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Maisonneuve & Larose

The Sultan's Syllabus: A Curriculum for the Ottoman Imperial medreses Prescribed in a fermn
of Qnn I Sleymn, Dated 973 (1565)
Author(s): Shahab Ahmed and Nenad Filipovic
Source: Studia Islamica, No. 98/99 (2004), pp. 183-218
Published by: Maisonneuve & Larose
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20059215
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Studia

Isl?mica,

2004

The Sultans Syllabus:


A Curriculum

for the Ottoman


in ^ferm?n

medreses prescribed

Imperial
of Q?n?ni

S?leym?n, dated 973 (1565)

Introduction
It is broadly recognized that the educational reforms carried out in
I S?leym?n (S?leym?n the
the reign of the Ottoman
Sultan Q?n?ni
regnant 926-974/1520-1566),
Magnificent,
following upon those of his
(Mehemmed the Con
great-grandfather, Sultan F?tih IIMehemmed
in the
and 855-886/1451-1481)
queror, regnant 848-850/1444-1446
previous century, had the effect of centralizing and systematizing edu
cation in the Ottoman empire to a degree unprecedented not merely in
Ottoman, but probably in pre-modern Islamic history. The role of these
and subsequent reforms in the progressive fashioning of the Hlmiyyewhat is generally called the Ottoman
"learned institution" ? particularly
their effects on the structure and organization of educational institu
tions and on the social constitution and career paths of the scholarly
class, has received some study.l One of the fundamental effects of these

1. See M.

C.

Baysun,

"Osmanh

devri medreseleri,"

in the entry

"Mescid,"

IA;

Ismail Hakki Uzun?arsili, Osmanh Devletinin Ilmiye Teskila?, Ankara: Turk


Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, 1965; Cahid Baltaci, XV-XVI Asirlar Osmanh
Medreseleri:

Teskil?t,

Tarih,

Istanbul:

Irfan Matbaasi,

1976;

the early

twentieth

183

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AHMED

Shahab

measures

imperial

was

the

FlLIPOVlC

and Nenad

into

of medreses

organization

hierarchy.2

s?htes (students) pursued courses of study moving up through the


successive grades of medreses according to their abilities and were duly
certified as they did so.3 The most successful made their way through

The

collected
Cevdet,
century
essays of Muallim
veMedrese,
Istanbul:
tep
?inar
Yayinlan,
:Medrese
Yiiksek Din
Egitimi
programlan,

and

edited

1978;

Eriiz, Mek

by Erdogan

Osmanhlarda
Atay,
Islahat
hareketleri,

Hiiseyin

Icazetn?meler,

Istanbul: Derg?h Yayinlan, 1983;Madeleine Zilfi, "The Ilmiye Registers and


the Ottoman

System
Paul Dumont

and

sociale de

in Jean-Louis
Bacqu?
et
l'histoire ?conomique
Mustafa
1983, 309-327;

Contributions

(eds.),

Leuven:

ottoman,

l'Empire

to the Tanzimat,"

Prior

Medrese

Grammont

?ditions

Peeters,

Bilge, Ilk OsmanhMedreseleri, Istanbul: Edebiyat Fakiiltesi Basimevi, 1984; R.


C. Repp, TheMufti of Istanbul: A Study in theDevelopment of the Ottoman
Learned

London:

Hierarchy,

Ithaca

1986; Halil

Press,

"The R?zn?mce

Inalcik,

Registers of the Kadiasker of Rumeli as Preserved in the IstanbulM?fi?l?k


wa

20

Turcica

Archives,"

(1988),

dir?sah

al-daivlah:

251-275;

Suraiya

al-us?l

al

al-dawlah

al-ijtim?'iyyah
li-al-ulam?'fi"
'Uthm?niyyahfi al-nisf al-th?ni min al-qarn al-s?dis 'ashar, al-Ijtih?d4 (1989)
183-200; Madeleine Zilfi, "Sultan S?leym?n and the Ottoman Religious
Establishment," inHalil Inalcik and Cernai Kafadar (eds.), S?leym?n the Sec
ond andHis Time, Istanbul:The Isis Press, 1993, 109-120; Mefail Hizli, Bursa
Medreselerinde
Akg?nd?z,
bul: Ulusal
Grandin
monde

fi

'

"al Tim wa al-ulam?

Faroqhi,

Bursa:

Egitim-Ogretim,
Kl?sik D?nem
Osmanh

Esra

Fak?lte

Paris:

Ihsanoglu,

"Ottoman

?ditions

Educational

Hasan

1997;

Istan
Ama?,
Yapi, Isleyis,
"Le mod?le
in Nicole
Ottomane,"

1997; Gilles Veinstein,


Yayinlan,
and Marc Gaborieau
(eds.), Madrasa:

Musulman,

Kitabevi,

Sistemi:

Medrese

La

transmission
1997,

du

savoir dans

Arguments,
and Scholarly-Scientific

le

Ekmeleddin

73-83;

in

Institutions,"

Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu (ed.)History of theOttoman State, Society and Civiliza


tion, Istanbul: IRCICA, 2002, 2:357-515; Colin Imber, The Ottoman Empire
1300-1650:
See

229.

Ihsanoglu,

The

Structure

"The
The

(1916-1965):

of Power,
instructive

the

also

London:

Initial

Stage
of Discovery

Era

2002,

MacMillan,

Palgrave

historiographical
of the
Historiography

228

critique
by Ekmeleddin
of Ottoman
Medreses

and Construction,"

Archivum

Ottoma

nicum 18 (2000), 41-85.


2. On

see H.

the hierarchy,

.R. Gibb

and Harold

Islamic

Bowen,

Society

and theWest: A Study of the Impact ofWestern Civilization onMoslem Culture


in

the Near

East,

Uzun?arsih,
Asirlar Osmanh
The Mufti

London:

Osmanh

Oxford

Devletinin

Medreseleri,

46-50;

University
Ilmiye
Zilfi,

40-44;
of Istanbul,
Ihsanoglu,
371-380.
Institutions,"
larly-Scientific
I lim,
3. See Izgi, Osmanh Medreselerinde

Press,

Teskilati,
"The

1 .II:

1957,
5-17;

Baltaci,

Ilmiye Registers,"
"Ottoman
Educational

144-145;
XV-XVI

314;
and

Repp,
Scho

1:50-61.

184

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The Sultan's

A Curriculum

Syllabus:

the Ottoman

for

Imperial

medreses

the hierarchy as students; and then either returned to the bottom to


career as m?derri?n (teachers) and once again to work up
begin their
the
ranks, or sought positions as entry-level judges (n?vmh) in
through
the imperial legal system. "Incumbents of posts in the most senior
to one of the posts of the
medrese grades qualified for promotion...
the lowest of the Great Molla grades, and thence through the
Mahrec,
4
Great Molla hierarchy to the Kadiaskerates." Those who were not suc
cessful in pursuing a career in the 'ilmiyyemight go to the qalemiyye
(secretarial institution),5 or even return to civil life.6 In other words, the
state was

Ottoman

in the

instrumental

tion of a distinct class of men


into

sector

the non-military

social

and

formation

of religious learning who were


of

state

the Ottoman

structure

certifica

integrated

- most

pro

? and whose influence was


nouncedly in the imperial capital, Istanbul
thus felt in Ottoman
society wherever people came into contact with
the legal and administrative offices of empire. In sum: "The 'ilmiyye
class as awhole was a privileged group whose status and hierarchy was
in the Islamic sciences. Its
based on the level of certified knowledge
state] side
represented the spiritual authority [of the Ottoman
7
was the
"As
the
architecture
side
with
by
military-political
authority."
Ottoman
material expression of
Islam, the ulema (s. alim), medrese
8
trained scholar jurists, were its living embodiment."
state found it important
But while it is evident that the Ottoman

members

to determine

the

structures

tant

that

remains

question

that

certified

who

was

relatively

learned,

an

is whether

unconsidered

impor
state

the

had any interest in intervening to determine what itwas that consti


tuted learning in the Islamic sciences ? that is to say, to intervene in
4. Zilfi, "The Ilmiye Registers," 312.
5. The

most

famous

of a 16th century

example

the qalemiyye is probably Mustafa


H.

Fleischer,

Bureaucrat

and

rianMustafa ?li (1541-1600),


especially at 34-36.
6. For

an

commerce

example
rather

one Mevl?n?
Kut,
7.

medrese

'Ali, on whom

Intellectual

graduate

who

entered

see the study by Cornell

in the Ottoman

Empire:

The Histo

Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986,

of a 16th century
medrese
graduate who
as a m?derris,
or bureaucrat,
judge,

than

pursued
see the

a career

in
on

entry

'At? in Seh? Beg, HestBihist: The Tezkire by Sein Beg, ed. Giinay

Cambridge:
"The
Inalcik,

Harvard
R?zn?mce

University,
Registers,"

1978,

273.

254.

8.Madeleine Zilfi, The Politics ofPiety: The Ottoman Ulema in thePostclassi


calAge (1600-1800), Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Isl?mica, 1988, 24.

185

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Shahab AHMED

and Nenad

FlLlPOVlC

of the men who functioned as the "living


state
Ottoman
Islam. Did the Ottoman
imperial
the curriculum of the medreses: in other words, did
it seek to establish an imperial canon? If so, what was this canon, and
what might the specific constitution
of the canon tell us about the
nature of the Islam with which the Ottoman
state wished to be iden
tified
Islam? A further
that is, about the official identity of Ottoman
to
canon tell us
is:
this
be
asked
if
what,
question
anything, might
of Islamic scholarly traditions?
about the historical development
This paper aspires to take a very small and very incomplete step
the content o? the education

embodiment"
of
seek to determine

towards
significance

these

answering
seems

have cited

questions

to have

escaped

by
the

examining
even

notice

a document
of

the

whose

scholars

who

it to date.

Item number E/2803/1


in the Topkapi Sarayi
is a single sheet of paper bearing
the title Med?ris-i
l?zim
olub
P?dis?l%-ile
M?derris
H?q?niyeye
ferman-i
Efenc&ler'e
virilen kit?blarim bey?nidur ? "This is a list of the books required for
the imperial medreses, given to the M?derris
Efenc?s [teachers] in
accordance with the decree of the Padishah." Beneath this are listed in
five rows the citations of thirty-nine books, and under each citation is
a numeral almost
certainly indicating the total number of volumes
the
work.
is given in the
The sum total of the volumes
comprising
Ar?ivi9

sixth row: yakunu jam'an 55 ("together, they are 55"). At the lower
left-hand side is the date 973 (1565) ? that is, one year before the
? and the Arabic
death of Q?n?ni
S?leym?n
phrase al-w?qV fi-hi,
"issued in".The title of the document
is self-explanatory:
it is precisely
an

intervention

on

the

part

of

state

the Ottoman

to

prescribe

the

? in other
to be used in the
words, to lay
imperial medreses
in
down a medrese curriculum.
constitutes the
Indeed, TSA E/2803/1
in Islamic history of a move by the state
first known documentation
books

9. The

authors

should

Sarayi Ar|ivi
Topkapi
Fetvaci
and to Emine

to ?lk?
like to express
their gratitude
us to transcribe
for graciously
allowing
for her kind facilitation.

10.While TSA E/2803/1

is not itself afirman,

at the
Altindag
TSA E/2803/1,

there can be little doubt that

?
extract
it is a genuine
from
it is
that a docu
afirman
highly
implausible
ment
to be an extract
an
from
edict
could
be thus
falsely
claiming
imperial
in the imperial
seems
to
archives. The
existence
of TSA
E/2803/1
preserved
have first been noted
cited the document
in his biblio
Baltaci, who
by C?hid
graphy

without,

however,

making

apparent

use of

it in his

study;

seeXV-XVI

186

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The Sultan's

A Curriculum

Syllabus:

the Ottoman

for

medreses

Imperial

n
a canon of
Since we know that the
religious learning.
was
the Hanafi madhhab, and
official legal rite of the Ottoman
empire
the question
that the favoured theological school was M?turidism,
to establish

as

arises

immediately

to whether

canon

this

a Hanafi

possesses

identity ; and if so, what are the sources of Islamic scholar


n
constitute
that identity.
that
ship
The curriculum in question applies to a particular set of medreses,
or "imperial medreses? which
is a term that
the med?ris-i H?q?niye
seems not to have surfaced before now in the scholarship on the

M?turidi

ranking

of

the

medreses.

the most

However,

use

obvious

of

term

the

be in reference to the medreses founded by the Sultans them


of the
selves. From the time of the construction by F?tih IIMehemmed
the Sultans' medreses
medrese complex attached to the F?tih mosque,
seem to have automatically occupied the highest academic ranks in the
medrese hierarchy;13 this was also subsequently the case with regard to

would

Asirlar

Osmanh

XIII. Mustafa

Medreseleri,

the thirty-nine
63.
Medreseleri,
of

but without

works,
Hasan

thereof;

exposition

like Baltaci,

Akg?nd?z,

the

transcribed

Bilge
any

cites

titles of twenty
see Ilk Osmanh

the document

in

the

bibliography of his Kl?sik D?nem OsmanhMedrese Sistemi but does not make
apparent
11. This

use

of

does

it.
exclude

of course,

not,

lier

curricula

state-prescribed
Previous
available.
presently
have been based on evidence

for

the possibility

of

there

which

having
evidence

ear

been

is not

documentary
on curricula
in Islamic
of learning
history
a teacher
in
contained
(authorization
by
ij?zahs

studies

to a student to teach specified works on his authority), or in biographical and


autobiographical
9th/15th century,

notices;

for an

see Maria

Eva

a curriculum
study of
ij?zah-bzsed
Anas
and
"The
Khalidov,
Subtelny

from

the

Curricu

lum of Islamic Higher Learning inTimurid Iran in the Light of the Sunni
Revival under Sh?h-Rukh," Journal of the American Oriental Society 115
(1995),
cal and
12. On

For

210-236.

reconstruction

of Ottoman

autobiographical
Ottoman
Hanafi-M?turidism,

et son r?le dans

la soci?t?

t?re de laCulture,
It is important
contained
medreses
13.

curricula

from

biographi

see below.

notices,

see Mustafa
aux XV

turco-ottomane

Le kal?m
Said Yazicioglu,
Minis
si?cles, Ankara:

etXVIe

1990, 105-116.
to note
of

that

the

Sultanic

different

ranks,

with

stood

at the upper

medrese
the

complexes
lower ones

themselves

the
servicing
were
the apex medreses of the F?tih
the "eight medreses
complex
higher. Thus,
were
the Sahn-t ?em?n
which
medreses
serviced
by eight other
of the yard'
to the
even the
theM?sile-i
Sahn
medreses
called
However,
yard").
("leading
lower

Sultanic

medreses

grades

of

the medrese

hierarchy.

187

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AHMED

Shahab

FiLlPOVIC

and Nenad

the medreses of the S?leym?niye complex, the construction of which


- that
was
is, nine years before the promulga
completed in 964/1557
H
tion of the curriculum under study here.
the med?ris-i
Thus,
are the medreses that stand at the very top of the hierarchy,

H?q?r?ye
and

the

course

highest

"The

in the
prescribed
in the Ottoman
study

curriculum
of

rank

official

more

ding. The
would
be

of

the medrese

founders

the founder,

prominent

in the
highest
the Dar?lhadis

document

present

the

represents
15
system.

educational

a role in medrese
also played
gra
or her medrese
the more
likely his
in the
instruction
sciences...
highest

grades and offer


of Siileymaniye,
the Sahn-i
the Siileymaniye,
and
to the
rise
Seman grades
that
had
medreses
corresponded
only
original
given
can be considered
to those
they
grades with
unalterably
"imperial"
grades,
were
to the
also vir
others of the highest
grades
standing. According
registers,
to medreses
founded
the
Medreses
built
exclusive
tually
family.
by
imperial
by
Since

the

Sultans

and

the women

of

the

the Hamis

dominate

dynasty
fourth

the

and

a few
highest
grades,
although
in both
"The
share
Zilfi,
Ilmiye Registers,"
grades";
sense of the scale of the
Some
medreses may
be obtained
315-16.
imperial
from the fact that the sixteen
could
F?tih medreses
Gibb
312
students;
lodge

Miisile-i

the

Siileymaniye,
medreses
nonimperial

and

third

Islamic

Bowen,

and

Society
the medrese

knowledge

of

Ihsanoglu:
over
enced

"Because
the

the

and

the West,
note

system,
of

this

recent

formation

establishment,

centuries

own

have

hierarchy
and multifaceted
studies

built

medreses,

the

and

educational

more
detailed
studied,
thoroughly
in order to achieve
greater
clarity with
regard
cational
and Scholarly-Scientific
Institutions,"
14. "Siileyman's

our present
regards
remark
of Ekmeleddin

As

1.11:145.
the

to the
subject";
376.

rated hierarchy
of medreses,
to this
pre-eminence
"In the late fifteenth
century

they

though

claim

seem

not

ford University

Press,

complex,
Ankara:
(1550-1557),
15. This

Ebus-su'ud:
1997,

see Omer

maniye

will

shortly

Istanbul

and

to have

Turk

achieved

exclusive

44.
of Istanbul,
the
Col
Eight
the pinna
occupied

came

in Istanbul

Imber,

required
Edu

The Miifiti
immediately;"
Repp,
and for much
of the sixteenth,

to the mosque
II in Istanbul
of Mehmed
leges attached
cle of religious
in the Ottoman
and legal education
Empire.
in 1557,
of the complex
after the completion
the colleges
Siileymaniye
tion;" Colin

be

"Ottoman

[sic\], were to form the top rungs in the fully elabo

completed by 966/1559

mosque

will

in

his mosque

around

changes
experi
not been very

to occupy
Islamic
Legal

The
8. On

the date

the most
Tradition,

of

In the decades
attached
prestigious
Stanford:
of the

the completion
ve Imareti
Cami
Siileymaniye
Kururnu
1:58.
1972,
Basimevi,

L. Barkan,
Tarih

be confirmed

by

the content

of

the curriculum

to

the

posi
Stan
Siiley
Insaati

itself.

188

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The Sultan's

Syllabus:

A Curriculum

the Ottoman

for

medreses

Imperial

current knowledge of which books were apparently taught in


medreses has been culled piecemeal from a scattering of
the Ottoman
scholars on education and the
sources, such as works by Ottoman
Islamic sciences, scholarly biographies and autobiographies,
ij?zahs,
Our

16The present state of our knowledge

waqfiyyahs, and other documents.


is, however,

on

unsatisfactory

counts.

several

it is not

First,

clear

that

a
any of the lists of books that have been compiled
a
course of study, even for single level of the medrese system. 17
complete
so far constitutes

16. The

fullest

study

medrese

of Ottoman

is the

available

curricula

important

work of Cevat Izgi, OsmanhMedreselerinde Ilim 1.Ci It:Riyaz? Ilimier 2. Cilt:


Tabi? Ilimler, Istanbul: IzYayincihk, 1997. In the introductory survey to his
book

with
the Ottoman
study of the natural
each from a
fourteen
lists of books,
Izgi compiled
title "Ottoman
each
list
the
medrese
under
presented

is concerned

(which

sciences

primarily

and mathematics)

and
source,
separate
curriculum
[Osmanh

Medreseleri

see

Programi]";

M?fredat

Osmanh

Medreselerinde I lim, 1:61-183. Izgi s lists build on the earlier compilations of


Uzun?arsih, Osmanh Devletinin Ilmiye Teskilatt, 20-31; Baltaci, XV-XVI
Asirlar OsmanhMedreseleri, 37-43; and Bilge, Ilk Osmanh Medreseleri, 40-63.
For

the

seventeenth

and

see

centuries,

eighteenth

?mer

?zyilmaz,

Manzume-i Tertib-i Ul?m, Tertibu'l Ulum, Kaside Fi'1-K?t?b'lMesb?re Fi'l


Ul?m, Kevakib-i Seb'a veErzurumlu IbrahimHakkt 'ntnTertib-i Ul?m Isimli
G?re, XVII veXVIII. Y?zyillarda Osmanh Medreselerinin Egitim Programlari,
T.C.

Ankara:

K?lt?r

ve Medrese

Dereceleri,"

2002.
Bakanligi,
from Mehmet

See

also

subsection
"Osmanh

"Dersler,

Ipsjrli,
Islam Ansiklopedisi,
28:328-330.
two "Ottoman
medrese
curricula"

TDV
entry on "Medrese,"
17. For example,
Izgi cites

D?nemi,"

from

Konular
in the

the auto

one consisting of
biographical testimony of Ta?k?priz?de (d.968/156l),
books thatTa?k?priz?de records himself to have studied, and the second of
books

records

that Ta?k?priz?de

himself

to have

taught.

Now,

to

according

his own testimony, Ta?k?priz?de taught threeworks dtfiqh, however, no fiqh


works

in his

appear

curriculum

of

study.

Since

it makes

no

sense

for

Ta?k?priz?de to have taught a subject he had not studied, thismeans that the
first

is necessarily

curriculum

lum - which
every

book

incomplete

(so too

is the brief

second

curricu

is brief presumably because Ta?k?priz?de simply did not teach

on

the medrese

curriculum);

for

the curricula

from Ta?k?priz?de,

see Osmanh MedreselerindeI lim, 1:97-99, 170 (Cetvel 5), and 171 (Cetvel6).
Similarly, in his Kashf al-zun?n, H?jji Khalifah K?tib ?eleb? (d. 1067/1657)
describes the Talmh of Sad al-DIn al-Taft?z?ni (forwhich see item 36 in the
annotated
see

Kashf

list, below)

as a work
'an as?mi

al-zun?n

in the field;"
after by every student
"sought
wa
ed. ?erefettin
al-kutub
Yaltkaya
al-fun?n,

and Kilisli Rifat Bilge, Istanbul:Maarif Matbaasi,


the Talwih

does

not

appear

in either

of the

two

1941-43, 496. However,

"Ottoman

medrese

curricula"

189

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Shahab

Ahmed

FlLIPOVlC

and Nenad

Second, sometimes the historical source from which particular works


have been adduced to have been a part of the medrese curriculum does
not itself indicate that the work in question was actually studied within
a medrese,

as

to

opposed

continued beyond

in

private

where

settings

and

teaching

learning

18
The data compiled

the medrese curriculum.

to date,

compiled by Izgi from H?jj? Khal?fah's autobiographical excursus in his


Miz?nu l-haqq; see Osmanh Medreselerinde Ilim, 1:100-101, 173 (Cetvel 8),
and 174 (Cetvel 9). The fullest curriculum in Izgi is that taken from the
Kev?kib-i

seb'a,

an

inquiry
of Ottoman

by

an anonymous
work
the French
ambassador

education.

However,

to
in 1155/1741
in response
to the
Porte about
the character
High
in the Kev?kib-i
seb'a is
the list of books
authored

cur
at the lower levels of the medrese
subjects
taught
are more
as grammar,
which
and
repre
syntax
fully
logic),
and law);
there than
hadith
(such as Quranic
exegesis,
subjects
higher
Medreselerinde
163-167
1:69-77,
Ilim,
(Cetvel
1); also see ?zyilmaz,
towards

clearly weighted
riculum
(such
sented
Osmanh

XVII veXVIII. Y?zytllarda Osmanh Medreselerininde Egitim Programlart, 37


42.

For

not

cite

in the medrese

the hierarchy
of subjects
the present firman.

see below.

education,

Izgi does

18. For example, Izgi'sCetvel 9 {OsmanhMedreselerinde Ilim, 1:173) is an


"Ottoman

medrese

he

sumably

there

while

taught:
these works,
he was

taught

made

curriculum"

to have

himself

them

taught

not,

reason
a teacher

in fact,
a medrese

outside

Khalifah

that H?jj?
to doubt

of books
is no

mentions

that H?jj?
Khal?fah
in medrese?
therefore,
pre

curriculum.

on

Similarly,

the basis

of the testimony in the autobiography of Seyyid Feyzull?h Efend? (1639


nine

about
Izgi adduces
see Osmanh

1703),

as

books

Efend?
does
Feyzull?h
in a medrese,
but rather that he

However,

Ilim,

not

medrese
10).

(Cetvel

these works
say that he studied
of them with
either his father,

actually
studied
eight

set
he was at least as likely to do in a domestic
something
see Ahmet
in a medrese,
Tiirek
and F. ?etin
Derin,
"Feyzull?h
Hal Terciimesi,"
Istanbul
Kendi
Kaleminden
?niversitesi
Edebiyat

as
ting
Efendi'nin

Fak?ltesi Tarih Dergisi 23 (1969), 204-218,


from

(d. 1100/1689),
medrese

we

in

whose
also

do not

know;

also ?zyilmaz, XVII


Programlart,
desideratum
studied

21-26.

1291/1874);

not

l-ul?m
indicate

at 206-207.

some

presumably
see Osmanh Medreselerinde

of

Ish?q al-Toqad?
another

Izgi derives
that the works

he

them
Ilim,

"Ottoman

lists were

actu

were,

but

which

1:167,

(Cetvel

2);

veXVIII. Y?zytllarda Osmanh Medreselerinin Egitim

a scholar's
In any case,
is more
the Nazmu
I-ulum
was
be studied
should
than a record of what
necessarily
Nazmu
in
b. Hasan
l-ul?m,
?emsiid
al-Toqadi,
published

of what

(see Ish?q

Siv?si,

Nazmu

does
the medrese

curriculum,"

studied

exactly

din

"Ottoman

1:174-175,

or cousins,

uncle

ally

an

comprising

Medreselerinde

curriculum;"

Men?qib-i
this would

Im?m-i
also

A'zam,
seem

Istanbul:

to be

Tevfiq
the case with

Efendi'nin
the Tertib-i

Matbaasi
'ulum of

190

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Syllabus: A Curriculum

The Sultan's

the Ottoman

for

medreses

Imperial

valuable, is thus somewhat disjointed and must be treated with a


Indeed, our knowledge of what was studied
degree of circumspection.
in the medreses is sufficiently limited to have provoked the recent remark
that "it is not possible to determine the curricula of the Ottoman
19
we do have a
medreses in a clear and detailed manner."
Nonetheless,
sense
the
of
of
oudine
the
medrese
program of study:
good
general

while

The highest sciences - the traditions of the Prophet {hadis), Koranic


commentary (tefiir), and Islamic jurisprudence (fikth) were studied in
in the
highest
nature

medreses
an

instrumental

relegated
the lowest

to medreses

purposes.
fell within

disciplines

included

grades

instructional

more
grades. The
Arabic
grammar
in the lower
grades.
On

smattering

the whole,

the purview

of

those of
disciplines,
? were
(nahv)
syntax
of even
the curricula

elementary
(sarf) and

In practice,
sciences"
of the "highest
the highest
sciences
however,

the

...

superior

for
as

grades.20

A description of medrese education from 1155/1741


indicates fur
ther that logic (mantiq) was also taught at the beginning of the course
of study, while disputation
(?d?b-i hah s), preaching (va'az), rhetoric
tenets
of
faith
(hikmei) and theology
(bel?gai),
(aq??d), philosophy
were
at
an
it should be
intermediate stage.21 However,
(kel?m)
taught
stressed that students at the lower rungs were exposed in some degree
to higher subjects as well; thus, the lowest-ranking medreses in the
medrese hierarchy laid out by F?tih IIMehemmed
(those in which

Eryzir?mh Ibrahim Haqq? (d. 1194/1780), which is the primary subject of


of Neb?efen
?zyilmaz s study. The (?asidefi-'l-kutub-i me?h?re fi-'l-ul?m
diz?de

is, in turn,

(d. 1200/1785)

not

a medrese

curriculum

but

rather,

as its

title suggests, a list of important books in each discipline, some of which at


various

were

times

taught

presumably

see

in medreses,

Izgi,

Osmanh

Medreselerinde Ilim, 1:93-97, and 169 (Cetvel 4); also ?zyilmaz, XVII ve
XVIII. Y?zytllarda Osmanh Medreselerinin Egitim Programlart, 30-37. Nor is
there any indication that the anonymous 11th/17th century %lim from
whose testimony Izgi compiled Cetvel 7 studied all the books in that list in a
medrese;
19.

see Osmanh

Medreselerinde

"Ottoman

Ihsanoglu,

Ilim,

Educational

and

and

1:99-100,

172.

Scholarly-Scientific

Institutions,"

383.
20. Zilfi, "The Ilmiye Registers," 315.
21. This

is the

above-mentioned

Kev?kib-i

seb'a;

see

Ihsanoglu,

"Ottoman

Educational and Scholarly-Scientific Institutions," 384 (where ?d?b-i bahi is


erroneously

translated

as "elocution").

191

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AHMED

Shahab

FlLIPOViC

and Nenad

teachers were paid 20 to 25 aq?es a day) were called H?siye-i Tec?d


medreses21 after the commentary by al-Sharif al-Jurj?n? (d.816/1414)
on the
theology primer entitled Taj?d al-kal?m by N?sir ai-Din al
T?si (d.678/1274),23
while the intermediate 40 aq?e medreses were
known

as Telvih medreses after the work

by Sa'd al-Din

fiqh)
kashf

haq?

al-Taft?z?ni
24
However,

'iq al-Tanqih.

preparatory

such

subjects,

as

on jurisprudence [us?l al
entitled al-Talwih fi
(d.791/1389),
as students
and

grammar

moved

logic,25

the

up

were

grades,
as

abandoned

?
now been mastered, and
having
higher subjects with which students
had thus far only received some degree of familiarization ? now
became the focus of more in-depth study.26
is thus a most fortuitous document as it provides
TSA E/2803/1
for us precisely what has not been available thus far in our knowledge
of Ottoman history: a clear and detailed syllabus of what was studied
at a particular level of the medrese hierarchy ? in this case, the highest
state. The date of the docu
level - at the instigation of the Ottoman
to
the
final
ment, 973/1565,
corresponds
period of the educational
reforms carried out by S?leym?n and his ?eyhulisl?m Eb? s-Suc?d (in
office, 952-982/1545-74).

22.

In the

reign

of F?tih

IIMehemmed,

the medreses

v/eve

organized

accord

ing to the teachers' salaries as 20 (H??iye-i Tecrid), 30 {Mifi?h), 40 (Harte),


50

(Da h tl, Tetimme,

M?s

in
ile-i Sahn,
Sah n-i Sema ri) and eventually,
S?ley
to a medrese
As a teacher was promoted
where
his salary increased. The
salaries
taught,
highest
courses
the highest
of study were
medreses, where

reign, 60 aq?e medreses.


was
advanced
material

m?n's
more
were

paid

in the Sultanic
See

taught.
Ihsanoglu,

XV-XVI

Baltaci,

Osmanh

Astrlar
and

Educational

"Ottoman

Medreseleri,

36-43;

and

Institutions,"

Scholarly-Scientific

376-377.
23.

See Uzun?arsili,

Osmanh

Devletinin

Ilmiye

Teskilatt,

24.
XVI

See Uzun?arsih,
Astrlar Osmanh

25. Thirty

Osmanh

aq?e medreses

ul?m by Y?suf

Devletinin
38-39.

Medreseleri,
were

also

Teskilati,
Ilmiye
On
this work,

called Mifi?h

al-Sakk?k? (d.626/1229),

medreses

10, 25;

Uzun?arsih,

Baltaci, XV-XVI Astrlar Osmanh Medreseleri, 37; Bilge,


Medreseleri, 54; and H?jj? Khal?fah, Kashf al-zun?n, 346-351.

Ilk Osmanh

10, 28; Baltaci,

XV

see below.
after

the

Mifi?h

a work on morphology

al

(sarfi,

see
and rhetoric
"Ottoman
Educa
(nahtv)
grammar
(bal?ghah);
Ihsanoglu,
tional and Scholarly-Scientific
377.
Institutions,"
at the different
is reflected
in the lists of books
26. This
levels com
studied
by Baltaci,

piled

XV-XVI

Astrlar

Osmanh

Medreseleri,

36-43.

192

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The Sultans

A Curriculum

Syllabus:

S?leymans

in

policies

religious

the Ottoman

for

medreses

Imperial

their

about
the
totality
brought
of the personnel
enhancement
service...
it was chiefly
the institu
and

expansion,
reorganization,
integration
in state
and judgements
of the ulema
tions
the training
and functions
affecting
involvement.

sustained

S?leymans

And

of religiosity
and
representation
cies were
founded...
S?leymans
the

expand
quality

scholarly
resources

new

inquiry.
of the

size and might...

rectitude

of

the

that

to

provide
three would

The

to
empire
Kadis were,

the

that

ulema

itwas

had
policies
the educational

and

personnel,

Hlmiyye

sophisticated
intellectual
empires

capacity

physical

of

of

too,

on

largely

S?leymans
at least

attracted
the ulemas

religious
poli
to
aims:
three
to

system,

ensure

levels

demanded

of course,

the backbone

the
more

for
opportunities
raise the educational

and
the
by
of the

empires legal system. The ability of the legal system to deliver on its
manifold potential depended in large part on the quality of the medrese
concerns
[the] overriding
[of the reforms]
system...
tem that was, within
the frame of royal prerogative,
and merit-driven.27

was

to

orderly,

a sys

produce

incorruptible

reforms was played by the


The central role in the educational
office of the ?eyhulisl?m Eb? s-Su'?d who held the post of ?eyhulis
was not
l?m for the last twenty years of S?leymans
reign, and who
most
in
the empire, but was
only the
respected religious authority
an
to
was
whom he
informal spiritual
unusually close to the Sultan
adviser. This unusual personal relationship between Sultan and ?ey
reform project
hulisl?m ? the two pivotal figures in the educational
? doubtless contributed
to
the
successful
significantly
implementa
tion of the reforms. 28The immediate impetus for the states concern

"Sultan S?leym?n and the Ottoman

27. Zilfi,

Religious

Establishment,"

110-113.
28. On
cies,

the "unprecedentedscale"
"Sultan
S?leym?n

see Zilfi,

116-118. On

s-Su'?ds

the Ottoman

involvement
Religious

in state

in my

terms

bosom,

my

of address
comrade

poli

Establishment,"

the relationship between Eb? s-Su'?d and S?leym?n,

intimate

remarkably
my friend

of Eb?
and

in the mystic
"my companion
on the
of truth, my brother
path

see the
state,
in the

afterlife [h?lde haldas um sinemde ?ndasum ta?q-i haqqda yoldasum ?hiret


qartndasum]" used by S?leym?n in his correspondence with Eb? s-Su?d
inMecm?'a-i

preserved
jevo, Gazi
obtaining
20. For

Husrev
a
a

copy

telling

?eyhulisl?m

G?r?m
Sara
b. Lsm?il
Bosnevi, MS
MehmedMey?
to
I 2012,
Buzov
for
74b
(we are grateful
Beg,
Snjezana
of this manuscript
for us). See also Imber, Ebu's
su'ud, 8
the Sultan
of close cooperation
between
and his
example

in a scholarly cause, see the imperial order dated 17thRajab

193

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Shahab

with

reform was

educational
of

rumblings
sentatives

from
?

protest

of

the

FlLlPOViC

and Nenad

AHMED

likely provided,

medrese

the

graduates
to
nepotism
owing

that

empire

at least in part, by the


?

repre
potential
a
of
shortage

and

they thought
positions they were unable to obtain the appointments
29
is
of
these
deserved.
The
grievances
they
potential
destabilizing
seen in the student riots of 966-67/1558-59,
and then in a reasser
30
? the
tion of unrest in 973/1565
year of the issue of our fierm?n.
One

measure

important

ments

and

in

institution

the m?l?zemet

promotion

of the candidate.

state

this

which
to

according

31
Eb?

was

project

the

the

merit

scholarly

of

up

setting

at systematizing

aimed

appoint

and

seniority

famous defence

of the legitimacy
Birgili Mehemmed

s-Su'?d's

in his polemics
the czsh-waqf
with
also served to reinforce the 'ilmiyye by assuring the
(d.981/1573)
continuity of one of the most important financial bases of the insti
for
tutions that not only provided education, but also appointments
32It is in the
of
this
medrese graduates in medreses and mosques.
light
of

972/1565

tant

a certain

summoning
in a medresein

teacher

to Eb?

name
by the
to Istanbul

to

he had

the ?eyhulisl?m
help
Ahmet
been working;

Istanbul:

Muallim

Ahmet

of Faqiri,

Ottoman

s-Su'?d

tary on which
ve Bektasilik,

'ahm
to come

Rhodes,

as research

the Quran
alttnct astrda

complete
On
Refik,

Halit

serve

was

who

of Bedr?dd?n,
and

assis

commen
Rafizilik

20

1932,

(Docu
was
in question,
the well-known
Irsh?dal-'aqlal-sa&m,
a few months,
before
the Sultan's
within
death).
duly completed
shortly
see Edith
of corruption,
medrese
29. On
G?lcin
complaints
graduates'

ment

(The work

15).

"The

Ambros,

Kitaphanesi,

Let?'if

of

poet

the

Wiener

16th century,"

(1990), 59-78, at 64-65.


Zeitschrift f?r die Kunde desMorgenlandes80
30. On the student riots of 966-67/1558-59 and 973/1565, seeAhmet Refik,
On alttnct astrda Rafizilik ve Bektasilik, 13-14 (Document 2), 14-15 (Docu
ment 4), 15-16 (Document 6), 17 (Document 8), 19 (Document 14). On the
broader

Tarihinde

"T?rkiye
Akdag,
lan," Istanbul ?niversitesi

31. On
see

unrest

of student

phenomenon

M.

the role of Eb?

Inalcik,

"The

Iktisat
s-Su'?d

R?zn?mce

i?tima?
Fak?ltesi

see
in the I6rh century Ottoman
empire,
Serisenden:
Medreseli
Isyan

Buhranlar

Mecmuast

Registers,"

See

schools

the declaration
and most

cash-waqfs
Mandaville,

"were

of Eb?

s-Su'?d's

"Usurious

Piety:

The

and
Cash

Baltaci,

XV-XVI

Bali

Efend?,

on how

the

and

cash-waqf"
the prayer-caller
would

Waqf

system,
Astrlar

of Istanbul 51-55.

supporter,
... are based on

of the mosques
lost ... the preacher

361-87.

(1949),

of the m?l?zemet

257-261;

Osmanh Medreseleri, 34-35, Repp, TheMiifii


32.

11/1-4

in the establishment

Controversy

"certain
that

if the

lost;" Jon E.
the Ottoman

be
in

Empire," InternationalJournal ofMiddle East Studies, 10 (1979), 289-308, at 303.

194

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The Sultans

Syllabus:

A Curriculum

for

the Ottoman

Imperial

medreses

on the part of the Ottoman


state ? in the form of the
larger project
to regularize and systematize the 'ilmiyye
Sultan and ?eyhulisl?m
that the decision to lay out a clearly-stated curriculum of study for
should be seen. S?leymans
the medreses (reflected inTSA E/2803/1)
as early as
concern with medrese education
standards is evidenced
in the form of aferm?n that expresses the Sultans dissat
945/1539
isfaction with the fact that the s?htes in the medreses "read only one
book from each discipline, and of each book only a few chapters."
The ferm?n stipulates that the s?htes must read entire books, that
they must be certified accordingly by their teachers (m?derrisden
then make appointments
temess?k aluh), and that the state will
33Given
the concern for regularization
based on this certification.
it is only logical to assume that curricula must
and certification,
at this time not only for the med?ris-i
have been prescribed
IJ?q?niye,
medrese

but

system;

also for the lower and


there

however,

is as yet

intermediate

levels of

the

documentary

evidence

of

no

curricula were presumably drafted by the S/iw-bureaucrats


of the department
of the ?eyhulisl?m who were themselves medrese
this. The

himself, and
graduates, subsequently approved by the ?ieyhulisl?m
on
to
to
like
be issued,
other parts of the edu
then taken
the Sultan
in the form of imperial ferm?ns ? that is, as
cational
reforms,
- in the
present case issued one year before
binding Sultanic law
death.
Q?n?ni
S?leymans

The

list of books

from

the ferman

now turn to the list of books from ?ie ferm?n. Inwhat follows,
are transcribed
the original citations as they appear in the document
and annotated. As will be seen, the citations are extremely brief, indi
that the audience of the list is
cating that there is an assumption
We

in question. The annotations will


already familiar with the works
the
the
the
title
of
the name of the
work,
identify
subject matter,
or
his
his
affiliation
author,
dates,
(as relevant), as
legal
theological
33. See Tayyib G?kbilgin,
tutan

Bursa

ve

"K?nuni Sultan S?leym?n devri m?esseseler


sicillerinden

te?kil?tina
i?ik
?er'iye
Ankara:
Turk
Uzun?arsih'ya
Armagan,
text of the
in question
113. The
ferm?n

Tarih

?rnekler,"
Kurumu

is given

at 96-99,

in Ismail

Basimevi,
see

Hakkt

1976,
especially

91
97.

195

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Shahab AHMED

well as to gauge the continuing


extent

the

of

its survival

in

FlLlPOVIC

and Nenad

and

manuscript

as indicated by

of the work

circulation

print.

are

annotations

The

broadly aimed at providing basic information salient to answering the


state wished
question of the identity of the Islam that the Ottoman
34
men
to
the
of the religious institution
embody.
35
This

is al-Kashsh?f an haq? 'iq al-tan?l wa uy?n


the Quran commentary of Abu al-Q?sim
al-taidl,
al-aq?idl fi haqq
the
Mahmud
'Umar
al-Zamakhshari
Allah
b.
(d. 538/1142),
Jar
1.Ke?s?f.

famous

[1].

Hanafi

from

Mu'tazil?

36

Khw?razm.

2. Qutbu d-D?n. [1]. This is the commentary on the Kashsh?foi


b. Mas'?d
al-Sh?r?z?
al-Din Mahmud
al-Zamakhshari
by Qutb
a polymath astronomer and prolific scholar who was a
(d.710/1311),
Sh?fi'i by jurisprudential school, and an Ashari by theological affilia
tion.

He

spent

of

parts

reader discouraged
34. Any
list of thirty-nine
books may
that follow.
35. The

citation
original
in bold between

follows

ten under

reflect
to

referred

the citation

a concise

For

36.

ve

"Zamah?eri

hoglu,

italics. The

the number
the work

would

see Jane

of Classical
1991,
Ankara

the

of

pronunciation

Press,

then

and Modern
for

49-54;

Universitesi

have

presumably
we have

themselves,

'ilmiyye

tefsiri,"

that

numeral

in the
iswrit
original,
of volumes
that comprise
the

is that which,

al-Zamakhshari,

An Analysis

University

Cambridge

of

in bold

brackets

the Ottoman

sketch

Christians:

Quranic

is transcribed
square

and Tabriz.37

Malatya

an annotated
of reading
through
to the
and
Conclusions"
"Analysis

repair directly

indicating
in which
the way
of the
the scholars

by
to reflect

in Sivas,

at the prospect

the citation

To

work.

career

his

title.

D?mmen

McAuliffe,

Exegesis,

a fuller
Ilahiyat

been

transliterated

study,
Fak?ltesi

Cambridge:
Ismail Cerra
DergisilG

(1983) 59-96; and see also Ali ?zek, "el-Ke??af," TDVIslam Ansiklopedisi,
25:329-330. The Kashsh?fhas been printed several times, beginning with the
Calcutta lithograph of 1859, and the Cairo edition published by Matba'at
the work
Majma'
Bayt,
1989,

alsh?

mil

makht?t?t
155-188

37. Carl

wa

Geschichte

Brill,

1943, S.I:296-297;

Beirut:

Mu

assasat

al-Ris?lah,

of

the

al-arabi

ul?mu-hu,

M?B,

(hereafter,

a sense

see
period,
al-Had?rah

li-al-tur?th

al-tafur

Brockelmann,

For

1891.

in the pre-modern
al-Maliki
li-Buh?th

al-Fihris

quran,

in

Mustafa

Muhammad

circulation
the prodigious
of
list of extant manuscripts
in al
Mu'assasat
al
?l
al-Isl?miyyah,
al-makht?t:

al-isl?mi
Amman:

al-Tafsir).
der Arabischen

Litteratur,

'Umar Rid? Kahh?lah, Mujam


n.d.,

3:832;

ul?m

Mu'assasat

E.Wiedermann,

al

AI

al-Bayt,

Leiden:

E.

J.

al-muallifin,

"Kutb

al-D?n

al

196

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

The Sultan's

A Curriculum

Syllabus:

3. Sa'du d-Din.
Sa'd ai-Din Mas'?d

the Ottoman

for

medreses

Imperial

[1]. This is the super-commentary


b. 'Umar al-Taft?z?n? (d.791/1389)

composed by
on the com

; see item 6,
mentary authored by Sharaf al-D?n ai-Tib? (d.743/1343
on
a Hanafi
was
the
al-Zamakhshari.
Al-Taft?z?ni
below)
Kashsh?foi
other
Ashari by madhhab and a prodigious author and commentator
not
were
in
Ottoman
He
also
the
did
works of whom
used
curricula.
the present

complete

super-commentary,

as far as S?rat

only

reaching

al-Faih
?
4. C?r?perdi.
[1]. This is the commentary on the Kashsh?foi
Hasan
Fakhr
b.
Zamakhshar?
al-D?n
Ahmad
by
al-Ch?r?pardi/
a Sh?fi'i student of al-Bayd?w? (d.716/1315
;
J?r?bard? (d.746/1346),
see item 5, below) who spent much of his career inTabriz.39
5. Q?di Beyziw?.
[1]. This is the Quran commentary by N?sir al
D?n Abd Allah b. cUmar al-Sh?fi'i al-Bayd?wi (d.716/1315),
entitled
Anwar

wa asr?r al-ta'wil. This


s

al-tan?l

edition of al-Zamakhshar?

amended

is effectively

"a condensed

inwhich

Kashsh?f"

and

al-Bayd?wi

Sh?r?z?,"EI2; Ali ?erbetci, "Kutbudd?n-i ??r?z?," TDV Islam Ansiklopedisi,


extant

For

26:487-489.

of

manuscripts

see M?B,

the work,

352

al-Ta?r,

353. This book should not be confused with the work on logic by Qutb al
D?n al-Taht?n? (d.766/1365) entided Tahrir al-dq?'id al-mantiqiyyah fi
shark
tion,

was

which
al-Shamsiyyah
and also customarily

at the
primary

studied

cited

as

level of medrese
for

d-Din;"

"Qutbu

the fact

of

educa

this

latter

work having been studied, see Izgi, OsmanhMedreselerinde Ilim 164, 168-70,
172,

176

note,

al-'aq?'idzs

that

however,

Izgi

incorrectly

38. Kahh?lah, Mu jam al-mu'allifin, 3:849;


min

mufiassirin

sadr

the Tah?r

of

'?dil Nuwayhid, Mu jam al


Beirut:

al-h?dir,

1983, 670; W. Made?ung,


of

manuscripts

il? al-asr

al-isl?m

hid ai-Thaq?fiyyah,
extant

the author

gives

al-Sh?r?z?.

al-Qutb

the work,

see M?B,

Mu'assasat

Nuway

"Al-Taft?z?n?," EI2. For

al-Ta?r,

This

425-430.

work

should not be confused with the work on logic by the same author, Tahdhib
was
which
apparendy
al-mantiq,
also
and
cation,
customarily

at the
primary

studied
cited

as

"Sa\du

Medreselerinde Ilim, 164.


39. See Mehmet ?ener, "??rperd?," TDV
and

Brockelmann,

GAL,
404-405.

M?B,
mar

by

H?jib,

al-Ta?r,
the same
that was

customarily

cited

1:193.
This

For
is not

extant

d-Din;"

level of medrese
see

Islam Ansiklopedisi, 8:230-231;

manuscripts
to be confused
with

of

see

the work,

on gram
li-Ibn
al-Mufassal
and also
education
the work

'ala sharh
entided H?shiyah
author,
at the
level of the medrese
primary
as
see
"??r?perd?";
Izgi, Osmanh Medreselerinde

studied

Izgi,

edu

Osmanh

I lim,

169.

197

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

AHMED

Shahab

to

sought

content

adjust

was

that

FlLlPOVIC

and Nenad

expressive

problematically

of

al

sMu'tazili

Zamakhshar?

theology.40
on the Kashsh?f of al
is the commentary
[3]. This
'
entitled Fut?h al-ghayb fi al-kashfan qin? al-rayb by
Sharaf
al-D?n
b. Muhammad
al-T?b? al-Sh?fn
al-Husayn
a student of al-Ch?r?pardi (item 4, above). 4?
(d.743/1342),

6. Jibl
Zamakhshari

Hamza.
[1]. This is the commentary on the Anwar
of al-Bayd?w? by the Anatolian Hanafi scholar, Nur al-D?n
42
Hamzah b. Mahmud
al-Qar?m?ni (d.871/1468).
8. D?rr-i Mensur.
[4]. This is the Quran
commentary
by the
7.Mevl?n?

al-tan?l

and prolific Egyptian Sh?fn scholar, Jal?l al-D?n al-Suy?ti


entitled al-Durr al-manth?rfi
(d.911/1505),
al-ta?r bi-al-mdth?r.43
9. Qurtubi.
[1]. This is theQuran commentary by the Andalusian
b. Ahmad A-Qunubl
M?lik? scholar, Abu
'Abd Allah Muhammad
acclaimed

entitled

(d.671/1273)

40.

See J. A.

Robson,

and Works,"

EI2;

"al-Baydaw?,"

Ibrahim,

Lutpi

18 (1979)

Islamic Studies

TDV

alpkam al-quran.44

al-J?mi1fi

311-321;

Life

"Al-Baydawi's

Yusuf

?evki Yavuz,

been
6:100-103.
Al-Bayd?wi's
Ansiklopedisi,
ta?rhzs
of 1848, and
with
the Leipzig
edition
times, beginning
see Ismail
"Envar?'t
of 1880. On
the work,
edition
Cerrahoglu,
TDV Islam
for a sense of
Tenz?l ve Esrar?
t-Tevil,"
11:260-261;
Ansiklopedisi,
see the list of extant manu
in the
its prolific
circulation
period,
pre-modern
inM?B,
280-334.
scripts
al-Ta?r,
"Beyz?v?,"

41.

See

Islam

numerous

published
the Cairo

the

study

on

him

by

'Abd al-Satt?r

Zamm?t

Husayn

in his

edition

of al-T?b?, al-Tiby?n fi al-bay?n, Beirut: Dar al-J?l, 1996; and Nuwayhid,


Mu

jam

M?B,

159.
al-mufassi?n,
389-394.

For

extant

al-ghayb,

see

190; Nuwayhid, Mu jam al-mufassi?n,

42. H?jj? Khal?fah, Kashf al-zun?n,


164-5;
43.

of Fut?h

manuscripts

al-Tafsir,

See

for extant
the

study

manuscripts
by E. M.

of
Sartain,

the work,

see M?B,
al-Din

fal?l

472-73.
al-Tafsir,
Volume
I, Biogra

al-Suyuti:

1975. The
Press,
University
Cambridge:
Cambridge
phy and Background,
Durr
with
the
Cairo
edition
of
has been published
several
times, beginning
see M?B,
extant
al
1897. For a sense of the numerous
manuscript
copies,
530-540.
Ta?r,
44.

See

Qiirtubi,
several
extant

on him
study
representative
Kuwait:
Dar
1982.
al-Qalam,
Cairo
with
the
times,
beginning
the

manuscript

copies

of

the work,

Abd
al-Rahm?n
Firt, al
by Y?suf
His
has
been
been
ta?r
published
of 1952;
for the numerous
edition

see MAB,

al-Tafsir,

261-270.

198

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Syllabus: A Curriculum

The Sultan's

the Ottoman

for

medreses

Imperial

10. Teysir. [1]. This is theQuran commentary entitled


al-Taysirfii
'Umar b.
al-ta?r by the Hanaf? M?tur?d?, Najm al-D?n Ab? Hafs
Ahmad
the author of the famous M?tur?d?
al-Nasafi (537/1142),45
creed known as al-Aqidah al-Nasafiyyah.46
11. Q?s?nu [1]. This is the S?fi Quran commentary of Kam?l al
D?n

b. Ahmad
'Abd al-Razz?q
al-Q?sh?n?
al-Samarqand?
entitled Tdwi??t al-quran. The work
is often incor
(d.730/1329),
to
to whose
al-D?n
Ibn
al-'Arabi
ascribed
(d.638/1240),
rectly
Muhyi
47
school
al-Q?sh?ni belonged.
mystical
12. IsfahanL
[1]. This is theQuran commentary of Shams al-Din
Ab? al-Than?' Mahmud
b. ?bd al-Rahm?n al-Isfah?ni (d.749/1349),
a scholar claimed
by both the Sh?fi'? and Hanaf? legal schools, entitled
Anw?r al-haq? 'iq al-rabb?niyyah fi ta?r al-?y?t al-quran?yyah.48
is al-J?m?al-sah?h
of al-Bukh?r?, the Hadith
Abu
Allah
b. Ism?'?l al
?bd
Muhammad
by
that acquired canonical status in Islam.49

13. Buh?ri.

[l].This

collection

compiled
(d.256/870)
14. Kirm?ni.
[3]. This

Bukh?ri

Bukh?r? by the Baghd?di

45.

For

the

see

for extant
281;
Mujam
Nuwayhid,
al-mufassi?n,
see M?B,
the work,
152-155.
al-Ta?r,
see
in Ottoman
this work
Ilk Osmanh
medreses,
Bilge,

author,

of

manuscript
copies
46. For the use of
53.

Medreseleri,
47.

See

on the Sahih of al
is the commentary
scholar Shams al-D?n Muhammad
b Y?suf

Pierre

Les Commentaires

Lory,

du

?sot?riques

Coran

Abd

d'apr?s

al

Razz?q al-Q?sh?n?, Paris: Les Deux Oc?ans, 1980. The five published edi
tions of the work, beginning with the Cairo edition of 1866, have all also
been

misascribed

to

Ibn

al-D?n

Muhyi

Institut
work,
48.

Fran?ais
see M?B,

For

the

Riyad:

Dar

work,

see M?B,
See

lished
see

1964,

For

2:483-484.

369-70.
al-Ta?r,
see Badr b. N?sir
author,

the

al-Badr,

extant

Abu

of

manuscripts

al-Than?'

al-Muslim,

J. Robson,
innumerable

2002;

the

al-Isfah?ni,

al-Ta?r,

for

extant

manuscripts

of

al-nabawi

this

unpublished

405-6.

EI2. The work


been pub
"al-Bukh?r?,"
has, of course,
of extant manuscripts,
for a list of the vast number

times;

al-Malik?
li-Buh?th
al-Had?rah
al-Majma
al-Isl?m?yyah,
al-Fihris
al-sh?mil
li-al-tur?th
al-'arabi
al-isl?mi

al-Bayt,
hadith

see

correction,

uvre d'Ibn Arabi, Damascus:

ibn Abd al-Rahm?n ibnAhmad, 1749 h, hay?tu-hu wa ta?ru-hu,

Mahmud

49.

de Damas,

For

al-'Arab?.

Osman Yahya, Histoire et Classification de l'

al-sha?f

Al al-Bayt, 1991, 493-565

wa

ul?mu-hu

wa

(hereafter,M?B,

rij?lu-hu,

Mu

assasat

al-makht?t:

Amman:

Mu

?l
al

assasat

al-Hadth).

199

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Shahab

AHMED

al-Kirm?n? (d.786/1384),

and Nenad

FlLIPOVlC

entitled al-Kaw?kib

50

al-Bukh?n.

al-dur?ri ft sharh Sahih

15. ?ynL [5]. This is the commentary on the Sahih of al-Bukh?r?


the
Cairene scholar, Badr al-D?n Mahmud
b. Ahmad al-'Ayn? al
by
Hanaf?
entitled
'Umdat al-q?n
sharh Sahih al
(d.855/1451),
51
Bukh?n.
16. Ibn-i Hacer.
[4]. This is the commentary on the Sahih of al
Bukh?r? by al-'Ayn? s great contemporary and rival, Ahmad Ibn Hajar
entitled Path al-b?ri bi-sharh
al-'Asqal?n? al-Sh?fi'? (d.852/1448),
52
Sahih al-Bukh?n.
17.Mesabtb.
[1]. This is the Hadith collection entitled Mas?bih
Ibn
al-sunnah comprised of Hadiths selected by al-Husayn b. Mas'?d
al-Farr?' al-Baghawi al-Sh?fi'? (d.516/1122)
from earlier canonical
53

collections.

18.Zeyn?
l-'Areb. [1]. This is the commentary on theMas?bih
al-sunnah of al-Baghawi by Zayn al-'Arab 'Ali b. cUbayd Allah b. Zayn
54
al-D?n (fl. 758/1357).

50.

For

see Kahh?lah,

the author,
in Cairo

published
1933-64.

For

in 25
list

of

Mu

3:784;
jam al-mu'allifin,
by Matba'at
al-Bah?yyah

volumes

the

numerous

extant

manuscripts,

the work

al-Misr?yyah,
see MAB,
al

1308-1319.

Haa?th,
For

see Kahh?lah,

Mu
3:797-798;
jam
al-mu'allifin,
in Istanbul
the work was first published
EI2;
Marc?is,
"al-Ayn?,"
in 1890.
volumes
al-'Amirah
For
the numerous
al-Tib?'ah
by Dar
see M?B,
1096-1107.
al-Haaith,
manuscripts,
are several editions
and
"Ibn Hajar,"
EI2. There
52. See F. Rosenthal,
51.

was

the

author,

W.

less reprints

of

this work,

that of T?h?

including

al-Ra?f

Abd

and
in

11

extant

count

et al,
pub

Sa'd

lished in 28 volumes byMaktabat al-Kulliy?t al-Azhar?yyah in 1978. For the


see M?B,
of extant manuscripts,
EI2. The Mas?bih
"al-Baghaw?,"
for the very
of extant
large number

number
prodigious
53. See J. Robson,
Cairo

in 1876;

al-Hadth,

al-Haaith,
was

1142-1160,

first

from
published
see MAB,
manuscripts,

1490-1507.

54. H?jj? Khal?fah, Kashf al-zun?n,

1699; Kahh?lah, Mu jam al-mu'allifin,

al-Durar
Ibn Hajar
al-k?minah
al-mi'ah
al
ay?n
al-Asqal?ni,
fi
Cairo: D?r
al-Kutub
ed. Sayyid
3:152.
th?minah,
al-Hadithah,
J?d al-Haqq,
About
work
exist
in the Siiley
of this unpublished
thirty manuscript
copies
the bulk of the
is where
which
collec
maniye
library in Istanbul,
surviving
2:472.

tions

of

the Ottoman
al-Hadth,

M?B,

manuscript
1011-1013.

libraries

of

Istanbul

are

preserved;

see also

200

This content downloaded from 129.64.99.141 on Tue, 21 Jul 2015 19:49:03 UTC
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

The Sultans

Syllabus:

A Curriculum

the Ottoman

for

medreses

Imperial

[1]. This is the commentary on theMas?bih


nah of al-Baghawi by Muzhir al-D?n al-Husayn b. Mahmud
19.Muzhir.

al-sun

al-Zay
entitled al-Mafi?hfi
d?n? (d.728/1328)
hall al-Mas?kh.55
20. Menhal.
al-sun
[1]. This is the commentary on theMas?bih
nah of al-Baghawi by 'Ali b. Sal?h al-D?n al-Sakh?m? (fl. 762/1361)
entitled Manhal
al-yan?bi 'fi shark al-Mas?bth.56
21. Mi?kzt-i
al-sunnah was
T?bi. [1]. Al-Baghawi's Mas?bih
b. 'AbdAllah al-Khatib al-Tib
expanded byWal? al-D?n Muhammad
r?z? (/7.737/1337)
into a work entitled Mishk?t
al-Mas?bih. The
al-Mas?bih of al
Mishk?t-i
Tib? is the commentary on theMishk?t
al-T?b?
Khat?b al-Tibrizi by Sharaf al-D?n al-Husayn b. Muhammad
see
is al
whom
item
The
title
of
the
work
for
above.
6,
(d.743/1342),
K?shifi'an haq? 'iq al-sunan.57
22. CztnVu l-us?l. [1]. This

is the Hadith collection entitled J?mi


al-us?l compiled by Ab? al-Sa'?d?t al-Mub?rak Ibn
the matns of all
al-Athir al-Jazari al-Sh?fi'i (d.606/1210)
comprising
in the following mainly canonical
contained
the Prophetic Hadith
al-us?l

li-ah?dith

of M?lik b. Anas,
collections, but omitting the isn?ds: theMuwatta!
of
the Sahih of al-Bukh?ri, the Sahih
the J?mi of al-Tir
Muslim,
58
midh?, the Sunan of al-Nas?'i, and the Sunan of Abu D?'?d.

55. For the author, seeKahh?lah, Mu jam al-mu'allifin, 1:643; H?jj? Khal?
fah, Kashf

1699.

al-zun?n,

Thirteen

manuscript

of

copies

this unpublished

work exist in the Siileymaniye library in Istanbul; see alsoM?B,


1546-47.
see Kahh?lah,

the author,

56. For

Mu

seeH?jj? Khal?fah, Kashf al-zun?n,


makn?nfi

ala Kashf

al-dhayl

jam

l-A'bl',

al-mu'allifin,

al-Hadith,
for

the work,

1701; Bagdatli Ism?'?l Pa?a, ?d?h al


an

al-zun?n

as? mi

al-kutub

wa

ed.

al-fun?n,

?erefettin Yaltkaya and Kilisli Rifat Bilge, Istanbul: Milli Egitim Basimevi,
1945, 2:490. Three copies of this unpublished work exist in the Siileymaniye
and

library,

see M?B,

six worldwide;

only

apparently

al-Hadith,

1629.

57. SeeH?jj? Khalifah, Kashf al-zun?n, 1700; thework was published by the
Id?rat

copies

manuscript
1257-59.
See

58.

wa

al-Qur'?n

F. Rosenthal,

in 1993.
Karachi,
see also M?B,
library;

al-'Ul?m

exist

al-Isl?miyyah,
in the Siileymaniye

"Ibn

al-Ath?r,"

EI2.

For

the work,

see

H?jj?

About

fifty

al-Hadith,

Khalifah,

Kashf al-zun?n, 535-537, andM. M. Azami, Studies inHadith Methodology


and Literature,
Ath?r

does

not

Indianapolis:
cite variances

American
in common

Trust

Publications,

matnsr,

in such

1977,
instances

112.
he

Ibn al
follows

201

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AHMED

Shahab

FiLIPOVic

and Nenad

compiled

the Hadith collection


[1]. This is the Sahih Muslim,
Muslim
b.
that acquired
by
Hajj?j al-Nays?b?ri (d.259/874)

canonical

status.

23. Muslim.

59

24. ?erh-i Miislim-i


l-Nevevi. [1]. This is the commentary on the
Sahih of Muslim entitled al-Minh?j fi sharh Sahih Muslim b Hajj?j by
Yahy? b. Sharaf al-Nawawi (d.676/1277), a Sh?fn scholar of Damascus.60
of
25. Hid?ya.
[1]. This is al-Hid?yah fi al-fur?* a compendium
law by Burh?n al-D?n Ali b. Abi
61
(d.593/1197).
Al-Marghin?ni wrote the work
his own Bid?yat al-mubtadi\ which was, in turn,
tant early works of Hanafi law, the fundamental

Hanaf?

Muhammad

b. al-Hasan al-Shayb?ni
b. Muhammad
al-Qud?ri

of Ahmad

Bakr al-Marghin?ni
as a commentary on
based on two impor

(d.187/805)62

al-J? m? al-saghir of
and al-Mukhtasar
(d.428/1037).63

al-Baghd?di

either al-Bukh?r? or Muslim. The J?mi' al-us?l was edited by Muhammad


Hamid al-Fiq? and published from Cairo in 12 volumes byMatba at al-Sun
nah
script

For

1949-53.

al-Muhammadiyyah,
see MAB,
copies,

a list of

extant

the numerous

manu

484-491.

al-Hadith,

59. See G. H. A. Juynboll, "Muslim IbnHadjdj?j," EI2. This work has, of


been

times.
For
the very
innumerable
published
see M?B,
574-590.
al-Hadith,
manuscripts,
see Kahh?lah,
For
Mu jam
the author,
al-mu'allifin,

course,

large

number

of

4:98.

There

are

extant
60.

several
umes).

such

editions,

published
For the

of

number

large

as Cairo:
extant

Matbaat

1930
(18 vol
Hij?zi,
see MAB,
al-Hadith,

manuscripts,

1613-1624.
61.

See W.

Heffening,

Y. Meron,

EI2,

"al-Marghin?ni,"

al-Wafa'

al-Jaw?hir
al-Ma?rif

al-Qurashi,
D?'irat

Hyderabad:

fi

al-mudiyyah
al-'Uthm?n?yyah,

His

"Margh?n?n?,

and His Legacy," Islamic Law and Society 9 (2002), 410-416;

Method

IbnAbi

tabaq?t
al-Hanafiyyah,
For
2:204-206.
1915,

the

work and a long list of the commentaries thereon, seeH?jj? Khalifah, Kashf
al-zun?n,

2031-2040;

Kallek,
Cengiz
of the Hiaayah

text

The

17:471-473.

"el-Hidaye,"
has been

TDV

Islam

published

Ansiklopedisi,
numerous
times,

beginning with the Calcutta lithograph of 1833-37, and the Cairo edition of
1908.

It was

nor-General
India.

North

translated

62.

this work

For

and

561-64.

1631-1634.

its numerous

It was

Karachi,
Isl?m?yyah,
and
63. For this work
al-zun?n,

in
Mughal
see Brock

a
partial
S.I: 344-45.

GAL,

al-zun?n,

of Gover

of

For

elmann,

as
as 1791 at the order
English
early
on account
of its importance
Bengal,
extant
list of the numerous
manuscripts,

into

and Council

published
in 1987.
its numerous
It was

first

commentaries,
by

Id?rat

commentaries,
published

see

H?jji

al-Qur'?n
see

in Bombay

Khalifah,
wa

al-'Ul?m

Khalifah,
H?jji
in 1885.

Kashf
al

Kashf

202

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The Sultan's

Syllabus:

A Curriculum

the Ottoman

for

medreses

Imperial

of al
26. Nih?ya.
[1]. This is the commentary on the Hid?yah
entitled
Marghin?ni
al-Nih?yah fi fur? 'al-fiqh al-Hanafi composed by
Hus?m al-D?n Husayn b. 'Ali al-Sighn?q? (d.711/1311),
who was a
student of another author in this syllabus, Hafiz al-D?n al-Nasafi (see
M
item 29, below).
27. G?yet? l-bey?n. [3]. This is the commentary on the Hid?yah
entitled Gh?yat al-bay?n wa n?dirat al-aqr?n by
of al-Marghin?ni
al-D?n Am?r K?tib b. Am?r 'Umar al-Itqan? (d.758/1356),
Qiw?m
who taught in Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo.65
is the commentary on the Hid?yah
28. EkmeL
of al
[1]. This
b.
Akmal
al-D?n
Muhammad
Mahmud
al-B?bart?
Margh?n?n? by
entitled al-Tn?yahfi sharh al-Hid?yah. Al-B?barti was a
(d.786/1384),
student of Shams al-D?n al-Isfah?ni who spent much of his career in
Cairo.66

are

64. There

two other

commentaries

on

the Hid?yah

that bear

the

title al

Nih?yah. One of these isNih?yat al-kifiyah fi dir?yat al-hid?yah by 'Umar b.


Sadr al-Shari ah al-Awwal (d.672/1273), for which seeH?jji Khalifah, Kashf
al-zun?n, 2033, and Bilge, Ilk Osmanh Medreseleri, 48; and the other al
Nih?yah by Badr al-D?n al-'Ayn? (d.855/1451; seeH?jji Khalifah, Kashf al
zun?n,

2034)

who

is the author

in item

15, above.

However,

only

two

copies

of the first work and four of the second exist in the Siileymaniye library,while
there are twelve copies in the Siileymaniye of theNih?yah of al-Sighn?qi,
which

is also

the first

of

the numerous

commentaries

on

the Hid?yah

cited

by H?jji Khalifah, Kashf al-zun?n, 2032. H?jji Khalifah identifies al-Sigh


n?qi as al-Marghin?ni s student (this is followed by Kahh?lah, Mu jam al
mu'allifin, 2:623) but the disparity in their death dates makes this highly
unlikely. See the study of al-Sighn?qi by Fakhr al-Din Sayyid Muhammad
Q?nit, in his edition of al-Sighn?qi, al-K?fi bi-sharh al-Bazdawi, Riyad:
Maktabat al-Rushd, 2001, 1:38-80 (the present work is cited at 70).
65. For the author, see Kahh?lah, Mu jam al-mu'allifin, 1:398; and Ahmet
Akgiindiiz, "Itk?n?," TDVIslam Ansiklopedisi, 23:464-465. There are about
twelve manuscript

copies

of

this work

extant

in the
Siileymaniye

library;

see

also al-Majma' al-Maliki li-Buh?th al-Had?rah al-Isl?miyyah, Mu assasatAl


al-Fihris
al-sh?mil
li-al-tur?th
al-araU
al-isl?nu
al-makht?t:
al-Bayt,
al-fiqh
wa us?lu-hu,
assasat ?1
Amman:
Mu
6:368-381
1999-ongoing,
al-Bayt,
(hereafter,

M?B,

al-Fiqh).

66. See the study of him by Muhammad Mustafa Ramadan Sufayh in his
introduction to his edition of al-B?barti, Sharh al-Talkf?s, Tarablus, 1980;
also Arif Aytekin, "B?bert?," TDV Islam Ansiklopedisi, 4:377-378. For the
work, see H?jji Khalifah, Kashf al-zun?n, 2034; it was lithographed in

203

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Shahab

FiLIPOVIC

and Nenad

AHMED

is the commentary
authored in Cairo by
29. ZeyleX.
[1]. This
on the com
Fakhr al-D?n 'Uthm?n b. 'Ali al-Zayla'? (d.743/1342)
pendium of Hanaf? law entitled Kanz al-daq?'iq fi Jur?al-Hanafiyyah
al-Nasafi
al-D?n Ab? al-Barak?t 'Abd Allah b. Ahmad
by Hafiz
(d.711/1310).
AJ-Zayla'i entitled his commentary Tabyin al-haq? 'iq.67
is the collection
of legal opinions
30. Q?d? H?n.
[1]. This
Hasan
b.
Mans?r
Fakhr
al-Din
of
the
Hanafi
jurist
al-Izjandi
[fiat?wa)
known as the Fat?w?
(d.592/1196),
al-Fargh?ni Q?'dikh?n/Qazikh?n
Q?dikh?myyab/Qazikh?niyyah.68
is the collection
31. Hul?sa.
[1]. This
Hanafi jurist Iftikh?r al-Din T?hir b. Ahmad

of legal opinions of the


al-Bukh?r? (d.543/1147)

entitled Khul?sat

al-fat?w?.69
32. Q?m?s.
[1]. This is the Arabic dictionary entitled al-Q?m?s
al-muhit wa al-q?b?s al-wasit al-j?mV li-m? dhahaba min kal?m al
b.
arab sham?tit by the widely-travelled
Majd al-Din Muhammad
al-Fir?z?b?di
(d.817/1414).70
Yaq?b

in 1830-37.

Calcutta

are about

There

see further,

library;
Siileymaniye
see Kahh?lah,
67. For the author,
see

Khalifah,
H?jj?
copies of this work
2:242-261.
68.

For

Wara\

the

manuscript
copies
6:300-320.
al-Fiqh

fifty

extant

in the

For the work,


2:365.
al-mu'allifin,
are about
There
sixty manuscript
see also, MAB,
in the Siileymaniye
library;
al-Fiqh,

see Kahh?lah,

al-Jaw?hir

Mu

jam
1515.

al-zun?n

Kashf
extant

author,

MAB,

al-mudiyyah,

Mu

jam

al-mu'allifin,
and Ahmet

1:326-327;

1:594,

Ibn Abi

?zel,

"K?d?h?n",

al

TDV Islam Ansiklopedisi, 24:121-123. The work has been published several
times

with

beginning

the

19th century

edition

from

al-Matbaah

n?yyah inCairo; see alsoH?jj? Khalifah, Kashf al-zun?n,


a
partial
69. For
Wafa\

list of extant
the

manuscripts,
see Kahh?lah,

author,

al-Jaw?hir

al-mudiyyah,

see Brockelmann,
Mujam
M.

2:10-11;

GAL,

al-mu'allifin,
Esat Kili?er,

al-Maym?

1227-1228; and for


S.1:643-44.
2:9;

Ihn Abi

"Buh?r?,

al

T?hir

b.

Ahmed," TDV I slamAnsiklopedisi, 6:376. The work was recently published


in Quetta

al-Maktabah

by

Khalifah,

Kashf
extant

H?jj?
of this work

al-R?shid?yyah,
718. There

al-zun?n,

in the Siileymaniye

2002;

see also

library;

in

the description

are about

fifty manuscript
see further MAB,

copies
al-Fiqh,

3:1031-1045.
70.

For

the author,
3:777;

al-mu'allifin,
1310. Al-Q?m?s

H.

and Kahh?lah,
"al-Fir?z?b?di,"
EI2,
Mujam
see
1306
Khalifah,
al-zun?n,
H?jj?
Kashf
numerous
has been
times,
published
beginning

Fleisch,

for
al-muhit

the work,

with the Calcutta edition of 1817, and the B?l?q edition of 1865.

204

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The Sultan's

A Curriculum

Syllabus:

for

the Ottoman

medreses

Imperial

[1]. This is the Arabic dictionary by Ism?'?l b. Ham


entitled al-Sih?bfi al-lughah.n
m?d al-Jawhari al-F?r?bi (d.393/1003)
34. Tacil l-esttuV. [1]. This would appear to be the dictionary
'
entitled T?j al-asm? fi al-lughah of which H?jji Khalifah says "col
lected in it are the Kit?b al-asm? 'of al-Zamakhshar?,72 the Kit?b al
33. Cevheri.

s?mi of al-Mayd?ni,73 and the Sih?h of al-Jawhari [item 33 above],


to the arrangement of the Sih?h" H?jji Khalifah
arranged according
not
does
copies
identify the compiler of the work, two unattributed
of which appear to be extant in the Siileymaniye
library.74 Brockel
reports a further Siileymaniye
attributed to an unidentifiable Nur

mann

to examine

unable

this

to

manuscript

manuscript work of this title


Allah al-Halab?, but we were
it to

compare

the

other

two.75

is al-Tawdih fi hall ghaw?mid al-Tanqih by


Sadr al-Shari'ah al-Th?ni 'Ubayd Allah b. Mas ud al-Mahb?b? al
a commentary on the authors own work on
Bukh?r? (d.747/1346),
Hanafi
jurisprudence entitled al-Tancph fi al-us?l.76
36. Tel?h.
[1]. This is the commentary on the Tancjih al-us?l of
Sadr al-Shar?'ah al-Bukh?r? by Sa'd al-Din al-Taft?z?ni (d.791/1389
;
[1]. This

35. Tevzth.

71.

For

see L.
Kopf,

the author,

EI2,

"al-Djawhari,"

and Kahh?lah,

Mujam

al-mu'allifin, 1:362; for the work, seeH?jji Khalifah, Kashf al-zun?n, 1071
1073. The Sih?h has been published numerous times beginning with the
B?l?q edition of 1865.
Kit?b

72. The
seems

al-asm?'

to be now

of

(for whom

al-Zamakhshar?

see

item

1, above)

lost.

73. This is the Kit?b al-s?mi fi al-as?mt by Ahmad b. Muhammad al-May


d?ni al-Nays?b?ri (d. 518/1124) for whom see Kahh?lah, Mujam al-mu'al
lifin,

1:240.

For

extant

manuscript

copies

of the work

see GAL,

S.1:506-507.

74. See H?jji Khalifah, Kashf al-zun?n, 268. These are MS Kadizade
Mehmet 526, andMS Yeni Cami 1122, copied in 898 and 964 respectively;
that

is to say, before

the date

of

the

pr?senterai?.

75. This isMS Siileymaniye 811; see GAL, S.II:924.


76. For the author, see Brockelmann, GAL, S.IL300; and IbnQutlubughah,
T?j al-tar?jim fi tabaq?t al-Hanafiyyah, ed. Gustav Fluegel, Leipzig: Brock
haus,

1862,

168.

For

the

Tancfih

and

the numerous

commentaries

thereon,

seeH?jji Khalifah, Kashf al-zun?n, 496-499. Al-Tawdih fi hall ghaw?mid


al-Tancph was first published in Cairo by al-Maktabah al-Khayriyyah in
1904-1906;

about

fifty

library; see further,M?B,

manuscript

copies

are

extant

in

the

Siileymaniye

al-Fiqh, 2:918-942.

205

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Shahab

and Nenad

Ahmed

FlLIPOViC

see item 3, above), entitled al-Talwih


fi kashf haq? 'iqal-Tanqih. H?jji
(d. 1067/165 7) describes this work as "sought after by every
77
student in the field."

Khalifah

37. Hasan

?elebt.
b. Muhammad

[1]. This is the supercommentary


by Hasan
on al-Taft?z?nis
Sh?h al-Fan?ri (d.886/1482)

?eleb?
al? al-Talwih sharh al-TancphJ*
Talwih, called simply H?shiyah
is the work of Hanafi
38. Pezdevi.
[1]. This
jurisprudence by
Fakhr al-Isl?m 'Ali b. Muhammad
al-Pazdawi (d.482/1089)
entitled
al-Us?l.79

39. Ke?f.

on the Us?l of al-Pazdawi


is the commentary
'Ala' al-Din
'Abd al-'Aziz b. Ahmad al
spent his career inTransoxania.81

This

entitled Kashf al-asr?r by


Bukh?r? (d.730/1330),
who

and conclusions

Analysis
We

now

may

proceed

an

to

of

analysis

the

of

curriculum

the

This analysis is broadly aimed, firstly, ar answering

med?ris-i H?q?niye.

77. H?jj? Khalifah, Kashf al-zun?n, 496. This work was first published
Cairo
copies

in 1904-1906;

by al-Maktabah
al-Khayriyyah
are extant
in the
Siileymaniye

library,

also

about

manuscript
2:771

fifty

see MAB,

in

al-Fiqh,

790. It is incorrectly identified by Bilge, Ilk Osmanh Medreseleri, 50, as being


a commentary
Sharaf al-Din
For

78.

on

the

Tanqih
b. al-Hasan

al-ahaath

see Kahh?lah,

author,

"Hasan

Akpinar,

the

Ahmad

?elebi,

Fen?r?,"

fi
aJ-Hanafi

raf

of

al-ahd?th

al-tayammum

(d.771/1369).

Mujam
al-muallifin,
TDV Islam
Ansiklopedisi,

544;

and

16:312-315;

Cemil
for the

work, seeH?jj? Khalifah, Kashf al-zun?n, 496. Itwas first published inCairo by
in 1904-1906;
about
al-Khayriyyah
thirty manuscript
copies
see further MAB,
in the Siileymaniye
3:382-387.
library;
al-Fiqh,
For the author, Kahh?lah,
for the work,
2:501;
Mujam
al-mu'allifin,

al-Maktabah

are

extant
79.

see

H?jji Khalifah, Kashf al-zun?7t, 112-113. This was first published in Istan
bul in 1890.
80.

In the

to

indicate

8.1. On
Wafa',
Buh?r?,"

there
document,
original
of volumes.
the number
see Kahh?lah,

the author,

al-faw?hir
al-mudiyyah,
TDV Islam Ansiklopedisi,

lifah, Kashf
al-Pazdawi,

al-zun?n,
in Istanbul

the Siileymaniye

112. This
in 1890.

is no numeral

Mujam
2:96-97;

al-mu'allifin,
and Fahrettin

1:186-187.
was
There

first

written

On

under

this citation

Ibn Abi

2:157-58;
Atar,

the work,

al
el

"Abd?laz?z
see

published,
along with
are about
fifty manuscript

Kha

H?jj?
the Us?lo?
copies

library.

206

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in

Syllabus: A Curriculum

The Sultans

the Ottoman

for

Imperial

medreses

the question of what, if anything, the curriculum tells us about the


official identity of Ottoman
Islam, and secondly at identifying what,
if anything, the curriculum tells us about the historical development
of Islamic scholarly traditions.
The thirty-nine titles in the curriculum of the med?ris-i H?q?niye
fall in the following subject areas: twelve works of tafsir (Quranic exe
five works of legal theory (jurispru
gesis), twelve works of Hadith,
seven
us?l
of positive law (fur? al-fiqh) ? mak
works
dence,
al-fiqh),
lexicons. It is
ing twelve works of fiiqh in total, and three Arabic
jects,

that

notable

immediately
as

such

or

syntax

grammar,

are no

there

books
and

logic,

on
no

any
books

preparatory
on
subjects

sub
that

to have formed a part of the intermediate level of the medrese


such as theology. Thus, the content of the curriculum
curriculum,
as the
confirms our initial identification of the med?ris-i H?q?niye

we know

highest grade in the medrese hierarchy, the present syllabus being very
much a course of advanced study that is undertaken after all prepara
82
tory subjects have been completed. Certainly, the fifty-five volumes
of the syllabus would have amounted to a rigorous and demanding
course of study that provided a
thorough exposure to the fields of
and
Hanafi
H?dith,
ta?r,
fitqh.
In considering
the tafsir works in the syllabus, the most striking
feature is the centrality to the curriculum of the Quran commentary
of JarAllah al-Zamakhshari
the Kasbsb?fi Of the eleven
(d.538/1144),
in some form or another,
than
the
other
derive,
ta?rs
Kashsh?fi eight
from that work ? and even the remaining three are chronologically

It should

82.

are

works

be noted

somewhat

here

that

the volume

For

puzzling.

numbers

example,

the J?mi'

for
given
al-ahk?m

tubi (item 7) is given as being in just one volume, when


too

for

long

that

certainly

no

existing

copy

manuscript

in a single tome (seeM?B, al-Ta?r, 261-270). This


ta?r of Shams al-D?n al-Isfah?n? (item 12;M?B,
be

may
to

that

the numerals

written

under

the citations

some

of

of

al-Qur

the work
seems

the

ismuch

to be bound

is also the case with the


al-Ta?r, 405-406). It
in the document

refer

other
than the number
of volumes,
but the latter understand
something
consonant
It is more
is
with
conventional
likely that the scribe
ing
practice.
to the number
cases and wrote
in some
of volumes
did not pay attention
concern
the evident
them
but it is also hard to square this with
incorrecdy
for

tallying

that

appears

the volumes
after

reflected

in the remark,

"Together

they

are

fifty-five,"

the citations.

207

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Shahab

AHMED

FlLIPOVIC

and Nenad

to it,
was regarded in the
subsequent
indicating, perhaps, that it
as
in the history of
Ottoman
of
watershed
academy
something
The
the
inclusion
of
the syllabus is on
Quranic
exegesis.
Kashsh?fim
like the
the one hand unsurprising:
al-Zamakhshari was himself,
a
a
Ottomans,
Turk, while the
by legal school Hanafi, and by ethnicity
to
in
accorded
the
the centuries
widespread
recognition
Kashsh?f
between

its production

of the present syllabus


and the promulgation
in the fact that about a hundred complete manuscript
copies of the work still survive from that initial period of 550
83
95OH.
However, the fact that theKashsh?fiwzs not merely one tafsir
is reflected

in the

but was

syllabus,

chosen

in the Ottoman

tary
Zamakhshari

as

the

fundamental

Quran

is remarkable

curriculum

commen

in view

of

al

was a
problematic theological identity: al-Zamakhshari
Mu'tazil?84 and in the Sunni world of the 10th/l6rh century, Mu'tazil
ism was overwhelmingly
considered to be beyond the pale of legiti
an
mate belief. Indeed, the
"outspo
Kashsh?f, which has been called
85
was
seen
ken Mu'tazili book"
by non-Mu'tazilis as brilliant
generally
in its linguistic and rhetorical exposition of the Quran, but as theo
86
It is for this reason that the authors of
logically flawed and suspect.
the

commentaries

on

the

Kashsh?f

that

are

on

the

present

syllabus

al-Shir?zi
al-Din
Sa'd
al-Taft?z?ni
(d.710/1311),
al-Qutb
Fakhr
al-Din
and Sharaf
(d.791/1389),
al-Ch?r?pardi (d.746/1346),
to
correct
al
al-D?n al-Tibi
(d.743/1342)
regularly interject
more
Zamakhshari's
distinctively Mu'tazili
interpretations, while the
as noted earlier, is effectively "a
of
(d.716/1315),
al-Bayd?wi
tafsir
87
in
condensed and amended edition of al-Zamakhshari's Kashsh?f
which al-Bayd?wi reworked content that was problematically
expres
to
sive of al-Zamakhshari's Mu'tazili
theology
bring it into line with

83.

See MAB,

84. On
Madelung,
U.E.A.I.
lamisants,

al-Ta?r,
al-Zamakhshari's
"The Theology
1984),

(Malaga,
1986, 484-495,

155-166.
catholic Mu'tazilism,"
based,
"broadly
of al-Zamakhshari,"
Actas DelXII
Madrid:

Union

Europ?enne

see Wilferd

de la
Congreso
et d'Is
d'Arabisants

at 495.

of al-Zamakhshari,"
"The Theology
85. Madelung,
485.
on the
86. See the opinions
of scholars
Kashsh?f
gathered
wa
Beirut: Dar
al-Dhahabi,
Husayn
al-Ta?r
al-mufassir?n,

by Muhammad
al-Qalam,

n.d.,

?:435-442.
87.

J.A.Robson,

"al-Bayd?wi,"

EI2.

208

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The Sultan's

Syllabus: A Curriculum

the Ottoman

for

medreses

Imperial

88

(it is probably for this reason that al-Bayd?wi s


to outstrip
that of al
tafiir came, by the 12th/18th century,
in circulation and standing).89 The fact that the com
Zamakhshari
mentaries on the Kashsh?f do not merely explicate, but often disagree
with the text would presumably have also served to expose students to
in exegesis. Something similar might have
the dialectics of disputation

Ashari

formulations

been

of the tafsir of Shams

by the inclusion

achieved

al-Din

al

88. See the studies by Lupti Ibrahim, "The Concept of Divine Justice according
to al-Zamakhshari and al-Baydawi," Hamdard Islamicus 3A (Spring 1980) 3
17; "The Place of Intercession in the Theology of al-Zamakhshari and al
Isl?micas
Hamdard
Baydawi,"
the Attributes
of God
between

4.3

(Autumn

"Discussions

3-9;

1981)

al-Zamakhshari

and

about

Hamdard

al-Baydawi,"

Islamicus 5.4 (Winter 1982) 3-23; and "AComparative Study of theViews of


and

az-Zamakhshari

about

al-Baydawi

the

Position

of

the Grave

Sinner,"

Islamic Studies 29 (1982)55-73.


89. An examination of Izgi s lists of books reveals that the Kashsh?f was
studied by Ta?kopriz?de a few decades before the promulgation of the pres
ent

curriculum
does

Koshsh?fthat

(in addition,
not appear

a commentary

taught

Tagk?priz?de
in the present

curriculum,

on

the

that of al-Sharif

al

Jurj?ni), by Seyyid Feyzull?h Efendi in the second half of the 11th/17thcen


(along with

tury

unnamed

and

commentaries),

in the sec

by Nebiefendiz?de

ond half of the 12*718* century. Al-Bayd?wi s Anw?r al-tan?l appears in


many more of Izgi s book lists, beginning with Ta?k?priz?de, but especially
in those

from

the

and

11th/17th

12th/18th

centuries,

the anonymous

namely:

llth/17th century author of Izgi s Cetvel 7, H?jji Khalifah (d. 1067/1658),


Ish?q al-Toqadi (d. 1100/1689), Seyyid Feyzull?h Efendi (d. 1115/1703),
Nebiefendiz?de
(d.1200/1785), Bursali Ismail Haqqi (d. 1037/1725), the
Kev?kib-i seba (written 1155/1741)- which describes it as the "furthest goal
and highest purpose of the science of ta?r [maqsad-i aqs? ve matlab-i a( l?
o?an 'ilm-i te?r-i ?erif\," and Erzir?mli Ibrahim Haqqi
(d. 1194/1780)
who describes it as the "peak [nih?yet]" of the study of the science of ta?r,
see

Izgi, Osmanh

I Urn,

Medreselerinde

1:163-176.

For

the

12th/18th

see Madeleine

century,

Zilfi,

"A medrese

for

the

of al

importance

Bayd?wi s ta?r in the scholarly debates held in the Ottoman

palace in the
Ottoman

Palace:

Dynastic Legitimation in the Eighteenth Century", Journal of theAmerican


Oriental Society113 (1993), 184-191, at 186-187; for the performance of al
Bayd?wi
Mouradgea

in
ceremonies
ta?r
public
Tableau
General
d'Ohsson,

primerie de Monsieur
there

are many

of theKashsh?f

more

Firmin Didot,
extant

seeM?B,

manuscripts

in
de

12th/18th
l'Empire

century

Istanbul,

Othoman,

Paris:

1788-1824, 7 vols, 2:468-469.


of the Anw?r

al-Ta?r, 280-334

al-tanzi

I than

see
L'Im

In all,
there

are

and 155-188, respectively.

209

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FlLlPOVIC

and Nenad

AHMED

Shahab

on the
Isfah?ni (d.749/1349)
who based his commentary
Kashsh?f
on
Fakhr
scholar
al-D?n
Ashar?
of
the
Sh?fi'i
and
theMafi?h
al-ghayb
al-R?zi (d.606/1210),
the latter work being characterized by an "anti
stance.90

Mu'tazili"

commentaries

themselves,

all Ash

doctrinal
at

l?m,

is further

It

selected

least

as far

their

and

theology

indicates

of the ?eyhulis

are concerned.

exegesis

the

the Ottomans

presence

on the part of the department

inclusiveness

of

authors

unlike

not M?turidis

and

aris,

the

that

noteworthy

on the
Kashsh?f'were,

this

Doubtless,

the fact that these works were all authored during the
8th century H, a time when the fundamental doctrines of Ashar? and
91
M?tur?d? theology coalesced in a significant degree
(it is a pity that
our document does not list the works prescribed for the study of theo
has to do with

logy at the middle


analysis,

But in the final

levels of the medrese curriculum).92

it is evident

that

to be of such brilliance

al-Zamakhshari

that itwas made

was

commentary

deemed

text in the

the fundamental

itsMu'tazili con
tafsir curriculum of the med?ris-i H?q?niye despite
tent ? and despite the availability of a long tafsir by as important a
whose
M?turid? as Najm al-D?n Abu al-Hafs al-Nasafi (d.537/1142)
was included in the syllabus, but not as the foun
al-Taysirfi al-ta?r
text.

dational

The Kashsh?f \s very much a ta?r bi-al-ra'y ? that is, an exegesis


engagement with the
arising from rhe authors direct hermeneutical
text of the Quran. The syllabus also includes one work that is a tafsir
-

hi-al-math?r
from

reports

earlier

is

which

commentary

commentaries.

Quran

essentially

of

comprised

is al-Durr

This

al-manth?r

scholar,
Jal?l al-D?n
al-Suy?ti
Egyptian
is
of
from several ta?rs
made
drawn
(d. 911/1505),
up
reports
compiled in the first four centuries of Islam, occasionally accompa
nied by al-Suy?ti s own interjections. The presence of this work makes
available to the students a broad range of the early Islamic exegetical

of

the

acclaimed

which

fact that al-Suy?ti died only sixty years before the


was
drawn up is expressive not only of how swiftly he
present syllabus
tradition. The

90.

See McAuliffe,

91. On
Turks,"
1968,
92. On

Quranic

Christians,

this, seeWilferd Madelung,


in Actas
Leiden:
theology

do IV Congresso
1971,
E.J.Brill,
works

taught

at 69.

63-71,

"The Spread of M?tur?dism

de Estudos
109-168,
in medreses,

Arabes

e Isl?micos,

and the

Coimbra-Lisboa

at 166.
see

Yazicioglu,

Le kal?m

et son r?le,

54-65.

210

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Syllabus: A Curriculum

The Sultan's

became

recognized

receptiveness

of

for

the Ottoman

as a scholar of historic
canon

the Ottoman

Imperial

standing,

to new

works.

medreses

but also of the


He

is the most

recent author

included in the canon.


The Kashsh?f is also not primarily a legally-oriented commentary,
and the authors of the curriculum seem to have acknowledged
this by
including on the list al-J?m? fi ah kam al-qur*?n of al-Qurtubi
Given, as we will see below, that all the law books on
(d.671/1273).
the list are by Hanafis,
it is noteworthy
that al-Qurtubi was aM?liki.
choice of al-Qurtubi s ta?r was probably influenced by the fact
that it is the longest and least partisan of the legally-oriented Quran

The

commentaries:

includes the arguments of the different


al-Qurtubi
in
his
schools
commentary, and sometimes aligns himself with
legal
other than the M?liki position.93
The fact that the creators of the curriculum should have made a
point of including a S?fi ta?r is certainly striking, as it indicates that
the study of S?fi hermeneutics was considered a necessary part of the
education of the mid-10th/16th
century representatives of official
Ottoman
Islam. That the work in question should be that of a fol
lower of the thought of Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-Arabi - Abd
al-Razz?q
(d.730/1329)
al-Q?sh?nis
commentary, as noted above, has histori
? is also
the
cally been ascribed to Ibn al-Arabi
significant. Despite
some
mixed
of
in
Ibn
al-Arabi
of
the
Arab
very
world,
reception
parts
state. Thus, Ibn al-Arabi s tomb
he was venerated by the Ottoman
was restored by S?leymans
father, Yavuz I Selim, his orthodoxy
affirmed in a famous fativ? by Selim s Kadiasker of Anatolia, Kemal
pa?az?de (who went on to become the second ?eyhulisl?m of S?ley
medreses.94 It is note
m?n), and his works taught in the Ottoman
worth

that Eb? s-Su??d in his correspondence with S?leym?n invokes


Ibn al-Arabi as an authority.95 Finally, it should be noted that the syl
labus contains no work of ulum al-quranthe sciences of theQuran;

93.

See

al-Dhahabi,

al-Ta?r

wa

al-mufassi?n,

2:503-506.

94. See the entry by A.Ate?, "Ibn al-Arab?, Muhyi al-D?n," EI2; and
H?seyin Atay, "Ilmi Bir Tenkit ?rnegi Olarak Ibn Kem?l Pa?anin Muhyid
din B. Arabi Hakkinda Fetvasi," in S. Hayri Bolay, Bahaeddin Yediyildiz and
Mustafa Sait Yezicioglu
(eds.), Tokat Valiligi ?eyhulisl?m Ibn Kem?l
Arastirma Merkezinin Tertip Ettigi ?eyhulisl?m Ibn Kem?l Sempozyumu
Tebligler ve Tarttsmalar (Tokat 26-29 Haziran 1985), Ankara: T?rkiye
Diyanet Vakfi Yayinlan, 1986, 263-275. Mustafa Tahrali, "AGeneral Outline
of the Influence of IbnArabi on theOttoman Era," Journal of theMuhyiddin

211

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Shahab

AHMED

FlLIPOVIC

and Nenad

this subject might have already been taken by students at the interme
diate level, but there is no documentary
confirmation of this.
The second subject covered in the syllabus isHadith. Here, the
first point to be noted is that only two of the canonical Hadith col
lections are included in their entirety: the respective Sahihs of al
Bukh?r? (d.256/870)
and Muslim
(d.259/874). The other collections
within
the
of
Ibn al-Ath?r (d.606/1210)
al-us?l
which,
J?mi'
appear
as noted before, comprises the matns of all the Hadiths
contained in
al-Nas?'i (d.303/915),
al-Tirmidhi
al-Bukh?ri, Muslim,
(d.279/892),
the
Abu D?w?d
Muwatta
of
M?lik
and
(d.179/795),
(d.275/888),
on the Sahihs of al
but omits the isn?ds. Three long commentaries
are prescribed, but none
Bukh?ri, and one on the Sahihs of Muslim
on any of the other collections. Clearly, the Sahihs of al-Bukh?r? and
were

Muslim

viewed

of

the makers

by

the

Ottoman

present

curricu

It is inter
lum as of superior utility to the other Hadith collections.96
commentaries
of
Badr
that
the
both
al-Din
respective
al-Ayni
esting
and Ibn Hajar al-Asqal?ni (d.852/1448)
(d.855/1451)
appear in the
syllabus, given that these two scholars were known for the disagree
ments

between

to

commentaries

their

the

that

point

Ibn

Hajar

authored a polemic directed specifically against al-Ayni s sharh of al


97The other
Bukh?ri.
Hadith work that appears in full, along with

Ibn Arabi

Society

the perhaps

26

overly

42-54,

(1999),

Arabo-centric

provides
focus
of

an
the

to

counterbalance

important

of

reception-history

Ibn

al

Arabi presented inAlexander Knysh, Ibn Arabi in the Later Islamic Tradition:
TheMaking of a Polemical Image in Islam, Albany: State University of New
York

Press,

95.

For Eb?

1999.
s-Su ?d's

citation

of

Ibn

in his

al-Arabi

with

correspondence

S?leym?n, prefaced by the phrase ?eyhMuhyi d-Din-i Arehi naqlider-kih, see


Mecm?d-i MeyB, MS Gazi Husrev Beg, I 2012, 75a.
96. Ta?k?priz?de (d.968/1561), writing a few decades prior to the promulga
tion of the present

says that

curriculum,

theMifi?h /h?rte, and d?hil/altmish


written

about

two

centuries

by Ziy?'u d-Din Ahisqavi


Hadith

collections

Medreselerinde

Ilim

are

the Sahihs

in 1155/1741,

later,

(d. 1218/1803),
studied

1:170-71,

166,

of Bukh?ri

was

studied

in

(60 aq?e) medreses. In theKev?kib-i seb'a,


and

in the curriculum

given

it is stated that all six canonical

in

the

medreses.

and

173,

respectively.

See

Izgi,

Osmanh

97. IbnHajar, Intiq?d al-i'tir?d fi al-radd al? al-Ayni fi sharh al-Bukh?n,


ed. Hamd? b.Abd al-Maj?d al-Salaf? and Subh? b. J?sim al-S?marr?'i, Riyad:
Maktabat
bridge,

al-Rushd,
Academic

1993;
Rivalry

on
and

see Anne
their professional
Broad
rivalry,
in
the Patronage
System
Fifteenth-Century

212

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The Sultan's

Syllabus: A Curriculum

three

commentaries,
which
(d.516/1122),

for

the Ottoman

is the Mas?bih
contains Hadith

Imperial

al-sunnah
selected

of

from

medreses

al-Baghawi
the canonical

collections

and arranged by subject matter.98 The last Hadith work


from the Mas?bih
of
al-sunnah, being a commentary
on the
Sharaf al-Din al-Tibi (d.743/1342)
Mas?
the
of
b?h
expansion
It is noteworthy
that no
by Wal? al-D?n al-Tibriz? {fil. 737/1337).
works are prescribed that deal with the ul?m al-hadith, or method
also derives

itmay well
ological sciences of Hadith. As with the ul?m al-quran,
be that this subject was studied at the intermediate level ; but itmay
also be the case that the subject was considered to be dealt with suffi
on the syllabus.
ciently in the US?I al-fiqh works
All twelve legal works in the curriculum deal with Hanafi
law,
courts
the official legal rite of the Ottoman
While
the
of
empire.
the Ottoman

legal system did, of course, have sitting judges from


the other legal schools in those regions of the empire where
the
it iswould
other madhhabs had adherents,
appear from this cur
state did not itself have any interest in
riculum that the Ottoman
It would appear that
legal scholars of any other madhhab.
other
of
madh?hib
Shi'ah judges of
the
Twelver
judges
(including
their
received
both
Jabal '?mil)
training
privately and in medreses
and
supported by awq?fis founded by adherents of that madhhab,
not from the
would
similarly have received their remuneration
"
state
Ottoman
state, but from the madhhab awq?fi. The Ottoman
was, however, clearly invested in producing a cadre of Hanafi
jurists
who possessed a common
training in a standardized body of legal
are the Tawdih of Sadr al
texts. The works of us?l
al-fiqh selected
Shar?ah al-Bukh?ri
with
the
commentaries
thereon
(d.747/1346)
al-Taft?z?ni
and
Hasan
al-Fan?r?
(d.791/1389)
?eleb?
by
training

Egypt:

al-Ayni,

al-Maqrizi,

Ibn Hajar

and

al-Asqal?ni,"

Maml?k

Studies

Review 3 (1999), 85-107.


98. Ta?k?priz?de (d.968/1561) taught theMas?bih, which also appears in
see Izgi, Osmanh
the book list of Nebiefendiz?de
(d. 1200/1786);
Medreselerinde
99.
M.

This
Salati,

Ilim,
is a subject
"Toleration,

1:171,

and

169,

that warrants
Persecution

respectively.
further
study. On
and Local Realities:

Shi'i

see

education,

Observations

on

the

Shiism in the Holy Places and the Bil?d al-Sh?m (16th-17* Centuries)," in
Convegno sul tema La Shi 'aNelTImpero Ottomano (Roma, 15 Aprile 1991),
Rome: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 1993, 121-148, especially 133-143.

213

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Shahab

AHMED

and Nenad

FlLIPOViC

with the
and the Us?l of al-Pazdawi (d.482/1089)
(d.886/l482),10ft
of Ala' al-D?n al-Bukh?r? (d.730/1330).
It is striking
commentary
how the emphasis here is on works authored in the two-and-a half
centuries
rather

than

on

standing

Hanafi

it

and

is

those

was

who

an

the

necessarily

oldest

seem

considered
rather

but

curriculum,
an

under
that

curriculum

the

assume

to

the
evince

in which

discourse

evolving

ones,

to

constructed

reasonable

only

of

construction
would

seek to include what were

would
not

part

of

the

This

works.

jurisprudence

works

the

to

prior

immediately
on older

the

that

the best

curriculum

? were

the best works


that

those

into

took

of legal
and were expressive of the historical development
,fH
the
It
Ottoman
us?l
that
is
works
of
Hanafi
these
later
theory.
state sought to canonize in 973/1565.

account

As regards positive law (fur? al-fiqh), the fundamental text was evi
which was stud
(d.593/1197),
dently the Hid?yah of al-Marghin?ni
?
of al-Sighn?qi
ied with
the Nih?yah
three commentaries
and the
the Gh?yat al-bay?n otal-Itq?ni
(d.758/1356),
(d.711/1311),
,02
three
Further to al-Marghin?ni,
Akmalof
al-B?barti (d.786/1356).
more

were used, the Khul?sah of Iftikh?r al-Din


o?fiat?w?
the Fat?w? Q?dikh?myyah ofFakhr al-Din
(d.543/1147)

collections

al-Bukh?ri

100. Al-Fan?r?'s

commentary

101. Note
twelfth
largely
resulted
old

the

century,

appears

in the

also

remark

of Subtelny

and Khalidov,

new

in the field

lum of
Higher

to the

curriculum

of

Islamic

from

"Starting
of Hanafite

developments
of Iranian
and Central
the contributions
through
texts and new
in the addition
of new authoritative

textbooks

from Nebiefen

list of books

see Izgi, Osmanh Medreselerinde Ilim, 1:169.

diz?de (d. 1200/1786);

higher

about

the

on
law, brought
Asian
scholars,
on

commentaries

learning;"

"The

Curricu

214.

Learning,"

102. It isworth noting here that the ?eyhulisl?m Eb? s-Su'?d himself, when
a

professor

at one

of

the

Eight

of

Colleges

the F?tih

medrese

is

complex,

reported to have taught both the Taluih of al-Taft?z?n?, and theHid?yah o?


al-Margh?n?n?;

see

Imber,

11. The

Ebu's-Su'ud,
?

who

by Ta?k?priz?de
generation
preceding
levels of the medrese
from the h?rte to altmtslt
the Kev?kib-i

seb'a

as

being

studied

in

Hid?yah
mentions

was
that

taught
it was

in the
studied

It is also mentioned
system.
in 1155/1741.
the medreses

in
The

Hid?yah, Nih?yah and Akmal are all prescribed for study by al-Toqadi
(d.l 100/1689). See izgi, Osmanh Medreselerinde Ilim, 1:171, 165 and 167,
respectively.

214

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The Sultan's

Q?di Khan
(d.743/1342)

Syllabus: A Curriculum

for

103and

the Ottoman

Imperialmedreses

the

of al-Zaylai
commentary
of
Hafiz
al-Din
al-Nasafi
al-daq?'iq
on
were
All
the
of
works
law
the
thus
(d.711/1310).
positive
syllabus
to
in
a
the
800H.
is
This
of
550
indicative
produced
period
again
attitude
towards
Islamic
in
law
which
"a
developmental
chronologi
104
cally later opinion must replace an earlier one of equal validity."
on
The presence
the curriculum of these later works of positive law is
doubtless also due to the simple fact that since the purpose of the
(d.592/1196),
on the Kanz

medrese curriculum was to produce the best possible qualified judges,


the concern was that they should be familiar with "law cases that were
relevant and necessary to the age." I05In all, the list of twelve
legal
works comprises one text from the 5thH century, three from the 6thH
century, two from the 7thH century, six from the 8thH century, and
one from the 9thH century. Thus, the Hanafi
canon laid down
legal
was
state
Ottoman
in
the
made
of
works produced
973/1565
up
by
in the previous 500 years, with the bulk
originating from the 8th/14th
century.

In total, only four of the


thirty-eight dateable books in the curri
culum were authored before 500H (and two of these are the respective
Sahihs of al-Bukh?ri and Muslim,
and the third the dictionary of al
? the bulk of the
medrese
Jawhari). The remaining thirty-four works

103. The Q?dikh?niyyah is also mentioned in the Kev?kib-i seba as being


studied in the medreses in 1155/1741; Izgi, Osmanh Medreselerinde Ilim,
1:165.
104.Wael B. Hallaq, Authority, Continuity and Change in Islamic Law, Cam
bridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, 189. Note, for example, the
absence

from

the curriculum

of as important

an

early work

of Hanafi

posi

tive law as the Kit?b al-mabs?t of al-Sarakhs? (d.483/1090): works such as


the Mabs?t
erence

were

materials.

nonetheless
On

available

the historical

to Ottoman

evolution

jurists

of Islamic

in libraries

as ref

law, see Baber

positive

Johansen, "Legal Literature and the Problem of Change: The Case of the
Land Rent," inChibli Mallat (ed.), Islam and Public Law: Classical and Con
London:
Graham
and Trotman,
to
this phrase
the criteria
explain
collections
for inclusion;
selected fat?w?

Studies,
temporary
uses
105. Hallaq
o? fata

wa

29-47\

1993,

later
by which
to our mind,

equally well here to the likely criteria on the basis of which


fat?w?
ent

collections
syllabus.

and

See Hallaq,

commentaries

were

Authority,

Continuity

selected
and

for

those selfsame

inclusion

Change,

compilers
it
applies
in the pres

188.

215

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Shahab

- were

curriculum

all

Ahmed

and Nenad

FlLiPOVIC

in the

of

produced

age

the medrese-,

that

is, the

period after 500H. Seven of these are from the 6thH century, six from
the 7thH century, seventeen from the 8thH century, and five from the
9rhH century. There is no work from the 10thH century itself, and
only two works seem to have been written by authors living under
Ottoman
rule - Mahmud
b. Hamzah al-Qar?m?ni (d.871/1468), who
was a judge in central Anatolia,
al-Fan?ri
and Hasan
?elebi
was
a
a
who
member
of
(d.886/1482),
prominent
scholarly family
106
which produced a number of high-ranking officials of the 'ilmiyye.
That there is no book from the 10thH century itself is probably expres
of a certain

sive
drew

the

up

not

to have

yet

in the

conservatism
-

curriculum

as

themselves

proven

culture

scholarly-bureaucratic
recent were

that

works

probably
the

obtained

having

that

deemed
sustained

some of the works


recognition of the scholarly community. Certainly,
on the curriculum - such as al-Taft?z?n? s Taluih ? had also been on
the

in the

curriculum

century

previous

I07
nonetheless,

the

fact

that

in all there are as many as five titles from the 9th H century is an
and of the
instructive indication of the limits of this conservatism,
content

evolving

of

the

curriculum

of

the Ottoman

medreses.

Also,

the

relative obscurity of two of the books ? theManhal


sharh
al-yan?Wfi
al-Mas?bih of al-Sakh?mi, of which only three manuscript copies sur
108
vive in the Siileymaniye library in Istanbul, and only six worldwide;
lexicon Taj al-asm? \ of which only two or three
and the anonymous
manuscript

109-

survive

copies

would

indicate

some

that

works

might

have enjoyed a brief vogue in the scholarly community


(as happens
or
in
the
favour
the
of
temporary
today)
department
?eyhulisl?m, but
failed

to sustain

eventually

106. On

the Ean?ris,

Ihsanoglu,
tions," 376-377.
108.

See

item

20,

above.

109.

See

item

34,

above.

'and

al-Sahihsfi
al-Fir?z?b?di

respect

see J. R. Walsh,

"Ottoman

107.

asm?

the

the continuing

contrast

renown

interest

and

between

of

the other

is very

striking.

the

ulema.

Institu

Scholarly-Scientific

the anonymity
two lexicons

al-lughah of al-Jawhar? (d.393/1003),


(d.817/1414),

of

.?72.

"Fen?ri-z?de,"

Educational

The

or

Both

of
on

the Taj
the

al

syllabus,

and al-Q?m?s al-muhit of


the

latter works

appear

in

the poem of Erzir?mh Ibrahim Haqqi (d. 1194/1780); see Izgi, Osmanh
Medreselerinde Ilim, 1:168; ?zyilmaz, XVII veXVIII. Y?zytllarda Osmanh
Medreselerinin

Egitim

Programlart,

54.

216

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The Sultans

Syllabus:

A Curriculum

the Ottoman

for

Imperial

medreses

In concluding, we will turn first to consider the second of the two


questions raised at the outset of the analysis: what, if anything, the cur
riculum tells us about the development of Islamic scholarly traditions. On
the basis of the foregoing, itwould appear that the S?leym?nic syllabus is
reflective of a process of conservative change in the historical constitution
of the scholarly canon in Islam. But itmust be emphasized that until we
have a better idea of what books were studied in the Ottoman medreses
before the educational reforms carried out in the reign of Q?n?ni S?ley
m?n, itwill not be possible to have a fuller sense of the continuity between
the present curriculum and the higher curriculum that was in use in
Ottoman medreses before 973/1565 ? let alone between it and the courses
of study in the medreses of theTurkish Hanafi dispensations that preceded
the Ottomans - most prominently, the Salj?qs and the Maml?ks. As
the

regards

evolution

medrese

of Ottoman

curricula

in the

centuries

sub

sequent to the present syllabus, we have, in the foregoing footnotes, made


some observations about the continuing study of certain books. For
namely
example, six of the twelve works oifiqh given inTSA E/2803/1,
theHid?yah of al-Marghin?ni, theNih?yah of al-Sighn?qi, the Akmal of
al-B?barti; the Q?dikh?r?yyah, the Tatudih of Sadr al-Shari ah, and the
Taluih of al-Taft?z?n?, all appear in the medrese curriculum described for
in the Kev?kib-i seb'a.Only one ta?rwork - that of al-Bay
1155/1741
?
d?wi
appears in both the present curriculum and in the Kev?kib-i seb'a;
but the fact is that theKev?kib-i seba cites only two ta?rs in total, which
not
telling the whole curricular story. In other
strongly suggests that it is
nature
the
of the available data renders unfeasible
words,
very incomplete
assessment about how
any meaningful
long the S?leym?nic syllabus
remained in effect, aswell as any deeper analysis about the continuity and
change of curricula in the Ottoman medreses in the subsequent centuries.
Also, we are presendy ill-equipped to effect a comparison between the
Ottoman
curriculum and the works being studied in the other great
no
Turkish Hanafi-Maturid? empire of the age - Mughal India.
110.

For

an

interesting

see Francis

attempt,

Robinson,

"Ottomans-Safavids

Mughals: Shared Knowledge and Connective Systems," journal of Islamic


Studies 8 (1997), 151-184, where the "Ottoman Curriculum" has been
assembled from Bilge, Ilk OsmanliMedreseleri, and theMughal curriculum is
a version

of

the famous

Dars-i

Niz?mi,

which

was

the first half of the 12th/18thcentury by Niz?m


Mahalli
established

(d. 1161/1748),
itself as the

and

which,

pre-eminent

in various
curriculum

compiled

in Lucknow

in

al-D?n Sih?lav? Firangi

permutations,
eventually
in Indian madrasahs.

217

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Shahab AHMED

and Nenad

FiLlPOVic

to the
the state canon of
if anything,
question of what,
tells us about the official identity of Ottoman
Islam in the
973/1565
on
one
of
of Quranic
the
works
the
hand,
Q?n?ni
reign
S?leym?n:
are
text chosen
a
The
indicative
of
basic
of
exegesis
degree
catholicity.
is by a Turkish scholar who belonged to the official legal rite of the
As

state

Ottoman
taries

thereon

Hanafism

are

mainly

but who
Sh?fi'i

by

was
Asharis,

a Mu'tazili.
whose

The

commen

presence,

as we

have noted, is doubtless symptomatic of the gradual coming together


of Ashar?sm with the M?turidi
theology favoured by the Ottoman
state.

But

as

regards

the

law

the

primary

medium

in which

the

serve and rep


graduates of the med?ris-i H?q?niye would eventually
resent the state ? the identity of the Sultans syllabus is emphatically
no interest in train
and exclusively Hanafi. The Ottoman
empire had
ing its ulema in any other legal madhhab.
Shahab AHMED
Nenad

(Harvard University)
FlLIPOVIC (Princeton University)

218

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