Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

34|| PANTE, JASELLE A

1F-PHARMACY
EXERCISE ON CHAPTER VI
1.

2.

HOW CAN ONE CATEGORIZE A PRODUCT FOR EXTERNAL USE?


One can be categorized as a product for external use when it has an evident topical compound primarily at the
surface to which they are applied. This is not to say that there is no penetration into deeper tissues or absorption into
the general circulation.
GIVE SOME PROPERTIES OF TOPICAL PROTECTIVES.
Topical protective are insoluble so that it will limit the absorption of the compounds through the skin making it difficult
to wash them off. They are also chemically inert, it is important in order to prevent the interaction between the
protective substance and the tissue.

3.

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF USING SMALLER PARTICLES FOR PROTECTIVES?


Smaller particles have a more maximized protective and adsorbent action. It also offers a larger surface area,
allowing them to adhere to each other, adhere better to the surface of the surface of the skin and adsorb moisture
more efficiently.

4.

NAME SOME PROTECTIVE PRODUCTS

Talc
Zinc Oxide
Calamine
Zinc stearate

Titanium Dioxide
Silicon
Polymers.

5.

WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF ZINC STEARATE OVER OTHER PROTECTIVE PRODUCTS?


Zinc Stearate is insoluble in water, alcohol and ether. It also has mild astringent and antimicrobial properties. And not
wetted by moisture making it more desirable than any other protective products for it makes the large amounts of
fluids exude and no formation of crusty patches to occur in the areas being treated.

6.

WHAT PROPERTY OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE MAKES IT USEFUL AS A SOLAR RAY PROTECTIVE?


Its Opacity due to its high refractive index. This high refractivity makes the compound useful for screening out ultra
violet reaction.

7.

EXPLAIN THE 3 MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS?


1.Oxidation-compounds capable of functioning as antimicrobial agents through oxidative mechanism are generally
non-metals and certain types of anions. Most common among these are hydrogen peroxide etc. the effective
voxidative action of these compounds involves the reducing group present in most proteins.
2.Halogenation- this is a reaction occurring with antiseptic of the hypohalite type and in particular, hypochlorite, OCl.
Since these types of compound can serve as reagents in the chlorination of primary and secondary amides, it is
expected that a similar reaction can take place under appropriate conditions with the peptide linkage between the
amino acid groups comprising the protein molecule.
3. Protein Precipitation- This type of mechanism involves the interactions of proteins with metallic ions having large
charge/radius ratio or strong electrostatic fields. This property is available in transition metal cations, including the
metals of Group I-B And group II-B.

8.

GIVE SOME WAYS OF CONTROLLING ANTIMICROBIAL/ASTRINGENTS ACTIONS.


In the case of water soluble compounds, control of activity is accomplished by making solutions of the appropriate
concentration for the desired use. These concentrations will vary depending upon the area of use, higher
concentration may be used on the skin than in the eye. Soluble compounds may also be controlled by placing them in
a vehicle which will slow their release to the site of action. For certain compound, this is accomplished by placing
them in a solutions containing glycerine.
Complexation with a ligand also provides a controlled release of some of these agents, minimizing toxicity and activity
at host cells.

9.

EXPLAIN ASTRINGENT ACTION.


The action on microbial versus host cells is determined by concentration. In reality, this is the only means available
for directing all of these agents towards antimicrobial activity and for minimizing unwanted action on host cells.

10. NAME SOME OFFICIAL ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS AND GIVE ITS MECHANISM OF ACTION

Some official antibacterial agents are Hydrogen Peroxide Solution, Potassium Permanganate, Sodium Hypochlorite
Solution, Diluted Sodium Hypochlorite Solution. Its mechanisms of action are oxidation, halogenations and protein
precipitation.

11. GIVE THE MEANING OF 10 VOLUMES OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

10 volumes of Hydrogen Peroxide means that the official solution contains 3% hydrogen peroxide.

12. HOW CAN YOU PREPARE DILUTED SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE FROM THE OFFICIAL SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE WHICH
MEETS USP STANDARDS?

The dilution of household bleach does not normally meet the USP standards as an antiseptic because of the lack of
pH adjustment.

13. NAME SOME IODINE PREPARATIONS

Iodine Solution and Iodine Tincture are examples of Iodine Preparations.

14. GIVE SOME ANTIDOTES FOR IODINE POISONING

Some antidotes are gastric lavage with a soluble starch solution or administration of a 5% sodium thiosulfate solution.

15. NAME SOME SILVER NITRATE PREPARATIONS WITH THEIR CORRESPONDING USES

Silver Nitrate Ophthalmic Solution a 1% solution for instillation into the eyes of newborn babies.
Toughened Silver Nitrate lessens the friability of the pencils. Used as escharotic and germicide especially for small
septic wounds and ulcers.

16. DIFFERENTIATE THE KINDS OF SULFUR AND GIVE THEIR MANNER OF PREPARATION

Sublimed Sulfur obtained by condensing the sulfur vapors produced by heating any form of sulfur.
Precipitated Sulfur prepared by mixing sulfur with metal hydroxides to form mixtures of metal sulphides and
thiosulfates.
Sulfurated Potash a mixture composed chiefly of potassium polysulfides and potassium thiosulfate.
Selenium Sulfide - contains n.l.t 52% and n.m.t 55.5% of selenium.

17. GIVE SOME USES OF ASTRINGENT COMPOUNDS

Styptic to stop bleeding from small cuts by promoting coagulation of blood and constriction of small capillaries
Antiperspirant to decrease secretion of perspiration by constricting pores at the surface of the skin.
Restriction of the supply of blood to the surface of mucous membrane as a means of reducing inflammation.
Direct actions on skin to remove unwanted tissues.

18. NAME SOME COMPOUNDS USED AS ASTRINGENT OFFICIAL IN THE COMPENDIA.

Some compounds used as astringents are: Akum, Aluminum Chloride, Aluminum Sulfate, Aluminum Acetate Solution,
Zinc Chloride and Zinc Sulfate.