Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June 2014

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June

Power Quality enhancement of a distribution line with DSTATCOM

Divya Parashar 1 Department of Electrical Engineering BSACET Mathura INDIA

Aseem Chandel 2 SMIEEE,Deepak Parashar 3 Department of Electrical Engineering BSACET Mathura INDIA

Abstract- Power quality problem is manifested as a nonlinear voltage, current or frequency that results in a failure or a mis-operation of end- user equipments. In industrial applications, an induction motor may be considered as a linear load in steady state operation. It is now equipped with a diode rectifier and inverter for the purpose of achieving adjustable-speed control, then it is no longer a linear load. Most of the modern equipment behaves as non-linear load injecting a significant amount of harmonic current to the power network. This paper presents a study on the modeling of DSTATCOM used for reactive power compensation on a distribution network. The DSTATCOM is controlled using decoupled theory using the PI controller. This model does not represent system harmonics, but the dynamics resulting from control system and power system interactions. The power circuits of DSTATCOM and the distribution network are modeled from the SimPowerSystems on a 25 kV network is evaluated and results are discussed for variable load switching.

KeywordsDSTATCOM, Power Quality, VSC

I.INTRODUCTION

Electricity suppliers are nowadays concerned about the quality of the power delivered to customers. Power quality is an important issue in the local distribution system with the increased penetration of nonlinear loads due to their harmonic current injection into the

grid. With the development of power electronics, several solutions have been proposed to compensate for the fluctuations observed on the distribution networks in order to ensure highest possible power quality for the customers [2]. In early 1980s, Hingorani introduced the term “Custom Power Devices” for the power quality issues. Mainly Custom Power Devices are classified into three categories by their structures such as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Distribution STATCOM (DSTATCOM) and Unified Power Quality Compensator (UPQC).

.

The FACTS devices and Custom Power Devices are introduced to improve the power quality of the current and voltage. The flexible ac transmission technology allows a

greater control of power flow. Since these devices provide

very fast power swing damping, the power transmission lines can be securely loaded up to their thermal limits. In a similar way power electronic devices can be applied to the power distribution systems to increase the reliability and the quality of power supplied to the customers. The technology of the application of power electronics to power distribution system for the benefit of the customer or group of customers is called Custom Power (CP) since through this

9

Divya Parashar, Aseem Chandel, Deepak Parashar

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June 2014

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June

technology the utilities can supply value- added power to these specific customers [5]. The custom power devices are basically of two types-network reconfiguring type and compensating type. The compensating devices are used for active filtering; load balancing, power factor correction and voltage regulation. Some of these devices are used as load compensators, i.e., in this mode they correct the unbalance and distortions in the load currents such that compensated load draws a balanced sinusoidal current from the ac system. These “Power Quality Devices” (PQ devices) are power electronic converters connected in parallel or in series with the lines and the operation is controlled by a digital controller [1]-[4].The DSTATCOM is commonly used for voltage sags mitigation and harmonic elimination at the point of connection. The interaction between the PQ device and the network is preferably studied by simulation

II.

DESCRIPTION

OF

THE

DSTATCOM OPERATION

DSTATCOM is a shunt device that controls the system voltage by absorbing or generating reactive power. DSTATCOM connected to a typical distribution network represented by an equivalent network Fig.1.The Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) is a voltage source PWM inverter based static compensator (similar in many respects to the DVR) that is used for the correction of bus voltage sags. It is connected (shunt) to the distribution network through a transformer. The dc link voltage is provided by the capacitor C which is charged by the power taken from the network. The control system ensures the regulation of the bus voltage and the dc link voltage. The DSTATCOM is used to regulate the bus voltage on a 25-kV distribution network by absorbing or generating reactive power to the network. This reactive power transfer is done through the leakage reactance of the coupling transformer

by using a secondary voltage in phase with the primary voltage (network side).This voltage is provided by a voltage source PWM inverter.

25 kV B B Feed PWM C 1 2 MW Contr Contr
25 kV
B
B
Feed
PWM
C
1
2 MW
Contr
Contr

Fig.1. DSTATCOM connected to a distribution network

The DSTATCOM continuously checks the line waveform with respect to a reference ac signal, and therefore, it provides the correct amount of leading or lagging reactive current compensation

to reduce the amount of voltage fluctuations. The

major components of a DSTATCOM consists of

a dc capacitor, inverter modules, an ac filter, a

transformer to match the inverter output to the line voltage, and a PWM control strategy. The DSTATCOM operation is illustrated by the phasor diagrams shown in Fig.2. When the secondary voltage (V S ) is lower than the bus voltage (V B ), the DSTATCOM acts like an inductance absorbing reactive power from the bus. When the secondary voltage (V S ) is higher than the bus voltage (V B ), the DSTATCOM acts like a capacitor generating reactive power to the bus.

X Q D- BU X Q D- BU
X
Q
D- BU
X
Q
D-
BU

Fig.2. DSTATCOM as Inductor and Capacitor

10

Divya Parashar, Aseem Chandel, Deepak Parashar

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June 2014

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June

The DSTATCOM has various advantages as compared to “conventional” Static VAr Compensator (SVC) using thyristors. It is faster and can produce reactive power at low voltage.

III. MODELING OF DSTATCOM

The DSTATCOM is commonly used for voltage sags mitigation and harmonic elimination at the point of common coupling. The VSC generates a three-phase ac output which is controllable in phase and magnitude. These currents are injected into the ac distribution system in order to maintain the load voltage at the desired voltage reference. We consider here a DSTATCOM connected to a 25-kV distribution line. Fig.3 shows the simulation model of the distribution line with DSTATCOM.

The feeding system is represented by a Thevenin equivalent (bus B1) followed by a 25- km feeder which is modeled by a pi-equivalent circuit connected to bus B2. Another feeding system of 5- km is connected between B2 and B3. Both feeders transmit power to loads connected at buses B2 and B3.At bus B2, a 2-MW load is connected, which is a shunt capacitor and helps for power factor correction.

The 600 V load connected to bus B3 through a 25 kV/600 V step-down transformer represents a plant absorbing continuously changing currents, similar to an arc furnace, thus producing voltage flicker. The variable inductive and capacitive loads are switched using circuit breakers so that its apparent power varies approximately between 1 MVA and 5 MVA, while keeping a 0.9 lagging power factor and simulation results are evaluated.

PWM Based Model of VSC

DSTATCOM is a voltage source converter connected in shunt with the distribution system by means of a 25 kV/1.25 kV coupling transformer connected to compensate the load current and ensures coupling between the PWM inverter and the network. The DSTATCOM output is coupled in parallel with the distribution system through a step-up transformer to maintain isolation between the DSTATCOM circuit and

the distribution system. The primary of this transformer is fed by a voltage source PWM

inverter consisting of a 3 arm, 6 pulse IGBT bridge. The PWM inverter is replaced on the AC side with three equivalent voltage sources averaged over one cycle of the switching

the DC side, the

inverter is modeled by a current source charging

the DC capacitor. The DC current I dc is computed so that the instantaneous power at the AC inputs of the inverter remains equal to the instantaneous power at the DC output.

(V a *I a + V b *I b + V c *I c = V dc * I dc ).

A 10000 µF capacitor is used as dc voltage

source for the inverter. LC damped filter is connected at the inverter output to absorb harmonics and resistances connected in series with capacitors provide a quality factor of 40 at 50 Hz. The dc voltage (V dc ) is measured and sent

to the controller as well as the three phase

terminal voltages (V abc ) and the injected three phase currents (I abc ). V a , V b and V c are voltages at converter output.

For the DSTATCOM when the simulation starts,

the DC capacitor starts charging. This requires I d

component corresponding to the active power absorbed by the capacitor. When the DC voltage reaches its reference value, the I d component drops to a value very close to zero and the I q component stays at the 1 pu reference value. In the case of the DSTATCOM, a constant dc source is provided across the capacitor for charging the capacitor to dc voltage reference value.

frequency (1.68 kHz)

On

to dc voltage reference value. frequency (1.68 kHz) On Fig. 3 Simulink model of DSTATCOM and

Fig. 3 Simulink model of DSTATCOM and the distribution network

11

Divya Parashar, Aseem Chandel, Deepak Parashar

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June 2014

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June
P dq0 d P dro P a P P
P
dq0
d
P
dro
P
a
P
P

Fig. 4 Voltage Controller of DSTATCOM

Voltage Controller of DSTATCOM

The voltage controller of the DSTATCOM consists of several components: a phase- locked loop (PLL), abc_to_dq0 (and dq0_to_abc) transformation and PI regulators. The aim of the control scheme is to maintain constant voltage magnitude at the point where sensitive loads are connected, under system disturbances. The voltage controller analyzed in this work is exhibited in Fig.4, which employs the dq0 rotating reference frames. In this figure, V abc represents the three-phase terminal voltages, I abc represents the three-phase currents injected by the devices into the network, V rms is the r.m.s terminal voltage, V dc is the dc voltage measured in the capacitor and the superscripts (*) indicate reference values. PLL is used to synchronize the three-phase voltages at the converter output with the zero crossings of the fundamental component of the phase-A terminal voltage. Therefore, the PLL provides the angle φ to the abc-to-dq0 (and dq0- to-abc) transformation. There are also four PI regulators. The first regulator is responsible for controlling the terminal voltage through the reactive power exchange with the ac network. This PI regulator provides the reactive current reference I q *, which is limited between +1 pu capacitive and -1 pu inductive. This regulator has one droop characteristic, usually ± 5%, which allows the terminal voltage to suffer only

small variations. Another PI regulator is responsible for keeping constant the dc voltage through a small active power exchange with the

ac network, compensating the active power losses in the transformer and inverter. This PI regulator provides the active current reference I d * .The other two PI regulators determine voltage reference V d * and V q *, which are sent to

the PWM signal generator of the converter, after

a dq0-to-abc transformation. Finally, V abc * are

the three-phase voltages desired at the converter output.

IV. SIMULATING THE DSTATCOM OPERATION

Mitigation of Voltage Flicker

The voltage of the Programmable Voltage Source will be kept constant and variable load is enabled so that we can observe how the DSTATCOM will mitigate voltage flicker. The DSTATCOM controller at the Q Regulation mode of operation behaves as floating and performs no voltage correction. Running the simulation and observing on Scope 3 variations of P and Q at bus B3( trace 1) in Figure 5. as well as at buses B1 and B3 (trace 2) in Figure 6. Without DSTATCOM, B3 voltage varies between 0.96 pu and 1.04 pu (+/- 4% variation). Now, in the DSTATCOM Controller, change the "Mode of operation" parameter back to "Voltage regulation" and restart simulation. Observe on Scope 3 that voltage fluctuation at bus B3 is now reduced to +/- 0.7 %. The DSTATCOM compensates voltage by injecting a reactive current modulated at 5 Hz (trace 3 of Scope3) and varying between 0.6 pu capacitive when voltage is low and 0.6 pu inductive when voltage

is high.

DSTATCOM dynamic response

The variable load will be kept constant and you will observe the dynamic response of a DSTATCOM to step changes in source voltage. The Programmable Voltage Source block is used to modulate the internal voltage of the 25 kV equivalent. The voltage is first programmed at

12

Divya Parashar, Aseem Chandel, Deepak Parashar

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June 2014

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June

1.077 pu in order to keep the DSTATCOM initially floating (B3 voltage=1 pu and reference voltage Vref=1 pu). Three steps are programmed at 0.2 s, 0.3 s, and 0.4 s to successively increase the source voltage by 5%, decrease it by 5% and bring it back to its initial value (1.077 pu).

it by 5% and bring it back to its initial value (1.077 pu). Fig. 5 Q

Fig. 5 Q Regulation mode of operation

value (1.077 pu). Fig. 5 Q Regulation mode of operation Fig. 6 Voltage Regulation mode of

Fig. 6 Voltage Regulation mode of operation

After starting the simulation we will observe on Scope1 the phase A voltage and current waveforms of the DSTATCOM as well as controller signals on Scope2. After a transient lasting approximately 0.09 sec., the steady state is reached. Initially, the source voltage is such that the DSTATCOM is inactive. It does not absorb nor provide reactive power to the network. At, t = 0.2 s, the source voltage is increased by 5%. The DSTATCOM compensates for this voltage increase by absorbing reactive power from the network (Q=+2.5 MVAr on trace 2 of Scope2). At t = 0.3

s, the source voltage is decreased by 5% from the value corresponding to Q = 0. The DSTATCOM must generate reactive power to maintain a 1 pu voltage (Q changes from +2.5 MVAr to -2.6 MVAr).

a 1 pu voltage (Q changes from +2.5 MVAr to -2.6 MVAr). 7 current Fig. Scope

7

current

Fig.

Scope

1

representing

DSTATCOM

to -2.6 MVAr). 7 current Fig. Scope 1 representing DSTATCOM Fig. 8 Dynamic performance of DSTATCOM

Fig. 8 Dynamic performance of DSTATCOM

13

Divya Parashar, Aseem Chandel, Deepak Parashar

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June 2014

International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June
International Journal of Electronics, Electrical and Computational System IJEECS ISSN 2348-117X Volume 3, Issue 5 June

V. CONCLUSION

An average model of DSTATCOM has been developed and implemented using of SimPowerSystems and presented the case of a ± 2.5 MVAr DSTATCOM connected to a 25 kV distribution network. The obtained simulation results have been demonstrated the validity of the developed model. Average modeling allows a faster simulation which is well suited to the controller tuning purposes.

1)

K.

VI. REFERENCES

K.

Sen,

“STATCOM:

Theory,

Modeling,

Applications,”

in

IEEE

PES

1999

Winter

Meeting

Proceedings,

pp

1177-1183.

2) Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), edited by Y.H. Song and A.I.

Johns, The Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, UK, 1999.

3)

K.V.

Patil,

et

al.,

“Application

of

STATCOM

for

Damping

Torsional

Oscillations in Series Compensated AC

Systems,” IEEE

Trans. On Energy

Conversion, Vol 13, No. 3,Sept 1998,pp

237-243.

 

4)

C.D Schauder, H. Mehta, “Vector Analysis Advanced Static VAR Compensators,” IEEE Proceedings. C, Vol. 140, No. 4, July 1993,pp 299-306.

5) N. G. Hingorani, “Introducing Custom Power ,” IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 41-48,1995.

6) T. J. E. Miller “Reactive Power Control in Electric Systems, John Wiley, New York,

198

14

Divya Parashar, Aseem Chandel, Deepak Parashar