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Gas Sweetening Plant

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Dedicate
d
To
Beloved
parents for
providing us
inspiration,
education,
confidence,
fortitude and
infinite love
affection.
Esteemed

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Contents
CHAPTER 1................................................................................7
NATURAL GAS SWEETINING.............................................................................7
1.1 OBJECTIVE..................................................................................................................... 7
1.2 Calculations................................................................................................................... 9
1.3 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................. 9
1.4 PAKISTAN NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION........................................................................12
1.5 OIL AND GAS POTENTIAL OF PAKISTAN........................................................................12
1.6 INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL GAS...............................................................................13
1.7 TYPE OF NATURAL GAS................................................................................................13
1.8 CLASSIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS..............................................................................13
1.8.1 Dry Natural Gas:................................................................................................... 13
1.8.2 Wet Natural Gas.................................................................................................... 14
1.8.3 Sour Natural Gas................................................................................................... 14
1.9 GENERAL NATURAL GAS IMPURITIES............................................................................14
1.9.1 Types of impurities................................................................................................ 14
1.9.2 Organic sulfur compounds......................................................................................14
1.9.3Other impurities..................................................................................................... 15
1.10 PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS...................................................................................16
1.10.1 Physical and Chemical Properties of CH4.............................................................16
1.10.2 Domestic and Industrial Uses of Natural Gas......................................................17
1.10.5 Natural gas in Ceramic and Pottery Industry...................................................17

Chapter 2................................................................................19
DESIGN BASIS............................................................................................... 19
2.1 OBJECTIVE................................................................................................................... 19
2.2 SCOPE......................................................................................................................... 19
2.3 DELIVERABLES............................................................................................................. 19
2.5 PLANT LOCATION AND SELECTION...............................................................................20
2.6 Factors Affecting Plant Location:..............................................................................21
2.6.1 Marketing area.................................................................................................. 21
2.6.1 Raw materials................................................................................................... 21
2.6.2 Transport........................................................................................................... 21
2.6.4 Availability of labor...........................................................................................21
2.6.5 Utilities (services)............................................................................................. 21
2.7 Environmental impact and effluent disposal.............................................................22
2.7.1.......................................................................................................................... 22
2.7.2 Land (site considerations).................................................................................22
2.7.3 Climate............................................................................................................. 22
2.7.3 Political and strategic considerations................................................................23
Conclusion..................................................................................................................... 25

CHAPTER 3..............................................................................26
PROCESS SELECTION.....................................................................................26
3 CHEMICAL PROCESS....................................................................................................... 26
3.1 AMINE PROCESSES...................................................................................................... 26
3.1.1 MONOETHANOLAMINE (MEA)............................................................................27
3.1.2 DIETHANOLAMINE (DEA)...................................................................................28
3.1.3 Methydiethanolamine (MDEA)...........................................................................28

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3.1.4 Diglycoamine (DGA)..........................................................................................29
3.1.5 Diisopropanol Amine (DIPA):.............................................................................30
3.2 PHYSICAL SOLVENT PROCESSES..............................................................................30
3.2.1 Fluor Solvent Process........................................................................................31
3.2.2 Selexol Process.................................................................................................32
3.2.3 Purisol Process..................................................................................................33
3.3 MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESS..........................................................................34
3.3.1 Principles of Membrane Gas Separation............................................................34
3.3.2 Effect of Operating Conditions On Membrane Performance..............................37
3.3.2.1 Feed Pressure........................................................................................................ 37
3.3.2.2 Feed Temperature.................................................................................................. 38
3.3.2.3 Permeate Pressure.................................................................................................38
3.4 PROCESS SELECTION:..............................................................................................40
3.4.1 Partial Pressure of Acid Gas Component In Feed Gas........................................40
3.4.2 The Concentration Of Non-H2S Sulfur Compounds............................................41
3.5 THE VOLUME OF GAS TO BE TREATED.........................................................................41
3.6 THE FEASIBILITY OF RECOVERING SULFUR..................................................................42
3.7 THE DESIRABILITY OF SELECTIVELY REMOVING ONE OR MORE OF THE CONTAMINANTS
WITHOUT REMOVING THE OTHERS....................................................................................43
3.8 THE PRECENCE OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS................................................................43
CONCLUSION................................................................................................................. 44

CHAPTER 04............................................................................. 45
PROCESS DISCRIPTION OF NATURAL GAS SWEETINING BY MDEA......................45
4.1 INLET GAS KNOCKOUT................................................................................................. 45
4.2 ABSORBER................................................................................................................... 45
4.3 THREE/TWO PHASE FLASH TANK.................................................................................46
4.4 BENEFITS OF FLASH TANK SEPARATOR........................................................................47
4.5 LEAN/RICH HEAT EXCHANGER.....................................................................................47
4.6 REGENERATOR............................................................................................................. 47
4.7 FILTRATION.................................................................................................................. 48

CHAPTER 05............................................................................. 50
HYSYS SIMULATION & OPTIMIZATION.............................................................50
5.1 HYSYS SIMULATION OF AMINE PROCESS....................................................................50

CHAPTER 6..............................................................................54
EQUIPMENT DESIGN......................................................................................54
6.1 SEPARATOR.................................................................................................................. 54
6.1.1 Horizontal Separator............................................................................................. 54
Vertical Separator Designing [4]......................................................................58
Table-5.2 Iteration for Calculating

Vt .....................................................................................59

6.1.3 Knockout drum (E-45)...........................................................................................61


6.1.4 Flash Tank (E-46).................................................................................................. 61
6.2 DISTILLATION COLUMNS..............................................................................................62
6.3 ABSORPTION AND STRIPPING......................................................................................62
6.3.1 Absorption............................................................................................................ 63
6.3.2 REGENERATION OR STRIPPING.................................................................................64
6.4 PLATE AND FRAME HEAT EXCHANGER.........................................................................65
6.4.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................... 65

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5.4.2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER OVER SHELL
AND TUBE EXCHANGERS................................................................................................ 66
EXAMPLE 6.3.............................................................................................................. 67
PLATE AND FRAME HEAT EXCHANGER [8]....................................................................67
6.4 KETTLE TYPE REBOILER............................................................................................... 72
6.4.1 Criteria of Selection between Kettle Type Reboiler and Thermosyphon Reboiler.. .72
6.4.3 Design of Kettle Reboilers.................................................................................73
6.4.4 General Design Consideration...........................................................................75
EXAMPLE 6.4.................................................................................................................. 77
KETTLE TYPE REBOILER..............................................................................................77
6.5 AIR-COOLED EXCHANGERS..........................................................................................83
6.5.2 APPLICATIONS....................................................................................................... 84
6.5.3 Induced Draft........................................................................................................ 85
6.5.4 FORCED DRAFT..................................................................................................... 86
6.5.5 Air Cooler Standers................................................................................................... 87
6.6............................................................................................................. FILTRATION
.......................................................................................................................................... 88
6.6.4 Designing Of Our Graded Bed Activated Carbon Filter..........................................91
6.7.1 PURPOSE OF USING PUMP.....................................................................................92
6.7.2 PUMP SELECTION FACTORS...................................................................................92
6.7.3 Type of Pumps....................................................................................................... 92
6.7.4 Centrifugal Pumps................................................................................................93
6.7.4.1 Pressure and Head......................................................................................... 93
Different Types of Pump Head....................................................................................94
6.7.5 Positive Displacement Pump.................................................................................97
Table-6.8 Types of Pumps and Specification..................................................................98
6.7.6 Centrifugal Pump Performance Curves.................................................................99
6.7.9 Reflux Pump (PU-100)......................................................................................... 101
6.8 TYPES OF VALVES...................................................................................................... 102
6.8.1 Ball Valve........................................................................................................ 102
6.8.2 Gate Valves..................................................................................................... 102
6.8.3 Butterfly Valves...............................................................................................103
6.84 Globe Valves.................................................................................................... 104
6.8.5 Check Valves................................................................................................... 105
6.9 PRESSURE RELIEF.................................................................................................. 106
6.10 RAPTURE DISCS....................................................................................................... 111

CHAPTER 7............................................................................. 112


HYDRAULICS............................................................................................... 112
REYNOLDS NUMBER........................................................................................................ 112
FLOW REGIMES................................................................................................................ 113
BERNOULLI`S THEOREM..................................................................................................113
DARCY`S EQUATION..................................................................................................... 113
7.1 LIQUID LINE FLOW.................................................................................................115
EXAMPLE 7.1............................................................................................................ 116
PRESSURE DROP IN LIQUID LINE..............................................................................116
7.2 GAS LINES................................................................................................................. 117
7.2 TWO-PHASE FLOW................................................................................................. 123

CHAPTER 8............................................................................. 125


INSTRUMENTATION......................................................................................125
8.1 INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL............................................................125
8.2 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OBJECTIVES........................................................125
8.3 TYPES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS................................................................................126

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8.3.1 Programmable Logic Controllers:....................................................................126
8.3.2 Distributed Control System:................................................................................126
8.3.3 Control network..................................................................................................126
8.4 HARDWARE OF A CONTROL SYSTEM..........................................................................127
8. 5 TYPES OF CONTROLS................................................................................................128
8.5.1 Feed Backward Control...................................................................................128
CASCADE CONTROL..................................................................................................... 131
8.5 Process Variables....................................................................................................... 132
8.6 Types of Control Manipulation....................................................................................133
8.7 Sensors or Measuring Devices...................................................................................133
8.7.1 Temperature Measuring Devices.........................................................................134
8.8 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT..................................................................................134
8.9 LEVEL MEASURING DEVICES......................................................................................135
8.10 FLOW MEASURING DEVICES....................................................................................136
8.11 Pressure Measuring Devices....................................................................................137

Chapter 9..............................................................................139
HEALTH SAFETY ENVIRONMENT....................................................................139
9.1 SAFETY OF THE PERSONNEL......................................................................................140
9.2 HEALTH HAZARDS...................................................................................................... 140
9.3 PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT...........................................................................................140
9.3.1 Eye Protection........................................................................................................ 140
9.3.2 Respiratory Protection............................................................................................140
9.3.3 Foot Protection....................................................................................................... 141
9.3.4 Head Protection...................................................................................................... 141
9.3.5 Body Skin and Hand Protection...............................................................................141
9.4 Fire Protection............................................................................................................ 142
9.5 SOURCES OF IGNITION...............................................................................................142
9.6 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS.................................................................................................142
In case of Fire,................................................................................................................. 142
9.8 CHEMICAL HAZARDS................................................................................................. 143
9.9 VENTILATION............................................................................................................. 144
9.10 LABOR..................................................................................................................... 144
9.11 DRAIN & WASTES..................................................................................................... 144
9. 12 HAZARDS AND RISK................................................................................................145
9.13.1 Air Pollution.......................................................................................................... 147
9.13.2 Particulate Matter:................................................................................................ 147
9.14 Effects of Natural Gas on Environment....................................................................148
9.15 HYDROGEN SULFIDE IN THE ENVIRONMENT............................................................149
9.15.1 Hydrogen Sulfide and Gas................................................................................149
9.16 Carbon dioxide in the environment..........................................................................151
Normal CO2 Levels........................................................................................................... 151
Extreme and Dangerous CO2 Levels................................................................................152
Principle air pollution issues............................................................................................152
Acid Rain......................................................................................................................... 152
9.17 CO/Ozone Pollution Levels.......................................................................................153
Atmospheric Emissions Guidelines in Pakistan................................................................153

Chapter 10............................................................................. 154


CAPITAL INVESTMENT OF PLANT..................................................................154
10.1 PURCHASED COST OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL VESSELS..................................154
10.2 PURCHASED COST OF ABSORBER AND REGENERATOR............................................154
10.3 PURCHASED COST OF PUMPS

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10.4 PURCHASED COST OF HEAT ECHANGERS................................................................156
10.5 PURCHASED COST OF PIPE LINE..............................................................................156
10.6 PURCHASED COST OF VALVES [10].............................................................................157
10.7 PURCHASED COST OF CARTRIDGE FILTER................................................................158
10.8 FIRED HEATER COST................................................................................................158
10.9 TOTAL PURCHASED COST OF PLANT........................................................................158
10.9 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT...................................................................................158
10.10 TOTAL MANUFACTURING COST..............................................................................160
COST OF MDEA................................................................................................................ 160
COSTING OF ELECTRICITY FOR PUMPS............................................................................160
LABOUR CHARGES........................................................................................................... 160
ANNUAL REVENUE.................................................................................................... 162
ANNUAL NET PROFIT................................................................................................162
PAYBACK PERIOD...................................................................................................... 162
RETURN ON INVESTMENT......................................................................................... 163
RESULTS................................................................................................................... 163

References............................................................................164

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CHAPTER 1
NATURAL GAS SWEETINING

1.1 OBJECTIVE
Consider raw gas (See Table-1.1) is coming from the gas compression unit; to carry out the gas
sweetening process using simulation software (HYSYS) to get sales gas specification as given
below (See Table-1.2).
The amine solvent for gas sweetening process shall be selected based on Techno Economic
comparison between MDEA (Methyldiethanolamine) & DEA (Diethanolamine) to minimize the
energy.
Table-1.1 Raw Gas Specification

Components
C1
C2
C3
i-C4
in-C4
i-C5
n-C5
n-C6
N2
CO2
H2S
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Feed Composition
Mol%
73
12
4.5
2.5
0.6
0.03
0.23
0.04
2.5
4
0.1
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Mol Fraction
0.73
0.12
0.045
0.025
0.006
0.0003
0.0023
0.0004
0.025
0.04
0.001

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H2O
Flow Rate
Temperature
Pressure

0.5
Feed conditions
MMSCFD
oF
Psig

0.005
50
125
1000

Table-1.2 Sales Gas Specification

H2S Content
CO2 Content
Heating Value
Temperature
Pressure

Product Specifications:
ppmv
mol%
BTU/SCF
0F
Psig

4
2
950
120
850

1.2 Calculations
1. Acid gas partial pressure in the feed gas = (1000+14.7)*(.001+.04) = 41.6027 psia.
2. Acid gas partial pressure in the sales gas = (850+14.7)*(.000004+.002) = 17.3286 psia.
3. Sulfur in the regenerator off-gas as (H2S) = to be calculated by simulation.
4. Amount of water present in feed = 25000000* .005= 125000 std moles/day

1.3 INTRODUCTION
Natural gas is generally considered a non renewable fossil fuel. (There are some renewable
sources of natural gas; well discuss these later.) Natural gas is called a fossil fuel because most

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scientists believe that natural gas was formed from the remains of tiny sea animals and plants
that died 200-400 million years ago.
When these tiny sea animals and plants died, they sank to the bottom of the oceans where they
were buried by layers of sand and silt. Over the years, the layers of sand and silt became
thousands of feet thick, subjecting the energy-rich plant and animal remains to enormous
pressure. Most scientists believe that the pressure, combined with the heat of the earth, changed
this organic mixture into petroleum and natural gas. Eventually, concentrations of natural gas
became trapped in the rock layers much like wet household sponge traps water.
Raw natural gas is a mixture of different gases. Its main ingredient is methane, a natural
compound that is formed whenever plant and animal matter decays. By itself, methane is
odorless, colorless, and tasteless. As a safety measure, natural gas companies add a chemical
odorant (it smells like rotten eggs) so escaping gas can be detected. Natural gas should not be
confused with gasoline, which is made from petroleum.
The ancient peoples of Greece, Persia, and India discovered natural gas many centuries ago. The
people were mystified by the burning springs created when natural gas seeping from cracks in
the ground was ignited by lightning. They sometimes built temples around these eternal flames
so they could worship the fire.
About 2,500 years ago, the Chinese recognized that natural gas could be put to work. The
Chinese piped the gas from shallow wells and burned it under large pans to evaporate sea water
for salt.
Natural gas was first used in America to illuminate the streets of Baltimore in 1816. Soon after,
in 1821, William Hart dug the first successful American natural gas well in Fredonia, New York.
His well was 27 feet deep, quite shallow compared to todays wells. The Fredonia Gas Light
Company opened its doors in 1858 as the nations first natural gas company. By 1900, natural
gas had been discovered in 17 states. In the past 40 years, the use of natural gas has grown
dramatically. Today, natural gas accounts for about a quarter of the energy we use.

Table-1.3 List of countries by natural gas proven reserves


Rank
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Country/Region

Natural gas
proven reserves
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% of total

[2]

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Date of
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(m)

World

190,163,119,460,000

100%

1 Jan 2010 est.

Russia

47,570,000,000,000

25.02%

1 Jan2010 est.

Iran

29,610,000,000,000

15.57%

1 Jan 2010 est.

Qatar

25,470,000,000,000

13.39%

1 Jan 2010 est.

Turkmenistan

7,504,000,000,000

3.95%

1 Jan 2010 est.

Saudi Arabia

7,461,000,000,000

3.92%

1 Jan 2010 est.

United States

6,928,000,000,000

3.64%

1 Jan 2010 est.

United Arab Emirates

6,071,000,000,000

3.19%

1 Jan 2010 est.

Nigeria

5,246,000,000,000

2.76%

1 Jan 2010 est.

Venezuela

4,983,000,000,000

2.62%

1 Jan 2010 est.

10

Algeria

4,502,000,000,000

2.37%

1 Jan 2010 est.

11

Iraq

3,170,000,000,000

1.67%

1 Jan 2010 est.

12

Australia

3,115,000,000,000

1.64%

1 Jan 2010 est.

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13

China

3,030,000,000,000

1.59%

1 Jan2010 est.

14

Indonesia

3,001,000,000,000

1.58%

1 Jan 2010 est.

15

Kazakhstan

2,407,000,000,000

1.27%

1 Jan 2010 est.

16

Malaysia

2,350,000,000,000

1.24%

1 Jan 2010 est.

17

Norway

2,313,000,000,000

1.22%

1 Jan 2010 est.

European Union

2,250,000,000,000

1.18%

1 Jan 2010 est.

18

Uzbekistan

1,841,000,000,000

0.97%

1 Jan 2010 est.

19

Kuwait

1,798,000,000,000

0.95%

1 Jan 2010 est.

20

Canada

1,754,000,000,000

0.92%

1 Jan2010 est.

21
22

Egypt
Libya

1,656,000,000,000
1,539,000,000,000

0.87%
0.81%

1 Jan 2010 est.


1 Jan 2010 est.

23

Netherlands

1,416,000,000,000

0.74%

1 Jan 2010 est.

24

Ukraine

1,104,000,000,000

0.58%

1 Jan 2010 est.

25

India

1,075,000,000,000

0.57%

1 Jan 2010 est.

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26

Azerbaijan

849,500,000,000

0.45%

1 Jan 2010 est.

27

Oman

849,500,000,000

0.45%

1 Jan 2010 est.

28

Pakistan

840,200,000,000

0.44%

1 Jan 2010 est.

29

Bolivia

750,400,000,000

0.39%

1 Jan2010 est.

1.4 PAKISTAN NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION


The large Sui natural gas field in Balochistan was discovered after independence. Production at
Sui began in 1955 and peaked in 1985. In the early 1990s, it remained the nation's most
productive gas field, accounting for 46 percent of production in FY 1993. The second largest gas
field, also located in Balochistan at Mari, accounted for 20 percent of all production. Twenty-five
gas fields were operational in FY 1993. Natural gas recoverable reserves were estimated at 662.0
billion cubic meters, with an extraction rate in the early 1990s of around 14.0 billion cubic
meters, up from 9.3 billion cubic meters in FY 1982 and 1.3 billion cubic meters in FY 1970.
Natural gas pipelines, in which the government owns controlling shares, link the Sui gas field
and a few others to the main population centers and the major crude oil production areas. The
southern pipeline leads from Sui to Hyderabad and Karachi, and a spur supplies Quetta. The
northern pipeline branches at Faisalabad. One branch goes a little farther north of Lahore; the
other branch is connected to the crude oil fields and supplies gas to Islamabad and Peshawar.
There are plans for a new gas pipeline through which Iran would export natural gas to Pakistan.
1.5 OIL AND GAS POTENTIAL OF PAKISTAN
Pakistan has an interesting Geo-dynamic history of large and prospective basin (onshore and
offshore) and vast relatively unexplored acreage. The density of exploration of well is very low

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of about one well from 2000 km2 basin area. The resource potential is estimated at 200 TCF of
gas, 40 million barrels of oil of which only about 15 % of gas and 1.5 % of oil has actually been
In29 July, 2009 Pakistan has immense untapped hydrocarbon potential estimated at 27 billion
barrels of oil and 280 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.
1.6 INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL GAS
Natural gas is a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons with methane as major component. Its
constituent mainly is methane and ethane along with minor percentage of still higher
hydrocarbons members of paraffin, naphthenes and aromatic series of hydrocarbons. The highest
molecular weight hydrocarbons present in appreciable amount are the octane and nonanes.
Although the paraffin series predominates, the fractions of the gases normally termed hexane and
heavier.
1.7 TYPE OF NATURAL GAS
There are mainly two types of natural gas
1.

Associated natural gas

2.

Non associated natural gas

1. Associated Natural Gas


When the oil is saturated with gas the gas separates above forming a gas cap. This type of
gas with the presence of crude oil is called associated gas.
2. Non-Associated Natural Gas
The gas from the reservoir with no oil present is called non-associated natural gas.
1.8 CLASSIFICATION OF NATURAL GAS
Natural gas is classified into two major types.
1.8.1 Dry Natural Gas:

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Gas that does not contain readily condensable hydrocarbons .Dry natural gas has methane
contents in the range of 80-95 % a dry gas; low in hydrogen sulphides needs little or no

treatment

except to adjust the water content.


1.8.2 Wet Natural Gas
Gas that contains condensable hydrocarbons more than 0.3 gallon/1000cf of gas, the gas is
considered as wet natural gas. A wet natural gas has low methane contents.
1.8.3 Sour Natural Gas
Natural gas that contains appreciable amount of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide is called
sour natural gas. Gas contain H2S not above than 1.5 grains/ cf, S below 1 Grain/cf (cubic feet)
and CO2 0.1-6% by volume is not harmful to distribution system. However it reduces gas-heating
value and cause corrosion of the tubing near the surface of gas condensate high-pressure wells.
[2]

1.9 GENERAL NATURAL GAS IMPURITIES


Practically all natural gas obtained from different parts of the world water in variable amount.
Water in natural gas represents a potential source of storage troubles in high-pressure pipelines.
1.9.1 Types of impurities
Acid gas
1. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
2. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

1.9.2 Organic sulfur compounds


1. Carbonyl sulfide

(S=C=O)

2. Carbon disulfide

(S=C=S)

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3. Thiophene

(C4H4S)

4. Mercaptans

(-C-SH or R-SH)

5. Organic sulfides

1.9.3Other impurities
1. H2O
2. HCN
3. NH3
4. Hydrocarbons
5. Particulates
6. SO2
7. SO3

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1.10 PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GAS
Natural gas that occurs usually in the gaseous state is the first homologue of the hydrocarbons
paraffin series minor amount of the following homologues.
1. Ethane C2H6
2. Propane C3H8
3. Butane C4H10 and so on..
The non-hydrocarbons components include, hydrogen, sulfide, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon
dioxide, water vapors and casual impurities entrains free gases, especially helium in very small
amounts.
1. Percentage of natural gas is 90-99.5 %.
2. Methane is lighter than air.
3. Density at 0C and 101.3 Mbar, 0.678-0.7157 kg/m3.
4. Critical pressure = 45.70 bar.
5. Critical Temperature = -82.5C

1.10.1 Physical and Chemical Properties of CH4


Methane in gaseous form:
It liquefies at 140 bar and 0C and solidifies at -184 C
Boiling Point = -161.49 C at 1 atm
Critical volume = 6.199-6.24 m3/kg.
Molecular weight = 16.04
Thermal conductivity = 3.01 x 10 4 W/ cm2.
Specific heat values at 15 C and 101.3 M bar are
Cp = 2.208 J/mole C
Cv = 1.68 J/ mole C
At 1 atm pressure and 15C, 1 dm3 of methane is soluble in 27.8 dm3 of water.

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1.10.2 Domestic and Industrial Uses of Natural Gas
Natural gas in domestic areas is used for burning purposes.
`1.10.3 Natural gas in Steel industry
Natural gas is used in large quantities in several branches of the steel industry. It is used for the
combustion process.
1.10.4 Natural gas in Cements and Lime Industry
The fuel burner of a cement kiln is usually a combined natural gas and oil burner.

1.10.5 Natural gas in Ceramic and Pottery Industry


Furnaces, porcelains and potteries can be advantageous find by using natural gas as the fuel.
Ceramic furnaces of small size for discontinuous operations and which are equipped with special
type of natural gas burner may use catalytic combustion processes.
1.10.6 Natural gas in Glass industry
Natural Gas firing for the melting process and for artistic glass manufacturing in place of fuel oil
or wood firing has brought a very remarkable innovation especially in the artistic branch of glass
industry.
Advantages of Natural Gas
Followings are the advantages of the natural gas

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1. A narrow range of combustion of methane/air mixture that is flammable, this makes natural
gas highly susceptible to Oxygen shortage in combustion.
2. Methane maximum burning velocity is relatively low.
3. Wobble number range.
4. Stability of burning flame.
5. Tendency of flame to generate some soot.

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Chapter 2
DESIGN BASIS

2.1 OBJECTIVE
The objective of our project is to remove Acid-Gases (i-e CO2 and H2S) from the Raw-Gas
which is coming from compression unit. Project includes the techno-economical comparison
between DEA (Di-ethanol amine) and MDEA (Methyl-di-ethanol amine) and also the selection
of best suitable process for the given Raw-Gas composition by using Hysys simulation.
2.2 SCOPE
The of the project will be comprises of following tasks
1. Selection of the best possible optimize process scheme for the removal of Acid-Gases
from the Raw-Gas by maintaining its heating value and other parameters as required.
Sweetening with DEA
Sweetening with MDEA
2. Simulation modeling by using Hysys.
3. Sizing of major equipments of the selected scheme such as Separators, Heat Exchangers
and Hydraulics.
2.3 DELIVERABLES
The deliverable which shall be submitted along with the process design are:
1. PFD (Process flow diagram) and P&ID (Process and Instrumentation Diagram) of
selected scheme.
2. Sizing of Equipments.
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3. Process Data sheets of each equipment.

2.4

Raw-GAS COMPOSITION MOLE%


(See Table-1.1 Raw Gas Specification)

2.5 OPERATING CONDITIONS


Pressure = 1000 psig
Temperature = 125 OF
Flow = 50 MMSCFD
2.5.1 Product specifications
(See Table-1.2 Product gas Specifications)
2.5 PLANT LOCATION AND SELECTION
The location of the plant can have a crucial effect on the profitability of a project, and the scope
for future expansion. Many factors must be considered when selecting a suitable site. Site
selection for chemical process plants is discussed in more detail by Me-rims (1966) and
Mecklenburg (1985); see also Alchemy (2003). The principal factors to consider are:
1. Location, with respect to the marketing area.
2. Raw material supply.
3. Transport facilities.
4. Availability of labor.
5. Availability of utilities: water, fuel, power.
6. Availability of suitable land.
7. Environmental impact, and effluent disposal.
8. Local community considerations.
9. Climate.
10. Political and strategic considerations.
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2.6 Factors Affecting Plant Location:

2.6.1 Marketing area


For materials that are produced in bulk quantities; such as cement, mineral acids, and Fertilizers.
The plant should be located close to the primary market. This consideration will be less
important for low volume production high-priced products; such as pharmaceuticals.

2.6.1 Raw materials


The availability and price of suitable raw materials will often determine the site location. Plants
producing bulk chemicals are best located close to the source of the major raw material; as long
as the costs of shipping product are not greater than the cost of shipping feed. For example, at the
time of writing much of the new ethylene capacity that is being added worldwide is being built in
the Middle East, close to supplies of cheap ethane from natural gas. Oil refineries, on the other
hand, tend to be located close to major population centers, as an oil refinery produces many
grades of fuel, which are expensive to ship separately.
2.6.2 Transport
The transport of materials and products to and from the plant will be an overriding Consideration
in site selection. Practicable, a site should be selected that is close to at least two major forms of
transport: road, rail, waterway (canal or river), or a sea port.
2.6.4 Availability of labor
Labor will be needed for construction of the plant and its operation. Skilled construction workers
will usually be brought in, from outside the site area, but there should be an adequate pool of
unskilled labor available locally; and labor suitable for training to operate the plant.

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2.6.5 Utilities (services)
Chemical processes invariably require large quantities of water for cooling and general process
use, so the plant must be located near a source of water of suitable quality. Process water may be
drawn from a river, from wells, or purchased from a local authority. At some sites, the cooling
water required can be taken from a river or lake, or from the sea; at other locations cooling
towers will be needed
2.7 Environmental impact and effluent disposal
All industrial processes produce waste products, and full consideration must be given to the
difficulties and cost of their disposal. The disposal of toxic and harmful effluents will be covered
by local regulations, and the appropriate authorities must be consulted during the initial site
survey to determine the standards that must be met.
An environmental impact assessment should be made for each new project, or major
modification or addition to an existing process.
2.7.1 Local community considerations
The proposed plant must fit in with and be acceptable to the local community. Full consideration
must be given to the safe location of the plant so that it does not impose a significant additional
risk to the community.
2.7.2 Land (site considerations)
Sufficient suitable land must be available for the proposed plant and for future expansion. The
land should ideally be flat, well drained and have suitable load-bearing characteristics. A full site
evaluation should be made to determine the need for pillaring or other special foundations.
2.7.3 Climate

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Adverse climatic conditions at a site will increase costs. Abnormally low temperatures will
require the provision of additional insulation and special heating for equipment and pipe runs.
Stronger structures will be needed at locations subject to high winds (cyclone/hurricane areas) or
earthquakes.
2.7.3 Political and strategic considerations
Capital grants, tax concessions, and other inducements are often given by governments to direct
new investment to preferred locations; such as areas of high unemployment. The availability of
such grants can be the overriding consideration in site selection.
The following table gives the site and environmental conditions applicable to the location
and specific to design and sizing of equipment.

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2.7.3.1

DESIGN AMBIENT
CONDITIONS
Design Maximum Ambient Temperature, F
Design Minimum Ambient Temperature, F
Temperature for Thermal Rating of Air Coolers,

F
Maximum Wet Bulb Temperature for Thermal

Rating of Evaporative Air Cooler, F


Control Room Temperature (min.), F
Control Room Temperature (max.), F
Control Room Temperature (Mean Average), F
Switch Gear Room (min.) F
Switch Gear Room (max.),

F
Design Wind Velocity, (km/hr.)
2.3.7.2

122
83
65
75 - 86
75
65
75 - 85
128

CLIMATIC
CONDITIONS
As per data on Hydrabad by Pakistan Met. Department

Relative Humidity (Minimum Monthly

Average)
Relative Humidity (Maximum Monthly Average)
Maximum in 24
Rainfall:
(mm)
hours
Wettest Month
(mm)
Altitude, ft (above mean sea level)
Dry Bulb Temperature (max.),

F
Dry Bulb Temperature (min.),

F
Average Barometric Pressure
Ice/Snow
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122
38

35%
81%
251
286
--121
36
14.7psi
a
None

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2.3.7.3

SEISMIC DESIGN
DATA
Zone 2B, Upper Moderate with ground acceleration of 0.2.
AREA

4.0

CLASSIFICATION
Area with the package battery limit in Class I, Div. 2, Group D as defined by
API RP-500. Remaining area with the package limit is also Class I, Div. 2,
Group D.

Conclusion
Keeping in view the above factors the plant should be located in interior Sindh.

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CHAPTER 3
PROCESS SELECTION

3 CHEMICAL PROCESS
Most of the chemical processes are Alkanolamines.

3.1 AMINE PROCESSES


Amine processes are based on the removal of an acid gas by virtue of a loose chemical bond
between the acid gas component and the amine. Three main types of amines are used
commercially,
a. Primary amine, usually MEA (monoethanolamine)
b. Secondary amine, usually DEA (diethanol amine)
c. Tertiary amine, usually MDEA (methyl diethanol amine)
The primary amines form the most stable bond with the acid gas, followed by the secondary
amines. The least stable bond is formed by the tertiary amine. Although MEA has been
extensively used by the natural gas industry in the past, because of its corrosivity it has, in large
part, been supplanted by the less corrosive DEA. Both of these solvents are also degraded by
COS, with DEA showing less degradation than MEA. The latter forms a non-regenerable
degradation compound with COS. Thus, unless COS is removed or hydrolyzed to H2S ahead of
the amine scrubber, neither one of these two amines would be suitable for synthesis gas.
MDEA has become popular with the natural gas industry because it has a high H2S/CO2
Selectivity is very stable against degradation and is the least corrosive of the amines. Overall,
there are hundreds of MDEA units worldwide in various applications. It is being used for
Synthesis gas treating in IGCCs at several commercial and demonstration sites.
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Advantages of these Processes are The Following
1. Complete removal of medium to high concentrations of acid gases even at high flow rates
with negligible consumption of the reactant.
2. Relatively low operating cost per pound of sulfur removes as compared with batch
processes.
3. The solution composition can be tailored to the sour gas composition.
4. Large amounts of organic sulfur compounds can be removed when a physical solvent is
added to the amine.
The Disadvantages are:
1. High capital investment compared with batch processes.
2. The operational and maintenance cost are significant.
3. Some of the processes require license or royalty fees.

3.1.1 MONOETHANOLAMINE (MEA)


MEA is generally used for gases which normally contain very low concentrations of H2S and
CO2, and complete acid gas removal is required. This is especially true if the gas is to be treated
free from COS and CS2 and upstream is at low pressure. Since MEA is the primary amine it has
very high capacity for acid gas removal but acid gas loading and MEA concentration both is
limited because of corrosion. Surge vessel for MEA must have inert blanket system of nitrogen
or sweet natural gas due to its affinity for oxygen.
MEA forms non-regenerable compounds with COS and CS2 which results in high solution losses
especially if feed gas contain high concentration of these compounds. As primary amine MEA
strongly reacts with both acid gases results in high heat of reaction and alternatively high heat for
regeneration. Due to its low molecular weight MEA has high vapor pressure results in solvent
losses in low pressure operations but this can be controlled by simple water wash step.
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MEA solution concentration 10-20 weight %

Acid gas loading 0.3-0.35 mole/mole for carbon steel equipment and 0.70-0.90 mole/mole
for stainless steel

Heat of reaction with CO2 825 BTU/LB and with H2S 550 BTU/LB.

3.1.2 DIETHANOLAMINE (DEA)


Diethanolamine has been used for many years for the treatment of refinery gases which often
contain COS and CS2. Since DEA is the secondary amine it can form compounds with COS and
CS2 which can be regenerated without significant solution degradation, consequently secondary
amines are the better choice for treating gases which contain appreciable amounts of COS and
CS2 but the disadvantage is that DEA can be reclaimed by vacuum distillation because it can
decomposes below its boiling point. Another disadvantage of DEA is that DEA can undergo
numerous irreversible reactions with CO2 forming degradation products hence DEA may not be
optimum choice for treating gases which contain appreciable amounts of CO2.
DEA has a number of advantages and disadvantages over MEA
1. As secondary amine DEA is less corrosive than MEA thus allowing more concentration of
DEA and consequently more acid gas pickup.
2. Low vapor pressure eliminates the use of water wash step.
3. Require vacuum distillation for solvent regeneration.
4. Low heats of reaction with acid gases results in low angry requirements for solvent
regeneration.
a. DEA solution concentration 25-35 weight %
b. Acid gas loading 0.30-0.50 mole/mole for carbon steel equipment.
c. Heat of reaction with CO2 653 BTU/LB and H2S 511 BTU/LB.

3.1.3 Methydiethanolamine (MDEA)

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Selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of carbon dioxide has recently become
the subject of considerable interest particularly in the purification non-hydrocarbon gases such as
product from coal gasification and Claus plant tail gas. Selective absorption results in the
reduction of the amount of acid gas removed which alternatively results in low circulation rate
and low energy requirements. Low heats of reaction with acid gases results in low regeneration
energy. MDEA has low corrosive and low vapor pressure permits its use in high concentration
upto 60 wt %. MDEA is sparingly soluble with hydrocarbons this is the benefit over physical
solvents. MDEA reaction with H2S is almost instantaneous. However, its CO2 reaction kinetics
is much slower. MDEA, like other tertiary amines, forms bicarbonates on reacting with CO2.
Primary and secondary amines form carbamates with CO2. The bicarbonate reaction is much
slower than the carbamates one, and is postulated to be limited by the slow CO2 hydration
reaction with the amine. The reaction rate of MDEA with CO2 is about 2,300 times slower than
that of CO2 with MEA. The slowness of MDEA reaction with CO2 accounts for its popularity
for use in H2S selective service.

MDEA solution concentration 20-50 weight %

Acid gas loading 0.7-0.8 mole /mole for carbon steel equipment

Heat of reaction with CO2 600 BTU/LB and H2S 522 BTU/LB.

[4]

3.1.4 Diglycoamine (DGA)


DGA (di-glycol amine) IUPAC named as [2-(2-aminoethoxy ethanol)] is a primary amine which
can remove H2S, CO2, COS and mercaptants from gas and liquid streams. It is used in an
aqueous solution having 50% - 70% concentration. It can be used to treat natural gas to 5.7
mg/m3 at pressure as low as 125 psig. It has higher acid pickup per volume of amine. By using
DGA, reboiler steam consumption reduces. It can be used in cold climates and for natural gas as
well as refinery gas. Its drawbacks are that it requires reclining to remove the degradation
products as amine has high degradation rate and it also reacts with CS 2 and COS and forms non
regenerate able products.

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3.1.5 Diisopropanol Amine (DIPA):
DIPA (di-isopropanol amine) is a secondary amine and is capable of removing H 2S, CO2 and
COS from the gases and liquid streams. It is non-corrosive and consumes low amount of steam.
It removes the acid gases without degradation. Its drawback is that it exhibits selectivity for H 2S
over CO2 and also H2S selectivity is not as better as of tertiary amines.

[2][4]

3.2 PHYSICAL SOLVENT PROCESSES

In physical solvent processes the component being absorbed is more soluble in the liquid
absorbent than other components of the gas stream, but dose not react chemically with the
absorbent.
In early efforts, water was used as the physical solvent but the solubility of CO2 and H2S in
water were too low, due to this reason it was not commercialized. So in order to be practical, the
solvents must have simultaneously the tendency to remove acid gases several times than that of
water, also have low capacity for primary constituents of the gas stream, e.g., hydrocarbons and
hydrogen.
Physical absorption processes use an organic solvent to absorb the acid gases from the raw gas
streams without chemical reaction. Each component in the raw gas stream is absorbed in
proportion to its concentration and solubility of acid gases in the organic solvent.in most cases,
the solubility of acid gases increases with increase in the pressure and decrease in temperature.
thus physical absorption process is most efficient and economical when operated at the highest
pressure and lowest temperature possible.
Advantages
A physical solvent has three advantages compare to chemical solvent.
Selective H2S removal can be achieved with physical absorption processes since H2S has a
higher solubility than CO2 in most organic solvents.

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Minor gas impurities such as COS (carbonyl sulphite) and mercaptants are soluble in the most
organic solvents. This removal of minor impurities can be possible in the same acid gases
removal unit without subjecting the solvent to degradation.
The organic solvents can be regenerated by pressure reduction, inert gas stripping, or thermal
regeneration. Pressure reduction and inert gas stripping require little use of energy while thermal
regeneration requires significantly less energy compared to that of chemical absorption processes
due to lower heat of desorption of acid gases.

Disadvantages
Although the advantages of physical solvents are there, but may be offset by several of their
disadvantages since the loading capacity of physical solvent increases with the higher acid gas
partial pressure and lower working temperatures. As a result, the capital and operating costs of
the physical absorption processes are generally higher compared to those of chemical absorption
processes. Another drawback of physical solvent is that it has solubility towards hydrocarbons
and its solubility increases with increase in carbon number. Once heavier H.C(hydrocarbons)
such as pentane plus and aromatics once attached to the solvent can not be removed easily.
There are various physical solvent processes are used some of which are as follows;
2.2.1

Fluor solvent process

2.2.2

Selexol process

2.2.3

Purisol process

[2][4]

3.2.1 Fluor Solvent Process

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The process is based on the use of anhydrous propylene carbonate. The temperature in this
process is well below the ambient temperature and some method of refrigerating might be
necessary for the solvent.
The Fluor Solvent process uses flash regeneration. Commercial plant utilizes several flashes of
the rich solvent at decreasing pressure levels with recycling of the gas evolved in the high
pressure flash. Lean solvent temperature as low as 0 degree F has been used in this process.
Fluor Solvent has lower solubility for hydrogen (H2) and H.C i-e the rich solvent in this process
dose not contains H2 and H.C. This is the advantage of Fluor Solvent process over other physical
absorption processes.
Diagram of Fluor Solvent process is as follows

3.2.2 Selexol Process

Selexol Process use a homologous mixture of the dimethyl ether of propylene glycol. The
process can be used to selectively or simultaneously removed sulfur compounds (such as RSH,
CS2, H2S, etc.), carbon dioxide, water, as well as paraffinic, olefin, aromatics, and chlorinated
hydrocarbons from a gas or air stream.
The solvent used in this process has low vapour pressure, which minimizes solvent loses, and is
chemically and thermally stable, which eliminates the need for reclaiming or purging. Due to the
solvents inert chemical characteristics, the Selexol process uses carbon steel as the standard
material of construction, except for areas that are exposed to CO2/H2S evolution where stainless
steel is used.
Applications and Uses:
Selexol solvent was originally used for the removal of CO2from Ammonia plant.
It is also used in desulfurization and CO2 removal in the synthesis gas obtained from the partial
oxidation of heavy petroleum stocks and from coal gasification.
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From experiments it has been noticed that H2S is almost 9 times more soluble in the solvent than
CO2. This high ratio facilitates the use of Selexol for the selective removal of H2S from gas
stream also containing CO2.
Selexol process is also used for the purification of Landfill gas, it removed oxygen, H2S, heavy
and aromatic hydrocarbons from Landfill gases.
Regeneration:
Generally for bulk removal of CO2 regeneration of solution only required flashing. While in case
of H2S stripping with inert gas or heat is usually used.

3.2.3 Purisol Process


The solvent used in the Purisol process is N-methyl-2-pyrolidone(NMP).NMP has the highest
selectivity of all the physical solvents considered here for H2S over CO2. COS is not as soluble
as H2S, but it is hydrolyzed by the NMP solvent. The Purisol process is particularly well suited
to the purification of high-pressure, high CO2 synthesis gas for gas turbine integrated
gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system because of the high selectivity for H2S.
NMP is also used in number of other chemical processing.
Acetylene recovery from pyrolysis gases.
Butadiene recovery from C4 fractions.
as an extractive agent for Aromatics recovery from oil refinery stocks.
NMP is somewhat more volatile than other physical solvents so water washing of gaseous
effluents is required to minimize solvent loses.

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3.3 MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESS


Gas permeation is the transport of gas molecules through a thin polymeric film from a region of
high pressure to one of low pressure. Gas permeation is based on the principle that different
gases permeate through polymeric films at different rates due to differences in diffusivity and
solubility. Separation efficiency is affected by the gas composition, pressure differential,
pressure ratio, separation factor, and temperature. Pressure drop through the membrane is high,
so the gas which permeates is available only at lower pressure. For the natural gas not
permeating the membrane, the pressure drop will be similar to that through any other process
unit. Membrane systems are used primarily for bulk CO2 removal from natural gas streams. The
systems are modular, skid 2 mounted units containing either spiral wound or hollow fiber
membrane elements. The elements are housed in pressure tubes in various configurations
depending on system requirements. The advantages of membrane systems over conventional
processes are site specific , but may include: lower capital and energy costs; reduced space
requirements, faster delivery time and lower installation costs due to smaller, lighter modular
design; lower operating costs and limited manpower requirements due to simplified operation
and maintenance; Increased adaptability to changing feed flow and composition; elimination of
dehydration equipment; faster, easier start-up and shutdown.

Membranes however suffer, in

some cases , from poor separation efficiency due to close permeation rates for various
constituents of natural gas. For instance methane and some heavier hydrocarbon constituents of
natural gas have very close permeation rates with those of acid gases and water for common
polymeric membranes, therefore a significant amount of methane and heavier hydrocarbons
may be lost when this technology is used for acid gas and water removal from natural gas
streams.

3.3.1 Principles of Membrane Gas Separation


Membranes are thin semi-permeable barriers that allow passage of certain molecules. Gas
separation membranes are predominantly comprised of polymeric materials. Polymers
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commonly employed for gas separation membranes include cellulose derivatives, polysulfone ,
polyamides, and polyimides . These membranes contain no holes or pores as would typically be
found in filter technology. Instead, the separation relies on the principles stating that gases
dissolve in and diff use through the membrane polymers. Certain gases will pass through
(permeate) a membrane at a faster rate than other gases due to a difference in the solubility of
the gas in the polymer and the rate at which the gas diffuse through the polymer membrane
(Figure 1). The difference in gas permeability rates through the membrane provides the basis for
the separation. Gas membrane separation is a concentration driven process which, for gases, is
directly

related

to

the

pressure

of

the

inlet

gas

and

permeates

streams.

Figure-3.1 Membrane Process

The separation is actually driven by the component partial pressure differences across the
polymer membrane. Given a feed stream of CO2 and CH4 at a given pressure, CO2 being the
more permeable component will pass through the membrane to the low pressure side and exit as
the permeate stream. CH4 remains on the high pressure side and exits as the residue stream with
essentially no pressure loss. Both CH4 and CO2 permeate through the membrane, resulting in
the residue stream being more concentrated with CH4 and the permeate stream
being more concentrated with CO2.
For a given temperature, pressure, and feed composition, the permeability of an individual
component through a polymer membrane is constant. This permeability is expressed in units of
component gas flow rate per unit membrane surface area per component partial pressure
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difference across the membrane.

The degree of separation of gas components is defined by the selectivity of the membrane (ratio
of component permeabilitys) and by the conditions of the separation (pressure, temperature,
flowrate).
The membrane elements are formed as fl at sheets and packed into spiral wound modules which
are then inserted into steel pressure containing tubes. A spiral wound module consists of a series
of membrane envelopes that are constructed of two sheets of membrane glued back to back
along three edges with the membrane facing outward. A spacer is inserted into the center of this
envelope to keep the membranes separated so that a channel is formed for the permeate gas. The
open end of the membrane envelope is attached to a stainless steel tube that has been
drilled with holes (Figure 2).

Figure-3.2 Membrane Layers

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Feed gas is introduced to one face of the membrane module where it travels between individual
membrane envelopes. The feed channel spacer is designed to promote mixing of the gas as it
travels along the membrane surface. The more permeable gases pass through the membrane into
the center of the membrane envelope and then spiral around the steel permeate tube and exit as
the low pressure permeate stream. The product gas exists at the other end of the module with
essentially no pressure drop. The modular design of the membrane elements, membrane area
can be adjusted to allow efficient operation for wide ranges of feed flow rates, pressures,
temperatures, and concentrations.
3.3.2 Effect of Operating Conditions On Membrane Performance
The general effects of feed pressure, temperature and permeate pressure on membrane skids,
while holding other conditions constant, can be summarized as follows:
3.3.2.1 Feed Pressure
Higher pressure increases the driving force, which increases permeation rate and reduces system
size with slight decrease in hydrocarbon loss. Organic gases and vapors show a dependence on
pressure and concentration by virtue of the strong interaction between solute and membrane.
(See Figure-3.3)

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Figure-3.3 Feed Pressure VS Relativite Area Curve

3.3.2.2 Feed Temperature


An increase in feed temperature increases membrane permeability. The Log function of
permeability is approximately a linear function of (1/T), where T is in oK. Increasing the
temperature raises most permeabilities by about 10 to 15% per 10 oC and slightly decreases
membrane selectivity. Increasing the feed temperature will increase the residue purity, and stage
cut, but hydrocarbon losses, and the recycle compressor power for multi stage systems are
increased. (See Figure-3.4)

Figure-3.4 Operating Temperature VS Relativite Area Curve

3.3.2.3 Permeate Pressure


The lower the permeate pressure, the higher is the driving force and therefore the higher are the
residue purity, and stage cut. Unlike feed pressure, however, permeate pressure has a strong
effect

[Type text]

on

hydrocarbon

losses.

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(See

Figure-3.5)

Gas Sweetening Plant

Figure-3.5 Operating Permeate Pressure VS Relativite Area Curve

Our case the wellhead composition and other parameters are given below
Our Wellhead Composition
Table-3.1
Parameters

Normal Range

Well Head

Membrane separation

Temperature

10 C to 60 C

49 oC

Conditions
Match

1500 psi (100 atm)

850 psi

Not Match

Pressure Differential

Table-3.2

Components

Mol%

CO2
H2S

4
0.1

Sweet Gases
Mol Fraction Partial Pressure
Psig
0.04
34
0.001
0.85
Pi=34.85

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Temperature
o
F
120

Heating Value
BTU/SCF
950

Gas Sweetening Plant


Table-3.1 shows that our desire Pressure does not match with normal operating pressure of
Membrane process while table 2 shows that in our case the CO 2 and H2S both are present so that
by reading 2nd Chart w.r.t our gases partial pressure the Amine Process is Suitable. While only
4th chart suggest Membrane process which are suitable only CO2 removal .Which it does not
match our requirement.

[2]

3.4 PROCESS SELECTION:


There are many factors which affects the decision of selecting a process for gas sweetening.
These factors are the following
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The partial pressure of acid gas components in the feed gas.


The concentration of non-H2S sulfur compounds (COS, RSH, RSSR, CS2, COS, etc.)
The volume of gas to be treated.
The feasibility of recovering sulfur.
The desirability of selectively removing one or more of the contaminants without

removing the others.


6. The presence and amount of heavy hydrocarbons and aromatics in the gas.

3.4.1 Partial Pressure of Acid Gas Component In Feed Gas


Both absorption in physical solvents (e.g. dimethyl ether of poly ethylene glycol) and in alkaline
solution (e.g. methyl di ethanolamine) are suitable techniques for treating high volume gas
stream containing H2S and/CO2. However chemical solvents are not economically competitive
when the acid gas partial pressure is high because heats required for stripping the acid gases is
directly proportional to the acid gas loading.
According to Christensen and Stupin (1978), physical absorption process is generally favored at
acid gas partial pressure above 200 psia, while alkaline solution is favored at lower partial
pressures. Tennyson and Schaaf (1977) place the boundary line between physical and chemical

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solvents at a some what lower partial pressures (60-100psia) above which physical solvents are
favored.
Now relating this factor with our data our acid gas partial pressure was 41.6027 psia which is
less than 60 psia and second thing is our sales gas acid gas partial pressure was 17.2974588 psia
which means that lower acid gas partial pressure and lower outlet specifications favoring the
chemical solvents process.
3.4.2 The Concentration Of Non-H2S Sulfur Compounds
The presence of non-H2S sulfur compounds (e.g. mercaptants) may eliminate some of the
sweetening processes (for instance MDEA alone cannot remove mercaptants effectively).

COS

and CS2 form degradation products with MEA and DEA. However our natural gas stream from
well head contains no mercaptants (COS and CS2). It means that this factor in our case has no
significantly important.

3.5 THE VOLUME OF GAS TO BE TREATED


The volume of gas significantly affects the sweetening processes for example membrane
permeation is particularly applicable to the removal of CO2 from high pressure gas stream. The
process is based on the use relatively small modules and an increase in plant capacity is simply
accomplished by simply using proportionately more modules. As a result, the process does not
realize the economics of scale and become less competitive with the absorption process as the
plant size is increased.
Mckee et al. (1991) compared dietahnolamine (DEA) and membrane process for a 1000 psia gas
treating plant. For their bas case, the amine plant was found to be more economical for plant size
greater than 20 MMSCFD.
Comparing with our data, that our gas contains no significant amounts of CO2 so membrane
permeation would not be the best choice. Secondly the volume of gas 25 MMSCFD which is

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greater than 20 MMSCFD and according to McKee the chemical processes are more economical
than membrane permeation if the stream was greater than 20 MMSCFD.

[4]

3.6 THE FEASIBILITY OF RECOVERING SULFUR


If the regenerator off-gas contain more than 10 tons/day of sulfur (as H2S) than it is usually
economical to convert hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur in a conventional Claus-type sulfur
plant. Processes with sulfur recovery options have become very important in recent years, and
will further become so in the future due to environmental problems caused by sulfur emissions.
Sulfur is by-product, generally in demand in some part of the world by fertilizer and chemical
industry. Therefore sulfur recovery may be attractive from an economical point of view, although
in some places where there is no demand it is preferred to inject the sulfur compounds to
depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs. This factor conclusion can write after simulation.

PARTIAL PRESSURE H2S -PRODUCT PSIA

Selectivity of H2S Presence of CO2

PARTIAL PRESSURE ACID GAS-PRODUCT PSIA

Removal of H2S and CO2

Table-3.3

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PARTIAL PRESSURE CO2 -PRODUCT PSIA


PARTIAL PRESSURE H2S -PRODUCT PSIA

CO2 removal ,no H2S

H2S removal ,no CO2

Table 3-5

Tables 3-6

3.7 THE DESIRABILITY OF SELECTIVELY REMOVING ONE OR MORE OF THE


CONTAMINANTS WITHOUT REMOVING THE OTHERS
Selectivity of a process implies the degree of removal one acid gas component relative to
another. Some processes remove both H2S and CO2 (most Alkanolamines), while others are
designed to selectively remove only H2S (MDEA and physical solvents). Generally it is
important to consider the selectivity of a process for H2S versus CO2 to ensure desired extent
removal of these impurities.
For example in our case H2S to CO2 ratio is 1/20 and CO2 is only 4 mole % in the feed so we
not remove CO2 to less than 2 mole % (required spec.) and save large amount of heat for
stripping and circulation rate. MEA and DEA (primary amine and secondary amine) are not
capable of selectively remove H2S and there heats of reactions are high. So we use MDEA
which selectively remove H2S at the minimum flow rate and stripping heat requirements.
3.8 THE PRECENCE OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS
Physical solvents have high affinity for heavy hydrocarbons. If the natural gas stream is rich in
C3+ hydrocarbons, than the use of a physical solvent process may result in a significant los of
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the heavier molecular-weight hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons are lost because are released
from the solvent with acid gases and cannot be economically recovered.
In our case there is not significant amount of heavier hydrocarbons so this factor favors the
selection of physical solvents but already first factor of acid gas partial pressure reject the
physical solvents
The graphs shown on this text can be used as screening tools to make an initial selection of
potential process choices. Graphs should be used only for an initial guide to select a number of
good candidates and should never replace good engineering judgment. A comprehensive
feasibility study and cost-benefit analysis will determine which process is more economical.

[2]

CONCLUSION
From the above factors and using our gas stream data it is clear that there is not much high acid
gas partial pressure in the feed gas (41.6021 psia) so physical solvents are rejected secondly the
CO2 is only 4 mole % so there is no need of using membrane permeation process. Now between
chemical solvents due to selectivity required for our case for H2S we will not use primary and
secondary amines so remaining MDEA (tertiary amine) is the best choice for gas sweetening in
our case.

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CHAPTER 04
PROCESS DISCRIPTION OF NATURAL GAS SWEETINING BY MDEA
4.1 INLET GAS KNOCKOUT
Before entering the absorber, the gas is passed through an inlet separator where entrained
droplets or slugs of liquid are removed from the gas stream by impaction devices (figure 3.1).
Typical contaminants in natural gas stream may be
Liquid hydrocarbons
Salt water
Sands
Well treating compounds
Pipeline treating compounds
Compressor oils
It is important that these contaminants be removed before the gas reaches the absorber. If these
contaminants enter the sweetening system number of operational problems occurs including
Foaming
Equipment fouling
High corrosion rates
Solvent loss
Difficulty in meeting sweet gas specifications

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4.2 ABSORBER
The sour gas, free of entrained liquids by the inlet separator, enters the bottom of the absorber.
Usually the absorber is a tray column, although packed columns are also used. In either case, the
objective is to provide intimate contact between the gas and the amine solvent so that H2S and
CO2 molecules can transfer from the gas phase to the solvent liquid phase. In tray columns, a
liquid level is maintained on each tray by a weir usually 2 or 3 inches high (figure 3.2).
The gas passes up from underneath the trays through openings in the tray such as perforations,
bubble caps, or valves, and disperse into bubbles through the liquid, forming a forth. The gas
disengages from the forth, travels through a vapor space, providing time for entrained amine
solution to fall back down to the liquid on the tray, and passes through the next tray above.
Nearly all absorption of H2S and CO2 takes place on the trays, and not in the vapor space
between the trays.
The degree of sweetening achieved is largely dependent on the number of trays or the height of
packing available in the absorber.
In most cases mist eliminator pad is installed near the gas outlet of the absorber to trap entrained
solvent, and an outlet knockout drum, similar to the inlet separator for the gas feed, is provided
to collect solvent carryover.

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Figure-4.1

4.3 THREE/TWO PHASE FLASH TANK


The rich amine from the bottom of the absorber is next sent to a series of valves to drop the
pressure so, that hydrocarbon that may dissolved or condensed in the amine solution comes out
from the rich amine. To separate them from each other, a flash separator is installed.
The pressure of the solution is dropped as it enters the tank, allowing the lightest of the
hydrocarbons to flash. The heavier hydrocarbons remain as liquid, but separate from the aqueous
amine, forming a separate liquid layer. Because the hydrocarbons have a lower density than the
aqueous amine, they form the upper liquid layer, and can be skimmed off from the top.
4.4 BENEFITS OF FLASH TANK SEPARATOR
Not only is the flash tank valuable in recovering lost hydrocarbon products, it is also beneficial
in maintaining the condition of the amine solution and the amine sweetening system.
Hydrocarbons contamination in aqueous amine solution promote foaming, equipment fouling
may be more severe and occur at a faster rate in the absence of a flash separator.
4.5 LEAN/RICH HEAT EXCHANGER
The rich solvent is preheated before entering the stripper. Because the lean amine exiting the
reboiler must be cooled before entering the absorber, there is an opportunity to exchange heat
from the lean to the rich stream, thereby reducing the heat load on the reboiler. A plate/plate
exchanger was used as the lean/rich amine exchanger. This type of exchanger offers large surface
areas and high transfer rates in small volume. The plates should be 316 SS, EPDM gaskets are
recommended. A recommended maximum velocity to minimize corrosion is 3 or 3.5 feet/sec.
The pressure drop through the lean amine side should be kept below two psi to prevent pumping
problems associated with reducing the lean amine below its vapor pressure at the exchanger
outlet nozzle. On the other hand it is advisable to keep velocities high enough that the exchanger
does not collect dirt.

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4.6 REGENERATOR
Like the absorber, the stripper is either a tray or packed column with approximately 20 trays or
the equivalent height in packing. To minimize amine vaporization loss, there may be a water
wash section at the top of the column with an additional four to six trays. The preheated rich
amine enters near the top of the column and flows down countercurrent to a gas stream of steam,
H2S, and C02. The steam is generated in the reboiler, lowering the partial pressure of H2S and
C02 in the gas stream, enhancing driving force of the acid gases from the amine solution. The
overhead gas passed through a condenser to recover water and the small amount of amine that is
vaporized in the regenerator.
The overhead condenser, the reboiler tube bundle, and the upper third of the stripping column
shell are all susceptible to high corrosion rates, and may need to be manufactured out of stainless
steel. Thermal degradation, which can contribute to corrosion, can be minimized by designing
the reboiler to use a low temperature heating medium such as low pressure steam.
The reboiler heat duty includes 1) the sensible heat required to raise the temperatures of the rich
amine feed, the reflux.2) the heat of reaction to break chemical bonds between the acid gas
molecules and the amine, and 3) the heat of vaporization of water to produce a stripping vapor of
steam.
The ratio moles of steam to moles of acid gas in the overhead gas upstream of the condenser,
called the reflux ratio, commonly ranges from 1.5:1 to 4:1, depending upon the required degree
of regeneration.
4.7 FILTRATION
A filtration scheme of mechanical and activated carbon filters is important in maintaining good
solution control. Mechanical filters such as, cartridge filters or precoat filters remove particulate
material while call filters remove chemical contaminants such as entrained hydrocarbons and
surface-active compounds. Filters are located in the rich line in some plants, and in the line in
others. One manufacturer recommends filters in both rich and lean lines. Locating the filters in
the rich line upstream of the lean rich heat exchanger will protect both the heat exchanger and
the stripper from plugging, and reduce the erosion/corrosion rate in the heat exchanger. The
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carbon filter will protect the sulfur plant from hydrocarbon contaminate and reduce the tendency
of the amine solution in the stripper to foam. However because the amine solution is heavily
loaded with acid gas, drops in pressure enable acid gas to flash from the solvent, causing gas
pockets to form in filter resulting in reduced or completely blocked flow. In terms of safety for
the workers who dismantle, inspect and clean out the filters, it is far more hazardous to locate the
filters in the rich line than in the lea line. In many plants, it is specifically for this safety reason
that the filters are placed in the lean line.
Regardless of the line in which the filters are located, the mechanical filter should be positioned
upstream of the carbon filter. In the absence of a mechanical filter, the carbon filter will remove
both practice matter and chemical contaminants. This is, however, a costly way to operate
because the carbon may plug up with solid material long before its chemic capacity is exhausted,
requiring frequent change outs of activated carbon

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CHAPTER 05
HYSYS SIMULATION & OPTIMIZATION
Computer-aided process simulation is nearly universally recognized as an essential tool in the
process industries now a day.
Indeed, simulation software plays a key role in: process Development to study process
alternatives, assess feasibility, preliminary economics, interpret pilot-plant data, process
design to optimize hardware and flow sheets, estimate equipment, operating cost, investigate
feedstock flexibility, and plant operation to reduce energy use, increase yield and improve
pollution control.

5.1 HYSYS SIMULATION OF AMINE PROCESS


The first step is to select the component from the component list. The component selection
window is open by selecting view in the component-list as in Fig.5-1. After that the appropriate
fluid is to select: here Amine package model is selected as in Figure-4.2.

Figure- 5.1 shows dialog window is use for components selection:

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Figure-5.2 Fluid Package Basis (Amine fluid PackageNext step: inlet stream specification

as shown in Figure-4.3

Figure-5.3 Inlet Stream Specifications

After selecting the component of the fluid, the simulation environment c a n enter where the
process flow diagram is built Amine p ro ce s s f l o w diagram simulation.

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Figure- 5.4 Un-simulated Amine Process Flow Diagrams

Other streams specifications made are DEA to Contactor temperature pressure and flow
rate, make up water temperature and DEA to recycle temperature, the regenerated feed out
of the amine-amine heat exchanger. One of the rigorous tasks is the convergence of the
absorber and the regenerator, to converge the absorber top and bottom temperature and
pressure was specified and run, as in Fig. 4.
The regenerator is converged by specifying the condenser and re-boiler pressure, the reflux
ratio and the vent rate, the column is then run, as in Figure-4.5.

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Figure-5.5 Converged window of the Absorber

Figure-5.6 Converged windows for regenerator unit

With the convergence of the absorber and the regenerator units a complete amine simulation
for the base case was established as shown in Figure-5.7

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Figure-5.8 Complete Simulations Unit

CHAPTER 6
EQUIPMENT DESIGN
6.1 SEPARATOR
Separator is a kind of vessel in which fluid get separate due to the difference in density and by
the action of gravitational force. They are classified as two phase if it separate gas from the
total liquid stream and three phase if they separate liquid stream into its crude oil and water
components. Gas-Liquid separation is done to separate the liquid droplets which carried by the
high velocity gas or the bubbles of gas carried by the liquid. They are sometime called gas
scrubber when the ratio of the gas and liquid is very high.

[4]

Separator are called by different name as they are used for different fluid in between (solid,
Liquid & gas).Commonly Decanter or settler for Liquid-Liquid separation. Centrifugal separator
(Sedimentation centrifuge, Hydro cyclone) is used for solid-liquid separation.

[9]

6.1.1 Horizontal Separator


The fluid is entered in the separator and hits inlet diverter cause sudden change in momentum.
The initial gross causes the liquid and vapor occurs at the inlet driver. The gravitational force
causes the liquid drops to fall out of the gas stream to the bottom of the vessel where it is
collected. The time provided by the liquid collection section called retention time gas vapor
comes out from the liquid in this time .the liquid then leaves the vessel through the liquid dump
valve which is regulate by a level controller. The gas also carries some small drops of liquid
which get removed when gas passes through mist eliminator or extractor.

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Figure 5.1 Horizontal Separator

Example 6.1
Horizontal Separator Design Calculation
Given
Flow rate

:Qr

(bpd)

= 7200

Specific gravity:S

= 1.7

Pressure : P (psig)

= 62.4

Temperature : T (R)

= 614.9

Molecular weight : M

= 119.16

Density of gas

: g

(lb/ft^3)
Density of liquid

= 4.287
: L

(lb/ft^3)

= 55

Compressibility factor : Z

= 0.85

Micron size (micro meter)

= 100

Viscosity : (cp)

=3

Solution:
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STEP NO.1
Liquid capacity constraint
d 2 Leff =

(t r )(QL )
0.7

Taken Retention time (

d 2 Leff =

[Type text]

tr

) minutes 3

(3)(7200)
=30857.14286
0.7

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STEP NO.2
L
(
ss)
Steam to steam length

Lss =

4d
3

STEP NO.3
Slenderness ratio
Slenderness ratio (12 Lss /d)
Table 5.1 Diameter VS Length for Liquid Capacity Constant
d (inch)

Leff (ft)

Lss (ft )

slenderness ratio(12 Lss /d)

24

53.57142858

71.42857

35.71428572

30

34.28571429

45.71429

18.28571429

36

23.80952381

31.74603

10.58201058

42

17.49271137

23.32362

6.663890046

46

14.58277073

19.44369

5.072268079

52

11.41166526

15.21555

3.511281618

54

10.58201058

14.10935

3.135410543

56

9.839650147

13.11953

2.811328613

RESULT:
Dimension of Separator 54 inch 14.11 ft4 6 14 2
Where,

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d=diameter(inch)
Leff =effective length(ft)

g =density of gas
L=density of liquid

t r=retention time(min)
Q r=flow rate(barrel per day)
Lss seam seamlength (ft )
6.1.2 Vertical Separator

It vertical separator the inlet flow enters the vessel through the side.as the horizontal separator
the diverter does the initial separation. The liquid flow down the liquid collection section of the
vessel. Liquid continues to flow downward through this section to liquid outlet. As the liquid
reaches the equilibrium, gas bubbles floe counter to the direction of the liquid and liquid pump
vale operate which is regulate by a level controller. The gas also carry some small drops of liquid
which get removed when gas passes through mist eliminator or extractor same as horizontal
separator. [4][9]

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Figure 6.2 Vertical Separator

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Example 6.2
Vertical Separator Designing

[4]

Given:
Flow Rate = 50 MMSCFD
Specific gravity = 0.756
Molecular weight = 21.91
L=61.63 Lb/ ft

Density of liquid =
Density of gas =

g =4.287 Lb /ft

Micron size = 100 micro meter


Compressibility Factor = Z = 0.825
Viscosity (cp) = 0.01168
Pressure = 1015psig
Temperature = 584.7 R
Solution:
STEP NO. 1
Assume

CD

from Graph

C D=0.34

STEP NO. 2
V t =0.0119

V t =0.0119

L g
Micron C D
g

61.63 4.287 100

4.287
0.34

V t =0.746639( ft /sec)
STEP NO.3
Reynolds number

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Reynolds no.=

0049

Vt
( g Micron
)

STEP NO. 4
Calculated CD

[(

CD=

Calculated

24
3
+
( )

CD

+ (Assume

STEP NO. 5
Recalculate

Vt

(ft/sec)

L g
Micron C D
g
V t =0.0119

Table-5.2 Iteration for Calculating


Iteration number
STEP 01: Assume
STEP 02:

Vt

CD

(ft/sec)

STEP 03: Reynolds number


STEP 04: Calculated
STEP 05 : Recalculate
Vt

(ft./sec)

CD

88.75782

81.21732

79.54115

79.1450

79.0501
7
0.98102
4
0.439411

0.34
0.74639
134.238
7
0.77771

0.928832

0.968391

0.97810

9
0.98045

6
0.49351

0.451588

0.442268

7
0.44006

7
0.43953

STEP NO. 6
Calculate K

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Vt

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K

g
Calculated C D =0.27082
L g

STEP NO. 7
Gas Capacity

Gas Capacity

GasCapacity : GC = 504 x

504

( flow rate T Z K )
P

R 0.825 0.270817
( 50 MMSCFD 584.7
)
1015 psig

.=58 ) = 4-ft 10-in


GasCapacity :GC =56.95068

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STEP NO. 8
Slenderness-Ratio (12Lss/d)
Assume slenderness-ratio (12Lss/d) 3

STEP NO. 9
Seam-to-Seam Length (ft)
Seam-to-Seam Length (ft)

GC constant

( 12dLss )

12

Seam-to-Seam Length (ft) 14.23 or 14-ft 3-in

STEP NO. 10
Liquid volume height (inches)
Liquid volume height (inches) (12 Seam-to-Seam Length (ft))
(40)
Liquid volume height (inches) 73.90137 or 74-ft

RESULT
Dimensions 4-ft 10-in x 14-ft 3-in. x 74 ft

Where,
d=diameter(inch )

Leff =effective length(ft)

g =density of gas
L=density of liquid

t r=retention time (min)

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Q r=flow rate(barrel per day)
Lss seam seamlength (ft )

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6.1.3 Knockout drum (E-45)
Before entering the absorber, the raw gas which is coming from the wellhead firstly passes
through knockout drum where entrained droplets or slugs of liquid are removed from the gas
stream by impaction devices (shown in PFD).some of the liquid portion is removed by the
Baffles and the other portion trap through Mist eliminator pads which is located near the gas
outlet of the tank. Typical contaminants in natural gas streams may be liquid hydrocarbons, salt
water, sands, well treating compounds, pipeline treating chemicals, and compressor oils. It is
important that these contaminants have to be removed before the gas reaches the absorber. Once
in the sweetening system, these contaminants can cause a number of operational problems
including foaming, equipment fouling, and high corrosion rates, usually resulting in solvent loss
and difficulty in meeting sweet gas specifications.
6.1.4 Flash Tank (E-46)
In many units the rich amine solution is sent from the absorber to a flash skimmer tank to
recover hydrocarbons that may have dissolved or condensed in the amine solution in the
absorber. The pressure of the solution is dropped as it enters the tank, allowing the lightest of the
hydrocarbons to flash. The heavier hydrocarbons remain as a liquid, but separate from the
aqueous amine, forming a separate liquid layer. Because the hydrocarbons have a lower density
than the aqueous amine therefore they form the upper liquid layer, and can be skimmed off the
top.
But in our case the hydrocarbon is in negligible quantity so we use flash tank (horizontal
vessel) reason behind of using horizontal vessel large amount of Liquid (lean amine) is
passes through from it. The gas bubbles scape from the lean amine in the provided
residence time.
it recommends the flash tank amine level control valve be located downstream of the rich/lean
exchanger as close to the still column inlet as possible in order to ensure that breakout acid gases
enter the column rather than the piping, filter or exchanger.

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5.1.5 Sweet Gas Separator (E-44):
The gas coming from absorber contains some droplets of Liquid (MDEA) due to the higher
velocity of it so a vertical separator is used to recover amount of amine (MDEA) from the sweet
gas after recovering the liquid is transfer to Flash tank (E-45) where it combine with rich amine
and goes for further treatment. The gas coming from absorber contains some droplets of Liquid
(MDEA) due to the higher velocity of it so a vertical separator is used to recover amount of
amine (MDEA) from the sweet gas after recovering the liquid is transfer to Flash tank (E-45)
where it combine with rich amine and goes for further treatment. The function of the outlet
separator is to remove the entrained liquid amine carried over with the gas from the
contactor/absorber. The liquid carryover is normally not very severe except during heavy
foaming or upset. Depending on the cost of solvent, it may be worthwhile to install a liquid
coalescer on the amine contactor outlet to recover valuable solvent. A slug catcher or properly
sized outlet separator should be installed in front of the outlet coalescer, which cannot handle
large liquid volumes. Other methods to capture amine losses are water wash systems and/or
outlet gas coolers.

[21][25][27]

6.2 DISTILLATION COLUMNS


Distillation columns are vertical, cylindrical vessels containing devices that provide intimate
contacting of the rising vapor with the descending liquid. This contacting provides the
opportunity for the two streams to achieve some approach to thermodynamic equilibrium.
Depending on the type of internal devices used, the contacting may occur in discrete steps, called
plates or trays, or in a continuous differential manner on the surface of a packing material. The
fundamental requirement of the column is to provide efficient and economic contacting at a
required mass-transfer rate. Individual column requirements vary from high vacuum to high
pressure, from low to high liquid rates, from clean to dirty systems, and so on. As a result, a large
variety of internal devices has been developed to fill these needs. The column devices discussed
herein are used for observation (qv) and stripping as well as distillation. The principal
operational difference is that in absorption or stripping, the gas flowing up the column is
primarily a non-condensable phase at column conditions, whereas in distillation the gas phase is
a condensable vapor.
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6.3 ABSORPTION AND STRIPPING
The mass transfer in absorption and stripping is almost completely in one direction.
Consequently, the phase rates change rapidly through the column if an appreciable amount of
material is transferred. In absorption, the wet gas which rises through the column loses material
to the descending absorber oil but little of the relatively nonvolatile oil passes to the gas phase.
As a result, the gas phase decreases in amount as it rises and the liquid phase increases a
corresponding amount as it descends. The direction of transfer is reversed in stripping.
6.3.1 Absorption
A widely used alternative to distillation for the separation of a solute from a gas stream is
absorption. In this separation process, the gas mixture is contacted with a liquid solvent which
preferentially absorbs one or more components from the gas stream. Liquid flow rate,
temperature, and pressure are the variables that must be set in this separation process.
The absorption factor L/KV for a relatively dilute component in the gas phase determines
how readily that component will absorb in the liquid phase. Here L and V are the liquid and
vapor flow rates, respectively, and K is the vapor/liquid equilibrium value for that component.
When the absorption factor for a specified component is large, it's absorptivity in the liquid is
increased. When the absorption factor is increased by increasing the liquid flow rate, the number
of trays in the column required to obtain a specified separation decreases. However, at high
values of the absorption factor, an increase in the liquid flow rate achieves diminishing returns.
Accordingly, an economic optimum for process design has been established namely, 1.2 < L /
KV < 2.0. A value of 1.4 is often used.
The tray spacing should be sufficient for the liquid foam disengaging space. Also adequate
disengaging must be provided at the top of the tower (Q.B Johnson recommends a 4 foot
minimum). Selective solvent typically have multiple feed points on the contractor to slippage of
some acid gas, usually CO2.

[9]

We have used fixed valve trays. The pressure drop in the fixed valve trays is low as
compared to movable valve trays and bubble cap trays.

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6.3.2 Regeneration or Stripping
Once a solute dissolved in solvent, it is often necessary to separate the solute from the absorbent
in a stripping operation to recycle the absorbent back to the absorber. The stripping factor KV/L
should be large, to permit the stripping the solute and concentrating the latter in vapour phase.
For a stripping column, the stripping factor should be in range of 1.2 < KV/L < 2.0 and
economically is often close to 1.4. With the strippers a temperature decrease is noted as liquid
flows down the column. The reasoning is analogous to that developed earlier for absorbers. Thus,
to enhance the stripping process requires a increase in operating temperature and/or decrease in
column pressure.
The percentage of amine sulphide and carbonate that convert acid gas to amine depends upon the
amount of heat and stripping steam applied to the stripper tower.
The hot stripping steam is the source of heat necessary to drive the acid gases out of the rich
amine solution. Reflux is introduced to the stripper.
We have also used fixed valve trays in the regenerator because of the same reason as the
pressure drop is less in the fixed valve trays as compared to the movable valve trays and
bubble cap trays.
The sour gases, hydrocarbon and water vapour leave the top of the stripper via a demister screen
to a reflux condenser where the water vapour and any amine vapour are condensed to provide a
liquid reflux back to the amine stripper. The acid gases (H 2S and CO2) and HCs are vented
through a pressure control valve (PCV) to the flare system. The semi lean amine that
accumulates in the bottom of the amine stripper flows by gravity into the bottom of the amine
reboiler.

[9]

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6.4 PLATE AND FRAME HEAT EXCHANGER


The plate heat exchanger (PHE) consists of a frame in which closely spaced metal plates are
clamped between a head and a follower. The plates have circular holes in a corner and these
holes are sealed around by gasket which also attach over plate edges. Holes at the corner are
known as ports. Typical plate and gasket plate heat exchangers are shown below

Figure 6.3
Plates are pressed form of stainless steel, titanium, Hestelloy C, Incoloy 825, nickel 200, Monel
400, aluminium brass tantalum, etc. The thickness of plate ranges from 0.5 to 3 mm. the gas
between plates is ranging from 1.5 to 5 mm. this gap is maintained by gasket, which is
sandwiched between two metal surfaces. Plates are having corrugated surfaces. Corrugated
surface design strengthens the plates, increases the effective heat transfer area and produces
turbulence in the fluids flowing through gaps. Plates are easily cleaned and replaced. The heat
transfer area can be readily increased or decreased by adding or removing plates, respectively.
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Hot and cold fluids are allowed to flow in alternate channels. For any one plate, one side
corrugated surface is contact with cold fluid while the other side of corrugated surface is in
contact with hot fluid.
2
Heat transfer area per plate ranges from 0.03 to 1.5 m . Height to width ratio of plate ranges

2
from 2 to 3. The upper limit of standard gasket PHE is reported as 650 m of heat transfer

surface. Total number of plates of this PHE is 400. Variety of gasket materials (table 6.12) is used
in plate size of this PHE having 2.8 m height and 1.1 m width.
Table-6.3
Gasket Material
Styrene butadiene rubber
Medium nitrile rubber
Butyl rubber
Fluorocarbon rubber
Compressed asbestos fiber

Temperature limit, C
85
135
150
175
260

5.4.2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER OVER


SHELL AND TUBE EXCHANGERS
Advantages
1. Plate heat exchanger provides higher heat transfer coefficient as compared to shell and tube
heat exchanger
2. Maintenance and cleaning is easier with PHE as compared to shell and tube heat exchanger
3. Fouling resistance is less with PHE
4. Minimum driving force required for heat transfer is 1 C for PHE. While the same is 3 to 5 C
for shell and tube heat exchanger
5. PHE are more flexible. It is easy to increase or decrease the heat transfer area by adding or
removing the plate.

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6. With highly viscous liquid, PHE is better as it is can be easily cleaned
Disadvantages
1. Fixed cost of plate and hence of PHEs is higher. PHE are not as widely used as shell and
tube heat exchangers
2. Gasketed PHE cannot be used if operating pressure is more than 30 bar or operating
temperature is more than 250C. While for the same case shell and tube heat exchanger
can be used.
3. Internal leakage or mixing of two fluids is more common with PHE compared to shell
and tube heat exchanger
4. Liquid containing suspended particles tend to plug the flow area in PHE easily and so
frequent cleaning becomes necessary. In shell and tube heat exchanger chocking can be
delayed / avoided by keeping higher velocities in tubes or by selecting bigger size tubes.
EXAMPLE 6.3
PLATE AND FRAME HEAT EXCHANGER

[8]

Table-6.4

IN

GIVEN DATA
RICH AMINE TEMPERATURE (F)
(t 1)
OUT (t 2)

154.63

215.06
LEAN AMINE TEMPERATURE (F)
(T
)
1
IN
OUT (T 2)
255.74

195.60

MEAN PRPERTIES
RICH AMINE
Density (Lb/cu.ft)
64.54
Heat capacity (Btu/Lb.F)
0.84
Volume flow (cu. ft/sec)
0.517
Mass flow (Lb/sec)
33.35
[Type text]

Page 73 of 200

LEAN AMINE
61.31
0.90
0.518
31.75

Gas Sweetening Plant


Viscosity (Lb/ft.hr)
Thermal Conductivity(Btu/ft.F.hr)

3.49
0.221

*(From Hysys)

STEP NO. 1
Heat Duty Q
Q = m Cp (T hT c )
Q = 31.75 0.90 (255.74 195.60)
Q = 6182037(Btu/hr)
STEP NO. 2
Log Mean Temperature Difference
Let no. of passes = 1

LMTD

(T 1 t 2) (T 2 t 1)
(T t )
ln 1 2
(T 2 t 1 )

LMTD = 40.82
NTU (no. of transfer units) = (T1 T2) / LMTD
NTU = 1.473
From figure 6.36 (Ft = 0.97)
Corrected LMTD = LMTD * Ft 39.60

STEP NO. 3
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U (Btu/sq.ft.hr)
U = 176 (assumed)
STEP NO. 4
Area Provided For Heat Transfer A (sq. ft)
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2.23
0.227

Gas Sweetening Plant


A p=

Q
=887 sq . ft
U x T

STEP NO. 5
Plate Layout
Selecting the plate having width of 2.82 f t
Height to width ratio 2 to 3
Height 5.64 f t
Effective area of one plate 15. 92sq. f t

STEP NO. 6
First trial calculation
No. of plates =

Ap

/ Effective area of one plate

No. of plates = 56.0


Number of channels per pass = (no. of plates -1) / (2 x no. of passes) = 28
Let gap between plates y 0.005 f t

(usual range is between 0.0015 to 0.005)

Equivalent diameter (de) 2 x y 0.01


Flow area (plate width gap between plates) (2.82 0.005 = 0.014 sq. f t

STEP NO. 7

(LEAN AMINE SIDE CALCULATION)

Velocity of Lean Amine


Ve

QL

/ flow area 0.518 /0.014=1. 4 f t

STEP NO. 7.1


V e d e
Reynolds Number (Re) (density
)/

[Type text]

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/sec

Gas Sweetening Plant


If viscosity is in cp so it is multiplied by .001 to get N. m/sec
Re 1324

STEP NO. 7.2


Prandl Number (

[Type text]

Pr

) (Cp ) / (k) 8.84

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STEP NO. 7.3
Lean Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (Btu/sq.ft.hr)
Constants equal to

0.65

0.4

0.26

hi=

(k / de) (c) (Re^a) (Pr^b) 1533 (Btu/hr sq.ftF)

STEP NO. 8

(RICH AMINE SIDE CALCULATION)

Velocity of Rich Amine


V e =

Q / flow area 0.517/ 0.014 1.35 f t

/sec

STEP NO. 8.1


Reynolds Number (Re) (density Ve de) /
Re 886

STEP NO. 8.2


Prandl no. (Pr) (Cp ) / (k) 13.27

STEP NO. 8.3


Lean Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (Btu/hr sq. f t

F)

Constants equal to

a 0.65

b 0.4

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ho =

c 0.26
(k / de) x (c) x (Re^a) x (Pr^b)

[Type text]

1353 (Btu/hr sq.ftF)

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STEP NO. 9
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient ( U ) (Btu/hr sq.ftF)
h
h
1/U 1/ i + 1/ o

tp

/K+ 1/

hid

+ 1/

hod

Where
hi=

Heat transfer coefficient of lean amine (hr sq. f t

F/Btu)

ho =

Heat transfer coefficient of rich amine (hr sq. f t

F/Btu)

hid

Fouling coefficient of lean amine (0.002 hr sq. f t

hod =
tp

Fouling coefficient of rich amine (0.002 hr sq. f t

F/Btu)
F/Btu)

Plate thickness (0.00164 to 0.00984 f t )

Thermal conductivity of material (9.4 Btu/ftFhr)

174.22 (Btu/hr sq. f t

F)

STEP NO. 10
Required heat transfer area (
Ar

Ar

= Q / U x T = 896.06 sq. f t

Since, required area is just 1.07% in excess of area provided so we can proceed to next step
otherwise change no. of passes and gap between plates and plate dimensions.
STEP NO. 11
Pressure Drop Calculations for Lean Amine
0.3
Friction factor J f =0.6 =0.069

Path length

[Type text]

LP

Plate length No. Of passes 5.64 f t

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J
L
Plate pressure drop (Lb/sq.in) (8) x ( f ) ( P
^2) / 2)

de

Ve

) ((density

0.001 3.87

Let port diameter (hole diameter) = 0.39 f t


Hole area ( /4) x 0.39^2 0.12sq. f t
V hi

Velocity of lean amine through hole

QL

/ hole area 4.25

ft

/sec

V h
Port pressure drop (1.3) (density
^2)//2 0.003281 0.16 Lb/sq.in
Total Lean Amine Side Pressure Drop Plate pressure drop + port pressure drop 3.87+
0.16 4.03 (Lb/sq.in)

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STEP NO. 12
Pressure Drop Calculations for Rich Amine
Friction factor
Path length

J f =

LP

0.6 Re^-0.3 0.069

plate length

No. Of passes 5.64 f t

J
Plate pressure drop (Lb/sq.in) (8) ( f ) (Lp/de) ((density Ve^2)/2)
0.003281 4.58
0.39 f t

Let port diameter (hole diameter)


Hole area (
V ho=

/4)

0.39 ^2 0.122 sq. f t

Velocity of lean amine through hole

Port pressure drop (1.3)

(density

QL

/ hole area 4.25

V ho

^2) / 2

ft

/sec

0.003281 0.017

(Lb/sq.in)
Total Lean Amine Side Pressure Drop Plate pressure drop + port pressure drop
4.58+0.017=4.58+0.017=4.593 Lb/( sq . ft)
6.4 KETTLE TYPE REBOILER
The choice of the best type of reboiler or vaporizer for a given duty will
depend on the following factors:
a. The nature of the process fluid, particularly its viscosity and propensity to
fouling.
b. The operating pressure: vaccum or pressure.
c. The equipment layout, particularly the headroom available.

6.4.1 Criteria of Selection between Kettle Type Reboiler and Thermosyphon Reboiler.

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1. Boiling fluid side (process fluid side) pressure drop in kettle type reboiler is
negligible. While the same is the high and significant in thermosyphon
reboiler.
2. If the viscosity of bottom product of distillation column is very high, then
thermosyphon reboiler cannot be used. In such a case forced circulation
reboiler is preferred.
3. With atmospheric and high pressure distillation column thermosyphon
reboiler are preferred as size and fixed cost of thermosyphon reboiler is
less than of same of kettle type reboiler.
4. Because of the fluid circulation, thermosyphon reboiler provides higher
heat transfer coefficient then kettle reboiler.
5. Collins suggests a rule of thumb that if the viscosity of the fluid to reboil
is less than 0.5 Cp, the vertical thermosyphon should be considered, but
when the viscosity is more than 0.5 Cp, the horizontal reboiler is probably
more economical. (Page 162 Ernest E. Ludwig Volume 3, Third Edition).
6. According to Yilmaz, the horizontal thermosyphon reboilers compared to
kettle rboilers are less likely to be fouled by the process due to their
better circulation and lower percent vaporization.
6.4.2 Conclusion
Since in our case the viscosity of fluid at the bottom of the regenerator
column (distillation column) is 0.9546 Cp i-e greater than 0.5 Cp therefore
thermo syphon reboiler cannot be used.
Hence kettle type reboiler will be the best choice.

6.4.3 Design of Kettle Reboilers


1. Kettle reboiler, and other submerged bundle equipment, is essentially
pool boiling devices, and their design is based on data for nucleate
boiling.
2. The mechanism of heat transfer from a submerged surface to a pool of
liquid depends on the temperature differences between the heated
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surface and the liquid. At low-temperature differences when the liquid is
below its boiling point, heat is transfer by natural convection. As the
surface temperature is raised incipient boiling occurs, vapor bubbles
forming and breaking loose from the surface. The agitation cause by the
rising bubbles, and other effects caused by bubble generation at the
surface, result in a large increase in the rate of heat transfer. This
phenomenon is known as nucleate boiling.
3. The maximum heat flux achieve with nucleate boiling is known as the
critical heat flux.
4. The critical flux is reached at surprisingly low temperature differences;
around 20 to 30 C for water, and 20 to 50C for light organics.
5. In nucleate boiling region the heat-transfer coefficient is dependent on the
nature and condition of the heat-transfer surface, and it is not possible to
present a universal correlation that will give accurate predictions for all
systems. The reduced correlation given by Mostinski (1963) is simple to
use and gives values that are as reliable as those given by more complex
equations.

P
q

( c)0.69
hcb =0.104
Where
hcb

. (12.63)

Nucleate, pool, boiling coefficient,

Operating pressure,

Pc =
q

Liquid critical pressure,

Heat flux,

Note:
q hcb (T w T s)
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Where
T w =
T s=

Wall, surface temperature,


Saturation temperature of boiling liquid.

For Mixtures
The equation (12.63) can be used for close boiling mixtures, say
less than 5C or F, but cannot be used for mixtures of wide boiling range.
Palen and Small (1964) give an empirical correction factor for mixtures which
can be used to estimate the heat transfer coefficient in the absence of
experimental data:
h
h
( cb)single component
( cb)mixture=f m

Where
f m=exp [0.0083 ( T boT bi ) ]

And

T bo=

Temperature of the vapor mixture leaving the

T bi=

Temperature of the liquid entering the reboiler.

reboiler,

6. The maximum heat flux for stable nucleate boiling wall, however, is less
for a tube bundle than for a single tube. Palen and Small (1964) suggest
modifying the Zuber equation for single tubes with a tube density factor.
This approach was supported by Palen et al. (1972).The modified Zuber
equation can be written as:

[Type text]

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q cb=K b

Pt
d0

0.25
[g ( l v ) v 2 ]
Nt

( ) ( )

.. (12.74)
Where
q cb=
Maximum (critical) heat flux for the tube bundle,
K b=

0.44 For square pitch arrangements,

0.41 For triangular pitch arrangements,

Pt =

Tube pitch,

d 0=

Tube outside diameter,

N t =

Total number of tubes in the bundle,

Note: For U-tubes

Nt

will be equal to twice the number of actual

U-tubes.
Palen and Small suggest that a factor of 0.7 is applied to the maximum flux
estimated from equation 12.74.
6.4.4 General Design Consideration
1. The tube arrangement, triangular or square pitch, will not have a
significant effect on the heat-transfer coefficient. A tube pitch of between
1.5 to 2.0 times the tubes outside diameter should be used to avoid vapor
blanketing. Long thin bundles will be more efficient than short thick
bundles.
2. Tube bundle diameter should be greater than 1 ft and less than 4 ft.
3. The shell should be sized to give adequate space for the disengagement
of the vapor and liquid. The shell typically should be about 40% greater
than that required for tube bundle only. This allows the disengaging
action. The shell diameter required will depend on the heat flux. The
following values can be used as a guide:

[Type text]

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[Type text]

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Table-6.5
Heat flux (W/m)
25,000
25,000 to 40,000
40,000

Shell dia. /Bundle dia


1.2 to 1.5
1.4 to 1.8
1.7 to 2.0
Table 6.6

Heat flux (Btu/hr ft)


20,000
15,000
12,000
8,000
Less than 8,000

Shell dia. /Bundle dia


1.9 to 2.5
1.8 to 2.1
1.5 to 1.7
1.3 to 1.6
1.2 to 1.5

*(From Page no174 Ernest E. Ludwig Volume 3, third Edition)

4. The freeboard between the liquid level and shell should be at least 0.25 m
or 0.8208 ft. to avoid excessive entrainment, the maximum vapor velocity

at the liquid surface should be less than that given by the expression:

<0.2 l v
v

1 /2

5. When the fluid being vaporized is a single component and the heating
medium is steam (or another condensing vapor), both shell and tube side
process will be isothermal and the mean temperature difference will be
simply the difference between the saturation temperatures. If one side is
not isothermal than the logarithmic mean temperature difference should
be used. If the temperature varies on both sides, the logarithmic
temperature difference must be corrected for cross or counter flow. etc.

[Type text]

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EXAMPLE 6.4
KETTLE TYPE REBOILER
STEP NO. 1
Heat Duty
Q=9120999 Btu/hr (2673 K W )
Add 5 percent for heat losses
i-e Q=1.05 9120999=9577049 Btu /hr ( 2807 K W )

STEP NO. 2
Assumption of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U
Assumed U=105.6 Btu/hr. ft F (or 600 W/m C)
STEP NO. 3
Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

( T 1t 2 )(T 2t1 )
Tm

ln

T 1t 2
T 2t 1

Here,
T 1 =

Hot fluid temperature, inlet 399.9 F ( 2204.4 C)

T 2 =

Hot fluid temperature, outlet 356 F ( 180 C)

t 1 =

Cold fluid temperature, inlet 248.9 F ( 120.5 C)

t 1 =

Cold fluid temperature, outlet 255.56 F ( 124.2 C)

i-e
Tm

( 399.92255.56 )(356248.9)
=
399.92255.56
ln
356248.9

124.8 F (Or 69.3 C )

STEP NO. 4
[Type text]

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Area of Heat Transfer: A
Since

Q=U A T m

i-e
A=

Q
9577049
=
=
U T m 105.6 124.8

[Type text]

726.697 ft 2 ( 67.47 m 2)

Page 89 of 200

Gas Sweetening Plant


STEP NO. 5
Tube Sizing and Layout of U-Tube
0.063 ft ( 0.0191 m) internal diameter, 0.052( 0.016 m) outer diameter of tube

Select

Nominal length 0.052 ft ( 0.016 m) of one tube


Using square pitch arrangement,
P
Pitch( t)=1.5
2OD
We take:

Pt =2 OD=2 0.063=0.126 ft ( 0.0382 m)

An even number of tube passes is usually the preferred arrangement, as these positions the inlet
and outlet nozzles at the same end of the exchanger, which simplifies the pipework.
N P =

Number of tube passes 2

STEP NO. 6
Number of Tubes

Nt
Nt=

Nt

A
A surface

For U-tube will be

A
726.697
=
=184.5 wetake 185 tubes
dL 0.063 6

N t 2=370

STEP NO. 7
Heat Transfer Coefficient at Shell Side (

hcb

P
q

( c)0.69
hcb =0.104

[Type text]

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Here,
2.05
P=4428 Lb /ft 2
217.74

Pc =470318.4 Lb /ft 2
41.60
Q
9577049
Heat flux: q= =
=13173.98 Btu/hr . ft W/m)
A 726.697
i-e
6055
hcb =1065.68( Btu/ ft 2 F hr ) W/m C)
h
h
( cb)single component
( cb)mixture=f m

Where,
f m=exp [0.0083 ( T boT bi ) ]
Here,
T bo=
T bi=

Temperature of the vapor mixture leaving the reboiler 255.56 F ( 124.20 C)


Temperature of the liquid entering the reboiler 248.9 F ( 120.50 C)

i-e
Correction factor (
Corrected

hcb

f m =0.95

And, Hence

5752.25
(mixture) 0.95 1065.68=1012.4 (Btu/ ft 2 . F . hr ) W/m C)

STEP NO. 8
For Tube Side Calculation
[Type text]

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velocity ( m/ s ) =/ A(cross sectional)
Where,
Mass flow rate 116.025(Lb /sec )( 52.5 Kg/ sec)
3
3
Density of fluid at tube side outlet 55.69 Lb /ft ( 889.9 Kg/m )

A (cross-sectional)

velocity=
i-e

2
2
2
2
d i = (0.052) =0.00212 ft ( 0.00189 m )
4
4

d i2 t
4
NP

Reynoldsnumber : =

116.025

370
55.69 0.00212
2

=5.36 ft / sec ( 1.635 m/sec)

DV

Where,

Density 55.69 Lb / m3 ( 889.9 Kg/m 3)

D Pipe ID 0.052 ft ( 0.016 m)


V

Flow velocity 5.36 ft / sec ( 1.635 m/sec)

Viscosity 0.9546 Cp=0.9546 /0.41338=2.309 Lb/ft . hr ( 0.0009546 Kg/m. sec)

55.69 0.0525.312 3600


=24064
2.309

Length of tube/inside diameter of tube (L/d)

[Type text]

20
( 0.052
)=387

Page 92 of 200

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J
Heat transfer friction factor ( h) from figure 0.0039

Prandl Number (

Pr

cp
) K

Where,
C p =

Specific heat :C p =0.5 Btu / Lb . F( 2.08 KJ / Kg . C)

K=

Thermal conductivity 0.086 Btu /ft . F . hr ( 0.15 W /m C )

0.9546
=2.31 Lb /ft . hr ( 0.0009546 Kg/m. sec)
Viscosity 0.9546 Cp=
0.41338

I-e

P r=

0.5 2.31
= 13
0.086
0.33

Nusselt number (Nu) J h (Pr )

0.33

=0.0039 24064 (13)

=221

I-e
Heat transfer coefficient at tube side (hi)

N u K 221 0.086
=
=367.5 Btu/hr . sq . ft . F ( 2135 W /m2 C)
di
0.052

STEP NO. 9
For Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficient

U=

1
1
+
+
h cb hcbd

hcb =

d0
di

( )

d 0 ln

2Kw

d0
1 1
+
di
hi hid

(U )

) Here,

2
Heat transfer coefficient at shell side 1012.4 Btu /hr . sq . ft . F ( 2135 W /m C)

[Type text]

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Fouling friction factor of amine and hot oil is;
hcbd hid
K w =

0.002 hr sq . ft F / Btu( 0.00032 m 2 C/W )


Thermal conductivity of tube wall material 9.4 Btu/ ft . F . hr ( 16.3W /m C)

d 0=

Tube outside diameter 0.063 ft ( 0.0191 m)

d i=

Tube inside diameter 0.052 ft ( 0.016 m)

i-e
613.5
The overall heat transfer coefficient U=107.1 Btu/hr sq . ft F W/m C)

[Type text]

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STEP NO. 10
For Area of Heat Transfer
Area required (Ar)

( Ar )

Q
9577049
=
=716.1 ft 2 ( 65.98 m2)
U T m 107.1 124.8

Since the area required is less than area provided and % excess area should be within 20 %
Calculating %excess area

1 =
( ArA 1) 100=( 726.6
716.1 )

1.41

STEP NO. 11
q
Calculating Critical Heat Flux ( cb )
q cb=K b

Pt
d0

0.25
[g ( l v ) v 2 ]
Nt

( ) ( )

Here,
K b=

0.44 for square pitch arrangements

d 0=

Tube outside diameter 0.063 ft ( 0.0191 m)

Pt =Pitch 0.126 ft ( 0.0382m) .


= Heat of vaporization 717 Btu / Lb( 1673000 J / Kg)
Nt

= Number of tubes 370

= Surface tension (dyne/cm) 41.18 0.000068523=0.0028 Lbf /ft ( 0.04118 N /m)

Acceleration due to gravity (g)=115746.624 ft /hr ( 9.8 m/ sec)


l=
v =

Density of Liquid in shell

60.23 Lb /ft 3 ( 962.10

Kg
)
m3

3
3
Density of Vapor in shell 0.07 Lb/ft (1.18 Kg /m )

i-e
[Type text]

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q cb=0.44

0.102
0.051

) (

0.25
1673000
[ 0.041189.8 ( 962.101.18 ) 1.182 ]
53

59250 Btu /hr sq . ft (186.46 KW /m2)


q
Since actual heat flux must be less than or equal to 0.7 of critical heat flux ( cb )
i-e
q cb=

0.7 59250=41475 Btu/hr sq . f t( 130.49 KW /m 2)


2

Since the actual heat flux 13179 Btu /hr sq . ft (41.60 KW /m )


This is less than 0.70 of critical heat flux
STEP NO. 12
Shell Diameter and Bundle Diameter
D b=

Nt

d
0
Bundle diameter
K1

( )

1
n1

Here,
For 2 passes and square pitch
K 1=0.156
n1=2.291
d 0=

Tube outside diameter 0.063 ft ( 0.0191 m)

Number of tubes:

N t =370

i-e
D b=0.063

370
0.156

1
2.291

= 1.86 ft ( 0.567 m)

Length of weir 0.3281 ft + D b=1.86 +.3281=2.1881 ft ( 0.667 m)

[Type text]

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Since

Ds

is 1.7 to 1.8 times

We take 1.8 times

Db if q>12,000 15,000 Btu / hr sq . ft

Db

i-e
D s=1.7 1.86

=3.159 ft (or 0.71m)

STEP NO. 13
:V max

Maximum Vapor Velocity Allowable


V max =<0.2

l v
v

1/ 2

=0.2

60.230.07
0.07

(ft/sec)
1/ 2

=5.72 ft / sec( 5.72m/ sec)

STEP NO. 14
Actual vapor velocity
mv

Actual vapor velocity (m/sec) v Liquid surface area


Liquid surface area L X
L (length of tube) 20 ft ( 6.096 m)
X (width of liquid) 3.159 ft ( 0.71 m)
Mass flow rate vapor: mv =2.6145 ft /sec ( 1.183 Kg/ sec)
v =

3
Density of Vapor in shell 1.18 Kg /m

i-e
Actual vapor velocity

[Type text]

2.6145
=0.56 ft /sec ( 0.232 m/sec)
1.18 20 3.159

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Figure 5.5

6.5 AIR-COOLED EXCHANGERS


Air-cooled units have been successfully and economically used in liquid cooling for compressor
engine and jacket water and other recirculating systems, petroleum fractions, oils, etc., and also
in condensing service for steam, high boiling organic vapors, petroleum still vapors, gasoline,
ammonia, etc. in general the economics of application favors service allowing a 30-40 F
difference between ambient air temperature and the exchange exit temperature of the fluid.
6.5.1 Air Cooled Heat Exchangers Why are they used?
The Air-cooled heat exchanger is a device for rejecting heat from a fluid or gas directly to
ambient air. When cooling both fluids and gases, there are two sources readily available, with a
relatively low cost, to transfer heat to..air and water.
The obvious advantage of an air cooler is that it does not require water, which means that
equipment requiring cooling need not be near a supply of cooling water. In addition, the
problems associated with treatment and disposal of water have become more costly with
government regulations and environmental concerns. The air-cooled heat exchanger provides a
means of transferring the heat from the fluid or gas into ambient air, without environmental
concerns, or without great ongoing cost.
An air-cooled heat exchanger can be as small as your car radiator or large enough to cover
several acres of land, as is the case on air coolers for large power plants where water is not
available.
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6.5.2 APPLICATIONS
The applications for air cooled heat exchangers cover a wide range of industries and products,
however generally they are used to cooler gases and liquids when the outlet temperature required
is greater than the surrounding ambient air temperature.
I.

The applications include:


1. Gas compressor packages.
2. Gas transmission facilities.
3. Engine cooling.
4. Condensing of gases (propane, refrigerants, etc.)
5. Steam condensers (used in power plants & process applications)

II.

Industrial uses include:


6. Bakeries to preheat ovens and provide steam for other equipment.
7. Hospitals to provide steam for sterilization and for cooling high tech.
8. Equipment that produces heat.
9. Refineries.

The only common thread among these users is the need to reject heat from a source into the air.
Some of these applications also use the discharge air from the air cooler to help heat buildings or
other equipment.
The advantages and disadvantages of forced and induced draft fan operation on the performance
of the unit is described below

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6.5.3 Induced Draft
Advantages
1. Better distribution of air across the bundle
2. Less possibility of hot effluent air recirculating into the intake. The hot air id discharged
upward at approximately 2.5 times the intake velocity, or about 1,500 ft. per min.
3. Better process control and stability because the plenum covers 60% of the bundle area,
reducing the effects of sun, rain, and hail.
4. Increase capacity in the fan-off or fan-failure condition, because the natural draft stack
effect is much greater
Disadvantages and limitations
1. Possibly higher horsepower requirements if the effluent air is very hot.
2. Effluent air temperature should be limited to 220 F to prevent damage to fan blades,
bearings, or other mechanical equipment in the hot air stream. When the process inlet
temperature exceeds 350 F, forced draft design should be considered because high
effluent air temperatures may occur during fan-off or low air flow operations.
3. Fans are less accessible for maintenance, and maintenance may have to be done in the hot
air generated by natural convection.
4. Plenums must be removed to replace bundles.

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Figure 6.6

6.5.4 FORCED DRAFT


Advantages
1. Possibly lower horsepower requirements if the effluent air is very hot. (Horsepower
varies inversely with the absolute temperature.)
2. Better accessibility of bundles for replacement.
3. Accommodates higher process inlet temperatures.
Disadvantages
1. Less uniform distribution of air over the bundle.
2. Increased possibility of hot air recirculation, resulting from low discharge velocity from
bundles, high intake velocity to the fan ring, and no stack.
3. Low natural draft capability on fan failure.
4. Complete exposure of the finned tubes to sun, rain, and hail, which results in poor
process control and stability.

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Figure 6.7

6.5.5 Air Cooler Standers


First, almost all air coolers are built to Sect. VIII of the ASME Code, since they are pressure
vessels. For refinery and petrochemical services most customers include API 661 (Air-Cooled
Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service) in their specifications. This API spec is very
good since it includes all the necessary information to properly specify a cooler and provides for
a high level of minimum quality in the design and fabrication of the cooler. In the back it has a
very good checklist where a customer can decide exactly what type construction is needed and
what options are important. These include such items as galvanizing vs. painting, types of
headers, maintenance walkways and platforms, controls, and external loads on the cooler. The
following details refer mostly to the API specifications

[8]

6.5.6 Controls use in Air Cooler


As one might expect the best kind of control scheme depends on the application. Does the
process require a very tight control on the process outlet temperature, or is it better to allow the
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process temperature to go down with the ambient air temperature. Is there a possibility of
freezing the process? Is there a pour-point problem? Is the cost of operating the fan motors a
significant factor? The following is a list of some of the commonly used control devices for air
coolers, but in no particular order.
1. Manually operated louvers.
2. Electrically or pneumatically operated louvers.
3. Pneumatically actuated automatic variable-pitch fans.
4. Variable-frequency fan drives.
5. Warm-air recirculation systems for freezing/pour point control in cold climates.

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6.6 FILTRATION
A good filtration design includes both a particulate and a carbon filter. The cleaner the amine
solution, the better the amine system operates. The particulate filter is used to remove
accumulated particulate contaminants from the amine solution that can enhance foaming and
aggravate corrosion. Carbon filtration removes surface active contaminants and hydrocarbons
that contribute to foaming. With proper inlet gas separation and pre-treatment, filtering a 10 to 20
percent slipstream of the total lean solution has usually proven adequate. Where practical, total
stream filtration should be considered.

FIGURE 5.8
The filtration system is typically installed on the cool lean amine stream (absorber feed).
Recirculation of a slipstream from the discharge side of the charge pump to the filtration system
with a return to the suction side of the pump is a common arrangement. If they used combined in
series, the particulate filter should be installed upstream of the carbon filter to protect the carbon
filter. A second post-filter or screen should be installed downstream of the carbon filter to keep
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carbon fines out of the circulating system. If the carbon filter is installed independent of the
particulate filter, a pre-filter should be installed on the carbon filter inlet to protect the carbon
bed. In systems that are extremely contaminated with particulate due to inadequate feed
preparation, excessive corrosion, or if the inlet gas CO2/H2S ratio is high, particulate filtration of
the rich amine exiting the absorber may be required. The concern is that FeS in the rich amine
can dissociate in the regenerator under certain conditions to soluble iron products which lean side
filtration will not remove. These soluble iron products can then react with H2S in the contactor to
form additional FeS, fouling the absorber trays or packing. If components of the filtration system
are installed on the rich amine stream, extreme care should be taken when performing
maintenance to control the risk of exposure to H2S.
6.6.1 Particulate Filter
The particulate filter should filter a minimum 10 to 20% slipstream of the circulating solution.
Numerous particulate filter mediums have been utilized in amine service: wound bleached cotton
disposable filter cartridges with polypropylene or metal cores, disposable metal cartridges,
pleated paper filter cartridges, sock-type disposable elements and non-disposable/ back-flushable
mechanical filters with special metal etched filter elements. Experience has shown that a 10micron absolute filter is adequate for most amine applications, although some MDEA
applications as well as many refinery amine applications, which are plagued by a black, shoe
polish-like material consisting of iron sulfide bound with hydrocarbon and polymerized amine,
require more stringent filtration. The FeS-hydrocarbon shoe polish-like material is very finely
divided, with eighty percent of the FeS particles being between 1 and 5 microns in size. 5 micron
absolute filtration is typically recommended for these applications.
6.6.2 Carbon Filter
Carbon filter is used in those in amine systems that experience severe emulsion problems due to
significant hydrocarbon contamination. A properly designed activated carbon (Activated carbon
with high iodine number i.e. high adsorption capacity, high abrasion number i.e. abrasion
resistance against degradation is preferred) system can reduce the need for antifoam, reduce
amine make up, reduce corrosion and improve scrubbing efficiencies and product quality. The
carbon system should treat at least 10 to 20% of the circulating lean amine solution. A minimum
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contact time of 15 minutes and a superficial velocity of 2 to 4 gpm/sq. f t .with bed depth
approximately 3- 10 feet are considered appropriate. When the amine solution changes color or
clarity or the solution foaming tendency increases, the carbon is spent and should be changed.
Typical maximum carbon life is 6 to 9 months.

Our flow rate is 22 gpm

So area required is 1/4 x 22 = 5.5 sq . f t

Considered 5 ft. bed depth

[8][4]

Diameter of the vessel = 1.1 f t

FIGURE 5.9
6.6.3 CONCLUSIONS
Activated carbon filters may be used in lieu of all other types of filters to completely remove all
contaminants, both solid and liquid (either dissolved or entrained) from amine systems. These
activated carbon filters, when properly designed and installed will result in the system being
cleaner than will be possible with almost all other purification processes for amine and glycol

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systems. In addition, activated carbon filtration can easily be installed and properly maintained,
and will be the most economical method of purification of amine systems.
6.6.4 Designing Of Our Graded Bed Activated Carbon Filter
Since the bed consist of layers of different materials so we use data given above in the heading of
Graded Bed Activated Carbon Filter
Maximum allowable velocities is 2.5 gpm/sq. ft.
The mechanical filtration for removal of solid particulate matter occurs in the top 2 in. or 3
in. bed.
The 2nd layer consists of fine 10 x 30 meshes or smaller activated carbon having thickness of
12 in. to 18 in.
The third layer consists of finer support media (3/32 in. to 3/16 in.) have a thickness of 9 in.
The fourth layer consists of support media of either gravel or crushed anthracite coal (5/16 in.
to 9/16 in.) have a thickness of 9 in.
The bottom layer approximately of 4 in. has a diameter of particles 3/16 in. to 5/8 in.
1. So total height of bed from given data = (3 + 18 + 9 + 9 + 4) = 43 in. plus 12 in for seem-toseem length = 55 in. (approx. 4.6 ft.)
2. Our flow rate is 22 USGPM, using unity method 2.5 gpm/sq. ft. gives area for our flow = 8.8
sq. ft.
3. For diameter = area/height = 1.9 ft. or (approx. 2 ft.)

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Figure 6.10

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6.7 PUMP
A pump is a device which use raises or transfer fluid. . Pumps are selected for processes not only
to raise and transfer fluids, but also to meet some other criteria. This other criteria may be
constant flow rate or constant pressure.
6.7.1 PURPOSE OF USING PUMP
A pump is designed to transfer to move a fluid against gravity fluid from one point to another
they transfer fluid from low pressure areas to higher pressure areas, low elevations to higher
elevations, and from local locations to distant locations. Examples of low pressure areas are
atmospheric tanks, tanks under vacuum, bodies of water or any fluid storage area where the
surface pressure is equal to or less than requires a pump to add energy to it in order to achieve
this higher elevation. Without energy transfer fluid will not be raise to its new and higher level.
In rare cases pumps are used to move fluid down in elevation to achieve a specific flow rate.
6.7.2 PUMP SELECTION FACTORS
The selection of the pump class and type for a certain application is influenced by system
requirements, system layout, fluid characteristics, intended life, energy cost, code requirements,
and materials of construction.
6.7.3 Type of Pumps
There are two main categories of pumps and they are dynamic and positive displacement and
these two categories also have many subcategories of pumps.

Figure 6.11

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6.7.4 Centrifugal Pumps
A centrifugal pump converts the input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by accelerating the
liquid with the help of a revolving device called impeller. The most common type is the volute
pump. Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller which rotates at high speed. The
fluid is accelerated radially outward from the pump chasing. A vacuum is created at the impellers
eye that continuously draws more fluid into the pump.
The energy created by the pump is kinetic energy according the Bernoulli Equation. The energy
transferred to the liquid corresponds to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The
faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller is, the higher will the velocity of the liquid
energy transferred to the liquid. This is described by the Affinity Laws.

[18]

Figure 6.12

6.7.4.1 Pressure and Head


If the discharge of a centrifugal pump is pointed straight up into the air the fluid will pumped to a
certain height - or head - called the shut off head. This maximum head is mainly determined by
the outside diameter of the pump's impeller and the speed of the rotating shaft. The head will
change as the capacity of the pump is altered.
The kinetic energy of a liquid coming out of an impeller is obstructed by creating a resistance in
the flow. The first resistance is created by the pump casing which catches the liquid and slows it
down. When the liquid slows down the kinetic energy is converted to pressure energy.It is the
resistance to the pump's flow that is read on a pressure gauge attached to the discharge line

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A pump does not create pressure, it only creates flow. Pressure is a measurement of the resistance
to flow.
In Newtonian fluids (non-viscous liquids like water or gasoline) the term head is used to
measure the kinetic energy which a pump creates. Head is a measurement of the height of the
liquid column the pump creates from the kinetic energy the pump gives to the liquid. The main
reason for using head instead of pressure to measure a centrifugal pump's energy is that the
pressure from a pump will change if the specific gravity (weight) of the liquid changes, but the
head will not
The pump's performance on any Newtonian fluid can always be described by using the term
head.
Different Types of Pump Head
1. Total Static Head - Total head when the pump is not running
2. Total Dynamic Head (Total System Head) - Total head when the pump is running
3. Static Suction Head - Head on the suction side, with pump off, if the head is higher than the
pump impeller
4. Static Suction Lift - Head on the suction side, with pump off, if the head is lower than the
pump impeller
5. Static Discharge Head - Head on discharge side of pump with the pump off
6. Dynamic Suction Head/Lift - Head on suction side of pump with pump on
7. Dynamic Discharge Head - Head on discharge side of pump with pump on
The head is measured in either feet or meters and can be converted to common units for pressure
as psi or bar.

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it is important to understand that the pump will pump all fluids to the same height if the shaft
is turning at the same rpm
The only difference between the fluids is the amount of power it takes to get the shaft to the
proper rpm. The higher the specific gravity of the fluid the more power is required.
Basic Description
1. Many types and configurations for different applications.
2. See below for specific centrifugal pump types
Applications Used
1. All sorts of liquids can be pumps with centrifugal pumps.
2. Highest flow rates of all pump types.
3. Handles clean or dirty liquids and liquids with low viscosity.
4. Liquid should not contain air or vapors
Recommended Media (Fluid)
1. Water and relatively thin liquids (won't pump thicker oils).
2. Can pump liquids with or without solids if proper impeller type is chosen.
3. Available in alloys for corrosive services.
Advantage
1. Best pump choice for lower viscosity (thin) liquids and high flow rates.
2. No pulsations that may be found in some positive displacement pumps.
Flow Rate Ranges
5 - 200,000 GPM
Total Head (Pressure) Ranges
10 - 7,500 ft

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Horse Power Ranges
0.125 - 5,000 hp

Figure 6.13 Centrifugal Pump

Table-6.7 Parts of Centrifugal pump

1. JM Motor

7. Hex nut

13. Casing O-ring

2. Key shaft

8. Mechanical seal

14. Wear ring

3. Slinger

9. Stud

15. Pump casing

4. Shaft sleeve

10. Impeller nut

16. Plug

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11. Spring washer

17. Impeller

[Type text]
5. Motor adaptor
6. Hex bolt

12. Socket hex head bolt

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6.7.5 Positive Displacement Pump
Basic Description
A Positive Displacement Pump must not be operated against a closed valve on the discharge side
of the pump because it has no discharge valve, the pump will continue to produce flow until the
pressure in the discharge line get increase and line get burst or the pump is severely damaged or
both. A relief or safety valve use on the discharge of the Positive Displacement Pump is
necessary. The relief valve can be internal or external.
The internal valve should in general only be used as a safety precaution

An external relief valve installed in the discharge line which is used for return back to
the fluid to the suction line or supply tank is recommended

Figure 6.14 Positive displacement Pump

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Applications Used
All types of services in many industries where positive displacement pumps are favored
over centrifugal pumps due to high viscosity, presence of fragile or shear sensitive solids,
or need for low flow and high pressure.
Recommended Media (Fluid)
High viscosity fluids, some thinner fluids, fluids containing solids, especially fragile
solids, and shear sensitive liquids.
Advantage
Best choice for higher viscosity services, and to move liquids gently.
May also be needed for low flow, high pressure combination, or other application niches.
Some types are inherently self-priming, and several types are seal less
Flow Rate Ranges
0.1 to 15,000 gpm
Total Head (Pressure) Ranges
10 - 100,000 psi
Horse Power Ranges
0.5 - 5,000 hp

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Table-6.8 Types of Pumps and Specification

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Total Head
(Pressure )
Rangers

Horse
Power
Ranger

Pump Type

Recommended Media (fluid)

Flow Rate
Ranges

Axial Flow
Pump

Water and relatively thin liquids.


Can pump liquids with or
without solids if proper impeller
type is chosen.
Water and relatively thin liquids
(wont pump thicker oils).
Normally not used for liquids
containing solids. Available in
alloys for corrosive services.

5,000 -200,000
gpm

10 30
ft

10 1,500
hp

5 10,000
gpm

200 7,500
ft

1 5,000
hp

5 750
gpm

20 180
ft

1 50
hp

10 200
ft

0.25 250
hp

25 15,000
psi

0.5
2,000
hp
0.25 10
hp

Booster
Pump

Circulator
Pump

Water and relatively thin


liquids.
Submersibl Water and relatively thin liquids
5 7,500
e Pump
(wont pump thicker oils). Can
gpm
pump liquids with or without
solids if proper impeller type is
chosen.
Diaphragm Wide range of liquids, including
1 1,800
Pump
liquids containing solids, and
gpm
corrosive liquids.
Flexible
Water, seawater, and other thin
5 150
Impeller
liquids, including liquids
gpm
Pump
containing some solids.
Gear Pump Oils and other high viscosity
1 1,500
liquids. Usually only suited for
gpm
clean liquids (no solids).
Lobe Pump Liquids which are viscous or
25 3,000
which contain fragile solids or
gpm
are shear sensitive.
Metering
Wide variety of thin and thick
.01 20
Pump
liquids, including corrosive
gpm
liquids.
Slurry
Very abrasive liquids of all
10 30,000
Pump
types.
gpm
Piston
Water and other thin liquids,
5 - 700
Pump
including liquids containing
gpm
[Type text] abrasives.
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10 60
psi
10 2,500
psi
50 450
psi

0.5
2,000
hp
1 500
hp

10 200
psi

0.125 5
hp

30 250
ft
50 - 5,000
psi

1 2000
hp
1 - 500
hp

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6.7.6 Centrifugal Pump Performance Curves
The pump suppliers try to match the system curve supplied by the user with a pump curve
that satisfies these needs as closely as possible. The intersection of the two curves defines the
operating point of both pump and process. However, it is impossible for one operating point to
meet all desired operating conditions. For example, when the discharge valve is throttled, the
system resistance curve shift left and so does the operating point

.
Figure 6.15 Typical system and pump performance curves

6.7.7 Booster Pump (Pu101):


Booster Pump (Pu101) is used to increase the pressure of lean amine which is coming from the
Regenerator after makeup water is added, common practice of placing the pumps downstream
of the lean/rich exchanger .Sufficient NPSH must be available to allow these pumps to operate
properly with the hot lean amine directly from the reboiler. The use of high temperature seals
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and seal cooling is required because the fluid is hot, however. Although there have been no
problems with the selected arrangement, the more common practice is probably less
expensive to design oversights which might cause pump cavitation. It is observed during
literature survey that some amine plants have no booster pumps on the basis that sufficient
NPSH is available for the charge pumps without using a booster. Very often these designs
ultimately have cavitation problems. The reason for this is the presence of hydrocarbons in
the amine which can reduce the NPSH available to half of what would be expected from the
amine solution vapor pressure calculations. [25]
.
6.7.8 Changing Pump (PU-102)
The highest maintenance items on the amine plant are generally the charge pumps. Changing
Pump is used to increase the pressure of lean amine which is coming from the filter. The main
circulation pump choice depends upon contactor operating pressure and solvent flow rates.
Positive displacement pumps (plunger pump) should be considered for 250 gpm and below,
and high discharge pressures; centrifugal are considered for low head cases and large volume,
high head cases. These pumps should be designed for amine service and have non-lubricated
packing/system seal with ceramic or hard coated fluid parts. The Plant operating pressure is
sufficiently low so that high-speed centrifugal pumps could be economically used to pump the
amine solution up to contactor pressure. This type of pump is highly recommended from a
maintenance viewpoint. This pump increases the pressure of the fluid from 97.4 to 1014.7
psia. Most of the inherent problems with the more commonly used plunger pumps in amine
service are a result of the packing glands filtering iron sulfides out of the amine solution.
Build-up of these particles results in abrasion of the plungers and frequent replacement. The
drawback of the centrifugal pump is its relatively low pumping efficiency which increases the
horsepower consumption by a factor of approximately two. At high operating pressures the
plunger pumps are still the best choice due to the high comparative cost of multistage
centrifugal pumps. The acceleration head requirements and possible use of pulsation
dampening should not be overlooked when using plunger pumps.

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6.7.9 Reflux Pump (PU-100)
The Reflex pump is used to recirculate the MDEA which is coming from Vertical separator
(SEP-100). Seal systems are an important consideration on the reflux pumps when treating H2S
gases, as seal failure will result in H2S emissions. The pump has sufficient NPSH so centrifugal
pump is recommended, as it consume minimum amount of power 1.109 hp which is in the
range of centrifugal pump, fluid medium and all other requirements needed for PU-100 is
fulfilled by centrifugal pump as above given in centrifugal pump description.(Table-6.8)
6.8 TYPES OF VALVES
6.8.1 Ball Valve
This is a quarter-turn on-off valve (figure 4.1). A bore through the ball allows flow when it is
lined up with the pipe and blocks flow when it is perpendicular to the pipe. A regulator port ball
valve has a bore diameter less than pipe inside diameter, while a full opening ball valve has a ball
diameter equal to the pipe inside diameter.
Ball valves are limited in temperature by the elastomer material used in their seats. Many designs
have a secondary metal-to-metal seat to provide a seal in case of fire. Ball valve are not suitable
as throttling valve, but can be used on start-up and shut-down in the partially open position to
bleed pressure into or out of a system.
These valves are the most common general-purpose on/off valves in production facilities.

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Figure 6.16 Ball valve

6.8.2 Gate Valves


A gate valve seals off flow when a slab is either raised (normal acting) or lowered (reverse
acting) so that the hole through the slab no longer lines up with the pipe (figure 4-2). Gates are
harder to operate manually than balls or plugs as they make many turns of the wheel hand to
open or close the valve.
Gate valve are on/off valves and should never be used for throttling. Gate valves are usually less
expensive than balls or plugs in high-pressure service or for large pipe sizes. They make
excellent high-pressure flow line and pipe shut-in valves, but are extensively used in normal
facility 12 in. and smaller in diameter.

Figure 6.17 Gate valve

6.8.3 Butterfly Valves


These valves are relatively inexpensive, quarter-turn valves. The seal is made by a rotating disc
that remains in the flow stream subject to erosion while in the open position (figure 4.3). Except
in low-pressure service, they should not be used to provide a leak-tight seal, but they can be used
to throttle where a tight shut-off is not required.

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Butterfly valves are particularly useful in low-pressure produced water service.

Figure 6.18 Butterfly Valve

6.84 Globe Valves


The most common valve construction for throttling service, and thus for automatic control, is a
globe valve (figure 4.4). The movement of the stem up or down creates an opening between the
disc and the seat that allows fluid to pass through valve. The greater the stem movement, the
larger the annulus opening for fluid flow. Because only a small stem movement is required from
the fully closed to fully open positions, globe valves are easy to automate with a diaphragm
operator.
Globe valves have metal-to-metal seats, which are easy to replace. Because of the erosive action
of the fluid when the valve is throttling, they should not be used for on/off service. A tight seal
may not be possible.

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Figure 6.19 Globe valve

6.8.5 Check Valves


Used to restrict reversal of flow, check valves should not be considered as positive shut-off
valves when flow is reversed, since the seating element is always in the flow stream and subject
to erosion (figure 4.5) to figure 4-8). A section of line should not be considered isolated of the
only barrier to flow is a check valve.
Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various check valves configuration are as
follows:
SWING
1. Suitable for non-pulsating flow
2. Not good for vertical upward flow
3. Available in wafer design for mounting between flanges
SPLIT DISK
1. Mounted between flanges
2. Springs subject to failure
LIFT PLUG AND PISTON
1. Good for pulsating flow
2. Can be used in vertical upward flow
3. Easier to cut out in sandy service than full-opening swing
4. Subject to fouling with paraffin and debris
BALL

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1. Does not have a tendency to slam shut on flow reversal
2. Usually for size 1-in. and smaller
3. Can be used in vertical lines

Figure 6.20 Swing check valve

Figure 6.21 Lift Check Valve

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6.9 PRESSURE RELIEF
The most important safety devices in production facility are the pressure relief valves, which
assures that pipes, valves fittings, and pressure vessel can never be subjected to pressure higher
than their design pressure.

6.9.1 Relief requirements


In the production facility design, one of the following conditions normally determines the size of
the relief valve.
1. Blocked Discharge
It assumed that all outlets from the vessel are shut-in and the total design inlet flow
stream (gas and liquids) must be handled by the relief valve.
2. Fire
The relief valve must be sized to handle the gases evolving from liquids if the equipment
is exposed to an external fire.
3. Gas Blowby
A gas blowby condition is the most critical and sometimes overlooked condition in the
production facility design. It assumes that there is a failure of an upstream control valve
feeding the pressure vessel and that the relief valve must handle the maximum gas flow
rate into the system during this condition.
The maximum pressure for relieving fire relief rates is 1.21 MAWP (maximum allowable
working pressure)
The relief valve must be installed so that gases are routed to a safe location. In small facilities
and remote locations this is accomplished with a simple tail pipe which points the discharge
vertically upward and creates a jet in excess of 500 feet per second. The jet injection dilutes the
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discharge gases to below the lower flammable limit in approximately 120 pipe diameters.
Liquids may fall back on the equipment.
Valves that activate automatically to relieve pressure are called safety valves. relief valves,
or safety relief valves. Safety valves are spring loaded and characterizes by a rapid full
opening or pop action. They are used primarily for steam or air service. Sometimes they are
referred to as pop valves. Relief valves are spring loaded and open more slowly. They reach
full opening at 25 % over set pressure and are used primarily for liquid services.
There are three types of relief valves: conventional, balanced-bellows, and spring loaded.

[4]

Figure 6.22 Conventional relief valve.

6.9.2 Conventional Relief Valves


Figure 5.1 shows a cross section of a conventional relief valve and figure 5.2 is a schematic that
shows the valves operation. In a vented bonnet configuration the spring in a conventional valve
creates a closing (downward) force that overcomes both the pressure in the vessel, Pv times its
area plus Pb times its area equals the spring force and the valve begins to open. If Pb increases
because the valve is installed in a header system with other valves, then the amount of pressure
in the vessel (the set point) required to overcome the spring force decreases.
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Figure 6.23 Schematic Diagram of non-vented and vented conventional valves

In a non-vented bonnet type conventional relief valve, the back-pressure acts downward on the
entire disc area and upward on only a portion of the disc area. In this case, increasing backpressure increases the set point of the valve.
It should be clear from this discussion that conventional relief valves should only be used where
the discharge is routed independently to atmosphere. If installed in a header system. The backpressure build-up when the device is relieving will affect the set point of every other device in
the header system.

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Figure 6.24 Cross-sectional view of balanced-bellows

6.9.3 Balanced-Bellows Relief Valves


Balanced relief valves are spring-loaded valve that contain a bellows arrangement to keep backpressure from affecting the set point. Figure 5.3 shows a cross section of a balanced relief valve,
and figure 5.4 is a schematic that shows how the valve operates the bonnet is vented to
atmosphere and a bellows is installed so that the back-pressure acts both downward and upward
on the same area of the disc. Thus, the forces created by the back-pressure always cancel and do
not affect the set point.
Balanced bellows type valves are normally used where the relief valves are piped to a closed
flare system and the back-pressure exceeds 10 % of the set pressure.

Figure 6.25 Schematic diagram of balanced bellows

6.9.4 Pilot-Operated Relief Valve


Pilot-operated relief valves use the pressure in the vessel rather than a spring to seal the valve
and a pilot to activate the mechanism. Figure 13-6 is a schematic of a typical pilot operated
valve. A piece of tubing communicates pressure between the vessel and pilot. When this
pressure is below the set pressure of the pilot, the pilot valve is in the position shown and there is
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pressure communication between the vessel pressure and the top of the disc. Since the disc has
approximately 25 % greater area on the top than in the throat of the nozzle, there is a net closing
force on the disc equal to the difference in magnitude of the area times the vessel pressure.
When the set point is reached, the pilot shifts to the right, blocking the pressure from the vessel,
venting pressure from above the disc, and allowing the disc to rise.
Pilot-operated valves have the advantage of allowing operations near the set point with no chatter
and are not affected by back-pressure. However, they will not function if the pilot fails.

Figure 6.26 Pilot-operated relief valve

6.10 RAPTURE DISCS


These are thin diaphragms held between flanges and calibrated to burst at a specified static inlet
pressure. Unlike relief valves, rupture discs cannot reseal when pressure declines.

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Rapture discs may be used alone, but they are normally used as a back-up to a relief valve set to
relief at approximately 115 % MAWP. This ensures that the disc ruptures only if the relief valve
fails or in the unlikely event that the pressure raises above 110 % MAWP and the relief valve
does not have enough capacity.
Rapture discs are also used below relief valves to protect them from corrosion due to vessel
fluid.

[4]

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CHAPTER 7
HYDRAULICS
REYNOLDS NUMBER
The Reynolds number is a dimensionless parameter that relates the ratio of
inertia forces to viscous forces. It can be expressed by the following general
equation:

Re =

DV

Where
Re = Reynolds number
= Density, lb/ft
D = Pipe ID, ft
V = Flow velocity, ft/sec
= Viscosity, ib/ft-sec
The Reynolds number can be expressed in more convenient terms. For
liquids, the equation becomes:

Re 7738

( S .G ) d V

(7-1)
Re = 92.1

(S .G)Q l
d

(7-2)
Where
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Re

= Reynolds number

(S.G) = Specific gravity


d

= Pipe ID, inch

= Flow velocity, ft/sec

= Viscosity, lb/ft-sec
Ql

= Liquid flow rate, bpd

FLOW REGIMES
Flow regimes describe the nature of the flow. There are two basic flow
regimes for flow of a single-phase fluid: laminar flow and turbulent flow.
Laminar flow is characterized by little mixing of the flowing fluid and a
parabolic velocity profile. Turbulent flow involves complete mixing of the fluid
and a more uniform velocity profile. Laminar flow has been shown by
experiment to exist at Re < 2,000 and turbulent flow at Re > 4,000. Reynolds
numbers between 2,000 and 4,000 are in a transition zone, and thus the flow
may be either laminar or turbulent.

BERNOULLI`S THEOREM
It is a customary express the energy content in a fluid in terms of the
potential energy contained in an equivalent height or head of a column of
the fluid. using the convention, Bernoulli`s theorem breaks down the total
energy at a point in terms of:
1. The head due to its elevation above an arbitrary datum of zero
potential energy.
2. A pressure head due to the potential energy contained it the pressure
in the fluid at that point.
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3. A velocity head due to the kinetic energy contained within the fluid.
thus, Bernoulli`s theorem may be written :
(Elevation head)
(Elevation head) +
+ (Pressure head)
=
(Pressure head) +
+ (Velocity head)
(Velocity head) +
(Friction head loss)
DARCY`S EQUATION
This equation, which is also sometimes called Weisbach equation or DarcyWeisbach equation, states that the head loss between two points in a
completely filled, circular cross-section pipe is proportional to the pipe
diameter. This can be written:
In most production facility piping systems the head differences due to
elevation and velocity changes between two points can be neglected. in this
case Bernoulli`s equation can be reduced to:
P1

P2

= P=

H
144 l

(7-3)
Where
P = Loss in pressure between points 1 and 2, psi
0.0013 flp v
=
2d

(7-4)
Moody friction factor
The factor of proportionality in the previous equations is called the moody fiction factor and is
determined from the moody resistance diagram shown in figure 7-1(see Appendix A). The
friction is sometimes expressed in terms of the fanning friction factor, which th of the moody
friction factor. In some references the moody friction factor is used, in others, the fanning friction
is used. This must be exercised to avoid inadvertent use of the wrong friction factor. The friction

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factor is a function of the Reynoldss number, Re, and the relative roughness of the pipe, /D.
for laminar flow, f is a function of Re:
64
f=

For turbulent flow, f is a function of both pipe roughness and Reynolds


number. At high values of Re, f is a function only of

/ D.

Table 8-1 shows the roughness for various types of new, clean pipe. These
values should be increased by a factor of 2-4 to allow for age and use. (see
Appendix A)

7.1 LIQUID LINE FLOW


2

6
= 11.5 10

P
(7-5)
Where
P

= Pressure drop, psi

(S.G) = Specific Gravity


d

= Pipe ID, inch


Ql

= Liquid flow rate, bpd

= Length of pipe, ft.

= Moody friction factor, dimensionless

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fL Q l (S . G)
d

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The most common use of equation 8-10 is to determine a pipe diameter for a
given flow rate and allowable pressure drop. However, first, a calculation of
Reynolds number (Equation 7-1 or 7-2)
To determine the friction factor must be made. Since Reynolds number
depends on the pipe diameter the equation cannot be solved directly. One
method to overcome this disadvantage is to assume a typical friction factor
to of 0.025, solve equation 8-10 for diameter, compute a Reynolds number,
and then compare the assumed friction factor to one read from figure 71(see Appendix A). If the two are not significantly close, it is possible to
iterate the solution until convergence.
In an effort to avoid an iterate calculation, several empirical formulas have
been developed. The most common of these is the Hazen-Williams formula,
which can be expressed as follows:

Hl

= 0.00208

Hl

= 0.015

100
C

1.85

gpm
d 4.87

1.85

( ) ( )

Ql1.852 L
d 4.87 C 1.85

Where
H l=Head loss due friction , ft
d = Pipe ID, inch
Ql

= Liquid flow rate, bpd

L = length, ft.
C = Friction factor constant, dimensionless
= 140 for new steel pipe
= 130 for new cast iron pipe
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= 100 for riveted pipe
gpm = Liquid flow rate, gallons/minute
This equation is based on water flowing under turbulent conditions with a
viscosity of 1.13 centipoise, which is the case for water at 60F. Since water
viscosity varies appreciably from 32F to 212F, the friction factor can
decrease or increase as much as 40% between the two temperature
extremes.
The Hazen-Williams equation is frequently used for calculating pressure
losses and line capacities in water service. The discharge coefficient C
must be carefully chosen to reflect both fluid viscosity and pipe roughness in
a used condition. A C factor of 90 to 10 in steel pipe is must not be
confused with the moody friction factor f, as these two factors are not
directly related to each other.

EXAMPLE 7.1
PRESSURE DROP IN LIQUID LINE
Given
Flow rate (bpd)

= 7251.52

Specific Gravity (S.G)

= 1.024

Viscosity (cp)

= 2.8

Length (ft.)

= 42

Inlet Pressure (psi)

= 1015.79

Temperature (R)

= 594.6

Assumed Velocity

(ft. /sec) = 7

Absolute Roughness ()

= 0.0018

For Carbon-Steel Pipe


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Solution
Diameter: d =

0.012 Ql
v

0. 012 7251.52
7

= 3.5257

Available diameter = 4

Re = 92.1

(S .G)Q l
d

(1.024) 7251.52
Re = 92.1
4 2.8

= 60995.64251

/ d =

Relative roughness =

At Re =60995.64251 and

0.0018
= 0.00045
4

/ d = .00045 we get f (friction factor) from

figure 7-1(see Appendix A)


i-e f = 0.0022
2

P = 11.5 106

fL Q l (S . G)
d

0.002 42 7251.52 (1.024)


P = 11.5 10
45
6

= .55876 psi

7.2 GAS LINES


Step No.1: Calculating Erosional Velocity
Fluid erosion occurs when liquid droplets impact the wall with enough force to erode the
products of corrosion, exposing the metal to the fluid and allowing more corrosion to occur.
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Ve = 0.60 C

T
SP

Where, Ve = erosional velocity, ft. /sec


C = erosional flow constant
T = temperature, R
S = specific gravity of gas at standard conditions (air = 1)
P = pressure, psia
Various values have been proposed for C. The API Recommended Practice 14E, Design and
installation of Offshore Production Platform Piping Systems, suggests a value of 100 for
continuous service and 125 for non-continuous service.
It is recommended that a minimum velocity between 10-15 ft. /sec be maintained so as to
minimize liquid settling out in low spots. Typically, gas velocities are normally kept below 60-80
ft. /sec so as to minimize the effect of noise and allow for corrosion inhibition.
In systems with CO2 present in amounts as low as 1 to 2 %, velocity should be limited to less
than 50 ft. /sec.
Step No.2: Calculating Internal Diameter of Gas Pipe Line
Diameter of gas lines can be calculated by

d=

60 Qg T Z
V P

Where, Qg = gas flow rate, MMscfd


T = temperature, R
d = pipe ID, in.
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P = pressure, psia
V = gas velocity, ft. /sec (less than erosional velocity)
Z = gas compressibility factor
Step No.3: Calculating Reynolds number

Re =

20,100 Qg S
dU

Where, Qg = gas flow rate, MMscfd

S = specific gravity of gas at standard conditions (air = 1)

d = pipe ID, in.

U = viscosity, cp

Step No.4: Calculating Pressure Drop


Four Equations can be used to find pressure drop in liquid lines namely
1. General gas flow equation
p11

p2 2

2
= (25.2 S Qg Z T1 f L)

5
( d )

The general gas flow equation is recommended for most general usage.
2. Weymouth Equation
This equation is based on measurements of compressed air flowing in pipes ranging from 0.8 in.
to 11.8 in. in the range of Moody diagram where the E/d curves are horizontal (i.e. ,high

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Reynolds number). In this range the Moody friction factor is independent of the Reynolds
number and dependent upon the relative roughness.
0.013
d 1 /3

f=

Use Weymouth equation only for small-diameter, short-run pipe within the production facility
where the Reynolds number is expected to be high.
1

p1

p2

Qg 2 L S T f
2
7.1289
1.11 d

In our case Weymouth equation is valid on line number 1, 2, 4, and 6 because Reynolds number
is very high so Moody friction factor is independent of Reynolds number and depends upon
relative roughness.
3. Panhandle Equation
Panhandle equation only use for large-diameter long-run pipelines where the Reynolds number is
expected to be moderate.
1

p1

p2

Qg 2 Z T f L S
d 5 0.1992

4. Spitzglass equation
Use the Spitzglass equation for low pressure vent lines less than 12 inches in diameter. This
equation is used for near-atmospheric pressure lines.
In our case Spitzglass equation can be useful in regenerator acid gas flare lines 14, 15, and 16.
Condition in Spitzglass equation is pressure drop is less 10 % of initial pressure.

f = (1 +

3.6
d

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+ 0.03 d ) (0.01)
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P =

12.6 S Qg 2 Z T f L
p1 d 5

CONSIDER CALCULATION OF LINE No.2:

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Given
Temperature (R)

= 585

Pressure (psi)

= 1015

Flow rate (mmscfd)

= 49.88

Viscosity (cp)

= 0.013

Specific gravity

= 0.76

Calculated erosional velocity(ft./sec)

= 52.34

Assumed velocity (ft./sec)

= 45

(carbon steel) absolute roughness()

= 0.0018

Length (ft.)

= 42

Compressibility factor (z)

= 0.83

Solution

Ve = 0.60 C

T
SP

Since C = 100 for continuous service

Ve = 0.60 100

585
0.76 1015

52.34 ft. /sec

Since actual velocity must be kept minimum from erosional velocity.


So, we assumed velocity = 45 ft. /sec

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d=

60 Qg T Z
V P

d=

60 49.88 585 0.83


45 1015

= 5.74 inches

Available diameter = 6 inches.

Re =

20,100 Qg S
dU

Re =

20100 49.88 0.76


6 0.013

= 9804378

Since Reynolds number is very high so we use Weymouth Equation. This is used for short-run
pipelines within the production facility.
But first we have to calculate friction factor
0.013
f = d 1 /3
0.013
6 1/ 3

f=

= 0.018

Now calculating pressure drop by using Weymouth equation


1

p1

1015

p2

p2

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Qg 2 L S T f
1.11 2 d 7.1289

49.882 42 0.76 585 0.0018


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p2

= 1014 psia

P = 1.08 psia.

7.2 TWO-PHASE FLOW


Two-phase flow of liquid and gas is very complex physical process. Even
when the best existing correlations for pressure drop and liquid holdup are
used, prediction may be in error as much

as

20%. Nevertheless, as

gas exploration and production have moved into remote off-shore, artic, and
desert areas, the number of two-phase pipelines has increased.
In most production situation the fluid coming out of the well bore will be in
two-phase flow. Once an initial separation is made, the gas coming off the
separator can be considered to be single-phase liquid flow even though it will
contain some gas after it has taken a pressure drop through a liquid control
valve.
Other than well flow lines, the most common two-phase pipelines exist in
remote location, especially offshore, where gas and oil that have been
separated and metered are combined for flow in a common line to a central
separation facility.
In a two-phase line equation:
P

0.42 ( S .G ) Z n

States the pressure lost in each uphill segment, but this is not balanced by a
pressure gain in each downhill segment. Thus, the pressure lost due to
elevation changes is the sum of the pressure lost in each uphill segment. It is
possible in hilly terrain to have a line that flow from a high point to a lower
elevation, but which, because it crosses a valley, will still have a loss in
pressure due to elevation changes.
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3.4 106 fL W 2
=
m d5

(7-5)
Where
L = length, ft.
d = pipe ID, inch
W= rate of flow of liquid and vapor, lb/hr
m

= density of mixture, lb/ft

The rate of flow of the mixture to use in this equation can be calculated as
follows:
W = 3180

Qg

S + 14.6

Ql

(S.G.)

Where
Qg

= Gas flow rate, MMscfd.

Ql

= Liquid flow rate, bpd

= Specific gravity of gas at standard condition (air = 1)

(S.G.) = Specific gravity of liquid relative to water.


The density of mixture to use in equation (7-5) is given by:
m

12,409 ( S .G . ) P+2.7 R S P
198.7 P+ R T Z

Where
P = Operating pressure, pisa
R = Gas/liquid ratio, ft3/bbl.
T= Operating temperature, degree R
Z = Gas compressibility factor.

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CHAPTER 8
INSTRUMENTATION

8.1 INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL


The important features common to all processes is that a process is never in a state of static
equilibrium except for a very short period of time and process is dynamic entity subject to
continual upsets or disturbances which tend to drive it away from the desired state of
equilibrium. If a process is to operate efficiently, disturbances and the process must be
controlled. This is done by instrumentation. In other words instrumentation is the eyes, nose and
ears of the process industry.
8.2 INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OBJECTIVES
The main objectives are as follows
1. To assure safety of plant operations.
2. To keep the process variables within known safe operating limits.
3. To detect dangerous situations as they develop and to provide an alarm and automatic
shutdown systems.
4. To achieve the desired product rate.
5. To maintain the product composition within the specific quality standards.
6. To operate at the lowest production cost.
7. In a typical chemical processing plant combination of automatic control, manual monitoring
and laboratory analysis achieve these objectives.

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8.3 TYPES OF CONTROL SYSTEMS


8.3.1 Programmable Logic Controllers:
Programmable logic controllers are simple digital devices that are widely used to control
sequential and batch processes, although they now have additional function that implemented
PID control and other mathematical operations. PLCs can be utilized as stand-alone devices or in
conjunction with digital control systems. Because the logical functions are stored in main
memory, one measure of a PLCs capability is its memory scan rate. Most PLCs are equipped
with an internal timing capability to delay an action by prescribed amount of time, to execute an
action at a prescribed time and so on.
8.3.2 Distributed Control System:
The Distributed control system consists of many commonly used components, including
multiplexers, single loop and multi loop controllers, PLCs and smart devices. A system includes
some of or all the following components:
8.3.3 Control network
The control network is the communication link between the individual components of a network.
Coaxial cable and, more recently, fiber optic cable have often been used.
1. Workstations
Workstations are most powerful computers in the system, capable of performing not normally
available in other units. A workstation acts as both an arbitrator unit to route internodel
communications and as the database server. An operator interface is supported and various
peripheral devices are coordinated through the workstations.

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2. Remote Control Units
These components are used to implement basic control function such as PID control. Some
remote control units may be configured to acquire or supply set points to single loop controllers.
3. Application Stations
These separate computers run application software such as databases, spreadsheets. Financial
software and simulation software via an OPC interface. OPC is an acronym for object linking
and embedding for process control, a software architecture based on standard interfaces.
4. Field Buses and Smart Devices
An increasing number of field mounted devices are available that support digital communication
of the process I/O in addition to, or in place of, the traditional 4- to 20- mA current signal.

[3]

8.4 HARDWARE OF A CONTROL SYSTEM


Examining the automatic control system, it is found that it contains the following hardware.
1.

Sensor It is a piece of equipment to measure system variables. It serves as the signal


source in automatic control. These will be discussed at length in a later module.

2.

Controller - It is a piece of equipment to perform the functions of comparison and


computation. The actions that a controller can take will be discussed at length in a later
module.

3.

Final Control Element - It is a piece of equipment to perform the control action or to exert
direct influence on the process. This element receives signals from the controller and
performs some type of operation on the process. Generally the final control element is
simply a control valve.

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8. 5 TYPES OF CONTROLS
We have used three types of controls:
1. Feed backward control.
2. Feed forward control.
3. Cascade control.
8.5.1 Feed Backward Control
Feed backward control is a mechanism in a system that monitors performance of outputs and
then work to maintain it as specified.

Figure 8.1 Feed Back Control Loop [3]

8.5.1.1 Types of Feedback Controller


Between the measuring device and the final control element comes the controller. Its function is
to receive the measured output signal and after comparing it with the set point, produce the
actuating signal in such a way as to return the output to the desired value. There are three basic
types of feedback controllers:

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1. Proportional Control (P)
With proportional control, the controller output varies in
proportion to the error.

2. Proportional-Integral Control (PI)

Figure-8.1.1

With proportional plus integral control, an integral term is


added to the output equation. The integral term causes its
output to continue changing as long as there is non-zero
error.

[11]

Figure-8.1.2
3. Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative Control (PID)

With the presence of the derivative term, the PID controller


anticipates what the error will be in the immediate future and
applies a control action which is proportional to the current
rate of change in the error. Due to this property, the derivative
control action is sometimes referred to as anticipatory control.

Figure-8.1.3

ADVANTAGES
1. Does not require identification and measurement of any disturbance for corrective action.
2. Does not require an explicit process model.
3. Is possible to design controller to be robust to process/ model errors.
DISADVANTAGES

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1. Control action not taken until the effect of the disturbances has been felt by the system.
2. Is unsatisfactory for process with large time constants and frequent disturbances.
3. May cause instability in the closed-loop response.

[3]

Feed Backward Control Loops are used in the following places:


Knock-out Drum (V-100) is Level Control Loop.
Contactor (C-100) is Level Control Loop.
Sweet-gas Separator (V-101) is Level Control Loop.
Rich Amine Flash Drum (V-102) is Level Control Loop.
Reflux Drum (V-103) is Level Control Loop.
Regenerator Reboiler (EX-102) is Level Control Loop.
Air-Coolers (AC-100 and AC-101) are Temperature Control Loop.
Contactor (C-101) is Pressure Control Loop.
Acid-Gases Outlet from Reflux Drum (V-103) is Pressure Control Loop.

8.5.1.2 FEED FORWARD


Feed forward control is a mechanism in a system that monitors performance of inputs rather than
outputs, and reacts so as to maintain a specified state, thus preventing or minimizing problems
before they occur. It has been found that a feed forward controller cannot be a convention
feedback controller (P, PI, and PID). Instead, it should be viewed as a special-purpose computing
machine. This is the reason it is sometimes referred to as a feed forward computer.

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Manipulated variable

Control variable

Figure 8.2 Feed Forward Control Loop

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ADVANTAGES

Neglects process dynamics (i.e. how fast the control variable responds to changes in the
load and manipulated variables).

Acts before the effect of disturbance has been felt by the system.

Is good for system with large time constant or dead time.

Does not introduce instability in the closed loop response.

[3]

DISADVANTAGES

Requires direct measurement of all possible disturbances.

Cannot cope with unmeasured disturbances.

Is sensitive to process/model error.

Feed Forward Control Loop is used only at one place i-e Lean Amine Inlet to Contactor
(C-101).
CASCADE CONTROL
Cascade control system is an automatic control system in which various control units are linked
in sequence, each control unit regulating the operation of the next control unit in line. The
primary objective in cascade control is to divide an otherwise difficult to control process into two
portion, whereby a secondary control loop is formed around a major disturbances thus leaving
only minor disturbances to be controlled by the primary controller.

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Cascade control: A block diagram description
The normal block diagram representation of a cascade control loop is shown below,

Figure-8.3
ADVANTAGES

Large improvement in performance when the secondary is much faster than primary.

Simple technology with PID algorithms.

Use of feedback at all levels. Primary has zero offset for step-like disturbances.

Plant operating personnel find cascades easy to operate.

[26]

Cascade Control Loops are used at the following two places:


1. Reflux Drum to Control Level of Water by Flow Control valve.
2. Regenerator Reboiler (EX-101) to Control Temperature of Rebioler by Controlling Flow
of Hot-Oil.

8.5 Process Variables


1. Control Variables

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It is that variable which directly or indirectly indicates the form or state of process.
E.g. The temperature of chemical reactor, outlet temperature of water in water heater.

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1. Manipulated Variable
It is that variable which is selected for adjustment by controller so as to maintain the control
variable as the desired value. E.g. Cooling by changing water flow rate, changing the flow rate of
steam for heating in chemical reactor.
1. Transmitter
The transmitter is the interface between the process and its control system. The job of the
transmitter is to convert the sensor signal (milli volt, mechanical movement, pressure difference,
etc) into a control signal 3 to 15 psig air pressure signal,4 to 20 milli ampere electrical signal etc.

8.6 Types of Control Manipulation


There are two types of control signals
1. Electrical (Signal by electrical control)
2. Pneumatic (Signal by Air / Pressure)
1. Electrical Manipulation

It is used to control the state variables like P, T, F, C, etc. by using electric control system.
e.g. Petrol flow with respect to rupees in Petrol pump.

2. Pneumatic Manipulation
It is used to control one thing by using Air/Pressure signals.
e.g. when applying car brakes, Brake oil pressure controls the motion of working wheel.

8.7 Sensors or Measuring Devices


We have used four types of sensing or measuring devices are as follows:

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1.
2.
3.
4.

Temperature Measuring Devices


Level Measuring Devices
Flow Measuring Devices
Pressure Measuring Devices

8.7.1 Temperature Measuring Devices


1.
2.
3.
4.

Thermocouples
Resistance Temperature Device
Radiation Pyrometer
Bimetal thermometers

8.8 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


From all the other types of the temperature sensors we have used thermocouple because of the
reason that it can work at greater range of temperature and less expensive as compare to
thermistors and RTDs (Resistance-Temperature-Devices).
1. Thermocouples
A thermocouple is a junction between two different metal wires. The two dissimilar wires
provide a milli volt Emf that varies with the hot-junction temperature. Iron consticant
thermocouples are commonly used over the 1300F temperature range. There are various types
of thermocouples such as K, E, and J etc. From these types K-type widely used it consist of
(Chromel {90% nickel and 10% chromium}-Alumel consisting of 95% nickel, 2% manganese,
2%aluminium and 1% silicon).
Temperature measuring instrument used in Vapor outlet from Regenerator Reboiler (EX101) is Thermocouple (Type-K).
Temperature measuring instruments used in Air-Coolers (AC-100 and AC-101) are
Thermocouples (Type-K).

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8.9 LEVEL MEASURING DEVICES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Float Switch
Liquid Head Pressure Device
Conductivity Measurement
Visual Method
Dip-Stick Method

For the measurement of level in our case we have selected Float switch and Liquid head pressure
device because it is simple to handle at maintenance point of view.
1. Float switch
A float switch is a device used to detect the level of liquid within a vessel. Float switch signals
when certain level of liquid in vessel is achieved.
1. Liquid head pressure device
It work in such a way that it measures the difference in static pressure between two fixed
elevations, one in the vapor above the liquid and the other under the liquid surface. The
differential pressure between the two level taps is directly related to the liquid level in the vessel.
Level measuring instruments used in Knock-Out Drum (V-100) are both Liquid Head
Pressure Device and Float Switch.
Level measuring instruments used in Contactor (C-100)are both Liquid Head Pressure
Device and Float Switch.
Level measuring instruments used in Sweet-Gas Separator (V-101) are both Liquid
Head Pressure Device and Float Switch.
Level measuring instruments used in Rich Amine Flash Drum (V-102) are both Liquid
Head Pressure Device and Float Switch.
Level measuring instrument used in Reflux Drum (V-103)is Float Switch.
Level measuring instruments used in Regenerator Reboiler (EX-101) are both Liquid
Head Pressure Device and Float Switch.

8.10 FLOW MEASURING DEVICES


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1. Orifice Meter
2. Venturi tube
3. Flow nozzles
4. Pilot tube
5. Turbine flow meters
From the various types of flow meters we have used only orifice meter because of the fact that in
our case the pipe diameter are almost all in the range from large to medium. And also because it
is simple to handle and above all less expensive.
Orifice MeterIt is a head type meter used for large and medium pipes. Orifice plates are inserted
to pipe to create a partial restriction to flow. Pressure before orifice plate rises and pressure after
it reduces but velocity increases. If fluid contains suspended materials, particles tend to settle
down in orifice, to avoid this Segmented or Concentric type are used.

Figure 8.4(Diagram of Online installation of orifice meter)

ADVANTAGES

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1. It is simple and reliable.
DISADVANTAGES
1. Its disadvantages are poor accuracy, poor calibration and maintenance problems.
Flow measuring instrument used in Lean Amine Inlet to Contactor (C-100)is Orifice
Meter.
Flow measuring instrument used in Hot-oil Inlet to Regenerator Reboiler (EX-101)is
Orifice Meter.
Flow measuring instruments used in Inlet to Amine Circulating Pump (P-101)
(At Demineralized Water Line and Lean Amine from Reboiler)are Orifice Meter.
Flow measuring instrument used in Reflux to Regenerator(C-102)is Orifice Meter.

8.11 Pressure Measuring Devices


1.
2.
3.
4.

Bourdon Gauge
Bellows
Diaphragm
Capsules

We have used only bourdon gauge because it can work in robust environments and less
expensive as compare to bellows and diaphragm.
1. Bourdon Gauge
Bourdon gauge are circular-shaped tubes with oval cross-section. The pressure of the medium
acts on inside of the tube. The outward pressure on the oval cross-section forces it to become
rounded. Because of the curvature of the tube ring, the bourdon tube then bends as indicated in
the direction of the arrow. Due to their robust construction, Bourdon are often used in harsh
environments and high pressures, but can also be used for very low pressure; the response time
[23]
however, is slower than the bellows or diaphragm.

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Figure 8.4
Pressure measuring instrument used in Acid-Gases Outlet from Reflux Drum (V-103)
is Bourdon Gauge.
Pressure measuring instrument used in Inlet and Outlet of Pumps (P-100, P-101, and P-102)
are Bourdon Gauge.
Pressure measuring instrument used in Flue-Gases Outlet from Column (C-101) is Bourdon
Gauge.
Pressure measuring instrument used in Sour-Gas Inlet to Contactor (C-101) is Bourdon Gauge.

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Chapter 9
HEALTH SAFETY ENVIRONMENT

Any organization has a legal and moral obligation to safe guard the health and welfare of its
employees and the general public. Safety is also good business. The management practices
needed to ensure safe operation will ensure efficient operation.
All manufacturing process is to some extent hazardous, but in chemical processes there are
additional, special, hazards associated with the chemicals used and the process conditions. The
designer must be aware of these hazards, and ensure to the application of sound engineering
practice, that the risk is reduced to acceptable levels.
Safety and loss prevention in process design can be considered under the following broad
headings:
1. Identification and assessment of the hazards.
2. Control of the hazards: for example, by containment of flammable and toxic materials.
3. Control of the process. Prevention of hazardous deviation in process variables (pressure,
trips; together with good operating practices and management.
4. Limitation of the loss. The damage and injury caused if an incident occurs; pressure
relief, plant layout, and provision of firefighting equipment.
The safe operation of such processes on the design and provision of engineered safety devices
and on good operating practices, to prevent a dangerous situation developing and to minimize the
consequences of any incident that arises from the failure of these safeguards. The term
"engineered safety" covers the provision in the design of control systems, alarms, nips, pressure
relieve devices, automatic shutdown systems duplication of key equipment services; and
firefighting equipment, sprinkle systems and blast valves, to contain any fire or explosion.

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9.1 SAFETY OF THE PERSONNEL
The best protection of the safety of the personnel is to prevent the occurrence of any hazardous
situations. Under normal conditions, there will be no gases, vapor, liquid or chemicals present in
the atmosphere.
When a leak develops, it should be stopped or repaired at once. If this should not be possible,
other means must be applied to prevent spreading, to prevent accident to personnel and to avoid
damage to equipment.
9.2 HEALTH HAZARDS
When a person injured by the external contact, inhalation or oral injection of the toxic substance,
the first aid instructions for that chemical must be followed at once. For this reason, it is most
important that all personal are familiar with these first aid instructions.
9.3 PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
When the protective equipment is necessary it must be used properly. The equipment selected
must be suited for the purpose and the person using the protective equipment must be familiar
with it. All protective equipment for the safety of personal must be kept in good working
conditions at all the time.

9.3.1 Eye Protection


Splash proof chemical safety goggles and face shields will be provided to each operator, he must
be familiar with the location and the use of eye bath and safety showers.

9.3.2 Respiratory Protection

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All gases other than air are harmful to human beings, when inhaled in sufficient concentration.
Toxic gases may be classified as either asphyxiating or irritating.
Asphyxiating gases may be causing death by replacing air in lungs or by reacting with O 2 carried
in the blood. E.g., H2S, CO2, Smoke. Irritating gases may be causing injury or death not only by
asphyxiation but also both internal and burning (e.g. Cl2, SO2, HF).
To guard against the inhalation of harmful gases the operator should,
1.

Score a gas test certification showing the gas conditions of the atmosphere (vessel).

2.

Avoid standing on the side of an opening where escaping gas will be blown towards
him.

3.

Provide ventilation.

4.

Wear the gas mask when required.

9.3.3 Foot Protection


It is recommended to use shoes of preferable leather with a built-in steel toe cap. When
necessary, boot of special chemical resistant material can be put on.

9.3.4 Head Protection


Safety must be permanently used inside the plant, especially repairing is being made and there is
possibility tools and materials accident.

9.3.5 Body Skin and Hand Protection


Suits made of synthetic rubber or other approved material may be worn when complete body
protection is necessary, gloves made of synthetic rubber or other approved material should be
worn to protect the hands. In case of severe leaks only properly protected person should remain
in the area.

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9.4 Fire Protection
The best protection against the fire is to avoid the condition that may lead to a fire. Leaks should
be stopped immediately when this is not possible all available means to prevent spreading should
be applied. Sources of ignition should be kept away from the process area. A fire is always a
hazard to the personal and always leads to damage of equipment.

9.5 SOURCES OF IGNITION


Common sources of ignition are:
Open Flame.
Hot Work (Welding, Cutting Etc.).
Defective Electrical Equipment.
Automotive Vehicles.
Overheated Metal Surfaces.

9.6 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS


In many cases the operator can prevent large fire by extinguishing a small flare up in the
incipient stage.
For this purpose, several portable extinguishers are placed in the process area normally available
extinguishers are,
1.

Water

2.

Carbon Oxide

3.

Foam

4.

Dry Powder.

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In case of Fire,
The operating crew can handle small fires with fire extinguishers or water without outside
assistance.
When the efforts fail, and the fire is not extinguished, immediately actuate the fire alarm in case
of large fires caused by mechanical failure where the operator feels that he needs help the overall
helps fall in to distinct activity.
Isolation of the fire and orderly shutdown of the plant.

[30]

9.7 MECHANICAL HAZARDS

A well designed machine must be equipped with safety guards. Visual warnings of danger such
as signs and color schemes should be provided. Other may include;

Non substitution of one tool for mother when each has a definite specified function.

Guarding and sheeting sharp bladed tools.

Insulation of electrical hand tools.

Use of anti-spark tool in explosive or inflammable areas.

The term "fire prevention" applies to that phase of process design which minimizes fire hazards
inherent in the process. Fire control refers to control and production against fire which have
already been started. Minimum safe practices prescribed by nationally recognized fire protection
association, engineering authorities me to be exercised.

9.8 CHEMICAL HAZARDS


The most important manuals of safety for chemicals are the chemical safety data sheets,
compiled by the manufacturing chemists association. They discuss the safe handling of most
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hazardous chemicals, drawings, tables of data graphs. Safe handling of steel drums, fiber drums,
paper sacks, gins carboys and other containers.

9.9 VENTILATION
One of the major functions in most plant surveys is a study of ventilating systems, which we
used to control the health hazards. By local exhaust ventilation the air containment is removed at
the place of generation, before it comes into the workers breathing zone. Often, incorrect types of
ventilating systems are employed.

9.10 LABOR
Labor should be paid special attention i.e. Their health, welfare, recreation, etc. Such types of
facility would encourage their performance and they will concentrate on their work more.
Special programs and conferences should be held to impart plant and safety knowledge to them
and to exercise this knowledge.
Guard on window glasses as well as special protection equipment should be provided to the labor
to save them from unforeseen climates.

9.11 DRAIN & WASTES


Drainage and waste liquors should be proper enough to provide convenience not only to workers
but also to plant drainage line should be covered so as to avoid unhealthy conditions an
[22]

atmosphere prevailing in plants and its locality.

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ACCIDENT INITIATING EVENTS

Initiating
Event

ACCIDENT

Hazard

Hazard

initiating event = accident

9. 12 HAZARDS AND RISK


Hazard is a characteristic of a material or a process. Examples:
1. Flammability
2. Toxicity
3. High voltage
Risk is a measurable entity
Risk = Probability x Consequence
Hazards are inherently present in the materials or process. They cannot be eliminated altogether.
Risk can be controlled.
1. Flammability:
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Susceptibility to burning is the basis for assigning degrees within this category. This
method of attacking the fire is influenced by this susceptibility factor.
Materials that will not burn.
A material that must be preheated before ignition can occur water may cause frothing if
gets below the surface of the liquid and turn to steam. However, water fog gently applied
to the surface will cause a frothing which will extinguish the fire.
Materials, which must be moderately heated before ignition will occur. Water spray may
be used to extinguish the fire because the material can be cooled below its flash point.
Materials, which can be ignited under almost all normal temp Conditions. Water may be
ineffective because of the low flash point.
Very flammable gases or very volatile flammable liquids. Shut off flow and keep cooling
water streams on exposed tanks or containers.
2. Toxicity:
Most of the materials used in the manufacture of chemicals are poisonous, to some extent. The
potential hazard will depend upon the inherent toxicity of the material and the frequency and
duration of any exposure. It is usual to distinguish between the short terms effects (acute) and the
long term effects (chronic). A material effect only after long exposure at low concentrations, for
instance, carcinogenic material.
2. High voltage
Accidents attributed to electrical hazards are;

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Shocks by alternating current and burns by direct current due to poor production of high
voltage.
Faulty or poor wiring.
Insufficient cue of equipment,
Fires from overloaded circuits.

9. 13 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
9.13.1 Air Pollution
The disturbance in the natural composition of air that is 79 % N2, 21 % O2, is called air pollution
and the disturbance creating components are called air pollutants.

Organic Gaseous Pollutant: It includes the paraffin, olefins etc.


Inorganic Gaseous Pollutant: It includes sulfur gases e.g. SO2, SO3, H2S, CO2 and
etc.

9.13.2 Particulate Matter:


Particulate matter in solid or liquid where effective diameter is larger than molecule but smaller
than approximate of one thousand micrometer.
These may be classified as;

Grid: Solid particles suspended in air with a diameter of 500 micrometer.


Dust: Solid particles suspended in air with dia of 0.25 to 500 micrometer.
Smoke: Gas born solids with particles less than 2 micrometer in diameter.
Fumes: Suspended solids in air less than 1micrometer in diameter released from
chemical metallurgical process.

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Mist: Liquids droplets suspended in air with a diameter less than 2 micrometer.
Aerosol: Solid or liquid particles in suspension in air or some other gases with a
[30]

diameter less than 1 micrometer.

9.14 Effects of Natural Gas on Environment

Because natural gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel, it can help to improve quality of air and
water, especially when used in place of other, more polluting energy sources. Natural gas
combustion results in virtually an atmospheric emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2) or small
particular matter, and far lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), reactive hydrocarbons,
Nitrogen Oxides (nox) and carbon dioxide than combustion of other fossil fuels.
Natural gas is more environmentally attractive than other fossil fuels because it is composed
chiefly of methane, a molecule made up of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. When
methane is burned completely, the principal products of combustion are carbon dioxide and
water vapor.

CH4 + 2O2

CO 2 + H2O

In comparison, oil and coal compounds have much more complicated molecular structures. They
include a higher ratio of carbon, as well as various sulfur and nitrogen compounds. They do not
burn as clearly. Coal and industrial fuel oil combustion also produces ash particles, which do not
burn at all however; they can be carried into the atmosphere. Because natural gas burns cleanly,
its

use

can

be

effective

means

of

controlling

Fossil Fuel Emission Levels


- Pounds per Billion Btu of Energy Input
Pollutant
Natural
Oil
Coal
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Gas Sweetening Plant


Gas
Carbon Dioxide
117,000
164,000
Carbon Monoxide
40
33
Nitrogen Oxides
92
448
Sulfur Dioxide
1
1,122
Particulates
7
84
Mercury
0.000
0.007
Source: EIA - Natural Gas Issues and Trends 1998

208,000
208
457
2,591
2,744
0.016

9.15 HYDROGEN SULFIDE IN THE ENVIRONMENT


Approximately 90 percent of the sources that emit hydrogen sulfide into the air are
2

natural. Hydrogen sulfide is released into the air as a product of the decomposition of dead
plant and animal material, especially when this occurs in wet conditions with limited oxygen,
such as in swamps. Hot springs, volcanoes, and other geothermal sources also emit H2S.
Anthropogenic releases of H2S into the air result from industrial processes, primarily from
the extraction and refining of oil and natural gas and from paper and pulp manufacturing, but
the gas is also present at sewage treatment plants, manure-handling plants, tanneries, and
Coke oven plants.

9.15.1 Hydrogen Sulfide and Gas


Hydrogen sulfide is a naturally occurring component of natural gas. Natural gas is the products
of thermal conversion of decayed organic matter (called kerogen) that is trapped in

sedimentary

rocks. High-sulfur kerogens release hydrogen sulfide during decomposition, and

this H2S stays

trapped in gas deposits. Methane (CH4) is the predominant component of

natural

gas,

comprising 70% to 90%, while other gaseous hydrocarbons, butane (C4H10), propane (C3H8), and
ethane (C2H6), account for up to 20 percent. Contaminants present in

natural gas, which have to be

removed at natural gas processing facilities, include water vapor,

sand,

dioxide, nitrogen, rare gases such as helium and neon, and hydrogen

sulfide. In fact, hydrogen

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carbon

Gas Sweetening Plant


sulfide is the predominant impurity in natural gas. The Environmental

Protection

Agency

(EPA)

classifies natural gas as sour when H2S is present in amounts

greater than 5.7 milligrams per

3
normal cubic meters (mg/Nm ) (0.25 grains per 100 standard

cubic feet). Sour gas is routinely

sweetened at processing facilities called desulfurization plants. 95% of the gas sweetening process
involves removing the H2S by absorption in an amine
carbonate processes, solid bed absorbents and
Around 30 percent

solution, while other methods include

physical absorption.

of natural gas in the world may contain hydrogen sulfide,

Hydrogen sulfide emissions from gas development may pose a significant human health risk,
as the studies discussed below reveal. Workers in the oil and gas industry are trained to
recognize and respond to high-concentration accidental releases of H2S.

[24]

Table 1: Health Effects Associated with Hydrogen Sulfid [


Concentratio
n
(ppm)
2
8
10
>
30

50 100

Length
of
exposure
Community

10 minutes
Prolonged

Malaise, irritability, headaches,


insomnia,
nausea,
throat
irritation, shortness of breath,
eye irritation, diarrhea, and
weight loss
Eye
irritation,
chemical
changes in blood and muscle
tissue
After
10 minutes
Fatigue,
paralysis of olfaction

Source
EPA Report 1993, p. III32.

New
York
Department of
Rt
Snyder, p.200

State

from prolonged exposure

Prolonged

25
0

Prolonged

50
0

30 minutes
Immediate

[Type text]

Effect

30]

Prolonged exposure leads to Milby


p.194;
eye irritation; eye irritation Report 1993,
(painful
conjunctivitis,
sensitivity to light, tearing,
clouding of vision) and serious
eye injury (permanent scarring
Possible pulmonary edema Milby p.193
from prolonged exposure

EPA

Systemic symptoms after 30 Fuller, p.940


minutes
EPA Report 1993, p.III5
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500 1000
75
0

Immediate

Stimulation
of
respiratory
system, leading to hyperpnoea
(rapid breathing); followed by
Fuller, p.940
Unconsciousness, death

100
0

Immediate

Collapse, respiratory paralysis, Fuller,


p.940,
followed by death
Report 1993 p.

750 1000

500
0

Immediate

Immediate

Abrupt physical collapse,


with possibility of recovery
if exposure is terminated; if
not
terminated,
fatal
respiratory paralysis

Milby, p.192

Death

Fuller, p.940

EPA

43 Italics signify concentrations and health effects in studies that rely on self-reporting of
symptoms, usually in questionnaires.

9.16 Carbon dioxide in the environment


Normal CO2 Levels
The effects of increased CO2 levels on adults at good health can be summarized:
Acceptable levels: < 600 ppm
Complaints of stiffness and odors: 600 - 1000 ppm
OSHA standards: 1000 ppm
General drowsiness: 1000 - 2500 ppm
Adverse health effects expected: 2500 - 5000 ppm
maximum allowed concentration within a 8 hour working period: 5000 ppm

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The levels above are quite normal and maximum levels may occasionally happen
from time to time.
Extreme and Dangerous CO2 Levels
slightly intoxicating, breathing and pulse rate increase, nausea: 30,000 ppm
above plus headaches and sight impairment: 50,000 ppm

unconscious, further exposure death: 100.000 ppm

Principle air pollution issues


Two principle air pollution issues being discussed today are,

Acid Rain
Acid rain occurs as a result of NO x and SOx emissions that are transformed in the earths
atmosphere and return to the surface as dry deposits or in rain, snow or fog. Acid rain is not a
localized problem, these pollutants travel hundreds of miles in the atmosphere, and the acid
deposits often fall far from their sources. The debates on acid rain have focused on reducing the
emissions of Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and NOx.

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9.17 CO/Ozone Pollution Levels


Reducing high ozone pollution levels in urban areas require the reduction of reactive
hydrocarbons and sometimes nitrogen oxide (Nox) emissions. Besides being a contributor to
ozone formations, CO is a significant health hazard in its own right.
Natural gas can make an immediate contribution toward solving these pollution problems.

Atmospheric Emissions Guidelines in Pakistan


The World Bank Environmental Guidelines for atmospheric emissions of SO 2 and NOx from
stationary combustion sources are,
SO2

Maximum allowable increase in ground level concentration of 50 microgram/m3


(one year average)

Nox

86 x 10-9 gm per joule of heat input (gas fueled)


130 x10-9 gm per joule of heat input (liquid fueled)

Dust

When background levels of dust are high, dust emission from the stack should not
be greater than 100 mg/ m3.

Water

Drain water will be disposed of in channel, some 5.0 km away.


Specifications are:

[Type text]

Temperature

40oc (max)

pH

6.0 to 9.0

Total suspended solids

200mg/ liter (max)

Total dissolved solids

3500mg/ liter (max)

Free Oil

10 mg/liter (max).

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[35]

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Chapter 10
CAPITAL INVESTMENT OF PLANT

10.1 PURCHASED COST OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL VESSELS


INLET/SWEET GAS SEPARATOR

[8]

Length = 14 ft.
Diameter = 5ft.
Base cost = 22000 $ (See Figure 8.1 in Appendix D1)
Pressure factor at 1000 psi = 4.2
Vessel cost = 92400 $
For two vessels = 184800 $

RICH AMINE/ REFLUX DRUM

[8]

Length = 14 ft.
Diameter = 5 ft.
Base cost = 12000 $

(See Figure 8.2 in Appendix D2)

For two vessels = 24000 $

10.2 PURCHASED COST OF ABSORBER AND REGENERATOR


ABSORBER

[10]

Length = 34 ft.
Diameter = 5 ft.
Base cost without trays = 60,000 $

(See Figure 8.3in Appendix D3)

Pressure factor at 1000 psi is 4.2 plus stainless steel 304 SS is 3.5 = 462000 $
Tray cost = 6,500
Stainless steel tray factor is 1.5 = 9750 $
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Total trays cost = 14 x 9750 = 136500 $
Total cost of absorber = 136500 + 462000 = 598500 $
REGENEARATOR

[10]

Length = 42 ft.
Diameter = 5 ft.
Base cost without trays = 73,000 $

(See Figure 8.4in Appendix D4)

Stainless steel 304 SS factor is 3.5 = 255500 $


Tray cost = 7000 $
Stainless steel tray factor is 1.5 = 10500 $
Total trays cost = 18 x 10500 = 189000 $
Total cost of regenerator = 189900 + 255500 = 445400 $
10.3 PURCHASED COST OF PUMPS

[37]

BOOSTER PUMP
Flow = 218 gpm
Differential pressure (psi) = 98.70
Base cost = 7000 $
Stainless steel factor is 2.45 = 17150 $
CIRCULATION PUMP
Flow = 218 gpm
Differential pressure (psi) = 98.70
Base cost = 30,000 $
Stainless steel factor is 2.45 = 73,500 $
REFLUX PUMP
Flow = 207.4 gpm
Differential pressure (psi) = 466
Base cost = 2500 $
Stainless steel factor is 2.45 = 3436 $
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10.4 PURCHASED COST OF HEAT ECHANGERS


PLATE AND FRAME HEAT ECHANGER

[8]

Area of heat transfer 882 sq. ft. (See Figure 8.4in Appendix D4)
Cost from figure 14-25 (plant design and economics for chemical engineers) is 2000 $
FIN FAN COOLER
(AC-100)
Cost = 125500 $ [27]
(AC-101)
Cost = 278400 $ [27]

KETTLE TYPE REBOILER


Area = 726 sq. ft.
Cost = 3,500 $ (See Figure 8.3in Appendix D3)
Factor should be multiplied to gain cost of kettle type reboiler from sell and tube heat exchanger
Cost = 1.35 x 3,500 = 4,722 $

10.5 PURCHASED COST OF PIPE LINE


Table-10.1 Liquid line Cost
line number
3
5
8
11
12
17
18
19
20
[Type text]

diameter inches
2
4
4
4
4
2
10
4
4

LIQUID LINE
dollar/ft.
5
6
64
6
64
5
244
6
6

[8]

total length (ft.)


50
12
10
20
42
42
15
20
20

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total cost ($)


250
72
640
120
2688
210
3660
120
120

Gas Sweetening Plant


21
22
23

4
4
2

6
12
6
15
5
20
TOTAL COST OF LQUID LINES

72
90
100
8142

($)
Table-10.2 Gas line Cost
line number
1
2
4
6
14
16

[8]

GAS LINE
dollar/ft.
total length (ft.)
4
50
9
12
9
10
9
20
64
42
5
42
TOTAL COST OF GAS LINES

diameter inches
2
4
4
4
4
2

($)
*

[15]

(See Figure 8.5in Appendix D5)


10.6 PURCHASED COST OF VALVES

[10]

Number of globe valves of diameter 2 in. = 12


Each valve = 500 $
12 globe valves equal to = 6000 $
Number of gate valves of diameter 4 in. = 28
Each valve equal to = 800 $
28 globe valves equal to = 22400 $
Number of ball valves of 2 in. = 12
Each ball valve of 2 in. = 700 $
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total cost ($)


200
108
90
180
2688
210
3476

Gas Sweetening Plant


12 ball valves = 8400 $

10.7 PURCHASED COST OF CARTRIDGE FILTER


Cost of cartridge filter of 5.5 sq. ft. = 1200 $ [27]
Cost of carbon vessel of 5.5 sq. ft. = 5425 $

10.8 FIRED HEATER COST


Duty = 9.131 MMBtu/hour
Cost = 357300 $ (from http://www.matche.com/EquipCost/FiredHeater.htm)
10.9 TOTAL PURCHASED COST OF PLANT
Total purchased cost of plant equipments = 2169751 $ in the year 2001
(Note this is only capital cost and not includes installation cost, sanitary, labor cost, and
instrumentation cost)
For 2010 we have to use Marshall and swift equipment cost index
In 2001 annual index is 1093.9
Now in 2010 it is 1457.4
Present cost in 2010 = (1457.4 / 1093.9) x (1812451) = 2890754 $

10.9 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT


Total capital investment = working capital + fixed capital investment
Since working capital is 89 % of delivered equipment.
Fixed capital investment = total direct cost + total indirect cost
Delivered equipment cost is 10 % of purchased equipment = 1.10 x 2890754 = 3179829 $
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Table-10.3 Direct Cost
DIRECT COST

Fraction of Purchased

Calculated value $

Purchased equipment

Equipment
0.47

1494519

installation
Instrumentation and controls
Piping (installed)
Electrical system (installed)
Buildings (including service)
Yard improvements
Service facilities (installed)
TOTAL DIRECT COST $

0.36
0.68
0.11
0.18
0.10
0.70

1144739
2162284
349781
572369
317983
2225880
8267555 $

Table-10.4 Indirect Cost


INDIRECT COST
Engineering and supervision
Construction expenses
Legal expenses
Contractors fee
contingency
TOTAL INDIRECT COST $

Fraction of purchased
equipment
0.33
0.41
0.04
0.22
0.44

Calculated value $
1049344
1303730
127193
699562
1399125
4578954 $

Fixed capital investment = direct cost + indirect cost = 12846509 $


Working capital = 0.10 x 12846509 = 1284651 $
Total capital investment = fixed capital investment + working capital = 14131160 $

10.10 TOTAL MANUFACTURING COST


COST OF MDEA
1. Flow rate of 50 wt. % MDEA = 218 USGPM
2. Per day consumption of MDEA = 2 USGPM
3. Cost of MDEA id 8.38 $/gallon
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4. Initially we buy two batches of 218 USGPM
5. Cost for two batches is equal to = 3654 $
6. Daily consumption of MDEA (losses) = 9 USGPD
7. Annual consumption 330 operating days = 2970 USGPY
8. Annual cost of consumed MDEA = 24888 $
9. Total annual cost = 24888 + 3654 = 28543 $ per 330 days

COSTING OF ELECTRICITY FOR PUMPS


1. Commercial unit is 0.24 US dollar per unit (22 Rs. / KWh)
2. P-100 Booster pump = 13.13 KW = 0.24 x 13.13 = 3.1512 $/hour
3. Which is equal to = 3.1512 x 24 x 330 = 24958 $ per 330 days
4. P-102 Reflux pump = 0.8267 KW = 0.24 x 0.8267 = 0.198408 $/hour
5. Which is equal to = 0.198408 x 24 x 330 = 1571 $ per 330 days
6. P-101 Circulating Pump = 113.4 KW = 0.24 x 113.4 = 27.216 $/hour
7. Which is equal to = 27.216 x x24 x 330 = 215551 $ per 330 days
8. Total annual cost for pumps = 242080 $ per 330 days

LABOUR CHARGES
1. Plant capacity = 1309680 kg/sec for gas
2. Using figure 6.9 page 265 peter

[10]

3. We have 60 employees / day x processing step


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4. There are two principal processing steps absorption and separation
5. So labor hours = 2 x 60 x 330 = 39600 hours / year
6. 160 Rs. Per hour of labor charges (1.7454 $/hour)
7. Annual charges of operating labors = 1.7454 x 39600 = 69118 $ per 330 days
8. Plant capacity for MDEA = 114300 kg /sec
9. Using figure 6.9 page 265 peter
10. We have 35 employees / day x processing step
11. There are 3 principal processing steps heat transfer, transporting and distillation.
12. So labor hours = 3 x 60 x 330 = 59400 hours / year
13. 160 Rs. Per hour of labor charges (1.7454 $/hour)
14. Annual charges of operating labors = 1.7454 x 59400 = 103677 $ per 330 days
15. Total operating labor charges per year = 172795 $

Table-10.5
Maintenance cost

10 % of fixed capital

1284651

Operating supplies
Supervisory and clerical labor
Laboratory charges
Local taxes

investment
10 % of maintenance cost
20 % of operating labor
10 % of operating labor
4 % of fixed capital

128565
34559
17280
565246

insurance

investment
1 % of fixed capital

141312

Financing (interest)
Plant overhead cost
Administrative cost
Research and development

investment
10%of total capital investment
60 % of OP, SV, and MM
20 % cost of OP, SV and MM
2 % of every sell dollar

1413116
895203
298401
388539

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Total Manufacturing cost = 5610290 $ per year
OGRA notifies wellhead gas price for OGDC KARACHI: The Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority
(OGRA) has notified wellhead gas price for Oil and Gas Development Authority (OGDC) for a
period from July to December 2010.
According to information at the Karachi Stock Exchange here on Monday, price for Loti gas
field is Rs 118.33 per MMBtu, Dhodak Rs 251.62 per MMBtu, and Dakhni Rs 125.94 per
MMBtu for the sale to Sui Northern Gas Pipeline Limited.
For Sui Southern Gas Company, the price for Sari Hundi is Rs 541.28 per MMBtu up to 30, for
Nandpur/Panjpir Rs 318.72 per MMBtu and Pirkoh Rs 118.33 per MMBtu.
End.
ANNUAL REVENUE
1. Our gas flow rate is 48 MMscfd
2. And heating value is 950 BTU/scf
3. Consider our plant is at Pirkoh and the rate is 118.33 Rs. per MMBtu (1.291 US $ per
MMBtu)
4. 48 MMscfd x 330 = 15840 MMscf per year = 15840000000 scf per year
5. This volume of gas contain 15048000 MMBtu
6. Which gives 1.291 $/MMBtu x 15048000 MMBtu = 19426968 $ per year

ANNUAL NET PROFIT


Np = annual net profit = annual revenue manufacturing cost = 13816678 $ per year

PAYBACK PERIOD

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1. PBP = (fixed capital investment + manufacturing fixed capital investment) / annual cash
flow
2. Fixed capital investment = 12846509 $
3. Fixed manufacturing cost = 2119674 $
4. Annual cash flow = 13816678
5. PBP = 1.08 year

RETURN ON INVESTMENT
1. ROI = (annual profit / total capital investment) x 100
2. Annual profit = 13816678 $
3. Total capital investment = 14131160 $
4. ROI = 97.77 % per year

RESULTS
TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT
TOTAL MANUFACTURING COST
ANNUAL REVENUE
ANNUAL NET PROFIT
PAY BACK PERIOD
RETURN ON INVESTMENT

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14131160 $
5610290 $ per year
19426968 $ per year
13816678 $ per year
1.08 year
97.77 % per year

Gas Sweetening Plant


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19. Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Services, Refining Department, API
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32. http://training.nigc.ir/files/files/workshop/kargah1/GasSweeteningWorkshop_2igf_June2008.
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