFERENCE: Title 49 CFR Section 192.703

PURPOSE: To establish safety practices to follow when clearing pipeline freezes and ice blocks.

GENERAL: When it is suspected that a freeze exists in a line notify the Production Coordinator of the freeze.

The Production Coordinator will send assistance, when necessary, and maintain supervision throughout the operation.

Isolate the line. On high-pressure systems the well(s) should be shut in first to prevent over pressuring the line.

Eliminate all sources of ignition in the immediate area where gas will be blown (engines, heaters, etc.).

Park vehicles upwind of the operation at a distance to insure safety to personnel and unit.

Open all valves cautiously; beware of any sudden pressure drop. There is always the possibility of a freeze near any valve.

Reduce pressure on the high-pressure side of the freeze. This step should be performed with extreme caution.

A one-inch or smaller valve should be cracked open and if a rapid decrease in pressure is noted, either by gauge or sound, the valve should be closed immediately. If no pressure decrease is noted, the valve may be opened slowly to lower the pressure to design pressure - constantly watching for any rapid pressure drop.

Attempt to locate freeze by checking pressures at available points, i.e., wells, tie- ins, and drips.

PROCEDURE - SOLID FREEZE: The information gathered in the steps above, will determine the next procedure to be followed.

When freeze is located close to blowoff:

Blow down the long section of line without attempting to e qualize pressures across the freeze. down the long section of line without attempting to equalize pressures across the freeze.

Blow down short section of line with one-inch or smaller valve. inch or smaller valve.

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When freeze is located relatively near the center of the isolated section:Operations and Maintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline Blow down the high-pressure side of the freeze until

Blow down the high-pressure side of the freeze until it is 50 psi less than the low-pressure side. This should be done through a one-inch or smaller valve.

When a double freeze is encountered:This should be done through a one- inch or smaller valve. Reduce pressure on each side

Reduce pressure on each side of the section maintaining a differential of 50 psi or less across the freeze.

When freezes are not located close to either end, blow the line at each end and between the freezes by means of one- inch or smaller valves. Maintain a differential and between the freezes by means of one-inch or smaller valves. Maintain a differential of 50 psi or less across the freezes.

When both freezes are located close to blowoffs at each end, blow the line between the f reezes and then the short sections at each end. between the freezes and then the short sections at each end.

When one freeze is located close to a blowoff, blow the line between the freezes and at the end away from the close freeze, maintaining a differential of 50 freezes and at the end away from the close freeze, maintaining a differential of 50 psi or less. When these sections are blown down, blow the short section.

Allow the line to air for several hours or overnight. A vent stack should be used in hazardous areas (near roads, engines, etc.). be used in hazardous areas (near roads, engines, etc.).

RETURNING LINE TO SERVICE - Install a gauge at the inlet end, give the line a good blow maintaining between 25 psi and 150 psi while making certain that there is no pressure buildup. (This will also act as a purge prior to putting the line back in service.)

Stand well away from the outlet end during the blow. Wait until the blow clears sufficiently before shutting in the outlet. clears sufficiently before shutting in the outlet.

Notify the Production Coordinator that the freeze is cleared and line is back in service. t the freeze is cleared and line is back in service.

PROCEDURE - PARTIAL FREEZES - Notify Production Coordinator of freeze.

Attempt to clear freeze with methanol.FREEZES - Notify Production Coordinator of freeze. If freeze persists, shut in and blow down the

If freeze persists, shut in and blow down the line, maintaining a minimal pressure differential across the freeze. pressure differential across the freeze.

Depending upon conditions, either allow the line to vent or purge methanol through the line to clear the partial freeze. methanol through the line to clear the partial freeze.

RETURNING LINE TO SERVICE - Return line to service as outlined previously.

Notify Production Coordinator that freeze is cleared and line is back in service.

RECORDS: Document maintenance of the pipeline on the daily operating report form.

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3.4 Compressor Stations

CODE REFERENCE:

Title 49 CFR Sections 192.167, 192.169, 192.171,

192.729, 192.733, and 192.735

PURPOSE: To establish minimum requirement for the safe operation, inspection and maintenance of compressor stations.

GENERAL: All Plant Personnel shall follow established detailed procedures. The Plant Engineering Group will establish the startup and shutdown, ESD, and isolation procedures. Inspection, Storage, Safety and reporting are established by the Governing agencies. As a group the plant personnel creates a TIP sheet and review as operations change. Each gas compressor unit will include:

Start-up/Shutdownoperations change. Each gas compressor unit will include: Inspection and Testing Relief Devices Storage of Combustible

Inspection and Testing Relief DevicesEach gas compressor unit will include: Start-up/Shutdown Storage of Combustible Materials Emergency Shutdown Systems

Storage of Combustible MaterialsStart-up/Shutdown Inspection and Testing Relief Devices Emergency Shutdown Systems Safety Equipment Isolation of

Emergency Shutdown Systemsand Testing Relief Devices Storage of Combustible Materials Safety Equipment Isolation of Equipment for Maintenance

Safety EquipmentStorage of Combustible Materials Emergency Shutdown Systems Isolation of Equipment for Maintenance Report Requireme nts

Isolation of Equipment for MaintenanceMaterials Emergency Shutdown Systems Safety Equipment Report Requireme nts STARTUP/SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES - The

Report Requirements nts

STARTUP/SHUTDOWN PROCEDURES - The startup/shutdown procedures shall give sufficient detail to assure that field operations personnel can clearly understand the proper sequence necessary for the safe startup and loading of each type of gas compressor unit.

Particular attention should be given to purging the air from the gas cylinders and piping. This is extremely important as any air left in a compressor cylinder can cause an explosion upon compression.

In addition, detailed procedures shall provide for the necessary steps to assure shutdown of the unit in a safe manner and the proper method of blowing down any gas within the compressor unit piping.

They shall differentiate whether the unit starts while still pressured up or after it has been blown down completely.

The procedures shall provide for the proper valve sequencing required to start or shutdown the unit. In addition, instructions concerning checking or bypassing shutdowns on the Tattletale panel shall be clearly indicated to assure proper startup/shutdown in accordance with the operator's manual.

The compressor manufacture's manual shall be reviewed by the Production Coordinator to assure all procedures are in accordance with approved methods

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outlined by the manufacture and not harmful to the continued operation of the unit.

The Production Coordinator and Lead Operator is responsible for assuring that each person assigned the task of compressor operation has been given sufficient instructions for operation and is familiar with the proper startup/shutdown method for the respective type of units within the station.

INSPECTING AND TESTING OF RELIEF DEVICES (TITLE: CFR 49 SECTION 192.169)

GENERAL: Each compressor station must have pressure relief valves or other suitable protective devices of sufficient capacity and sensitivity to ensure that the maximum allowable operating pressure of the station piping and equipment is not exceeded by more than 10 percent in the event of an equipment failure or malfunction.

Each vent line that exhausts gas from the pressure relief valve of a compressor station must extend to a location where the gas may be discharged without hazard.

Plant Operations shall maintain written records to ensure the periodic inspection of compressor station relief valves has been properly performed and that operating conditions have not changed the required relieving capacity.

The periodic inspection of relief devices shall be in accordance with the procedure outlined in Section 3.10 Pressure Regulators and Relief Devices.

All incidents of over pressure shall be brought to the attention of the Production Coordinator to assure continued safe operation of the system.

All incidents where an accidental ignition of gas vapors occur within a compressor station limits shall be reported to the Production Coordinator.

The maintenance personnel shall contact the Production Coordinator whenever a compressor unit is taken out of service for maintenance or repairs.

STORAGE OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS (TITLE: CFR 49 SECTION

192.735)

GENERAL: Flammable or combustible materials in quantities beyond those required for everyday use, or other than those normally used in the compressor building, must be stored a safe distance from the compressor building. Aboveground storage tanks must be protected in accordance with National Fire Protection Association Standard No. 30.

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The Production Coordinator shall ensure periodic inspections of the compressor locations are performed and notify Operations personnel concerning any flammable material storage problems.

EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN SYSTEM (TITLE CFR 49 SECTION 192.167)

GENERAL: Each compressor station of more than 1,000 horsepower must have an emergency shutdown system that complies with the minimum design requirements provided by the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations do not apply to compressor stations that are unattended field stations with less than 1,000 horsepower installed on site, or stations which were constructed before November 1970.

The emergency shutdown system must meet the following requirements:

It must be able to block pipeline gas out of the station and blow down the station piping. station piping.

It must discharge gas from the blow down piping at a location where the gas will not create a hazard. gas will not create a hazard.

It must provide means for the shutdown of gas compressing equipment, gas fires, and electrical facilities in the vicinity of gas headers and in the compressor building, except that: compressor building, except that:

Electrical circuits that provide emergency lighting required to assist station personnel in evacuating the compressor building, and the area in the vicinity of the gas headers, must remain energized; and Electrical circuits needed to protect equipment from damage may remain energized.

It must be operable from at least two locations, each of which is:to protect equipment from damage may remain energized. Outside the gas ar ea of the station;

Outside the gas area of the station; Near the exit gates, if the station is fenced, or near emergency exits, if not fenced; and Not more than 500 feet from the limits of the station.

Remote control shutdown devices must be inspected and tested at least annually at intervals not exceeding 15 months. Record this inspection on WGS Form 111 Remote Control Shutdown Device Test.

RESPONSIBILITIES - The Production Coordinator shall review the maintenance reports of the emergency shutdown devices to assure proper performance.

A record of the date and person performing the emergency shutdown testing shall be recorded and a file kept at the Field Office. WGS Form 111 Remote Control Shutdown Device Test

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Any required maintenance and inoperable shutdown shall be noted and remedial action taken.

In the event an emergency shutdown system becomes inoperable, the Production Coordinator shall be notified and necessary actions taken to assure the continued operation of the station in a safe manner.

Plant Operations shall maintain a log of shutdowns to assure that the system is functioning properly and causing a minimum of unintended outage.

SAFETY EQUIPMENT (TITLE: CFR 49 SECTION 192.171)

GENERAL: The Production Coordinator shall inspect the operation of his compressor facilities to ensure their proper operation in accordance with the following general requirements:

Each compressor station must have adequate fire protection facilities. If fire pumps are a part of these facilities, their operation must not be affected by fire pumps are a part of these facilities, their operation must not be affected by activation of the emergency shutdown system.

Each compressor station prime mover, other than an electrical induction or synchronous motor, must have an automatic device to shut down the unit before the speed synchronous motor, must have an automatic device to shut down the unit before the speed (RPM) of either the prime mover or the driven unit exceeds a maximum safe speed.

Each compressor station engine that operates with pressure gas injection must be equipped so that stoppage of the engine automatically shuts off the fuel and must be equipped so that stoppage of the engine automatically shuts off the fuel and vents the engine distribution manifold.

Each muffler for a gas engine in a compressor station must have vent slots or holes in the baffles of each compartment to prevent gas from being trapped in or holes in the baffles of each compartment to prevent gas from being trapped in the muffler.

Each compressor control panel shall be inspected in accordance with manufacturers guideline to assure proper operation of all shutdown devices and their indicators. Any shutdowns manufacturers guideline to assure proper operation of all shutdown devices and their indicators. Any shutdowns found inoperable shall be noted on the daily compressor report each day the shutdowns are inoperable. The Production Coordinator shall give approval to bypass a panel shutdown on a continuous basis.

Each compressor station building shall be properly ventilated to ensure employees are not endangered by h compressor station building shall be properly ventilated to ensure employees are not endangered by the accumulation of gas in rooms or other enclosed places.

All gas detection devices within the compressor building shall be checked for proper performance. WGS Form 123 Gas Detection and Alarm System Test and Evaluation. for proper performance. WGS Form 123 Gas Detection and Alarm System Test and Evaluation.

Any continuous bypass of alarm devices shall be brought to the attention of the Production Coordinator. WGS Form 123 Gas Detection and Alarm System Test and Evaluation. of the Production Coordinator. WGS Form 123 Gas Detection and Alarm System Test and Evaluation.

The continuous safe operation of a compressor station requires that123 Gas Detection and Alarm System Test and Evaluation. sufficient maintenance functions be performed on pressure

sufficient

maintenance

functions

be

performed

on

pressure

gauges,

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temperature gauges, coolers, and other performance measurement devices.

These shall be properly maintained to assure their proper operation in case

of emergency.

ISOLATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR MAINTENANCE OR ALTERATIONS (TITLE: CFR 49 SECTION 192.733)

GENERAL: All personnel shall inspect and ensure a proper method for unit isolation. During the maintenance or alternation of compressor units this method of isolation is to be followed. The following will be included in any method:

Each compressor unit shall be installed with suction and discharge block valves on the lead

Each compressor unit shall be installed with suction and discharge block valves on the lead lines to provide for the isolation of the compressor unit during maintenance.

The block valves shall be maintained and periodically inspected to ensure proper operation in accordance

The block valves shall be maintained and periodically inspected to ensure proper operation in accordance with the Section 3.16 of this manual concerning valve maintenance.

If gas leakage occurs across the isolation block valve seats, then blinds or

If

gas leakage occurs across the isolation block valve seats, then blinds or

skillets shall be installed to assure proper isolation of the unit.

Each isolation valve shall be properly tagged to indicate its intended position during the maintenance

Each isolation valve shall be properly tagged to indicate its intended position during the maintenance work.

A manual vent valve shall be provided within the unit piping to properly

A

manual vent valve shall be provided within the unit piping to properly

provide for blow down and purging of the compressor unit to a safe location.

Each compressor unit shall be properly purged of air with sufficient quantities of gas to

Each compressor unit shall be properly purged of air with sufficient quantities of gas to ensure no "mixing" will occur and that a hazardous air/gas mixture does not remain within the compressor cylinder or unit gas piping.

REPORT REQUIREMENTS Plant Operations shall maintain reports of operation/maintenance activity for each compressor station/system and emergency generator.

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3.5 Corrosion Control

ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION

CODE REFERENCE:

Title 49 CFR Sections 192.479, 192.481, 192.485,

192.491, 192.605, 192.613 and 192.709

PURPOSE: To establish the requirements for inspection and maintenance of above ground pipeline systems for atmospheric corrosion.

GENERAL: A pipeline system includes all pipeline facilities used in the transportation of gas, including, but not limited to, line pipe, valves and other appurtenances connected to line pipe, fabricated assemblies, and metering stations.

Pipeline systems or portions thereof, subject to atmospheric corrosion or moisture penetration and retention, shall be inspected to assure detection of corrosion before detrimental damage, Category 3 Corrosion (heavy, obvious pitting in excess of 10% of new nominal wall thickness) is sustained.

The facilities’ operating history, future anticipated operating conditions, evidence of possible corrosion found during routine observations, and actual inspection results shall be considered when establishing inspection frequencies.

Inspection programs for atmospheric corrosion shall include, but not be limited to, areas such as:

Under hold-down straps, -down straps,

Between pipe and pipe supports,not be limited to, areas such as: Under hold -down straps, P latform risers and riser

Platform risers and riser clamps, latform risers and riser clamps,

Pipe penetrations of building walls, andpipe and pipe supports, P latform risers and riser clamps, Thermally insulated meter piping. Periodically, not

Thermally insulated meter piping.and riser clamps, Pipe penetrations of building walls, and Periodically, not exceeding 3 years between inspections,

Periodically, not exceeding 3 years between inspections, check the condition of

Wear pads,3 years between inspections, check the condition of Supports or sleeves on a sample basis to

Supports or sleeves on a sample basis to confirm continued protection of the pipe, especially in areas conductive to corrosion. the pipe, especially in areas conductive to corrosion.

Such areas would typically be those where moisture is present on the pipe due to a reason other than normal precipitation. The results of inspections, geographic location, and pipe environment will be used to determine an appropriate continuing inspection level.

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Corrosion, leaks, and defects may be Safety Related Conditions. Refer to Section 2.17 Safety Related Conditions Reporting procedure.

PROCEDURE: Inspect all bare aboveground piping at intervals not exceeding three (3) years.

The primary method of inspection is visual. Further non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques (such as ultrasonic thickness measurements, pit depth gauge readings, radiography, etc.) may be implemented if visual evidence of corrosion damage or other conditions warrant.

Maintain a continuing program of painting based upon results of the external inspection program.

Inspect the transition zone of pipe entering the ground to confirm it is properly coated whereby penetration of moisture between the pipe and coating is prevented. Whenever a condition is observed where moisture may be retained between the coating and pipe, remove the coating, inspect the pipe, evaluate severity of corrosion if present, take remedial actions if necessary, and recoat the pipe prior to the next inspection.

For thermally insulated systems, visual inspection of the external jacket to ensure its integrity against moisture intrusion under the jacket is usually sufficient; if the integrity of the external jacket has been breached and liquid water may be present against the carrier pipe surface, additional inspection techniques may be required to detect possible corrosion.

Areas where liquid water may accumulate or be trapped against the outside of the pipeline (including, but not limited to, under pipe hold-down straps or at pie supports) may require special attention. Caulks, mastics or other sealants should be used to prevent water accumulation at these sites.

Repairs and preventive maintenance actions necessitated by these inspections shall be completed prior to the next inspection.

In cases where pipe wall loss exceeds 10% of the nominal new pipe wall thickness, an Engineer shall review the pipeline MAOP for possible revision and/or recommend pipeline repair requirements.

References for determining the remaining strength of a pipeline are:

ASME/ANSI B31G (latest edition), “Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines”. AGA Pipeline Research Committee, Project PR-3-805, “A Modified Criterion for Evaluating the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe”, (latest edition).

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RECORDS: Complete WGS Form 112 Corrosion Control Report to document the external corrosion on aboveground facilities.

Complete WGS Form 103 Pipeline Inspection Report whenever external corrosion is identified and a repair or a preventative maintenance action, other than painting, is required.

Maintain the above records for at least five years.

INTERNAL CORROSION

CODE REFERENCE:

Title 49 CFR Sections 192.475, 192.477, 192.485,

192.491, 192.605 and 192.613

PURPOSE: To establish the requirements for the detection, monitoring, and control of internal corrosion, and required corrective actions for pipeline facilities.

GENERAL: This procedure is required if liquids or corrosive gas are ever allowed to flow through or remain in the pipeline.

A pipeline system includes all pipeline facilities used in the transportation of gas,

including,

but

not

limited

to,

gathering

lines,

line

pipe,

valves

and

other

appurtenances

connected

to

line

pipe,

fabricated

assemblies,

and

metering

stations.

Corrosive gas shall not be transported unless the corrosive effect of the gas has been investigated and measures have been taken to eliminate or minimize internal corrosion.

Potential corrosive gas shall not be transported without monitoring equipment that will detect the presence of internal corrosion. Where corrosive gas is being transported, coupons or other suitable means shall be used to determine the effectiveness of the steps taken to minimize internal corrosion.

If repair, replacement or operating pressure reduction is necessary, review Section

2.17, Safety Related Conditions Reporting, to see if a reportable safety related condition exists.

CORROSIVE CONDITIONS: Gas containing water in liquid phase and at least

one of the following components is considered to be potentially corrosive. A combination of two or more components is considered to be potentially corrosive.

A combination of two or more components with water in liquid phase may be

potentially corrosive at lower concentrations of each component. Gas having a water vapor below the point of saturation may contain concentrations of H 2 S and

CO 2 and O 2 greater than those listed below and remain non-corrosive.

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Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) concentration greater than .05 psia partial pressure for systems operating at or above 2 S) concentration greater than .05 psia partial pressure for systems operating at or above 65 psia total pressure. For system pressure less than 65 psia total pressure, H 2 S content of 50 ppm or greater is considered corrosive.

Gas containing more than 0.25 gram of H 2 S per 100 SCF (4ppm) may not be stored in pipe-type or bottle-type containers.

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration greater than 3 psia partial pressure regardless of total pressure. 2 ) concentration greater than 3 psia partial pressure regardless of total pressure.

Oxygen (O 2 ) concentration greater than 50 ppm or greater than 20 ppb where dissolved in 2 ) concentration greater than 50 ppm or greater than 20 ppb where dissolved in a liquid phase.

Review the gas source dew point history. Water dew points within 10 F of the w the gas source dew point history. Water dew points within 10 F of the minimum ambient temperature to which the pipeline is exposed may indicate the presence of liquid water in the pipeline.

may indicate the presence of liquid water in the pipeline. Corrosion will be more severe if

Corrosion will be more severe if any of the following conditions are present in conjunction with the conditions listed above. present in conjunction with the conditions listed above.

Produced liquids containing sulfate-reducing (SRB) or acid-producing microbiological colonies with culture test indicating over ten (10) colonies per milliliter should be producing microbiological colonies with culture test indicating over ten (10) colonies per milliliter should be considered to be potentially corrosive.

Liquids or materials having a pH less than 5.5.should be considered to be potentially corrosive. PROCEDURE: INTERNAL INSPECTIONS Whenever any pipe section is

PROCEDURE:

INTERNAL INSPECTIONS

Whenever any pipe section is opened or removed from a pipeline system, that pipe section and any adjacent pipe sections shall be inspected visually to determine evidence and/or extent of internal corrosion. If internal corrosion is noted visually, other Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques such as ultrasonic thickness measurements, pit depth gauge readings, radiography, etc. shall be used to quantify the extent of the corrosion.

Vessels and other fabrications shall be visually internally inspected when the opportunity to do so exists in conjunction with other maintenance activities or at intervals dictated by code requirements.

When internal corrosion or metal loss is observed in piping not previously monitored, remedial action and monitoring shall be initiated prior to the next inspection.

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A sample of any foreign material recovered from inside the pipeline system shall

be submitted for analysis and any necessary remedial action indicated by the

analysis must be taken prior to the next inspection.

Electromagnetic flux leakage or ultrasonic “smart” pigs may be run in a pipeline

at intervals of two to five years, or as required, to supplement other inspection

techniques.

GAS ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION - Gas samples shall be taken at applicable locations and tested for the presence and concentration of corrosive components if there is a reasonable possibility that corrosive gas could occur in a pipeline system. Testing shall be done at least twice each year with intervals not exceeding 7-1/2 months.

Dew point (water content) analysis shall be performed on gas sources once each month not to exceed 6 months between inspections. Where potentially corrosive gas is found as a result of gas testing, initiate the remedial action prior to the next test.

INSTALLATION AND MONITORING DEVICES - Identify checkpoint locations at places most susceptible to internal corrosion such as low elevation points, dead ends and drips.

Select and install monitoring devices such as weight loss coupons or electrical probes, either resistance or polarization, giving consideration to size of pipe, type of system, operating conditions, simplicity of installation and ease of gathering information. Install liquid sampling facilities if applicable.

Prepare and maintain a schematic diagram showing physical and operating characteristics of the pipeline system, the location of checkpoints and the type of monitoring devices used.

Monitoring and Detection:

Monitor checkpoint and record the results at least twice each calendar year with intervals not exceeding 7 -1/2 months. Monitor more frequently if the level of the with intervals not exceeding 7-1/2 months. Monitor more frequently if the level of the corrosive component increases or the effectiveness of the anti- corrosion measures needs to be confirmed.

If liquids are present, collect and analyze liquid samples semiannually from the gas stream. from the gas stream.

Remedial Action:

Make a study of the pipeline systems to determine the scope of the possible internal corrosio n if it is determined by inspection or analysis that internal corrosion possible internal corrosion if it is determined by inspection or analysis that internal corrosion is occurring, or has occurred.

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References for determining the remaining strength of a pipeline are:

AMSE/ANSI (latest edition) “Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines”. Strength of Corroded Pipelines”.

AGA Pipeline Research Committee, Project PR-3-805, “A Modified Criterion for Evaluating the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe”, (latest edition). Criterion for Evaluating the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe”, (latest edition).

Apply at least one of the following mitigation measures prior to the next inspection if inspection reveals internal corrosion to be occurring, or if previously installed monitoring equipment shows corrosion to be occurring:

Eliminate free water in the pipeline by implementing an adequate pigging program, or by other appropriate methods.monitoring equipment shows corrosion to be occurring: Remo ve corrosive components. Inject corrosion inhibitors.

Remove corrosive components. ve corrosive components.

Inject corrosion inhibitors.by other appropriate methods. Remo ve corrosive components. REPAIR - If internal corrosion has or may

REPAIR - If internal corrosion has or may have reduced the wall thickness of a segment of pipe to less than that required for the maximum allowable operating pressure, pipe repair or replacement should be planned or the working pressure reduced prior to the next inspection.

CONVERSION EQUATIONS

Partial pressure (psia) = PPM x Line Pressure (psia)/1,000,000 Partial pressure (psia) = Mole % x Line Pressure (psia)/100

ppm = parts per million

1/1,000,000

ppb = parts per billion

1/1,000,000,000

RECORDS: Complete the WGS Form 103 Pipeline Inspection Report and/or WGS Form 112 Corrosion Control Report forms whenever pipeline is checked internally, repaired, or replaced.

Retain all studies, reports, checks of monitoring devices and other data that may be accumulated, at the local field office for the pipeline. Inspection reports are to be retained for at least five years while smart pigging results are kept for the life of the facility.

Maintain gas water dew point historical log for gas sources where dew points or gas analysis are being performed for at least five years.

EXTERNAL PROTECTIVE COATING

CODE REFERENCE:

Title 49 CFR Sections 192.455, 192.457, 192.459,

192.461, 192.463, 192.483, 192.491, and 192.613.

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PURPOSE: To outline the practice for the installation of external protective coating for all buried or submerged gas pipelines.

GENERAL:

Buried or submerged natural gas pipelines installed after July 31,

1971 must have an external protective coating system unless:

It can be demonstrated by tests, investigation, or experience in the area of application that a corrosive environment does not exist. This includes at a minimum, soil resistivity application that a corrosive environment does not exist. This includes at a minimum, soil resistivity measurements and tests for corrosion accelerating bacteria. Within 6 months after installation, the line must be further tested per 192.455(b) to evaluate the potential profile along the entire pipeline. If these tests indicate that a corrosive condition exists, the pipeline must be cathodically protected.

The pipeline is a temporary installation with an operating period of service not to exceed 5 years beyond installatio n and any anticipated corrosion will not be not to exceed 5 years beyond installation and any anticipated corrosion will not be detrimental to public safety.

If any pipeline is externally coated (notwithstanding the criteria above), it must be cathodically protected along the entire area that is effectively coated. A pipeline does not have an effective external coating if its cathodic protection current requirements are substantially the same as if it were bare.

When choosing the material to use for repairing a coating, every effort should be made to choose the original material or to come as close to it as possible with compatible coating material.

In all cases of coating repair, whether during construction or after the pipeline is in service, the pipeline surface to be coated should be cleaned as well as possible of all dirt, grease, weld splatter or other foreign material. Instructions for the coating application prepared by the manufacturer should be followed.

COATING PROCEDURE

The purpose of external protective coating is to isolate the pipeline from its environment and provide primary corrosion protection. Additionally, external protective coatings facilitate the application of cathodic protection.

The external protective coating applied for corrosion control must have the following characteristics and properties:

The coating must be applied on a properly prepared surface as recommended by the coating system manufacturer. recommended by the coating system manufacturer.

The coating must have sufficient adhesion to the metal surface to effectively resist underfilm migrations of moisture. effectively resist underfilm migrations of moisture.

The coating must be sufficiently ductile to resist cracking.to effectively resist underfilm migrations of moisture. Gas O&M.doc 6/20/13 Section 3.5 Corrosion Control

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The coating must have sufficient strength to resist damage due to the handling and in - service soil stress. handling and in-service soil stress.

The coating must have properties compatible with the applications of cathodic protection to the pipeline.damage due to the handling and in - service soil stress. The coating must have low

The coating must have low moisture absorption and high electrical resistance. resistance.

Each external protective coating must be inspected by electrical test methods just prior to lowering the pipe into the ditch and backfilling, and any test methods just prior to lowering the pipe into the ditch and backfilling, and any damage detrimental to effective corrosion control must be repaired.

Each external protective coating must be protected from damage, which could result from adverse ditch conditions or from supporting blocks. could result from adverse ditch conditions or from supporting blocks.

If coated pipe is installed by boring, driving, or other similar method, precaution must be taken to minimize damage to the external coating during installation. precaution must be taken to minimize damage to the external coating during installation.

Coated pipe sections connected by welding and/or mechanical coupling including valves or other underground or submerged appurtenances will be considered field joints. External coating of field joints must be equal to or better than the coating of the pipeline.

Existing Coated Pipelines Apply an external protective coating to:

Poorly coated or bare portions of pipeline segments that have been exposed for repair of inspection.Coated Pipelines Apply an external protective coating to: Pipeline segments that replace existing pipe. Inspect and

Pipeline segments that replace existing pipe.segments that have been exposed for repair of inspection. Inspect and repair all coating on replacement

Inspect and repair all coating on replacement segments and coating repairs for defects caused by installation activity.

Existing coating may require repair or upgrading in areas where criteria for achieving cathodic protection is not being met.

New Pipelines Apply an external protective coating to all new buried pipelines.

Inspect all coating on new pipeline segments and repair defects caused by installation.

Surface Preparation In removing coating to make tie-ins, care must be taken to avoid disbanding of the adjacent coating. Edges of thick film coating must be tapered and enough of the wrapper removed to ensure adhesion of the new coating to the existing coating.

The surface to be coated must be thoroughly cleaned with solvents to remove oil and grease. All dust, dirt, rust, mill scale, loose shop coating, dead primer, welding slag, and burrs must be removed with wire brushes or scrapers.

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Nicking the coating to bare the pipe surface must not be permitted.

Repair of Coating Defects Inspection shall follow all coating applications. Any defects shall be repaired.

A sufficient portion of the coating must be carefully removed from defective areas

of pipe to ensure that the remaining coating is satisfactory and well bonded.

Edges of the area should be tapered to increase the strength of the patch.

Foreign matter must be removed from the area to be repaired.

Primer applied to the area, if required, must be allowed to dry properly before the coating is applied.

The coating material used for patching must be such that proper adhesion will occur between the existing coating material and the patching material.

RECORDS: Submit appropriate as-built information to the field office for updating drawings and records.

Retain these records for as long as the pipeline is in service.

INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL EXAMINATION OF BURIED PIPELINES

CODE REFERENCE:

192.491, 192.605, 192.613

Title 49 CFR Sections 192.459, 192.475, 192.485,

PURPOSE: To establish a standard program of examination of buried pipelines for evidence of internal or external corrosion.

GENERAL:

of the inspection of buried pipelines is mandatory for both internal and external

corrosion.

A continuing program of examination and recording of the results

It is intended that examinations will monitor pipelines for the effectiveness of

both internal and external protective measures.

Corrosion, leaks, and defects shall be evaluated to determine if they are safety- related conditions.

PROCEDURE: Whenever buried piping is exposed for any reason, the exposed portion of the coating must be visually examined to determine external coating condition. Complete WGS Form 104 Pipeline Exposure and Inspection Report.

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If a line is bare or the coating has deteriorated, or the coating is removed on a well-coated line, inspect the pipe for external corrosion.

If corrosion is observed on a coated line, a condition may exist, warranting further investigation (disbanded coating, unique soil environment, etc.).

Whenever any pipe section is opened or removed from a pipeline system that pipe section and any adjacent pipe sections shall be inspected visually to determine evidence and/or extent of internal corrosion. If internal corrosion is noted visually, other NDT techniques shall be used to quantify the extent of the corrosion.

Visually inspect the full circumference of piping if one or more of the following conditions exist.

Continuing corrosion is observedof piping if one or more of the following conditions exist. CP test, current requirements or

CP test, current requirements or surveys indicate corrosion may be occurring occurring

Previously unidentified coating deterioration is observed or suspectedrequirements or surveys indicate corrosion may be occurring Corrosion is observed on the piping, which is

Corrosion is observed on the piping, which is of a magnitude not previously documented or which may require repair. If repair is required, continue inspection longitudinally until previously documented or which may require repair. If repair is required, continue inspection longitudinally until pipe condition is satisfactory.

If visual examination indicates corrosion has occurred, initiate one or more of the following actions:

Calculate the acceptable minimum wall thickness limit after corrosion. If wall thickness is less than the calculated minimum, initiate a repair method as outlined in Section 3.15 Repair Procedures or reduce the pipeline MAOP.

References for determining the remaining strength of a pipeline are:

AMSE/ANSI (latest edition) “Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines” Strength of Corroded Pipelines”

AGA Pipeline Research Committee, Project PR-3-805, “A Modified Criterion f or Evaluating the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe”, (latest edition). Criterion for Evaluating the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe”, (latest edition).

If repair is required, limit the operating pressure accordingly, until the repair is made.

Apply coating and/or additional cathodic protection, as necessary, where active external corrosion is present.

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If internal corrosion is noted, apply or confirm compliance with the requirements of Internal Corrosion Procedure above.

Determine if a safety related condition exists.

RECORDS: Complete WGS Form103 Pipeline Inspection Report and/or WGS Form 109 Pipeline Leak Repair Report. WGS Form 104 Pipeline Exposure and Inspection Report.

Keep the records for the life of the pipeline.

CATHODIC PROTECTION/EXTERNAL CORROSION CONTROL

CODE REFERENCE:

Title 49 CFR Sections 192.455, 192.457(a), 192.463,

192.465, 192.469, 192.471, 192.473, 192.491, and 192.613

PURPOSE: To prescribe the minimum installation, maintenance, survey and test requirements to monitor and control external corrosion on buried or submerged steel pipelines.

GENERAL:

must have a cathodic protection system to protect the pipeline, installed and placed in operation within one year after completion of pipeline construction

unless:

Buried or submerged gas pipelines installed after July 31, 1971

It can be demonstrated by tests, investigation, or experience in the area of application that a corrosive environment does not exist. This includes at a minimum, soil resistivity application that a corrosive environment does not exist. This includes at a minimum, soil resistivity measurements, and tests for corrosion accelerating bacteria. Within 6 months after installation, the line must be further tested per 192.455(b) to evaluate the potential profile along the entire pipeline. If these tests indicate that a corrosive condition exists, the pipeline must be cathodically protected.

The pipeline is a temporary installation with an operating period of service not to exceed 5 years beyond installatio n and with an operating period of service not to exceed 5 years beyond installation and any anticipated corrosion will not be detrimental to public safety.

If any pipeline is externally coated (notwithstanding the above criteria), it must be cathodically protected along the entire area that is effectively coated. A pipeline does not have an effective external coating if its cathodic protection current requirements are substantially the same as if it were bare.

Buried or submerged gas pipelines installed before August 1, 1971 must have a cathodic protection system when active corrosion is found for the following:

Bare or ineffectively coated pipelines.system when active corrosion is found for the following: Gas O&M.doc 6/20/13 Section 3.5 Corrosion Control

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Bare or coated pipes at compressor or regulator stations.Operations and Maintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline Active corrosion means continuing corro sion, which unless

Active corrosion means continuing corrosion, which unless controlled, could result in a condition that is detrimental to public safety.

The amount of cathodic protection must be controlled so as not do damage to the protective coating or the pipe.

Cathodic protection test stations or contact points shall normally be located at pipeline mile markers, cased crossings, and other convenient locations. Recommended test station spacing should generally not exceed 1 mile.

For new construction after January 1, 1992, cathodic protection test leads shall be anchored by wrapping around the pipe or providing a separate anchor to avoid straining the pipe to wire cad-weld.

Pipelines receiving cathodic protection from a single CP source of current must be electrically continuous with itself and the source of current. Additionally, the structure to be protected must be electrically isolated from structures, which are not intended to be protected.

Each impressed current type or galvanic anode CP system must be designed and installed so as to minimize any adverse effects on existing adjacent underground or submerged metallic structures.

Interference effects from impressed current CP systems on foreign structures shall be minimized. Mitigation of interference effects may employ one or more of the following techniques:

Installation of sacrificial anodes on the affected structure;effects may employ one or more of the following techniques: Bonding the affected structure to the

Bonding the affected structure to the offending CP system;of sacrificial anodes on the affected structure; Coating the affected structure; Providing sacrificial anodes

Coating the affected structure;Bonding the affected structure to the offending CP system; Providing sacrificial anodes connected to each pipeline

Providing sacrificial anodes connected to each pipeline and buried immediately adjacent to each other in the same backfill. immediately adjacent to each other in the same backfill.

PROCEDURE: The CP system provides a level of protection that complies with one or more of the criteria listed below.

D.O.T.

pipelines are:

acceptable

criteria

to

assure

adequate

cathodic

protection

for

steel

A negative polarized (current switched off) potential of at least 0.85 volt

A

negative polarized (current switched off) potential of at least 0.85 volt

relative to a saturated copper-copper sulfate reference electrode.

A minimum of 100 mV of cathodic polarization. The formation of decay

A

minimum of 100 mV of cathodic polarization. The formation of decay

of

polarization can be used to satisfy criterion.

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Operations and Maintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline A negative (cathodic) potential of a least 850 mV

A negative (cathodic) potential of a least 850 mV with the cathodic

protection applied. This potential is measure with respect to a saturated

Cu/CuSo4 reference electrode containing the electrolyte. Voltage drops other than those across the structure to electrolyte boundary must be considered for valid interpretation of this voltage measurement (see NACE RP0169-2002) without current interruption.

Special Conditions

For pipelines installed before August 1, 1971 which are bare or poorly coated externally, the

For pipelines installed before August 1, 1971 which are bare or poorly coated externally, the measurement of a net protective current from the electrolyte to the pipe surface (as measured by the earth current technique)

at

predetermined discharge points may be sufficient proof of adequate

cathodic protection.

In some situations, such as the presence of sulfides, bacteria, elevated

In

some situations, such as the presence of sulfides, bacteria, elevated

temperature, acid environments and dissimilar metals, the criteria in the D.O.T. acceptable criteria section above may not be sufficient protection.

At pipeline locations where external corrosion-related leaks are discovered, a measurement of the pipe-to-soil cathodic potential shall be taken. If the level is less than that required by regulations, the Engineer shall reevaluate the CP system capacity and upgrade it as necessary prior to the next inspection.

Test and survey of CP systems according to the frequency schedule listed in Table

3.5A.

Prompt remedial action, at least prior to the next required survey, must be taken to correct condition which caused the pipeline to fail to meet the applicable criterion.

RECORDS: Record the location of cathodically protected pipeline, cathodic protection facilities, and neighboring structures bonded to cathodic protection system on WGS Form 113 Cathodic Protection System Record. (See pipeline drawings.)

The pipe-to-soil surveys are to be recorded or plotted on the form or charts provided for that purpose. The annual pipe-to-soil surveys, reports, and any remedial action, are to be retained for the life of the facility.

Except for annual pipe-to-soil surveys, these records are to be maintained for at least five years.

Annual pipe-to-soil surveys and reports, and remedial action reports, if any, shall be retained for the life of the facility.

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TABLE 3.5A REQUIRED TESTS FOR CATHODIC PROTECTION

SURVEY OR TEST

FREQUENCY

Pipe-to-Soil

Once each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 15 months.

Critical Bond

Six times each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 2-1/2 months.

Non-critical Bonds

Once each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 15 months.

Insulation Test

Once each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 15 months.

Rectifier Inspection

Six times each calendar year, but with intervals not exceeding 2-1/2 months.

 

SUPPLEMENTAL TESTING

Foreign Crossing Interference

Initially and as required, if survey done on recurring basis indicated the need.

Soil Resistivity

Initially for magnesium anode or impressed current ground bed installations.

Current Requirement

Initially and as required to determine current density, coating condition and cathodic protection sizing.

Deep Ground Bed Data

Initially to record all ground bed data during installation.

Deep Well Anode Performance

Initially and as required to record anode current outputs and look for ground bed deterioration.

Galvanic Anode Record

Initially to record all data during installation.

Rectifier Efficiency

Initially and as required.

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ELECTRICAL ISOLATION

CODE REFERENCE: Title 49 CFR Sections 192.467 and 192.613

PURPOSE: To outline requirements for electrical isolation of buried or submerged pipeline facilities.

GENERAL: In order to successfully and efficiently cathodically protect a buried or submerged pipeline system, it is vital that the system be electrically isolated from foreign structures.

Electrical isolating devices are installed on pipeline systems to control current flow to or from foreign structures. Insulating devices are also used to isolate sections of the same pipeline (which can facilitate the application of cathodic protection) and to isolate the pipeline from a casing or structural supports attached to other unprotected metallic structures.

No electrical isolating device shall be installed in a closed area that could retain an explosive mixture unless provisions are made to prevent electrical arcing. This includes situations similar to insulating flange kits in vaults.

STANDARD ELECTRICAL ISOLATION METHOD

FLANGE INSULATION – An insulating kit consists of an electrically non- conductive gasket, non-conductive sleeves to encase the studs, and non- conductive washers for both nuts of a stud. Steel washers should also be placed immediately under nuts to protect the insulating washer from being crushed during torquing.

When welding the insulating flange unit or the weld type insulated coupling into the line, care shall be exercised to be sure that the current “arc”, which could occur from welding, does not damage the insulation. This can be achieved by moving the ground cable to the same side of the flange set as the electrode cable thus eliminating current “arc” across the insulating flange during welding.

MONOBLOCK INSULATING JOINTS – Monoblock insulating joints are factory-assembled insulating assemblies, which are welded into a pipeline; they have no serviceable parts.

INSULATED UNIONS – Insulating unions are usually used for small diameter (3 inches or less) piping attachments, which required electrical insulation.

CASING CENTRALIZERS AND END SEALS Non-conductive centralizing devices are attached to pipelines where the carrier pipe passes through a cased crossing. Casing end seals prevent water or soil from entering the annular space

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between the carrier pipe and casing and causing an “electrolytic” short between the casing and the pipe.

OTHER DEVICES Frequently, high pressure laminated (e.g. Micarta) dielectric blocks or neoprene rubber pads are used to electrically isolate pipeline from supports or other structural appurtenances, which are not a part of the cathodically protected pipeline.

CASED CROSSINGS - Whenever possible, casing installations should be avoided. In some cases, however, railroad or public highway regulations required the installation of a casing for railway right-of-way or road crossings. When casing are required, the carrier pipe must be electrically isolated from the casing.

PROCEDURE:

LOCATION AND INSULATING DEVICES – Generally, insulating devices should not be buried in the soil (or submerged), but located in pipe above ground or in a vault. At the termination of a pipeline, the insulating device should be as close as possible to the point where the pipeline comes above grade. Laterals, pressure taps, etc. should have insulating devices located as close as possible to the cathodically protected pipeline.

Electrical isolation equipment or devices should be installed to isolate structure from the following locations:

At the termination points of a pipeline system and entering or leaving a pump or compressor station; pump or compressor station;

At exchanges or interconnect point with other pipeline companies;and entering or leaving a pump or compressor station; At connection points for gas operated control

At connection points for gas operated control lines, electrical conduit attachments or instrumentation connections; attachments or instrumentation connections;

At established above ground Company facilities;conduit attachments or instrumentation connections; On the downstream side of metering stations; Between the

On the downstream side of metering stations;connections; At established above ground Company facilities; Between the casing and carrier pipe; Between supporting

Between the casing and carrier pipe;facilities; On the downstream side of metering stations; Between supporting structures and the carrier pipe on

Between supporting structures and the carrier pipe on bridge crossings;of metering stations; Between the casing and carrier pipe; Between all metallic structures not requiring cathodic

Between all metallic structures not requiring cathodic protection, such as metal valve boxes, conduit, fences, etc. and a cathodically protected pipeline; metal valve boxes, conduit, fences, etc. and a cathodically protected pipeline;

Where fault currents or lightning can affect the pipeline, such as close to electrical transmission tower footings or ground cables; electrical transmission tower footings or ground cables;

At point where dissimilar metals are attached to the pipeline, provided that both the pipeline and the dissimilar metal are buried or submerged. both the pipeline and the dissimilar metal are buried or submerged.

REPAIRS – Prompt remedial action (at least prior to the next required test) shall be taken where the loss of electrical isolation causes a failure to meet the applicable cathodic protection criterion or causes detrimental effects to a foreign structure.

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The remedial action should be restoration of electrical isolation; in some cases, other measures (such as increasing the amount of cathodic protection current applied to the cases, other measures (such as increasing the amount of cathodic protection current applied to the pipeline) can be taken that will adequately protect foreign structures.

If the loss of isolation does not require prompt action, the insulating device should be repaired at the earliest opportunity in conjunction with other scheduled maintenance or device should be repaired at the earliest opportunity in conjunction with other scheduled maintenance or modifications to the piping system.

SHORTED CASING – Pipeline, in casing where isolation was intended when installed, shall be evaluated and acted upon as outlined below:

If casing-to - soil potential is within 100 millivolts of the carrier pipe - to - to-soil potential is within 100 millivolts of the carrier pipe-to-soil potential, further testing is required to determine if electrical isolation exists.

Determine whether the situation is an “electrolytic condition” or a “metallic” shorted casing. “metallic” shorted casing.

Electrolytic conditions in casings require no remedial action.condition” or a “metallic” shorted casing. Retest the casing when a future survey indicates a

Retest the casing when a future survey indicates a significant decrease in potential separation from the previ ous test, at a casing where the test procedures previously potential separation from the previous test, at a casing where the test procedures previously indicated an “electrolytic condition.”

Attempt to clear a shorted casing promptly, within 6 months, after discovery by implementing the following actions. Inspect the test wires for possible direct shorts, and discovery by implementing the following actions. Inspect the test wires for possible direct shorts, and repair as necessary; If practical, excavate the ends of the casing and inspect the clearance between the casing and carrier pipe. If contact exists, reposition the carrier pipe and replace damaged insulators and end seals; When a shorted casing cannot be cleared by implementing the above actions, consider installing new carrier pipe insulators when the pipeline segment is out of service for other scheduled repair, replacement, or modification; or consider filling the casing/pipe annulus with high dielectric casing filler. Remove shorted casing when convenient. Electromagnetic flux leakage or ultrasonic smart pigs may confirm pipe wall metal loss.

Casings that are determined to be shorted and impractical to promptly correct, shall be monitored by using leak detection instruments as shown in Table 3.5B. If a leak is found, it must be repaired immediately. in Table 3.5B. If a leak is found, it must be repaired immediately.

INSPECTION AND TESTING - Inspection and testing frequency requirements for the electrical isolations and shorted casing are shown in Table 3.5B.

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TABLE 3.5B TEST FREQUENCIES FOR ELECTRICAL ISOLATION AND SHORTED CASINGS

TEST:

FREQUENCY:

Electrical Isolation

Once each calendar year at intervals not exceeding fifteen (15) months.

Shorted Casings:

 

Class 1,2,3&4 locations

Twice each calendar year at intervals not exceeding 7-1/2 months. (Flame Ionization Inspection)

RECORDS: Document all electrical isolation and casing gas leak testing. Keep these documents for at least five years.

Record the test on possible shorted casing. Retain the record for each shorted casing until is it removed.

IMPRESSED CURRENT POWER SOURCE INSPECTION

CODE REFERENCE: Title 49 CFR, Sections 192.465, 192.491, and 192.613

PURPOSE: To establish the requirements for inspecting and checking impressed current cathodic protection systems.

GENERAL: Rectifiers and ground beds provide a driving voltage and current greater than can be produced by galvanic anodes. Compared to sacrificial anodes, this type of protection covers a much larger area and gives greater flexibility to the cathodic protection system by allowing control of the current output.

The rectifier ground bed method develops an electrolytic cell making the structure to be protected the cathode, and the ground bed of the rectifier, the anode. (Reversing the polarity will cause rapid corrosion of the pipeline.)

To gain the greatest benefit from corrosion control, it must be a continuous process. The rectifier will not give protection if it has not been properly installed. Therefore, proper installation of any rectifier is of utmost importance and will serve to prevent trouble later.

PROCEDURE: Inspect each cathodic protection rectifier or other impressed current power source at least six (6) times each calendar year, but at intervals not exceeding 2-1/2 months.

Conduct the following tasks during each inspection:

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Inspect each impressed current power source and its components for proper operation. proper operation.

Determine the D.C volts and amperes as applicable.power source and its components for proper operation. Take prompt remedial action to correct any deficiencies

Take prompt remedial action to correct any deficiencies indicated by the monitoring. Any necessary remedial action must be taken prior to the next inspection.

Determine if unusual current and voltage readings are the result of rectifier malfunction or due to changed pipeline protection requirements. malfunction or due to changed pipeline protection requirements.

Notify the Production Coordinator of malfunctioning rectifiers. ify the Production Coordinator of malfunctioning rectifiers.

Notify the Production Coordinator of indications of changed pipeline cathodic protection requirements. cathodic protection requirements.

RECORDS:

Record all survey and test results on WGS Form 114 Rectifier

Readings.

Maintain the records of power source inspections and efficiency calculations for at least five years.

CATHODIC PROTECTION MAPS AND RECORDS

CODE REFERENCE: Title 49 CFR, Section 192.491

PURPOSE: To establish the methods by which records will be maintained showing the location and type of cathodic protection for all pipelines operated by the Company.

PROCEDURE: Maintain drawings, plat sheets, maps, or other records for each pipeline showing the location of cathodically protected piping, cathodic protection facilities, and neighboring structures bonded to the system.

Show the location of the protection type, such as:

Sacrificial Anode Bedsystem. Show the location of the protection type, such as: Impressed Current Rectifier Bonded Impressed Current

Impressed Current Rectifierof the protection type, such as: Sacrificial Anode Bed Bonded Impressed Current Show the location of

Bonded Impressed Currentsuch as: Sacrificial Anode Bed Impressed Current Rectifier Show the location of the protective equipment, such

Show the location of the protective equipment, such as:

RectifierShow the location of the protective equipment, such as: Insulation Flange Insulating Joint Bonds (critical,

Insulation Flangethe location of the protective equipment, such as: Rectifier Insulating Joint Bonds (critical, non-critical, and

Insulating Jointprotective equipment, such as: Rectifier Insulation Flange Bonds (critical, non-critical, and interference) Ground bed

Bonds (critical, non-critical, and interference)such as: Rectifier Insulation Flange Insulating Joint Ground bed - conventional (surface) Ground bed – well

Ground bed - conventional (surface) conventional (surface)

Ground bed – well type (vertical) well type (vertical)

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CP test stations (ETS and monitors)Operations and Maintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline RECORDS : Maintain the maps and records for the

RECORDS: Maintain the maps and records for the life of the facility, structure, or the pipeline.

EVALUATION OF BARE, BURIED OR SUBMERGED UNPROTECTED PIPELINES

CODE REFERENCE: Title 49 CFR 192.455, 192.457(b), 192.465(e), 192.491, and 192.613

PURPOSE: To establish the inspection practices for bare unprotected pipelines.

GENERAL: A continuing program of examination and recording the results of the inspection of bare, unprotected pipelines is mandatory for evaluating the effects of external corrosion.

It is intended that examinations will monitor the effects of external corrosion and, where necessary, to protect the integrity of the pipeline, dictate the installation of cathodic protection equipment.

Corrosion, leaks, and defects may be safety related conditions.

PROCEDURE: After the initial evaluation, bare, belowground unprotected pipelines shall be visually inspected where naturally accessible at intervals not exceeding 3 years to determine if areas of possible active corrosion exist.

Areas of possible active corrosion shall be evaluated by electrical survey or by a review of the leak history and leak surveys of the corrosively active areas.

Areas confirmed to be corrosively active shall be cathodically protected.

The pipeline MAOP shall be evaluated and revised if necessary or the appropriate pipeline repairs performed.

Reference for determining the remaining strength of a pipeline are:

ASME/ANSI B31G (latest edition), “Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines.” Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines.”

AGA Pipeline Research Committee, Project PR-3-805, “A Modified Criterion for Evaluating the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe”, (latest edition). ied Criterion for Evaluating the Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipe”, (latest edition).

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Review the pipeline per the criteria shown on WGS Form 112 Corrosion Control Report. Areas with Category 3 corrosion shall be cleaned, coated, and/or cathodically protected.

RECORDS: Complete the WGS Form 112 Corrosion Control Report.

Complete forms from related procedures wherever active corrosion is identified.

Retain records for the life of the pipeline.

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3.6 Leakage Surveys: Repairing and Reporting Leaks

CODE REFERENCE: Title 49 CFR Sections 192.706 and 192.709

PURPOSE: To establish the requirements and frequency for safe and efficient pipeline operations through a program of leak detection and repair.

GENERAL: A gas leak detection survey is a survey with instrumentation conducted with leak detector equipment (hydrogen flame ionization (HFI) gas detection instrument) such as Heath Detecto Pack, Gastec, Century, or equivalent.

A leakage survey is any survey of the pipeline right of way without instrumentation to

identify leaks without use of gas leak detection devices. This type of survey could be a

ground patrol or aerial patrol.

A

gas leak detection survey on casings that are determined to be shorted and impractical

to

promptly correct is required two times per calendar year, not exceeding 7-1/2 months.

PROCEDURE: Conduct gas leak detection surveys on gas pipelines in accordance with the schedule shown on Table 3.6A. Increased frequency should be scheduled if leak history warrants. On odorized pipelines, the gas leak detection survey is not required.

Perform gas leak detection surveys during low-velocity wind and no-frost conditions to insure valid surveys.

Check for gas specifically at the casing vents or above each casing end if there are not vents whenever performing gas leak detection surveys at casings on cathodically protected pipelines.

Conduct gas leak detection surveys across the entire right of way at uncased road crossings of cathodically protected pipelines.

Use gas leak detection equipment at all joints and cracks in the surface between the pipeline and the building whenever a pipeline is under a hard surface that adjoins a building.

During pipeline patrols when the HFI instrument is not being used, personnel should be alert to possible leak indications, such as dying or dead vegetation in the growing season; unexplained bubbles in bodies of water near the pipeline; odor; etc.

HAZARDOUS LEAKS - A hazardous leak is a leak that represents an existing or probable hazard to persons or property, and requires immediate repair or continuous intermediate action until the situation is no longer considered hazardous. Any hazardous leak discovered shall be repaired at the earliest practical time following detection. Refer

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to Table 3.6B for leak classification and action criteria. Examples of what constitutes a hazardous leak are as follows:

Any leak which, in the judgment of Company personnel at the scene that is regarded as an immediate hazard to people or property, regarded as an immediate hazard to people or property,

Escaping gas that has ignited, that has ignited,

Any indication that gas has migrated into or under a building or any other confined space, confined space,

Any leak that can be seen, heard, or felt and is in a location that may endanger people or property. people or property.

RESPONSIBILITIES - The Production Coordinator shall have the responsibility to initiate a maintenance order for repair of all reported non-hazardous leaks without delay in order to minimize system gas loss.

FREQUENCY - Leakage surveys of all Company pipelines must be performed at least once each calendar year at intervals not exceeding 15 months. However, in Class 3 and 4 locations, more frequent leakage surveys are required, as follows:

TABLE 3.6A GAS LEAK DETECTION SURVEY FREQUENCY

Pipeline:

Survey Frequency:

Short Casing in Class 1 and 2 locations

Twice each calendar year at intervals not exceeding 7-1/2 months.

Class 3 Location including shorted casings

Twice each calendar year, at intervals not exceeding 7-1/2 months.

All Facilities:

 

Class 4 locations including shorted casings

 

All Facilities

Four times a year, not exceeding 4-1/2 months

Plant Piping

Each calendar year not to exceed 15 months.

Note: Plant means regulated piping within a facility such as compressor station, dehydration plant, or gas treating plant that is manned or is considered operationally significant.

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100

gas

which

6/20/13

80% LEL, or greater,

Any indication of gas, which has migrated into or under a building, or

or greater,

be seen, heard, or

into a tunnel. Any reading at the outside wall of a

of a likely

EXAMPLES Any leak which, in the judgment of operating personnel at the scene, is regarded as an immediate hazard.

may endanger the general public or property.

101

felt and which is in a location that

than

requiring action ahead of

gas would likely migrate to the

from

would

Escaping gas that has ignited.

(other

a building.

gas wall

of 80% LEL,

substructures)

substructures

outside

reading of space.

building, to or an where

that of can

in a confined

leak wall

reading

associated

building.

in small

migrate

outside

Leaks

Any

Any

Any

7.

1.

6.

5.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Operations and Maintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline

TABLE 3.6 B LEAK CLASSIFICATION AND ACTION ACTION CRITERIA Requires prompt action* to protect life and property, and continuous action until the conditions are no longer hazardous.

Leaks should be repaired or cleared within one

Stopping the flow of gas by closing valves or

Implementation of company emergency plan

instances may

other means Notifying police and fire departments

the following:

sources of ignition

more in of some

Evacuating an premises

action

area

Rerouting traffic

the area

one or

Eliminating

The prompt

(192.615).

Blocking

Venting

require

Gas O&M.doc Section 3.6 Leakage Surveys: Repairing and Reporting Leaks

continuous action until the

A leak that is recognized

DEFINITION A leak that represents an

conditions are no longer hazardous.

requires

or

probable

or

existing to or persons

repair

property, and

immediate

hazard

2

1

GRADE

Operations and Maintenance Procedures Manual Gas Pipeline as being non-hazardous at the time of detection,
Operations and Maintenance Procedures Manual
Gas Pipeline
as being non-hazardous at
the time of detection, but
calendar year, but no later than 15 months from
the date
leak was
reported.
ground freezing or other adverse
changes in venting condition:
justifies
repair
the
repair
criteria
such In
as determining
the following
a.
based
on scheduled
probable future
should
be the priority, considered:
hazard.
Any leak which, under frozen or
other adverse soil conditions,
would likely migrate to the
outside
wall of action
a building.
2.
Leaks
Requiring
within 6
months
a.Any reading of 40% LEL, or
greater, under a sidewalk in a wall-
to-wall paved area that does not
qualify as Grade 1 leaks.
b.Any reading of 100% LEL, or
greater, under a street in a wall-to-
wall
paved 1 area
that does
has not
significant
gas
and
quality
as
a migration
Grade
leak.
c.Any reading less than 80% LEL in
small substructures
(other from
than gas
associated
substructures)
which gas a probable
would likely
migrate
creating
future
hazard.
d. Any reading between 20% LEL
and 80% LEL in a confined space.
e.Any
reading
on or
a pipeline
operating
at 30%
SMYS,
greater, in
a Class
3 or 4 locations, which does not
qualify as a Grade 1 leak.