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BUILDING AN INTERCOM

Discussion
An intercom (intercommunication device), talkback or doorphone is a
stand-alone voice communications system for use within a building or
small collection of buildings, functioning independently of the public
telephone network. Intercoms are generally mounted permanently in
buildings and vehicles. Intercoms can incorporate connections to public
address loudspeaker systems, walkie talkies, telephones, and to other
intercom systems. Some intercom systems incorporate control of devices
such as signal lights and door latches.
Objectives:
To know the purpose of Intercom.
To learn how to convert a schematic diagram to PCB design.
To know what is integrated circuit and the purpose of it in an
intercom.
Materials in Making an PCB Design for Intercom
Schematic Diagram for Intercom
Pencil
Marker
2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
Ferric Chloride (FC)
Plastic container to put the FC into for etching
Cotton
Acetone
PCB Drill
Procedure:
1. Using PCB and pencil design the layout of the circuit, it helps
to have all the different components on hand to help
with spacing
and placement. As a side note make sure to design the layout so that it
well fit on the board.
2. Use a marker to trace all the pencil lines, a fresh marker with a
sharp point will help to make sure the
marker leaves a nice
bold line otherwise it well not resist the FC as well.
3. For etching find a clean dry place where you can safely etch the
circuit board, preferably outside the area.
4. Take a container and pour a Ferric Chloride into it.
5. Drop PCB into the Ferric Chloride and in about 10-14 minutes you
should start to see the copper start to dissolve away,
notice the
areas where the traces drawn are unaffected.
6. After about 19-23 minutes the board should be completely etched,
at which time you should immediately remove the PCB and
drop it
into the water in the larger container - to rinse then dry it off on a
paper towel.
7. Clean the PCB using the cotton and acetone - to remove the
tracing that was brought by the marker.
8. After cleaning you may now drill the holes in the PCB.
9. Repeat the procedure 1-8 for the 2nd Unit of our Intercom.

Materials in Assembling the Intercom


2 9V Battery
Soldering Iron
3m solder wire
Soldering Pump
2 LM386 (amplifier)
2 IC adapter
2 microphone
2 speaker 8ohms
2 10K potentiometer
2 buzzer
2 push button
2 470 pf
4 10uf
4 0.1uf
2 1000 uf
2 100ohms
2 10Kohms
7 5m electrical wires
Procedure:
1. Get your Units and all the components, make sure that it is
clean.
2. Check the holes in the PCB for the components if it is fit when
you will insert it.
3. Insert the components one by one and soldered it carefully.
4. After you finish, Repeat the procedure 2-3 for the 2nd Unit.
5. When it is done you may now connect the electrical wires for the
connection of the 1st and 2nd Unit.(you will see the connection
of
the wires below).
6. If it is not working very well theres a lot of reason why, but
in our case the problem that we encounter are the soldered
components,because theres an electrical component that is
sensitive when it is soldering and the other is the length of
the
electrical wires, because when both unit is too far from each other the
low the resistance it will receive.
Conclusion:
We Therefore conclude that Intercom is a system which allows a
person speaking into a microphone to be heard on a speaker by people in
a different room or area. And we learn that theres a two way in
converting schematic diagram to PCB design. First, by manually and
second is by Diptrace - a EDA software for creating schematic diagrams
and printed circuit boards.And we learn also that IC is a electronic
device made out of a semiconductor material and in our intercom we use a
LM386 an IC amplifier that consisting of a low voltage audio power
amplifier.