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BEng(Hons) Aeronautical/Automotive/Mechanical Engineering
Module: ME244
Assessment: 2 assessments, 50% test, 50% examination
Semester 1 15 weeks



11 October 2013


BEng Mech Engineering

ME244 Materials Lecture 1 Stress & Strain


18 October 2013


25 October 2013


1 November 2013


8 November 2013


15 November 2013

L7 Assessment 1

22 November 2013


29 November 2013


6 December 2013


13 December 2013


10 January 2014


17 January 2014


24 January 2014

The schedule is also available to

view on Studentcentral.

Stress & Strain


Thermal effects and Strain Energy




Shear Force and Bending Moment


Bending of Beams


2-D Stress and Strain


Assessment 1


Strength/Mechanics of Materials




Stress and Strain Analysis


Deflection of Beams


Bending of Curved Bars & Rigid Frames







To study of the behaviour of structural and machine members: Under the action of external loads.
Taking into account the internal forces created and deformations.
To determine the stresses, strains and displacements in structures due to the loads.
An understanding of mechanical behavior is essential for safe design of all types of
structures, machines, bridges, buildings, etc.


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is available to
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By examining the stresses and strains inside real bodies, i.e. bodies of finite dimensions
that deform under loads.
Use physical properties of the materials as well as many theoretical laws and


Stress and Strain

Tools - theoretical analyses and experimental results

Consider a straight structural member, e.g. connecting rods in engines, columns in

buildings, tow bar, etc.

Use theories to derive formulas and equations for predicting mechanical behavior.
Not practical in real life unless physical properties of the material are known.
Different mechanical properties can be determined in the laboratory environment.
Physical testing.

1. Understanding the logical development of the concepts study
2. Applying those concepts to practical situation solving real life problems

Now, consider a section of the tow bar being pull at both ends.
Assuming that the only active forces are the axial forces P at the ends, next to
consider before the loads are applied, and after the loads are applied.
The original length of the bar is L, the
increase in length due to the loads is .
Consider the cross section mn, the internal
actions in the bar are exposed.
On the right-hand end, it consists of
continuously distributed stresses acting over
the entire cross section.
The axial force P acting at the cross section
is the resultant of those stresses.



Stress and Strain

Normal Strain

Assuming the Stresses (force per unit area) acting on the cross section are uniformly
disturbed over the area.

A straight bar will change in length when loaded axially,

Longer when in tension
Shorter when in compression
Consider the tow bar, the elongation of the bar is the cumulative result of the
stretching of all elements of the material throughout the volume of the bar.

The resultant of those stresses = the magnitude of the stress x the cross-sectional area


= P/A (N/m)

The bar is stretched by the forces P, the stresses are tensile stresses, +ve
If the forces are reversed in direction, the stresses are compressive stresses, -ve

Assuming that the material is the same everywhere in the bar.

For half of the bar L/2, it will have an elongation equal to /2, and so on.
In general,

Length of segment
Total elongation
Total length L
Therefore, a unit length of the bar will have an elongation = 1/L x (elongation
per unit length) , or strain (dimensionless)
The elongation of a segment


Hookes Law

Bar in tension tensile strain, stretching of the material, +ve

Bar is in compression compressive strain, bar shortens, -ve

The law states that strain is proportional to the stress producing it.
It is obeyed within certain limits of stress and can be applied with sufficient
accuracy to many engineering materials, e.g. Steel, timber, concrete, etc.

This is called normal strain associated with normal stresses

Youngs Modulus E
Within the limits for which Hooks law is obeyed
Is the ratio of the direct stress to the strain
Represents the stress required to cause unit strain

For a bar of uniform cross - section A and length l this can be written

Youngs Modulus
E is a constant for a given material and is assumed to be the same in tension or
compression. e.g. mild steel has a value of E 205,000 N/mm2 and will rarely be
stressed higher than 150 N/mm2
Therefore 150 / 205000 = 0.0073


Tensile Test
Test is carried out on a bar of uniform cross-section, usually circular
The testing machine indicates the tensile load being applied
The elongation of a measured length is recorded, i.e. Extensometer, strain gauge

so that for a bar of 1m long will change in length by 0.73mm

In summary, metals have a high value of E, the strains are always small
In the case of rubber, it does not obey Hookes law very accurately,
It has a low value of E
Undergo considerable deformation at moderate stress values.

The load is increased gradually,

The elongation is proportional to the load (hence
stress) Hookes law holds up to a value of the
stress (limit of proportionality)
Hookes law ceases to be obeyed beyond this point,
although the material may still be in the elastic state (if
the were removed) hence the elastic limit.
If the material is stressed beyond the elastic limit,
plastic deformation will occur, i.e. Strain not
recoverable if the load removed
Yield point at which the metal shows an appreciable
strain even without further increase in load
The bar begins to form a local neck, the load falling
off from the maximum until fracture occurs.




Poissons Ratio

The following results were obtained in a tensile test on a mild steel specimen of
original diameter 2 cm, and gauge length 4 cm.
At the limit of proportionality the load was 80 kN and the extension 0.048mm. The
specimen yielded at a load of 85 kN and the maximum load withstood was 150 kN.
Calculate Youngs modulus and the stress at the limit of proportionality, the yield stress,
and ultimate tensile stress.

When a bar is loaded in tension axial elongation is

accompanied by lateral contraction.
The lateral strain in a bar is proportional to the axial
strain .
The ratio of these strains is a property of the material
Poissons ratio

lateral strain

axial strain

Therefore, when Poissons ratio for a material is known, the lateral strain from the
axial strain can calculated.
Poissons ratio are in the range of 0.25 to 0.35 for most metals, with an upper limit of
0.5 theoretical, e.g. rubber

Shear Stress


Shear stress acts tangential to the surface of the

Consider a small element of material with applied
loads P, opposite parallel forces not in the same line.
There is a tendency for one part of the body to
slide over from the other part across any section.
If the cross-section at EF measured to the load is A,
then the average shear stress =P/A.


A flange coupling joining two section of shaft is required to transmit

250 kW at 1000 rpm. If six bots are to be used on a pitch circle
diameter of 14 cm, find the diameter of the bolts. Allowable mean
shear stress 75 N/mm2.

e.g. Riveted joints

Consider a small rectangular element of sides x, y, z

(perpendicular to the figure).
Let there be a shear stress acting on planes AB & CD.
These stresses will form a couple (xz)y which can only
be balanced by tangential forces on planes AD and BC.
These are known as complementary shear stresses.
If be the complementary shear stress induced on
planes AD and BC, then for condition of equilibrium,
(xz)y = (yz)x

Shear Strain

Factor of Safety

Shear strain is the distortion produced by shear stress on an element.

In theory, stress can be calculated from a knowledge of magnitude and position of

application of the load, the dimensions of the member and the properties of the

Consider an element of a rectangular block.

It can be defined as the change in the right angle in radians.
For elastic materials, it is found that shear strain is proportional to the shear stress
producing it.
The ratio of is called Modulus of Rigidity G.

Shear stress

Shear strain

In practice none of these factors is known exactly possible errors arise from
various sources:The type of load may be described as dead load (static), live load (vehicle
crossing a bridge), fluctuating load (connecting rod), impact load.
Other approximations such as concentrated load and uniformly distributed over an
The dimensions of the member sudden changes of cross-section will cause
stress concentrations. Other factors such as method of manufacture e.g. cast,
forged or machined) and standards of workmanship.
The character of the material steels and most ductile materials can be
assumed to have the same strength in tension and compression, but cast iron and
concrete are much weaker in tension than compression.
Hookes law is assumed to apply will introduce an error when dealing with cast
iron, and concrete (liable to internal flaws).



Factor of Safety
Therefore, engineer must use his/her experience when dealing with problem
outside the scope of mathematical analysis.
Alternatively, an experiment method may be employed.
The allowable stress, or working stress is determined from a consideration of
the above factors factor of safety
Factor of safety

Ultimate stress
Allowable stress

In engineering design, this factor will vary from about 3 (for dead loads) to 12 (for shock

Stress = P/A assuming uniform distribution over the cross-section
Strain = /L
Youngs modulus E= / within the limits of Hookes law
For a bar of uniform cross-section A and length l,
E = Pl / A
Shear Stress = P/A (area tangential to stress)
Modulus of Rigidity G= /
Factor of Safety=Ultimate stress/Allowable stress