Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

Chapter 02
The Political, Legal and Technological Environment
True / False Questions
1. (p. 37) Networking and recognizing market growth opportunity are the most essential for
successful integration.
FALSE

Difficulty: Hard

2. (p. 37) Political and cultural barriers can provide an unfair advantage to home companies by
pushing out international competition.
TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

3. (p. 38) The domestic and international political environment has a major impact on
multinational corporations.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

4. (p. 39) Collectivism emerged in Italy and France as "national socialism".


FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

2-1

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

5. (p. 39) Great Britain's Labour Party practices "democratic socialism".


TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

2-2

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

6. (p. 40) According to the text, Russia presents the extreme example of how the political
environment impacts on international management.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

7. (p. 42) Vietnam and Laos have moved towards a totalitarian environment due to the evolution
of modern global business.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

8. (p. 43) Socialist law comes from the Marxist socialist system and continues to influence
regulations in former communist countries.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

9. (p. 43) Common law is derived from Roman law and is found in the non-Islamic and nonsocialist countries such as France, some countries in Latin America and even Louisiana in the
United States.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

10. (p. 44) The territoriality principle holds that governments have the right to rule themselves
as they see fit.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

2-3

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

11. (p. 44) The protective principle holds that every nation has the right of jurisdiction within its
legal territory.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

12. (p. 44) The doctrine of civility holds that there must be mutual respect for the laws,
institutions and government of other countries in the manner of jurisdiction over their own
citizens.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

13. (p. 44) Under the act of state doctrine, all acts of other governments are considered to be
valid by U.S. courts, even if such acts are inappropriate in the United States.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

14. (p. 45) The FCPA makes it illegal to influence foreign officials through the granting of
favorable tariff rates.
FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

15. (p. 45) The objectives of the FCPA were to stop U.S. MNCs from initiating or perpetuating
corruption in foreign governments and to upgrade the image of both the United States and its
businesses abroad.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

2-4

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

16. (p. 46) The current move toward privatization by an increasing number of countries is an
example of the changing international regulatory environment.
TRUE

Difficulty: Hard

17. (p. 48) Trade agreements do not require that trade benefits accorded to one nation be
extended to other nations' parties to that agreement.
FALSE

Difficulty: Hard

18. (p. 49) Embedded learning technology will allow thinking to occur in machines.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

19. (p. 52) One reason for the rapid increase in telecommunications services is that many
countries believe that without an efficient communications system, their economic growth
may stall.
TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

20. (p. 53) Technology does not have the potential to displace employees holding positions
traditionally reserved for human thinking.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

2-5

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

Multiple Choice Questions


21. (p. 38) In a business context, individualism is synonymous with:
A. Collectivism
B. Socialism
C. Totalitarianism
D. Capitalism

Difficulty: Easy

22. (p. 38) Aristotle and David Hume contributed to the principle of:
A. Socialism
B. Collectivism
C. Individualism
D. Communism

Difficulty: Easy

23. (p. 39) Which of the following are characteristics of fascism?


A. Anticollectivism
B. Anticommunism
C. Opposition only to political liberalism
D. Antinationalism

Difficulty: Medium

24. (p. 39) According to the text, _____ relations are the cornerstone of a united Europe.
A. Franco-German
B. British-Franco
C. Spanish-French
D. German-British

Difficulty: Hard

2-6

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

25. (p. 40) One of the major economic problems for attracting more foreign investment of the
Russian government is because of:
A. Legal mandates
B. Economic opportunities
C. Political corruption
D. Religious practices

Difficulty: Hard

26. (p. 40) Communism as an economic system has failed due to the tendency of common goals
to stunt:
A. Progression and individual creativity
B. Individual productivity
C. Individual freedom
D. Profit and growth

Difficulty: Medium

27. (p. 42) Governmental power in a democracy is limited by:


A. The accountability of the elected representatives to the general public
B. Individual freedom - such as freedom of expression and assembly
C. The police force which is independent of the state
D. Limiting the number of terms for which a representative may be elected

Difficulty: Hard

28. (p. 42) Political repression and denial of rights and civil liberties are dominant ideals of:
A. Totalitarianism
B. Socialist democracy
C. Collectivism
D. Monarchy

Difficulty: Medium

2-7

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

29. (p. 42) The totalitarian form of government is to be seen in:


A. Singapore and Cambodia
B. Germany and Italy
C. Latin America only
D. Vietnam, Cuba and North Korea

Difficulty: Medium

30. (p. 42) The Chinese political environment is very:


A. Complex
B. Stable
C. Straightforward and streamlined
D. Safe and secure

Difficulty: Easy

31. (p. 42) Multinational corporations in China are faced with a multitude of problems except:
A. Government regulations
B. Questionable treatment
C. Market growth opportunities
D. Understanding what is needed from investors

Difficulty: Medium

32. (p. 43) Sentiments regarding the war in Iraq have primarily affected business relationships
between:
A. The Middle East
B. Asia
C. Asia and the U.S
D. Europe and the U.S

Difficulty: Hard

2-8

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

33. (p. 43) _____ law comes from the Marxist socialist system and continues to influence
regulations in former communist countries, especially those from the former Soviet Union, as
well as present-day China, Vietnam, North Korea and Cuba.
A. Socialist
B. Civil or code
C. Common
D. Islamic

Difficulty: Medium

34. (p. 43) _____ law comes from English law and is the foundation of the legal system in the
United States, Canada, England, Australia, New Zealand and others.
A. Civil or code
B. Islamic
C. Socialist
D. Common

Difficulty: Medium

35. (p. 43) Identify from the following the correct statement on civil law.
A. It comes from English law and is found in nonsocialist countries
B. It is to be found in countries of Central Asia
C. It is derived from Roman law and is found in nonsocialist countries,
D. It is the foundation of the legal system in the United States, Canada, England, Australia,
New Zealand and other nations

Difficulty: Medium

36. (p. 44) The _____ holds that governments have the right to rule themselves as they see fit.
A. Principle of sovereignty
B. Nationality principle
C. Territoriality principle
D. Protective principle

Difficulty: Medium

2-9

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

2-10

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

37. (p. 44) International law includes the following types of jurisdictional principles:
A. Nationality, territoriality and protective
B. Territoriality, sovereignty and nationality
C. Good citizenship, territoriality and protective
D. Protective, comity and sovereignty

Difficulty: Medium

38. (p. 44) The _____ principle holds that every country has jurisdiction (authority or power)
over its citizens no matter where they are located.
A. Comity
B. Nationality
C. Territoriality
D. Sovereignty

Difficulty: Medium

39. (p. 44) The _____ principle holds that every nation has the right of jurisdiction within its
legal territory.
A. Sovereignty
B. Protective
C. Territoriality
D. Nationality

Difficulty: Medium

40. (p. 44) The _____ principle holds that every country has jurisdiction over behavior that
adversely affects its national security, even if that conduct occurred outside the country.
A. Territoriality
B. Nationality
C. Sovereignty
D. Protective

Difficulty: Medium

2-11

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

41. (p. 44) The _____ holds that there must be mutual respect for the laws, institutions and
government of other countries in the matter of jurisdiction over their own citizens.
A. Doctrine of protectionism
B. Doctrine of civility
C. Doctrine of mutual understanding
D. Doctrine of comity

Difficulty: Medium

42. (p. 44) U.S. laws require equality in the workplace for all employees, U.S. citizens who take
a job in Japan cannot sue their Japanese employer under the provisions of U.S. law for failure
to provide equal opportunity for them. This is in line with the:
A. Principle of sovereignty
B. Nationality principle
C. Doctrine of comity
D. Act of state doctrine

Difficulty: Hard

43. (p. 44) Under the _____, all acts of other governments are considered to be valid by U.S.
courts, even if such acts are inappropriate in the United States.
A. Act of state doctrine
B. Act of international civility
C. Act of judicial sovereignty
D. Act of international understanding

Difficulty: Medium

2-12

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

44. (p. 44) Countries have the legal right to refuse admission of foreign citizens and to impose
special restrictions on the following except:
A. Conduct
B. Right of travel
C. Spending
D. What business they may conduct

Difficulty: Easy

2-13

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

45. (p. 45) The statute that makes it illegal to influence foreign officials through personal
payment of political contributions is referred to as the:
A. Fairness in International Affairs Act
B. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
C. Global Ethics Act
D. Fair Treatment of Foreign Citizens Act

Difficulty: Easy

46. (p. 45) Critics of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act feared the loss of sales to foreign
competitors, especially in those countries where:
A. Customs are adhered to
B. Political stability exists
C. Common law is applicable
D. Bribery is an accepted means

Difficulty: Easy

47. (p. 45) It was reported that since the passage of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA):
A. MNCs could not function within the set guidelines
B. Internal politics problems for U.S. Allies increased
C. There was a thirt percent loss of sales to foreign competitors
D. U.S. exports to "bribe prone" countries actually increased

Difficulty: Medium

48. (p. 45) One analysis, cited in the text, reported that since the passage of the Foreign Corrupt
Practices act, U.S. exports to "bribe prone" countries:
A. Increased
B. Decreased
C. Stopped completely
D. Remained exactly the same, showing that the law had no effect

Difficulty: Medium

2-14

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

49. (p. 45) U.S. MNCs always assumed that bribes were required to ensure contracts in:
A. India
B. The Middle East
C. Asia Pacific
D. Eastern Europe

Difficulty: Medium

50. (p. 45) According to the text, _____ is one of the biggest problems facing MNCs.
A. Fear of investing abroad
B. Loss of sales to foreign competitors
C. Uneven ethical standards
D. Very restrictive foreign bureaucracies

Difficulty: Medium

51. (p. 46) Japanese companies are aware that their dependency on the world market for many
goods and services is negatively impacted by _____, resulting in local consumers paying the
price.
A. The balance of payments
B. Bureaucratization
C. Trade imbalances
D. Financial exchange

Difficulty: Hard

52. (p. 46) Foreign firms exporting goods into the Japanese market during the mid-1990s found
that they could easily compete because of:
A. Lower prices
B. Trade barriers
C. Political noninterference
D. Legal imperfections

Difficulty: Hard

2-15

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

53. (p. 48) The case with cellular phones and networks and open-source models in software are
cited to substantiate the fact that:
A. The possibilities of digital and wireless technologies are vast
B. Internet allowing easy dissemination of information
C. Global connections do not necessarily level the playing field
D. Satellites will play a role in learning

Difficulty: Hard

54. (p. 51) The term "e-cash" stands for:


A. Easy cash
B. Export cash
C. Electronic cash
D. Exchange cash

Difficulty: Easy

55. (p. 51) According to the text, the most popular form of e-business is:
A. B2B dealings
B. B2C dealings
C. Financial dealings
D. E-retailing

Difficulty: Medium

56. (p. 51) The area of e-business that will most affect global customers is:
A. E-marketing
B. E-retailing and financial services
C. Retailing
D. Internet sales

Difficulty: Medium

2-16

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

57. (p. 52) The most obvious dimension of the technological environment facing international
managers today is:
A. Telecommunications
B. Transportation
C. Agricultural mechanization
D. Improved service technologies

Difficulty: Easy

58. (p. 52) Identify the correct statement on cellular infrastructure.


A. It is expensive to install
B. It is quick and relatively inexpensive to install
C. It is relatively inexpensive to install but takes time
D. It cannot be installed easily and cheaply in rural areas

Difficulty: Medium

59. (p. 52) Over the next decade, the merging of the Internet and wireless technology will
radically change the ways in which people:
A. Spend
B. Socialize
C. Communicate
D. Invest

Difficulty: Medium

60. (p. 52) MNCs are unwilling to put up high investments unless they are assured of:
A. Operating control on their investment in telecommunications
B. Expanding demand for telecommunication service
C. Complete financial control
D. Monopoly on local services

Difficulty: Medium

2-17

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

61. (p. 52) Governments are accepting the belief that the only way to attract foreign investment
and know-how in telecommunications is to:
A. Cede control to private industry
B. Get cheaper service providers
C. Get cheap and efficient labor
D. Get private partners

Difficulty: Medium

62. (p. 52) According to the text, NYNEX holds a stake in:
A. Telecom New Zealand
B. Thailand's Telecom Asia
C. Australia's Optus
D. Thailand's Globe Telecom

Difficulty: Medium

63. (p. 52) The Hong Kong office of Salomon Brothers, a U.S. investment bank, estimates that
to meet the expanding demand for telecommunication service in Asia, companies will need:
A. Cheaper technology
B. Cheap and efficient labor
C. Considerable increase in investment
D. Cheaper service providers

Difficulty: Easy

64. (p. 52) Some observers have noted that technology already has eliminated much and in the
future will eliminate even more of the work now being done by:
A. Top level managers
B. Middle managers and white-collar staff
C. Maintenance workers
D. Line employees and service staff

Difficulty: Medium

2-18

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

65. (p. 52) _____ has placed pressure on MNCs to outsource production.
A. Mounting cost pressure and profit expectations
B. Lack of cheap and expert labor
C. Global and Internal competition
D. Profit expectation by governments

Difficulty: Medium

66. (p. 53) Identify the option that would constitute white-collar service industries.
A. Steel and autos
B. Agriculture
C. Insurance only
D. Insurance and banks

Difficulty: Easy

67. (p. 53) Emerging information technology has made work:


A. More portable
B. More risky
C. More tedious
D. More complicated

Difficulty: Easy

68. (p. 53) MNCs have moved certain production activities overseas to capitalize on:
A. Increasing costs
B. Cheap labor
C. Larger markets
D. Higher purchasing power

Difficulty: Medium

2-19

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

69. (p. 53) Low-paid workers in India and Asian countries now are being given subcontracted
work such as:
A. Insurance jobs
B. Auto industry jobs
C. Labor-intensive hardware development
D. Code-writing jobs

Difficulty: Medium

70. (p. 53) According to the text, a positive side of the opportunities that technology offers
would be:
A. Decline in the cost of doing business worldwide
B. Price rise due to cost of equipments
C. Elimination of higher-priced labor
D. Replacement of employees by machines

Difficulty: Easy

2-20

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

Essay Questions
71. (p. 42-43) What is totalitarianism? Identify its features and forms.
Totalitarianism refers to a political system in which there is only one representative party
which exhibits control over every facet of political and human life. Power is often maintained
by suppression of opposition, which can be violent in nature. Media censorship, political
repression and denial of rights and civil liberties are dominant ideals. Since only one party
within each entity exists, there are many forms of totalitarian government. Other forms of
totalitarianism exhibit some form of oppression as well. Parties or individuals that govern an
entity based on religious principles will ultimately oppress religious and political expression
of its citizens. One final consideration of a totalitarian system is that in which some freedoms
may exist. This form has been referred to as right-wing totalitarianism, where some economic
freedoms may exist, but there is still a limitation on political freedom. This structure allows
for economic freedom because otherwise it is believed that complete oppression will give rise
to communism. While it directly opposes socialist and communist ideas, this form of ruling
may gain power and support from the military, often in the form of a military leader imposing
a government "for the good of the people". This results in military officers filling most
government positions.

Difficulty: Hard

72. (p. 43) What are the four foundations upon which laws are based around the world? Briefly
explain each foundation.
The four foundations upon which laws are based around the world are as follows:
Islamic law, Socialist law, Common law and Civil or code law. Islamic law is derived from
interpretation of the Qur'an and the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed. It is found in most
Islamic countries in the Middle East and Central Asia. Socialist law comes from the Marxist
socialist system and continues to influence regulations in former communist countries,
especially those from the former Soviet Union, as well as present-day China, Vietnam, North
Korea and Cuba. Common law comes from English law and it is the foundation of the legal
system in the United States, Canada, England, Australia, New Zealand and others. Civil or
code law is derived from Roman law and is found in the non-Islamic and nonsocialist
countries such as France, some countries in Latin America and even Louisiana in the United
States.

Difficulty: Hard

2-21

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

73. (p. 44) What jurisdictional principles are given by International Law?
International law provides for three types of jurisdictional principles. The first is the
nationality principle, which holds that every country has jurisdiction (authority or power) over
its citizens no matter where they are located. Therefore, a U.S. manager who violates the
American Foreign Corrupt Practices Act while traveling abroad can be found guilty in the
United States. The second is the territoriality principle, which holds that every nation has the
right of jurisdiction within its legal territory. Therefore, a German firm that sells a defective
product in England can be sued under English law even though the company is headquartered
outside England. The third is the protective principle, which holds that every country has
jurisdiction over behavior that adversely affects its national security, even if that conduct
occurred outside the country. Therefore, a French firm that sells secret U.S. government
blueprints for a satellite system can be subjected to U.S. laws.

Difficulty: Medium

74. (p. 45) Describe the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. What were the objectives of the FCPA?
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) makes it illegal to influence foreign officials
through personal payments or political contributions. The objectives of the FCPA were to stop
U.S. MNCs from initiating or perpetuating corruption in foreign governments and to upgrade
the image of both the United States and its businesses abroad.

Difficulty: Medium

2-22

Chapter 02 - The Political, Legal and Technological Environment

75. (p. 50-51) What is biotechnology? Discuss some of the areas in which it has been used and is
likely to be used.
Biotechnology is the integration of science and technology, but more specifically it is the
creation of agricultural or medical products through industrial use and manipulation of living
organisms. One area in which it has been used is medicine. While pharmaceutical companies
mainly manufacture drugs through a process similar to that of organic chemistry, biotech
companies attempt to discover genetic abnormalities or medicinal solutions through exploring
organisms at the molecular level or formulating compounds from inorganic materials that
mirror organic substances. Another aspect of biotech research is geared toward agriculture.
Demand for ethanol in the United States is on the rise due to questionable future oil supplies,
which has shifted the focus to corn. Using corn as a fuel alternative will not only increase the
cost of the good but also create an imbalance between consumable corn and stock used for
biofuel. Apart from crops, the meat industry can also benefit from this process. The outbreak
of mad cow disease in Great Britain sparked concern when evidence of the disease spread
throughout Western Europe; however, the collaborative work of researchers in the United
States and Japan may have engineered a solution to the problem by eliminating the gene
which is the predecessor to making the animal susceptible to this ailment. Hunger and poor
health care is a worldwide issue and advancement in global biotechnology is working to raise
the standards.

Difficulty: Medium

2-23

Похожие интересы