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UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.

) LIMITED
FLEET OPERATION MANUAL
CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGO

Issue 1

REV 0

Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.4

11.4 CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGOES


11.4.1

FROZEN CARGOES (GENERAL)

11.4.1.1 Cargo Condition At Loading


11.4.1.1.1
Frozen cargoes are always to be loaded in a frozen
condition with a pulp temperature no higher than -12 oC.
11.4.1.1.2
Prior to loading, checks are to be made that the
commodities are hard frozen and that the packings are in
good condition. Cargo, which is found to be soft or has
damaged packings is to be refused. In such cases, advise
the Fleet Team and the local agent immediately/
11.4.1.1.3
Cargo showing signs of having been refrozen must
never be accepted without remarks in the Bills of Lading.
Signs of refrozen cargo are:-

Blood-stained clothing of the carcass;


Blood-stained and/or wet and deformed cartons.

11.4.1.1.4
Before making remarks in the Bills of Lading, the
Master is to advise the Fleet Team.
11.4.1.2 Pulp Temperature
11.4.1.2.1
During both loading and discharging, pulp
temperatures of the cargo are to be taken and recorded at
least once an hour. Pulp temperatures should be taken
both in the middle of the commodity and just below the
surface and recorded separately. A daily summary of the
pulp temperatures is to be recorded in the Deck Log Book.
11.4.1.2.2
Cargo with a pulp temperature warmer than -12 oC
for fish and -10 oC for meat must not be loaded without
applying to the Fleet Team by telex or facsimile.
Permission may be given provided that the cargo is hard
frozen and the packings are in good condition so a close
inspection by the ships personnel is essential.
Should loading be permitted, any suspect cargo is to be
stowed away and separated from correctly frozen cargo.

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Page 1/9

UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED


FLEET OPERATION MANUAL
CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGO

Issue 1

REV 0

Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.4

11.4.1.3 Stowage
11.4.1.3.1
When loading frozen commodities where there is
any risk that the different parcels could freeze together and
stop the air circulation around the cargo, you must ensure
ample space is provided within the cargo to enable the air
to circulate.
In such cases we recommend the use of 1" x 1" dunnage
in one row vertically through the cargo in the centerline if
the Robson air circulating system is installed and 2" x 2"
dunnage on the bulkhead most distant from the cooler
room when the system is ductless.
11.4.1.3.2
With regard to the carriage of frozen carcasses, we
have experienced moving cargo, particularly in those
compartments with open space. This has resulted in
damage to the carcasses, such as broken legs etc.
Therefore the cargo in those compartments only partially
loaded should be adequately secured.
11.4.1.4 Loading in High Ambient Temperatures
11.4.1.4.1
Damage is often caused to frozen cargo by a high
outside air temperature combined with a slow cargo
operation. This type of damage is accentuated especially
in vessels with big hatches.
11.4.1.4.2
We draw the attention of all Masters to this problem
and would suggest that in order to avoid such damage in
the future, the following precautions are taken:
(i)

Frozen cargo should be protected against direct


sunlight by tarpaulins and/or other adequate
methods.

(ii)

When the outdoor temperature is high only the


hatch section(s) required for the cargo operation
shall be open in order to avoid unnecessary
leakage of hot air into the hatch.
Hold
temperatures must be closely watched!

(iii)

If, in spite of the above precautions, a risk still


remains for serious cargo damage, the hatch is to
be closed and the refrigeration system turned on.
This must, however, be done in close co-operation
with the Agent/Shipper. In those instances when

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UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED


FLEET OPERATION MANUAL
CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGO

Issue 1

REV 0

Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.4

these precautions cause a delay to the Ship,


advise the Fleet Team by telex or telephone
immediately.
(iv)

Whenever problems arise due to high outdoor


temperatures during loading or discharging, do not
hesitate to consult the Fleet Team.

11.4.1.5 Carrying Conditions


11.4.1.5.1
Charterers'/Shippers' carrying instructions should
be obtained and carefully followed.
11.4.1.5.2
If not advised otherwise the delivery air
temperature in a completed deck should be set at 1 deg C
below the requested carrying temperature soonest after
closing of the hatch. This delivery air temperature should
be kept until the return temperature reaches ordered
carrying temperature.
11.4.1.5.3
Upon completion of loading, the refrigeration plant
must be utilised to the highest possible capacity.
11.4.1.5.4
The brine temperature is to be kept as close as
possible to the delivery air temperature.
11.4.1.6 Fan Speeds
11.4.1.6.1
The fans must be operated at maximum speed
combined with the lowest possible brine temperature and
highest possible brine circulation until the temperature in
the holds has reached the carrying temperature and the
reduction time is terminated. This of course will be subject
to vessels design characteristics - if this heat gain caused
by fans on maximum speed causes difficulties in reaching
required delivery air temperatures, then switch fans to 2/3
or 1/2 speed.
11.4.1.6.2
In hatches where part of the cargo has been loaded
at warmer temperature than - 15 oC fans are to be operated
at maximum speed for 48 hours after termination of
reduction time.
11.4.1.6.3
Once reduction time is reached, to avoid drying of
the cargo, reduce the fans to the lowest possible speed
and keep the brine temperature as close as possible to the
necessary delivery temperature. For frozen cargoes the
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UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED


FLEET OPERATION MANUAL
CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGO

Issue 1

REV 0

Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.4

delivery temperature is normally as much as 2 to 3 deg C


below the stipulated carrying temperature.
11.4.1.6.4
As neither smell nor gas is produced by frozen
cargoes, no supply of fresh air must be given.
11.4.1.7 Fresh Air System
11.4.1.7.1
All dampers and plugs for sealing off the ventilation
ducts must be in closed position prior to commencement of
cooling down period.
11.4.1.7.2
If any fresh air is allowed to enter the ventilation
system, this will cause a rapid build up of frost on the air
coolers.
11.4.1.8 Defrosting of Air Coolers
11.4.1.8.1
During loading periods and for the first week after
completing a hatch, the frost build up on the air coolers can
be considerable. Defrosting therefore must be on a regular
basis but generally not more than once per day.
11.4.1.8.2
When defrosting, endeavour to defrost the coolers
in the lower decks first, working upwards to the top decks.
This will prevent the ingress of fresh air into decks which
have been defrosted when carrying out inspection of the air
coolers.
11.4.1.8.3
Do not allow personnel to enter any fan spaces
unnecessarily to prevent increased frosting of the air
coolers.
11.4.1.8.4
After defrosting, a visual inspection of each air
cooler must be made. At this time, the scupper plugs are
to be removed to allow the draining of the drip trays under
the coolers. Replace the plugs after brine sealing the
scuppers and cover with calcium chloride flakes.
11.4.1.9 Relative Humidity
11.4.1.9.1
The relative humidity should be kept at about 9095%. The temperature of the refrigerant of brine in the
coolers in the holds is to be kept as close to the desired
cargo hold temperature as possible in order to avoid too
low a relative humidity of the air, which causes drying of the
cargo, resulting in loss of weight and a dry surface on the
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UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED


FLEET OPERATION MANUAL
CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGO

Issue 1

REV 0

Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.4

commodity.
11.4.1.10

Ozone

11.4.1.10.1
Should odour develop in the cargo holds, small
quantities of ozone may be used to eliminate the odour,
BUT ONLY AFTER OBTAINING OUR APPROVAL. Ozone
must not be used for butter.
11.4.2
FISH CARGOES
11.4.2.1 Precooling
11.4.2.1.1
Start precooling of the holds about 48 hours before
arrival at the loading port. The precooling temperature -20
o
C, is to be reached at least 24 hours before arrival.
11.4.2.1.2
In order to maintain the low temperature as long as
possible during loading when the outdoor temperature is
high, all decks are to be precooled even if the loading is
only to take place in the lower decks. This is not required
when the outdoor temperature is low.
11.4.2.2 Stowage
11.4.2.2.1
The vessel will be furnished with all details such as
quantities to be loaded each port, combination prospects (if
any) and the stowage proposal. The vessel is to either
confirm the stowage plan or give comments/objections as
soon as possible.
11.4.2.2.2
As changes often occur, the vessel will receive
updated details from time-to-time as the loading
progresses.
11.4.2.2.3
Once a stowage plan has been agreed upon, it
should not be changed without prior consultation with
shippers.
11.4.2.2.4
Parcels loaded by different Shippers may be
stowed in the same deck but with careful separation. Very
often the cartons are insufficiently marked and therefore
extra separation may be required.
11.4.2.2.5
Each consignment to be block stowed in order to
simplify separation and to avoid sorting during discharge.
11.4.2.2.6
Where tuna is carried in bulk, the various parcels
are to be separated by means of secondhand fish nets or
similar (consult with local agent) and marked with the name
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UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED


FLEET OPERATION MANUAL
CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGO

Issue 1

REV 0

Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.4

of the Shipper / Consignee using a large plywood label.


11.4.2.2.7
In order to avoid damage to other cargo that is
stowed in the same hatch as tuna, a bulkhead of dunnage
and/or boards should be built between the two types of
cargo. These bulkheads will also secure the "tuna" cargo
and thereby reduce damage both to the "tuna" cargo and
the hold in case of heavy weather.
11.4.2.2.8
fish.

Fish in bulk must not be stowed on top of cartoned

11.4.2.2.9
Whenever possible, "tuna" should be stowed close
to the cooling batteries thus protecting this cargo best
possible during the discharging.
11.4.2.2.10
Fish is packed in various types of cartons, also in
plastic bags without an outer carton. The most common
size of packages is designed to hold about 10 kilos, or a
larger one holding about 20 kilos (two 10 kilo packages).
11.4.2.2.11
When the cargo is produced by Japanese trawlers,
the quantity is indicated in "net" or "casetons" which
consists of 50 standard cartons (cases) of a nominal weight
of 20 kilos each regardless of actual weight.
These 50 cartons are stowing about 75 cb ft and a "net"
merely represents the volume instead of the weight. The
actual weight of one "net" is generally varying between
1,100 - 1,400 kilos.
11.4.2.2.12
When the cargo is not produced by Japanese
trawlers, the quantity is expressed in metric tons net actual
weight. The stowage factor is then 65 - 70 cb ft per mton
net.
11.4.2.2.13
Gross weight will only be given whenever there is a
risk that the dead weight of the vessel is not sufficient. In
case you fear that deadweight problems might occur, you
are requested to let the Fleet Team know without delay.
11.4.2.2.14
Particular attention must be paid to the fact that the
stowage factor, calculated per gross ton, can be as low as
50 - 55 cbft/ton, especially in the Canary Islands for squid
during the winter period.

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UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED

Issue 1

FLEET OPERATION MANUAL


CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGO

REV 0

Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.4

11.4.2.3 Tuna
11.4.2.3.1
All fish stowed loose in bulk in the ship's holds is
called "tuna" although other species than tuna such as
black marlin, swordfish and sharks are often included.
11.4.2.3.2
As "tuna" is loaded without any wrapping, the net
and the gross weight are the same. In the Bill of Lading the
gross weight is to be reflected.
11.4.2.3.2
The stowage factor for "tuna" is about 80 cb ft per
ton except when loading a homogeneous cargo of skipjack
or yellowfin tuna which stows about 65.
11.4.2.4 Squid
11.4.2.4.1
Frozen squid is mostly shipped as frozen blocks
without wrapping of any kind, so called naked blocks.
When loading naked blocks from fishing boats note that
the cargo is to be blockstowed, interlocked and at least the
two blocks on top to be turned upside down to prevent
drying out.
11.4.2.4.2
Squid blocks are easily melted by wind and
sunshine. Extreme care must be taken to prevent the
blocks from sunshine and strong winds during loading and
discharging. Temperature and weight of the cargo to be
noted during loading.
11.4.2.4.3

Stowage factor of squid is about 60/65 cb ft mton.

11.4.2.5 Loading Temperatures


11.4.2.5.1
Please first read Section 11.4.1.1.
11.4.2.5.2
In the event that cargo is accepted despite being
warmer than -12 oC, then it should be loosely stowed and
separated from the surrounding cargo by means of
dunnage. This will allow cool air to flow around and
through the cargo thus preventing a warm pocket in the
stow.
11.4.2.5.3
Pulp temperatures are to be taken continuously
during the loading/discharging of the cargo (see Section
11.4.1.2).
11.4.2.5.4
When loading fish, the following is to be recorded
and retained onboard:

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UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED


FLEET OPERATION MANUAL
CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGO

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Issue 1

REV 0

Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.4

Detailed information about the condition of each lot


or part of lot.
Temperature of each lot or part thereof.
Remarks on cargo.
Shippers/Consignee of cargo.

This information is of utmost importance when possible


claims are to be settled.
11.4.2.6 Cargo Damage
11.4.2.6.1
If cartons or corners of cartons are broken, then
warm air can reach the fish whilst the cargo is waiting to be
loaded.
11.4.2.6.2
A responsible member of the crew is to be
assigned to examine the condition of the cargo throughout
the loading to ascertain if there is damage to the frozen
block, such as dented or melted corners, or if the entire
content has been affected.
11.4.2.6.3
In the event that cargo of deteriorated quality is
found by shore surveyors during the discharge, then the
Master and/or the Chief Officer must examine the suspect
cargo and forward a written report to the Fleet Team giving
the vessels views and reasons for the deteriorated quality.
The report should include the vessels comments on how to
prevent similar occurrences in the future.
11.4.2.7 Cargo Hold Temperatures
11.4.2.7.1
The hold temperatures are to be carefully
monitored during the loading/discharging and if
exceptionally high, cargo operations are to be stopped and
the holds cooled down - refer to Section 11.4.1.4.
11.4.2.8 Carrying Conditions
11.4.2.8.1
The carrying temperature is the return air
temperature. Carrying temperature of fish, squid and tuna
is equal to your ship's Classification temperature.
11.4.2.8.2
As soon as the deck is closed the hold temperature
must be lowered as fast as possible to the temperature for
which the ship is classified.
11.4.2.8.3 Shippers quite often give instructions regarding carrying
temperature e.g. "minus 20 centigrade or lower". The
vessel is to disregard all such instructions and maintain a
carrying temperature equal to classification temperature
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UNIVAN MARITIME (H.K.) LIMITED


FLEET OPERATION MANUAL
CARRIAGE OF FROZEN CARGO

Issue 1

REV 0

Date 18.12.2009
SECTION 11.4

as above. The vessel should immediately advise the


Fleet Team of any such instruction, so that we can
discuss it with the Shipper.

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