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# Name: Marlon Forrest

Subject: Applied Mathematics
Unit: one
Year submitted: 2013

Table of Content

Project title..3
Purpose of project4
Method of data collection5
Presentation of data.6-11
Analysis of data...12-19
Discussion of findings.20-23
Glossary ..24
Reference.25
Appendix..26-29

PROJECT TITLE
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## To investigate and to find out the causes of student

engaging in an extracurricular activity and how it affect

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PURPOSE OF PROJECT
Extracurricular activities are activities performed by student that fall outside the realm of
the normal curriculum of school or university. Such activities are generally voluntary as opposed
to mandatory, non-paying, social, and philanthropic as opposed to scholastic and often involve
others of the same age group.
It has been observed that the time the student spend in extracurricular activity affect the
student overall school average. Therefore the researcher choose this topic to find out if the
number of hours spent in extracurricular activity affect their performance.
The benefits of doing this research is that data will be analyze on the student
extracurricular activity and the problem will be recognized. The source will be student from
various clubs. Another benefits is that alternative solution will be made for the student to the
problem they are facing.

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## METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

The St. Mary High School has a population (N) of over fifteen hundred students. A
sampling frame of 275 students, consisting of only grade 8 students was chosen for the
observation due to the similarities in the subjects done by these students. A sample (n) of 30
students was selected to carry out this investigation. Data was collected by the use of
questionnaire and observation.Questionnaire allows for firsthand information, they are easily
administered and they are less time consuming. A random sample of 30 students was taken
which consist of 5 students from each class. On the other hand, observation gives the researcher
the ability to gather extra information with persons knowing.
The method of data collection was judged to be appropriate due to the fact that the
questions can be structured to gather only the information necessary for the investigation. There
were no flaws because the questionnaires were given to randomly chosen respondents so as to
prevent bias. In addition, the questions were clearly stated to prevent confusion so that they
The researcher was carried out on the January 15, 2013. Thirty (30) questionnaires were
given out to the students that were randomly chosen for the investigation and all were completed
and returned.

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## Figure1: Table showing number of respondents and their gender.

Sex
Male
Female

Number of Respondents
12
18

The table above shows the gender of the respondents who were chosen for the investigation.

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Figure 2: Bar graph showing the number of students who engage in the various club
35
30
25

2
8

20
Number
of
students 15
10

quiz
track&field

20

5
0
track&field

quiz

## Types of Social Networks

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The above bar graph shows the number of students which is in a extracurricular activity. There
were twenty (20) student who engage in track and field, eight (8)student who engage in cadet
and two (2) student who engage in quiz.

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Figure 3: Bar graph showing the average number of hours spent in each club weekly
8
8
7
6
5

track&field

4
Hours

quiz

2
1
0
track&field

quiz

Social Networks

The above diagram shows the average number of hours spent students on the various clubs.The
average number hours spent in track and field by students weekly is eight (8) hours, cadet
accounted for five (5) hours while only three (3) hours was spent in quiz.

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Figure 4: Pie chart showing reasons of students for using social networks

10%
20%

Communication
50%

20%

Leisure
Trend
personal benefits

The above diagram shows the percentage of students who chose the various reasons for them
engaging in extracurricular activity. Fifty percent (50%) said that they engage in the club for
communication, twenty percent (20%) said leisure and trend while ten percent (10%) replied
personal benefits.

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## Figure 5: Conical graph showing the number of hours spent studying

9

9
8

7
Number
of
hours
spent
studying

6
5

track&field

quiz

3
2

quiz

0
track&field

track&field
quiz

social networks

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The figure above shows the average number of hours spent studying based on the type of
extracurricular activity the student engage in frequently. The students who engage in track and
field spend an average of four(4) hours studying, students who engage in cadet spend an average
of six (6) hours studying and those who engage in quiz spend an average of nine (9) hours
studying.

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CENTRAL TENDENCY
The figures below show the average grade for the students during the End of Term Exams 2011.
They are as follows:
38%
68%
84%

50%
70%
84%

52%
72%
85%

55%
74%
86%

56%
75%
87%

57%
80%
93%

58%
80%

60%
80%

62%
80%

63%
81%

65%
82%

66%
83%

Mean
X =

x 1+ x

2+ x 3+ x

=2126/30
=70.87%
Mean average of students in Term Exams 2011 = 70.87%

Mode
Mode= 80%
The most frequent average grade scored in exams = 80%.

Median
Median position= (n+1)th
=1/2(30+1th
=1/2(31)th
=15.5
=16th
16th position = 74%

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PROBABILITY
Conditional Probability
In order to ascertain the needed data about whether or not the number of hours spent in
extracurricular activity affect the performance of the students in the exams, the researcher saw it
necessary to conduct a probability test using conditionalprobability.
Let G be the event that a student obtained an average grade of below 60% in the exam.
Let H be the event that a student spent an average of 8 hours in an extracurricular activity.
P (G/H) = P (GnH) =
P(H)

## (5/30)= 0.167 = 0.2503 = 167/667

(20/30) 0.667

Let G be the event that a student obtained an average grade of below 60% in the exam.
Let H be the event that a student spent an average of 8 hours in an extracurricular activity
P (G/H) = P (GnH) = (15/30) = 0.50 = 0.7463 = 50/67
P (H)

(20/30)

0.67

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## Chi- Square Test

The grades used below are the average grades of the students observed. They are described as
low (below 51%), medium (between 50% and 80%) and high (above 79%). The average number
of hours spent in an extracurricular activity was also used.
Time (avg.) 2
5
8
Total
Low
0
1
1
2
Medium
0
3
12
15
High
2
4
7
13
Total
2
8
20
30
Table showing the hours spentin an extracurricular activity by students and their average grades.

Time (avg.) 2
Low
0.133
Medium
1
High
0.867
Total
2
Contingency table

5
0.533
4
3.467
8

8
1.333
10
8.667
20

Total
2
15
13
30

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0
0
2
1
3
4
1
12
7
O=30

0.133
1
0.867
0.533
4
3.467
1.333
10
8.667
E=30

(O-E)2
E
0.133
1
1.481
0.409
0.25
0.082
0.083
0.4
0.321
(O-E)2= 4.159
E

## Expected Frequency = Row total * Column total

Grand total

Ho: The average grades obtained by students in their end of term exams and the number of hours
spent in extracurricular activity are independent variables.
H 1: The average grades obtained by students in their end of term exams and the number of hours
spent in an extracurricular activity are not independent variables.
Row * Column
= (3-1) * (3-1)
= 2*2
= 22
=4
x2= 4.159

## 25% (4) = 9.488

2
Since x2 = 4.159 < 5% (4) = 9.488, we do not reject Ho and conclude that the average grade
obtained by students and the average number of hours spent in an extracurricular activity are
independent.

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## Correlation and Linear regression graph

Y= average grade obtained in exam.
X=number of hours spent in an extracurricular activity.

100
90
80
70

## f(x) = - 1.71x + 82.52

R = 0.06

60

50

40
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
time spent in extra curicular activity (hrs)

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Average number
of hours spent in
extracurricular
activity
8
5
8
8
8
8
5
8
8
8
8
8
5
8
8
5
8
8
5
8
5
2
5
8
5
8
2
8
8
8
x=204

Average

38%
50%
52%
55%
56%
57%
58%
60%
62%
63%
65%
66%
68%
70%
72%
74%
75%
80%
80%
80%
80%
81%
82%
83%
84%
84%
85%
86%
87%
93%
y=9551

x2

xy

304
250
416
440
448
456
464
480
496
504
520
528
340
560
576
370
600
640
400
640
400
162
410
664
420
672
170
688
696
744
xy=14458

64
25
64
64
64
64
25
64
64
64
64
64
25
64
64
25
64
64
25
64+
25
4
25
64
25
64
4
64
64
64
x2=1488

y2

1444
2500
2704
3025
3136
3249
3364
3600
3844
3969
4225
4356
4624
4900
5184
5476
5625
6400
6400
6400
6400
6561
6724
6889
7056
7056
7225
7396
7569
8649
y2=150325

## r=n xy - xy=30(14458) (204) (9551)

[nx2-(x)2]*[n y2-(y)2]

## [30(1488 41616] * [30(150325 91221601)]

= -1514664

=-1514664

-1203840*-2732138280

3.289057347*1015

=-1514664
57350303.81

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= -0.0264

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According to Fligner (2006) Observation studies are investigations in which one simply
observes the state of some population, usually with data collected by sampling. Even with proper
sampling, data from observational studies are generally not appropriate for investigation causeand effect relations between variables.
The investigation gave significant information about the relationship between the
performance of students and the average time spentin an extracurricular activity.
It was found out that the average grade the student observed was 70.87%. After
examining this data more closely, it was seen that 53.33% of the students observed scored above
the average grade. On further observation, the modal average was found to be 80% as it was the
average that was obtained the most. The central average amount was found to be 74%, this
revealed that 50% of the student observed scored 74% or below and also that 50% were scoring
74% or above.
A probability test was done to see if it was more likely for a student to spend greater
amount of hours in extracurricular activity and still obtain high grades or was it that students had
to spend less time in extracurricular activity to achieve these grade. After completing the test, it
was seen that the probability of a student scoring an average of 60% or above while spending an
average of 8 hours in extracurricular activity (0.7463 or 50/67) was significantly than the
probability of a student scoring an average of below 60% while spending an average of 8 hours
in an extracurricular activity (0.2503 or 167/667).
To test for the relationship/independence of the average grade and the average hours
spentin an extracurricular activity, a chi-squared test and correlation and linear regression graph
was done. The chi-squared test showed that at the 5% level of significance that the average grade

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obtained in the exam and the average number of hours spent on social networks is independent.
2
This is because x2=4.159< =9.488, therefore x2 would fall below the rejection region and

## conclude that both variables are independent.

On the other hand, the correlation and linear regression graph revealed that there was a
very low negative relationship between the average grade obtained and the hours spentin an
extracurricular activity. This was given by the correlation coefficient=0.0264. The regression
coefficient -1.7143 represents the decrease in y for each unit increase in x, that is for every 1
hour increase in time the average grade obtained will decrease by 1.7143%. The constant of
82.524 represents the theoretical value of y when x=0.

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Conclusion
From the investigation it can be seen that there is a very low negative relationship between the
average grade obtained and the hours spentin an extracurricular activity. As was seen from the
calculations carried out, an increase in the hours spentin an extracurricular activity has a small
effect on the grades obtained as was shown by the regression coefficient of -1.7143.
Out of this investigation, it can be inferred that even though the students tend to score good
grades even though spending a large amount of time on social networks, the number of hours
spent in an extracurricular activity cause their grades to decrease slightly.

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Glossary
Symbols

2
P
O
E
(O-E)2
E

X2
r
N
n

Meanings
The sum of any values.
The mean value.
The chi-square test value.
The probability of any event.
The observed frequency.
The expected frequency.
The test statistic.
The degrees of freedom of the test.
The critical value (rejection region) of the test.
The linear correlation coefficient
Population size.
Sample size.

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Reference
Fligner, M A. (2006). Introduction to the practice of statistics, New York, W. H. Freeman and
company.

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QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear Student,
I am a sixth form student at the Saint Mary High School who is currently
studying Applied Mathematics. This investigation is a requirement for a CAPE Applied
Mathematics school based assessment (SBA). The main objective of this questionnaire is to
gather information which is accurate and reliable. The researcher is asking for your cooperation
in successfully completing this questionnaire as your confidentiality is guaranteed.
Gender
...

## 2. Do you engage in a extra-curricular activity?

a) yes
b) Sometimes
c) No
3. If yes, which type ofextra-curricular activity?
a) Track and Field
c) Quiz
4. How long do you spend at the club weekly?
a) 0-2hrs
b) 3-4hrs
c) 5-6hrs

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d) 7-8hrs

## 5. What is your reason for taking part in aextra-curricular activity?

a) Communication
b) Leisure
c) trend
d) Personal benefit
6. How many hours do you spend studying?
a) 0-2hrs
b) 3-5hrs
c) 6-7hrs
d) 8-9hrs
7. What was your average grade for the End of Term Exams 2011?
a) 90% and over
b) 80-89%
c) 70-79%
d) 69% and under
8. Do you think that the amount of hours spent in extra-curricular activity have any effect