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Intro Lecture 1

TIME LINE:

Universe ~15 Bill yrs. old = Big Bang Theory (the symbol ~ means approximately)
Earth - 5.2 Bill yrs. old
1st life (bacteria) ~3.5 Bill yrs. Old (bacteria)
Our oldest known ancestor, Lucy, ~ 4 Mill yrs. oldLucy = the missing link
--- Lucy was found in 1974 in Africa, in the country of Ethiopia (see page 2)
We began the use of fire ~ 100,000 years ago (safety, warmth, digestion)
Modern humans, Homo sapiens, are ~20,000 yrs. old and were originally nomadic
--- Our appearance as a species has been the same for the last 20,000 years
--- The 1st domesticated animal - dog 20,000 (some sources say 200,000 years ago)
Agriculture began ~ 10,000 yrs. ago, and in general, humans stopped being nomadic

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LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION: each level increases with complexity
Sub-atomic particles (make up atoms)
Protons: (+) charge
Neutrons: no charge (buffer protons from exploding out of nucleus)
Electrons: (-) charge
Atoms (building blocks of all substances and organisms)
Molecules (made of 2 or more atoms bonded to each other)
Cells (the smallest unit of life)
Tissue (made of specialized cells)
Organ (made of an organized array of specialized tissue
Organ systems (a set of organs that interact with each other)
Organism (the smallest form is a one celled bacteria)
Hypothesis: Is an educated guess based on your knowledge and experience
Although your individual ideas are great, they are not theories. They are hypotheses.
Scientific Theory:
Is our best description of reality
It is an hypothesis that has not been disproven after years of rigorous testing
It is believed by the majority of the scientific community to be true
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Examples: 1. ATOMIC THEORY All matter consist of atoms


2. BIG BANG THEORY The universe originated with an explosion ~ 15 Billion yrs. a
3. CELL THEORY All living organisms consist of one or more cells; the cell is the
basic (smallest unit) unit of life
All scientific theories are based on large bodies of evidence
Law of Nature: Describes a phenomenon that has been observed to occur in every
circumstance on earth without fail
Example: THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS which describes how energy behaves
Example: THE LAWS OF GRAVITY: objects always fall toward the ground

B IG B ANG T HEORY states that the Universe has a birth (Big Bang), it ages, and it dies. Most
scientists agree that this cycle repeats itself. Large bodies of scientific evidence exist to
support this theory. This is in contrast to the Steady State hypothesis which has
religious origins and states that the Universe is 6,000 yrs. old and that it has always been
and will always be the way it is today. Interestingly, the Old Testament was written ~
6,000 yrs. ago.
So, ~15 Bill yrs. ago all the energy and matter of the Universe was condensed into the size of a
softball. The pressure was so great that it exploded out into the Universe forming
galaxies of stars and planets.
This of course included our galaxy, the Milky Way, which consists of our Sun (Sol),
the Earth (Terra), and 8 other planets.

LUCY AND MATE


LUCY
ETHEOPA, AFRICA
THERE ARE 2 CLASSIFICATIONS OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS FALL UNDER ONE OF THE
FOLLOWING HEADINGS:

1. PROKARYOTES are all bacteria and do not contain nuclei


2. EUKARYOTES contain all other life forms; all have nuclei and membrane bound organelles
(organelles are tiny organs inside each eukaryotic cell)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Kingdom Protista are all found in water, include primitive amoebas (shape shifters)
Kingdom Fungi molds, yeast, fungus
Kingdom Plantae plants and trees
Kingdom Animalia sponges, worms, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
-

Mammals live birth, nurse young, fat under the skin, fur or hair

Within seconds after the Big Bang explosion, subatomic particles formed:
Protons: (+) charge
Neutrons: no charge (buffer protons from exploding out of nucleus)
Electrons: (-) charge
Subatomic particles first formed in space, and as Earth cooled down (~ 10 billion years ago), they
became suspended in the Earths atmosphere.
Then subatomic particles combined to form the 1st atoms: C O H N
Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N)

Know that:

H must form 1 bond


O must form 2 bonds
N 3 bonds
C ... 4 bonds

Then these COHN atoms combined to form the 1st molecules

1.
2.
3.
4.

H + H H2 hydrogen gas
O + 2H H2O water
N + 3H NH3 ammonia
C + 4H CH4 methane gas

So, these 1st molecules were suspended in early Earths atmosphere


Then the rains came and filled massive Earth craters with water to form the 1st oceans
AND the rains washed the 1st molecules in the atmosphere into these massive bodies of water.
Then, enormously powerful electrical storms caused lightning to strike these bodies of water
This caused the 1st molecules to fall apart into their original COHN atoms
And then the COHEN atoms recombined to form: Amino Acids
Fatty Acids
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Sugars
Nucleotides
These are the building blocks of Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates, and Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)
This process is known as the PRIMORDIAL SOUP Theory which describes how life began on
Earth.
In 1953- Stanley Miller (professor) & Harry Urey (grad student) received the Nobel Prize in
chemistry for simulating the primordial soup conditions of early Earth in a lab.
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Small Molecules
Large Molecules (also known as Macro-molecules)
MONOMERS

Amino Acids
Fatty Acids
Sugars
Nucleotides

POLYMERS _____________________

PROTEINS
LIPIDS
CARBOHYDRATES
NUCLEIC ACIDS = DNA & RNA

mer = part
monomer = 1 part
dimer = 2 parts
polymer = many parts

END