Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

Wenr, 153 (1992) 331-350

331

Effect

of roughness

and

sliding

speed

on the

wear

and

friction

of ultra-high

molecular

weight

polyethylene

T.

S. Barrett*,

G.

W.

Stachowiak

and

A.

W.

Batchelor

The Department

of ~echan~al

Engineering, The U~ive~~

of Western A~~a~~

Nedlands,

Western Austdiu

6009 (Australia)

(Received

April 22, 1991; revised and accepted

July 15, 1991)

Abstract

The friction and wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) pins sliding

against a stainless steel disc were measured for sliding speeds ranging from 1.25 to 10 m s-l and disc surface roughnesses R, from 0.07 to 0.53 pm ms-‘. Frictional heating was controlled by air jets and surface temperature measured with an IR pyrometer. It was found that the wear of UHMWPE is critically dependent on surface temperature and that,

when the temperature

caused by the sudden loss of a molten or softened layer of polymer. Wear was also influenced by surface roughness. An optimum surface roughness, ie. a minimum of wear was found at low and medium sliding speeds. At the highest speed tested, however, the

influence of roughness on wear rate was much less distinct. Scanning electron photomi- crographs of worn pins and disc surfaces revealed evidence of melting by IJHMWPE at

high sliding speeds

were limited to isolated deposits of polymer wear particles.

exceeds

a critical

value,

wear

proceeds

in a series

of discrete

steps

and abrasion

at high surface

roughnesses.

Transfer fifms on disc surfaces

at high surface roughnesses. Transfer fifms on disc surfaces 1. Introduction     UHMWI’E is a

1. Introduction

 
 

UHMWI’E

is a polymer

which

allows

sliding

against

steel

or other

surfaces

with

very

low wear

coefficients

and

a moderate

coefficient

of friction.

Studies

of the

friction

and

wear

characteristics

of this material

have usually

been

limited

to low sliding

speeds

as

is

the

case

with

other

polymers.

A

detailed

model

of

transfer

films

to

explain

polymer

wear

and

friction

in terms

of an interfacial

film acting

as a preferential

sliding

surface

has

been

developed

[l-3].

Studies

of wear

between

UHMWFE

and

a smooth

steel

counterface,

counterface

at low sliding

of

the

ALE

Wear

speeds

revealed

that

proceeded

thin

transfer

films formed

by

two

mechanisms:

an

on

the

adhesive

process

which

occurred

immediately

after

sliding

began

and

a fatigue

process

which

did

not

appear

until

after

a long

period

of sliding

had

elapsed

[4, 51. However,

wear

and

friction

processes

in

polymers

sliding

against

rough

surfaces

at

elevated

sliding

speeds

have hardly been

studied

despite

its considerable

practical

importance.

UHMWPE

is

a

wear-resistant

polymer

with

a

moderate

coefficient

of

friction

against

a

steel

counterface.

The

design

of

bearings

and

sliding

contacts

made

from

UHMWFE

or

other

polymers

is usually

based

on

a PV

limit

where

P

is the

apparent

contact

pressure

and

V

is

the

sliding

speed.

For

design

purposes

it is assumed

that,

when

loads

and

*Present

address:

Interseal

Ltd., Alfred

Cove, Western

Australia

6154, Australia.

332

sliding

speeds

exceed

a critical

PVvalue,

wear

rises

precipitately

 

to cause

rapid

failure

of the

bearing.

This

design

concept

is often

inaccurate

and

has

to

be

modified

in

practice

by setting

multiple

values

very of PV with

each

value

of PV

corresponding

to

a

narrow

range

of sliding

speed.

More

information

on wear

processes

at

and

beyond

the

PY

limit

could

enable

improvements

in

the

properties

of

UHMWPE

bearing

materials

and

allow

the

development

of

a more

accurate

design

criterion.

 

Wear

of materials

at high sliding

speeds

is largely

controlled

by melting

or softening

due

to

the

high

interface

temperatures

at

the

sliding

contact

161. This

form

of wear

in

which

the

sliding

materials

are

separated

by

films

of

molten

material

has

been

demonstrated

in metals

[7], ice

[8] and

polymers

[9]. It

has

even

been

speculated

that

the

molten

layers

separate

the

wearing

surfaces

by hydrodynamic

lubrication

[lo,

111

since

the

coefficient

of friction

under

melting

wear

can be relatively

low. It is generally

observed

that

the friction

coefficient

rises with increasing

sliding

speed

until

the interface

temperature

is sufficient

for one of the sliding

surfaces

to melt.

Beyond

this temperatures

friction

is inversely

proportional

to sliding

speed.

This

characteristic

has been

modelled

by

the

concept

of

“thermal

control

of

friction”

where

it is speculated

that

at

high

sliding

speeds

the friction

coefficient

varies

to maintain

a constant interface temperature

[12]. Polymers

which

do

not

melt

or soften

but

instead

degrade

at high

temperatures

such

as polytetrafluoroethylene

do not

show

a declining

friction

characteristic

at high

sliding

speeds

[13]. Thermoplastics

 

such

as nylon

and

high

density

polyethylene

reveal

a

friction

characteristic

similar

to

metals

and

ice,

i.e.

a

maximum

in

friction

with

increasing

sliding

speed

at a contact

temperature

close to a melting

point

[9]. ALE

 

is possibly

UHMWPE

an

extreme

case

since,

even

compared

with

other

polymers,

the

molten

is so viscous

that

it is effectively

solid.

Friction

might

therefore

not

show

a

significant

change

when

the

contact

temperature

exceeded

the

softening

or melting

point.

The

wear

rates

in

all

these

studies

of

polymers

showed

a

sharp

rise

at

the

sliding

speed

or

surface

temperature

where

friction

decreased.

 

Studies

of the

relationship

between

surface

roughness

of a metal

counterface

and

polymer

wear

have

shown

that

increased

roughness

causes

abrasion

of the

polymers

[14]. Separate

investigations

revealed

that

an

optimum

surface

roughness

exists where

a

minimum

in

wear

may

occur

1157. Reasons

or

modeis

to

explain

the

effect

of

roughness

on

wear

that

are

available

in

the

literature

do

not

provide

any

detailed

explanation

of this

minimum.

It is speculated

that

the

effect

of counterface

roughness

is

to modify

friction

by allowing

the

asperities

from

the

solid

metal

to penetrate

more

deeply

into

the

molten

layers

 

of

polymer.

A

progressive

increase

 

in

viscosity

of

the

molten

polymer

with

depth

of

asperity

penetration

would

lead

to

greater

frictional

resistance

when

the

molten

polymer

has

a relatively

low viscosity.

However,

molten

UHMWPE

is

known

to

have

a very

large

viscosity

so

that

only

a

relatively

small

decrease

in

friction

with

melting

is expected

 

and

the

effect

of roughness

should

also

be

with

limited.

smaller

The

influence

melt

viscosities

of

In

this

work,

steel counterface

the

results

for various

roughness

should

of

sliding

be

a study

on

the

and

friction

pronounced.

coefficient

of

more

of the

wear

of UHMWPE

pins

roughnesses

speeds

counter-face

other

polymers

on

a stainless

but constant

load

are

presented.

A

model

of wear

at

high

sliding

speeds

is introduced.

2. Theory

 
 

Polymer

wear

is known

to

be

dependent

on

interfacial

contact temperature.

It

was

not

possible

to measure

the

contact

temperature

directly

so a formula

developed

333

by Challen

and

Dowson

[16] was

applied

for

the

contact

temperature.

The

following

equations

give

an

estimate

of

the

temperature

rise

for

UHhWPE

pins

sliding

on

stainless

steel:

Tf= F,,W+ FtbT,,

 

(1)

F = 1.65FsF,,,p@.5

P

F-i-F s

m U-‘.’

(2)

F

tb

= F,- Q.65FJJ-Q~s F +F m U-‘.’

s

where

Tf “C is the

interfacial

contact

temperature

or

flash

temperature,

Tb “C is the

disc

surface

temperature,

W (N)

is

the

load,

U

(m

s-‘)

is

the

sliding

velocity,

p

is

the

coefficient

of

friction,

Fs (K

s

N-l

m-‘)

is

a

constant

and

F,

(K

sin

N-’

m-In),

is a constant.

The

effect

of forced

cooling

was

not

specifically

included

in the

derivation

of

these

equations

and

it

was

assumed

that

negligible

inaccuracy

would

result

provided

that

the

disc

temperature

was

accurately

measured.

 
temperature was accurately measured.   3. Experimental details     Unidirectional

3. Experimental

details

 
 

Unidirectional

constant-speed

sliding

was selected

for experimentation

to facilitate

measurement

of

the

effect

of

sliding

speed

and

contact

temperature

on

wear

and

friction.

 

3.1. Experimental

apparatus

 
 

A pin-on-disc

test

to investigate

the

wear

and

friction

of UHMWPE

in

unidirectional

rig was used UHMWPE

sliding.

pins

were

loaded

against

a

stainless

steel

disc

with

friction

measured

by strain

gauges

and

wear

monitored

by a linear

displacement

transducer

contacting

the

pin.

A

schematic

diagram

of

the

test

rig

is shown

in

Fig.

1.

 

At

high

sliding

speeds

a polymer

pin

is prone

to soften

and

wear

catastrophically

and,

to obtain

valid

data,

careful

temperature

control

at the sliding

interface

is essential.

The

temperature

was

controlled

by cooling

the

disc

and

pin

with

air jets

directed

at

the

disc

surface

at

the

pin.

A

heating

element

was

fitted

underneath

 

the

disc

to

provide

uniform

heat

to

the

disc

independent

of frictional

effects.

An

IR

pyrometer

was

used

to measure

the

disc

surface

temperature

in

the

wear

track

adjacent

to

the

pin.

Figure

2 illustrates

the

cooling

and

temperature

measurement

systems.

 
and temperature measurement systems.   0.5 HP DC motor load Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of
and temperature measurement systems.   0.5 HP DC motor load Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of

0.5 HP

DC motor

load

Fig. 1. Schematic

diagram of pin-on-disc

test apparatus.

334 ~ - ~ LED transmitter/receiver Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of temperature control and measurement

334

334 ~ - ~ LED transmitter/receiver Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of temperature control and measurement systems
334 ~ - ~ LED transmitter/receiver Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of temperature control and measurement systems
334 ~ - ~ LED transmitter/receiver Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of temperature control and measurement systems
334 ~ - ~ LED transmitter/receiver Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of temperature control and measurement systems
334 ~ - ~ LED transmitter/receiver Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of temperature control and measurement systems
334 ~ - ~ LED transmitter/receiver Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of temperature control and measurement systems
334 ~ - ~ LED transmitter/receiver Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of temperature control and measurement systems

~-~

LED transmitter/receiver

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of temperature control and measurement systems for pin-on-disc test apparatus: LED, light-emitting diode.

 

The

disc

was

driven

by

a

770

W

d.c.

electric

motor

with

a maximum

speed

of

1150 rev min- -

less

than

+

with

a variable-speed

1%

and

was

monitored

controller.

by

a digital

The

fluctuation

tachometer.

in any

set speed

was

The

disc was

directly

coupled

to

the

motor

and

with

a motor

maximum

speed

of

1150 rev

min-‘,

a disc

diameter

of

100 mm

was

chosen

for

these

tests.

At

a

45 mm

wear

track

radius,

the

maximum

motor

speed

corresponds

to

a linear

sliding

speed

of

approximately

16

m

-1

   

s

.

 

The

linear

variable-displacement

transducer

(LVDT)

used

to measure

wear

was

rigidly

mounted

on

a frame

above

the

loading

arm

of the

pin.

With

a high

value

of

amplification

of

the

output

signal,

movements

as

small

as

1

pm

could

be

accurately

measured.

The

LVDT

was

calibrated

by

placing

a metric

dial

gauge

above

the

pin

*holder

which

was

then

using

moved

weights

by a screw. connected

The

strain

by a pulley

 

gauges

for friction

measurement

were

calibrated

and

cord

to

the

pin

holder.

The

IR

pyrometer

was calibrated

by heating

the

disc

and

measuring

the

temperature

with

a mercury

thermometer.

A stainless

steel

disc of medium

roughness,

R,,=0.14

pm

was

selected

for these

tests.

Several

temperatures

were

tested

and,

at an emissivity

setting

of

0.23,

the

readings

of the

pyrometer

and

mercury

thermometer

agreed

to within

1

K. During

wear

tests,

some

discs

acquired

a dark

transfer

film

in the

wear

track.

The

calibration

was

repeated

and

a correction

made

to

the

emissivity

factor.

 

3.2. Experimental materials The discs were made

of

stainless

steel

with

a

composition

of

18 wt.%

Cr,

10

wt.%

Ni,

3 wt.%

MO, 0.1 wt.%

C,

1 wt.%

Si

and

2 wt.%

Mn.

Stainless

steel

was

Pin Design as used in preliminary tests Pin Design as used in 2nd round tests
Pin Design as used in preliminary
tests
Pin Design as used in 2nd
round tests
3mm
i-

335

Fig. 3. Dimensions

of polymer

pins.

chosen

to

prevent

any

influence

on

wear

rates

by

small

abrasive

particles

of

rusted

iron.

The

wear

of UHMWPE

has

previously

been

shown

to

be

extremely

sensitive

to

small

levels

of contamination

[17]. The

discs were

prepared

to various

levels

of surface

roughness

by machining

 

to

a fine

turned

finish

followed

by hand

finishing

with

emery

paper.

The

roughness

R,

of the

discs

were

set

at

the

following

levels:

0.07

pm,

0.14

pm,

0.24

pm,

0.29

pm,

0.44

pm

and

0.53

pm

(centre-line

average).

The

randomness

of the

surface

roughness

was

checked

by measuring

the

surface

roughness

in

radial

and

circumferential

directions

for

each

disc

using

a Taylor-Hobson

Talysurf

Model

5. Ten

values

of

surface

roughness

were

obtained

for

both

the

circumferential

 

and

the

radial

directions

and

a

t test

at 2.5%

level

of significance

applied

to the

data.

No

significant

difference

between

the

two

roughnesses

was

found.

 
 

The

polymer

pins

were

made

of

GUR

415

UHMWF’E.

The

average

molecular

weight

of

this

material

is

5.5 x

lo6

and

the

measured

density

was

925

kg rne3.

The

Vicat

softening

point

is 136 “C. Rockwell

Hardness

52 HR

and

tensile

strength

at

20

“C is

40 MPa.

The

pins

were

machined

into

two forms

shown

in Fig.

3: one

of these

is the

conical

profile

with

an end-flat

diameter

of 3 mm which

has been

used

elsewhere

[16],

and

the

other

consists

of

a rod-shaped

projection

of

3

mm

diameter

from

the

main

body

of

the

pin.

The

latter

design

was

intended

to

provide

better

cooling

of

the

wearing

surface

and

was found

to have

slightly

different

wear

characteristics

from

the

conical

pin.

3.3. Experimental

procedure

 
 

Before

testing,

the

discs

and

pins

were

carefully

cleaned

in ethanol

and

dried

in

hot

air

to

remove

any

dust

or

greasy

contaminants.

The

pins

were

then

weighed

by

an

analytical

balance

accurate

to

0.1 mg

and

their

dimensions

measured

in

an

optical

profilometer

 

to

provide

wear

data

additional

to

the

data

recorded

from

the

LVDT.

Wear

debris

accumulated

on

the

pin

and

obscured

the

wear

scar

profile

and

caused

erroneously

low

readings

of

mass

loss.

Once

material

is expelled

from

the

contact,

then

it becomes

wear

debris

even

though

it remains

adhered

to the

wearing

specimen.

The

data recorded

by these

latter

methods

of measurement

were therefore not included.

The

pins

and

discs

were

then

fitted

into

the

apparatus

and

a

load

of

34.33

N

(3.5

336

kgf)

applied

to

the

pin

(with

spring

force

from

the

LVDT

compensated

for).

The

corresponding

contact

pressure

for

this

load

is 4.85

MPa.

The

pins

sustained

rapid

creep

immediately

after

loading

and

wear

tests

were

not

begun

until

the

LVDT

indicated

that

the

initial

creep

had

ceased.

The

same

problem

was

found

by

other

workers

measuring

 

the

wear

of UHMWPE

[18]. The

length

of the

pin

which

controls

LVDT

measurements

 

is also affected

by changes

in temperature.

The disc was therefore

heated

to

the

test

temperature

before

loading

the

pin

onto

the

disc.

Tests

then

performed

over

a

1

h

period

which

results

in

a sliding

distance

of

18 km

were at a sliding

speed

of

5

m

s-r.

The

sliding

speeds

selected

were

1.25 m

s-r,

2.5

m s-‘,

5

m

s-l

and

10

m

s-r

while

the

disc

temperatures

were

44

“C,

50

“C,

66

“C

and

82

“C

respectively.

The

pins

and

discs

were

removed

after

testing

and

examined

later

by

scanning

 

electron

microscopy

(SEM)

for

evidence

of wear

mechanisms

and

transfer

films.

4.

Results

Friction and wear

coefficients

were

found

for UHMWPE

sliding

on stainless

steel

at various roughnesses,

sliding

speeds

and

disc

temperatures

for

constant

load. All

three parameters were

found

to have

a strong

effect

on friction

and wear. Micrographs

of the worn pins and discs showed

that

changes

in wear

and

transfer

film mechanisms

concurred with variations in wear

and

friction.

4.1.

Wear and friction

data

Figure

4 shows

a graph

of wear

coefficient

W. surface

roughness

at various

sliding

speeds.

The

disc

surface

temperature

in

these

tests

is

50

“C which

provides

severe

but

not

extreme

conditions

for

the

UHMWPE

material.

An

optimum

counterface

roughness

R,

of between

0.14

and

0.24

pm

is apparent

for

all

sliding

speeds

apart

from

the

maximum

speed

of

10 m

s-l.

The

effect

of optimum

roughness

is very marked

as

the

wear

values

at

0.001

mm3 N-’

m-l

represent

 

the

limits

of measurement

and

the

real

wear

rates

could

be much

lower.

 

For

the

highest

velocity

tested

of

10 m

s-l,

the

minimum

wear

recorded

was

between

R,=

0.14

and

0.29

pm

but

there

appears

to

be

no

large

decrease

in

wear

rate

close

to

an

optimum

roughness.

The

change

occurring

between

a

sliding

velocity

of

5

and

10

m

s-l

is very

marked

and

worth

further

investigation.

 

E ,”

z

?i

1

.E

1:

ii

;,OOl,

.,v.

,-

,

.I

.

I.

 

00

0.1

02

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

 

Surface

Roughness,

Ra

&tn

Fig. 4. Effect of counterface

surface

roughness

on wear

coefficient

at various

sliding

speeds.

337

 

The

friction

coefficients

show

much

less variation

with

surface

roughness

or even

sliding

velocity

than

the

wear

coefficients.

Figure

5 shows

the

friction

coefficients

for

the

same

tests

as

in

Fig.

4.

The

friction

coefficients

appear

to

maintain

a

nearly

constant

value

for

all values

of R,

apart

from

the

lowest

and

highest

R, values

where

a small

rise

in

friction

was recorded.

At

the

highest

value

of surface

roughness

tested,

R,=

0.53

pm,

a small

increase

in

friction

with

increasing

sliding

speed

was

found.

The

interfacial

temperature

which

is

the

sum

of disc

temperature

and

the

flash

temperature

was

found

to

exert

a very

strong

effect

on

wear

rates.

Figure

6 shows

a

graph

of the

friction

and

wear

coefficients

of UHMWPE

as a function

of interfacial

temperature

for

a counterface

roughness

of 0.13-0.14

pm.

 

A very

strong

effect

of contact

temperature

on

wear

rates

is evident;

at

around

136

“C,

which

is

the

softening

point

of

the

UHMWPE,

wear

coefficients

rise

to

extremely

high levels

of more

than

lo-’

mm3 N-’

m-‘.

The

friction

coefficient

declines

by

a small

amount

with

increasing

temperature

but

the

effect

is minor

compared

with

the

variation

in wear

rate.

The

effect

of

sliding

speed

at

this

level

of roughness

on

s

0.4

-

z

z

0.3

-

-

1.25mk

 

5

-

2.5mk

E

0

0.2

-

-

5.oml.s

E

_

lO.Om/s

 

r

s

0.1

-

0.0 11

 
 

0.0

01

0.2

0.3

04

0.5

0.6

 

Surface