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Construction and Operation

1. Speed of rotation
All tables of model specifications refer to normal rotational
speeds. If motor application requires speeds different from those
mentioned, please consult motor manufacturer or its
representative.

2. Charge pressure
The minimum pressure required at the motor's inlet port is
called the charge pressure. It is needed to guarantee continuous
contact between the cam ring and the cam rollers, especially in
applications where an external force rotates the motor.
For each motor size the charge pressure depends on the actual
speed and case pressure. The performance curves show the
charge pressure figure at minimum back pressure and with no
casing pressure. With hydrostatic braking the charge pressure
must be increased 1 2 bar (15 30 psi). Simultaneously,
sufficient oil supply to the motor inlet port has to be assured.
Especially for open circuits during hydrostatic braking using a
relief valve, be sure to compensate for the drain flow and the
flushing of heated oil.

3. Back pressure
In applications where the pressure in the return line is too low
compared to the case pressure and actual speed, the motor may
make extraneous noise in service. This is caused by the inertial
force of the piston and the fact that the pistons and cam rollers
tend to lose contact with the cam ring. This problem can be
eliminated by increasing pressure in the return line as high as
required charge pressure at current speed, which guarantees
continuous contact between the cam ring and cam rollers. This
back pressure must not be present at the motor ports during
freewheeling.

4. Case pressure
The recommended case pressure for standard motors is 0 2 bar
(0 30 psi). The maximum intermittent pressure is 10 bar (145
psi). If the motor is not rotating, a static case pressure up to 40
bar (580 psi) is allowed. Requirements for charge and back
pressure increase, if the case pressure rises. For freewheeling,
case filling and for regulating the case pressure, a check valve
with 0.1 2 bar (2 30 psi) opening pressure is usually placed in
the drain line. If freewheeling is never used and the motor is
below the level of oil in the tank, the drain line is connected
directly to the tank.

5. Freewheeling
To disengage the motor, both working lines (i.e. inlet line and
return line) are to be connected directly to the tank. To ensure
that the lines are completely without pressure they should not
be connected together with lines from other hydraulic circuits if
this can lead to pressure disturbances, nor should any
components causing pressure peaks or increases be connected
to them. In order to produce the freewheeling pressure in the
case, a fluid must be supplied to the motor through case drain
line "C" (1 - speed motors only). When 2 - speed motor is needed
to freewheel it is recommended to use motor with 2 case drain
lines (6th digit in order code = 1) and a fluid to produce free
coupling pressure must be supplied to the motor case through
additional case drain line "C1".

A check valve with an opening pressure of 2 bar (30 psi) in the


drain line regulates the pressure in the case. Limitation of
pressure peaks in the case is accomplished by dimensioning the
return lines and check valves to correspond with the maximum
intended speed of the motors at the moment of
engaging/disengaging.
Under certain circumstances (e.g. with long length of pipe, high
rotational speeds or high viscosity oil) it is recommended to
connect an accumulator (with at least 1/4 nominal capacity of
the motor) to the drain line "C" (1 - speed motor) or "C1"
(2 - speed motor with 2 drain lines). The accumulator should be
as close to the motor as possible. Hydraulic accumulators
designed for storing low pressure are sufficient. At the moment
of engaging or disengaging the need for increased charge
pressure must be taken into account.

Closed circuit
For vehicles having several hydraulic motors, freewheeling can
provide higher speed ranges, since the total pump output is
divided between fewer working motors.

A. Disengaging the motor (shifting to


higher speed range)
1. Motors to be freewheeled are detached to form
an independent free circulation circuit.
2. A path from the motor circuit to the reservoir is rapidly
opened, after which the constant small pressure in the casing
disengages the motor.
3. The system charge pressure must be maintained in the pump
circuit throughout the shifting procedure.
4. While shifting speed ranges, the sum of the displacement of
the motors in operation changes gradually. The pump delivery is
to be adjusted manually or automatically as required.
5. To avoid jerking during alteration of the pump delivery, the
pump lines must be softly throttled.

B. Engaging the motor (shifting to lower


speed range)
1. Disengaged motors are brought into operation by
connecting the "A" and "B" ports back into closed loop.
2. A charge pressure is rapidly applied to this circulation, forcing
the pistons into motion. The charge pressure must be high
enough to cover the pressure losses in the free circulation circuit
as well.
3. The motors are connected to the same circuit as the pump.
4. The pump delivery is adjusted as required. Jerking can be
avoided in the same way as when disengaging.
5. If the charge pump is too small, an accumulator is required to
maintain the charge pressure.
Accomplishment of the above is made easier by motor
manufacturer's valves, which perform all the required operations
except for modulating pump delivery. Some Black Bruin motors
are equipped with mechanical freewheeling springs. These
motors are freewheeled automatically when the motor's
working lines become non-pressurized. However, a rapid
disengaging requires an increase in case pressure.

6. Short circuiting connection

11. Filtration

Short circuiting connection is used, if the motor is required to


rotate by an external force faster than the circuit flow is capable
to supply. In such case motor outlet oil must be connected to
the motor inlet port. Max. allowed short circuit speed is 1.5
times max. speed of the motor. The required charge pressure is
easily regulated with back pressure in the return line.
Simultaneously flushing with fresh fluid must be insured for
proper cooling.

Required cleanliness level: ISO 4406 Code 18/13 (NAS 1638


Code 8) or better. Filtration requirements for the pump and
other system components must also be taken into
consideration. In the event that other devices operated by the
same hydraulic fluid are connected to the system and thus may
allow impurities to pass into the system, the hydraulic motor
circuit must be isolated from these. Where pressure in the main
drive power transmission system is over 250 bar (3600 psi),
absolute 10 mm main flow filtering is required. The filter should
be equipped with cleanliness indicators.

7. Permissible external loads


The figures given in the tables refer only to non-simultaneous
radial and axial loads. If applications with high combined radial
and axial loads exist, please consult motor manufacturer or its
representative to determine maximum permissible loading.
The maximum permissible shaft loads depend on the loading
point. For exact data see shaft load curves (see page 6).

8. Wet multi-disc brake

A questionnaire is used to help the selection and proposal of


Black Bruin hydraulic motors. This questionnaire is to be
completed for all models of series produced machines and
industrial applications. A filled in and signed questionnaire is a
prerequisite of the motor manufacturer's warranty.

The wet multi-disc brake is basically a parking brake, but in


certain cases it can also be used as an emergency brake. (Not
recommended to use as service brake. When used as a service
brake consult motor manufacturer or its representatives.) The
minimum pressure to release the spring operated brake is
shown in the performance data page, however, the operating
pressure used may be not higher than 30 bar (435 psi). The brake
has internal leakage (max. 0.5 l/min) and this has to take into
consideration, while designing the brake release system. Notice
that EP, HD and some anti-wear additives in oil can cause
remarkable reduction of brake torque.

Always advise motor manufacturer or its representative when


ordering motors for exceptional circumstances, like underwater
applications, operation with special fluids, etc.

9. Operation temperature

14. Flushing

The maximum allowed continuous operating temperature is


70C (160F) and the maximum intermittent value is 85C
(185F), if the oil viscosity does not fall below 15 cSt. The lowest
permissible operating temperature for a standard motor is -35C
(-31F).
When starting the motor, the difference between the motor and
oil temperatures must not exceed 60C (140F). To avoid
thermal shocks at low temperatures we recommend the
following measures:
- Run the motor at first with a low speed, unloaded. Gradually
increase the speed and loading.
- Below 0C (32F) avoid disengaging and engaging of motors
when the vehicle is moving and the drain line is cold.

Flushing should be performed at initial start-up, after system


modifications or repairs. Before connecting the motor and pump
to the system, THE CIRCUIT MUST ALWAYS BE FLUSHED, e.g. by
circulating oil through a filter positioned in place of the motor.
During flushing the oil is circulated with minimal pressure in the
whole system, for at least one hour.

10. Oil requirements


The mineral oil used should meet the following requirements:
- The viscosity index must be at least 100. If the oil contains
additives improving the viscosity index, the effect of these ought
to be as permanent as possible. The oil is to maintain the
required viscosity throughout its service life.
- The minimum permissible viscosity is 15 cSt.
- The maximum viscosity is determined by the specifications of
the system pump.
- The recommended viscosity range at operating temperature is
25-50 cSt. In slow use, a higher viscosity oil can be used.
- To obtain maximum service life of both oil and entire system,
oil temperatures exceeding 70C (160F) are to be avoided.
- Oil additives must conform to the API classification for SC
motor oils. Hydraulic oils and SC, SD, SE and SF motor oils are
recommended. Fire resistant fluids HFB and HFC or similar may
be used under certain circumstances. Please always consult
motor manufacturer or its representative before using these
fluids.

12. Conditions of installation and


application

13. Physical motor mounting


Connection ports for working lines are marked with "A" and "B".
Connection port for drain line and case pressure is marked with
"C". NOTE! Motors with flushing line "C1" have connection port
for case drain line marked with "C2". Brake pressure connection
is marked with "D". 2-speed pilot connection is marked with "Y".

After flushing, renew all filters. Always use plastic plugs to close off
open ports and hoses. Do not use or add the tank with dirty oil.

15. Bleeding or filling


DO NOT START MOTOR UNLESS THE CASE IS FILLED
WITH OIL: Place the motor in a position in which the bleed screw
is in its topmost position and unscrew it half a turn. Allow the
case to be filled by system charge pressure. The bleed screw is
closed after all air is out. If the motor is applied in a system that
does not provide charge pressure, the case must be filled by
pouring the oil in until all air is out.

16. 2-speed motor control pressure


Use 20-30 bar pressure to engage 2-speed (half displacement)
and unpressurize to return to full displacement. Do not use
working pressure/high pressure in 2-speed valve control lines.

17. Motor initial start up


After flushing and filling, the motor is first rotated unloaded.
Increase the motor speed and load gradually, and check for leaks
and extraneous noise.

Performance Data

BBC 01

Motor class size


Percentual displacement
Displacement
Peak pressure
Peak torque
Intermittent* pressure
Intermittent torque
Power
Max. displacement
1/2 displacement
Max. speed
Working
1/2 displacement
Freewheeling
Brake
Brake torque
Releasing pressure
Max. brake pressure

%
ccm
bar
Nm
bar
Nm

90
462
450
3045
400
2710

100 110 120 130


513 564 615 667
450 450 425 400
3380 3715 3830 3910
400 400 375 350
3005 3305 3380 3420

kW
kW

90
1170
450
7710
400
6855

Multi-disc brake
Brake torque
Releasing pressure
Max. brake pressure

100
1300
450
8670
400
7615

kW
kW

206 186
290 261
1200 1200

6560
16
30

110
1430
450
9425
400
8380

120
1560
425
9710
375
8570

rpm
rpm
rpm
rpm
rpm

189
225
267
356
1000

170
202
240
320
1000

Nm
bar
bar

%
ccm
bar
Nm
bar
Nm

90
2214
450
14590
400
12970

155
184
218
291
1000

BBC 05
130
1690
400
9900
350
8665

90
1572
450
10360
400
9210

100
1747
450
11515
400
10235

Nm
bar
bar

120
2096
425
13045
375
11510

130
2271
400
13305
350
11640

129
154
183
244
1000

119
142
169
226
1000

72
32/48/60
142
169
200
267
1000

131
156
185
246
1000

172
205
244
326
1000

155
185
220
293
1000

141
168
200
266
1000
20600
16
30

BBC 06

BBC 07

100
2460
450
16215
400
14410

110
2706
450
17835
400
15855

120
2952
425
18375
375
16215

130
3198
400
18735
350
16395

90
3825
450
25200
400
22400

100
4250
450
28000
400
24890

139
165
195
260
800

126
150
177
237
800

110
4675
450
30800
400
27380

120
5100
425
31740
375
28000

130
5525
400
32360
350
28310

92
102
127
170
650

85
94
117
156
650

125
54/81/104

91
40/60/76
154
183
217
289
800

110
1922
450
12670
400
11260

10900
16
30

kW
kW
rpm
rpm
rpm
rpm
rpm

169 155 143


238 218 201
1200 1200 1200
8470
16
30

59
26/39/49

Motor class size


Percentual displacement
Displacement
Peak pressure
Peak torque
Intermittent* pressure
Intermittent torque
Power
Max. displacement
1/4, 1/2, 3/4 displacement
Max. speed
Working
3/4 displacement
1/2 displacement
1/4 displacement
Freewheeling

223 201 182 167 154


318 286 260 238 220
1200 1200 1200 1200 1200

4300
16
30

110 120 130


1111 1212 1313
450 425 400
7320 7545 7690
400 375 350
6510 6655 6730
50
33

BBC 04
%
ccm
bar
Nm
bar
Nm

90
100
909 1010
450 450
5990 6655
400 400
5325 5915

42
28

rpm 260 234 213 195 180


rpm 364 328 298 278 252
rpm 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200

Motor class size


Percentual displacement
Displacement
Peak pressure
Peak torque
Intermittent* pressure
Intermittent torque
Power
Max. displacement
1/4, 1/2, 3/4 displacement
Max. speed
Working
3/4 displacement
1/2 displacement
1/4 displacement
Freewheeling
Brake
Brake torque
Releasing pressure
Max. brake pressure

90
100 110 120 130
705 783 862 940 1018
450 450 450 425 400
4645 5160 5680 5850 5965
400 400 400 375 350
4130 4585 5050 5165 5220

32
21

Nm
bar
bar

BBC 03

BBC 02

116
137
163
217
800

107
127
150
200
800

123
136
170
226
650

20600
16
30

* Intermittent operation: Permissible values for max. 10% of every minute.

110
122
153
203
650

100
111
139
185
650

42000
16
30