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Monday, July 13, 2 015

9:33 A M

Why History?
- Historical events have helped shape political attitudes as well as political actions
in this state.
The Spanish
- 1716 - 1821
- Legacy:
Introduced European Crops
Spanish Missions
Our State's Name
Numerous Spanish names for cities, towns, rivers, etc..
42/254 counties in Texas
Galveston Island. Guadalupe River.. Etc.
- Texas:
Caddo Indians would refer to the Spanish as "Tejas" which loosely
translated mean friend and allies.
- Spanish Mission System:
Mission Purpose:
To assimilate the Native Americans into the Spanish way of life.
To incorporate them into the Spanish colonial empire
To encourage them to convert to Catholicism
To incorporate them into the Hispanic culture.
Mission Life:
Highly organized routine
Convert to Christianity
Spanish Explorers:
DeVaca
Coronada
The French:
- LaSalle
- Landed on the Texas Coast in 1683 and claimed Texas for the French
Anglo Arrive:
- Stephen F. Austin
- Strained relationship with Mexico
- Santa Anna's Reaction

- Landed on the Texas Coast in 1683 and claimed Texas for the French
Anglo Arrive:
- Stephen F. Austin
- Strained relationship with Mexico
- Santa Anna's Reaction
- The "Lexington of Texas"
- The Alamo.
Stephen F Austin:
- Father of Texas
- 1820 - Land Grants - with the approval of Mexico
- Austin was in control of the colonists and he was told that he "Was responsible
for their good behavior."
- Complete military and civil authority over those accepting land grants until
1828.
Why did they allow colonies?
- To settle and develop the frontier.
- Increase economic development.
- Deter and remove the Plains Indians.
Land Grants:
- 177 acres of land for farmers
- 4428 acres of land for ranchers
Had to occupy the land within 2 years
Had to have the land surveyed.
Had to make improvements to the land
Had to become Catholic (the only religion recognized as legal by the
Mexican Constitution.)
Why did the Colonists Arrive?
- The land was cheap ( .1/acre or less - compared to $1.25 in U.S)
- 7 year exemption from taxes.
- It was also a way to walk away from debts owed in the United States
Debtors would leave their homes and write G.T.T on their shutters -
"Gone to Texas"
- How Many?
1827:12000
1835: 30000
- Characteristics of Anglos
Poor, proud, independent
Their attitudes towards government and society were the opposite of the
Mexican society and government

1835: 30000
- Characteristics of Anglos
Poor, proud, independent
Their attitudes towards government and society were the opposite of the
Mexican society and government
Intolerant of those not like themselves
As result, grew estranged result with the Mexican government.
- Slavery?
The Colonists and Mexicans disagreed greatly on the issue of slavery.
Mexicans despised slavery but Mexico allowed the colonists to bring their
slaves so that they would produce cotton.
The agreement with the colonist allowed them to bring slaves but
disallowed them from importing any new slaves from Africa.
Agreement also demanded that grandchildren of slaves be freed gradually
upon reaching certain ages.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
- 1833: Elected to presidency.
- Ignores the constitution.
- The Seven Laws
Dissolved Mexico's 1824 Constitution:
Disbanded Congress
Had to have a certain level of income to vote
Begins centralizing power into the executive branch
Presidential term extended from 4 to 8 years
Got rid of states and replaced them with military districts.
Tejas was one of the 11 states that rebelled against these changes
- Santa Anna's Reaction:
Banned further immigration into Texas and banned slavery of any sort.
Arrest Stephen F Austin
Texas Revolution:
- Santa Anna sent troops to disarm the Americans in Texas, by sending troops to
reclaim a cannon that has been given to the settlers to protect from Native
Americans.
- 1835: The Americans resist near Gonzales on the Guadalupe River and the Texas
War for Independence begins.
- March 2, 1836: Texans declare independence
- Appoint an interim government - appoint David. G. Burnet as the interim
president
- Elect Sam Houston, former governor of Tennessee, commander in chief of the
army.
Sam Houston:
First Elected President

- Appoint an interim government - appoint David. G. Burnet as the interim


president
- Elect Sam Houston, former governor of Tennessee, commander in chief of the
army.
Sam Houston:
First Elected President
Represent the State as US Senator
Governor of Tennessee
- The Alamo:
Houston ordered his troops to withdraw from Alamo.
Texans ignore Houston
Santa Anna led a force of 5000 troops into San Antonio to put down the
Texas rebellion.
He surrounded the Alamo for 13 days before finally attacking.
Trying to draw out Sam Houston's army.
On March 6, attacked.
William Travis was left to command the Alamo
Davy Crockett
Travis wrote his letter - Victory or Death
William B. Travis, James Bowie and Davy Crockett died in the
fighting.
Between 189 - 257Alamo defender were killed.
Women, children and slaves were allowed to leave.
- Battle at San Jacinto
Battle where Texans beat the Mexican Army.
Treaty of V elasco: May 14, 1836
Gave Texas its independence
Ended the fighting
Mexican troops had to withdraw
All Texas prisoners had to be released
Santa Anna released and returned to Mexico.
The Republic:
- Sam Houston was elected the first President of the Republic of Texas
- Drafted a Constitution.
- Houston as President
Limited Government
Low Taxes
Favored Annexation
Favored peace treaties with Native Americans.
Annexation: 1836 - Texans wanted annexation but President Martin V an Buren nixed
the idea
- Fear of war with Mexico

Favored Annexation
Favored peace treaties with Native Americans.
Annexation: 1836 - Texans wanted annexation but President Martin V an Buren nixed
the idea
- Fear of war with Mexico
- Antislavery sentiment was another primary reason.
- 1845: Texas annexed by U.S.
- 28th State
- Annexation Myth:
We have no right to secede.
We can split to 5 state.
Texas v. White ( 1869)
Civil War 1861 - 1865
- Texas joins 10 other states and secedes
- One Texas family in four owned slaves, most Texans opposed any interference
with the intuition of slavery, which believed necessary of the continued growth
of the state.
- Sam Houston
Sam Houston disagreed with secession - he believed the union should stay
together.
Refuse to take oath to the CSA
We should not fight over it. Use representative democracy for
change.
Succession is Illegal.
- Civil War:
Few battles were fought here but Texas was a major supplier of men and
material to the Confederacy.
1861 - 25000 Texans were in the Confederate army.
- Juneteenth:
January 1, 1863: Emancipation Proclamation was made official by
Congress.
June 19, 1865: Celebration of the day the word of the Emancipation
Proclamation reached to Texas.
Reconstruction:
- 1865: Federal troops arrive to ensure loyalty to the federal government and to
ensure fair treatment of the freed men and women.
- Reconstruction Plan:
Under the reconstruction plan, the president of the U.S. was to appoint a
provisional governor for each state.
The provisional governor had to call a convention in order to:

- 1865: Federal troops arrive to ensure loyalty to the federal government and to
ensure fair treatment of the freed men and women.
- Reconstruction Plan:
Under the reconstruction plan, the president of the U.S. was to appoint a
provisional governor for each state.
The provisional governor had to call a convention in order to:
Repudiate and nullify the act of secession
To Abolish Slavery
Reconstruction Period:
The Reconstruction Period was a time of great stress and turmoil in
Texas.
The State's economy was ruined
After federal troops were removed, Texans were vulnerable to
repeated attacks by the Plains Indians.
Plains Indians:
In the late 19th Century federal troops returned to ensure the
demise of the Plains Indians.
The Plains Indians included: Sioux Cheyenne, Crow, Blackfeet,
Comanche and others.
Comanche:
Much of North, central, and West Teas, soon become Comanche
country, or Comancheria.
- Native Americans Today:
3 tribes left.
Impact of Frontier Experience:
- Encouraged Self - Reliance
- Fostered the importance of land ownership
- The Texan general attitude of friendliness and a willingness to help others.
- Contributed to the development of the individualistic political culture that
dominates here today.
Progressive Era:
- 1890: Began with the election of Governor James Stephen Hogg.
- Hoggs Laws:
Created the Texas Railroad Commission pushed for acts regulating
insurance companies, restricting child labor, and restructuring state
prisons.
- Hoggs on Lobbying:
In speech Hogg said the use of corporate funds in politics and in support
of lobbies at Austin should be abolished.
Modern Era:
- Spindletop

- Hoggs on Lobbying:
In speech Hogg said the use of corporate funds in politics and in support
of lobbies at Austin should be abolished.
Modern Era:
- Spindletop
- 1903: More than 400 wells had been drilled in that area.
- The spindletop was the most productive oil of that time.
- People began moving to urban areas
- Cheap fuel and plenty of jobs available at the refinery
- Began to chip away at the agrarian, frontier past of Texas.
Ma and Pa Ferguson
- Pa Ferguson won the governorship in 1914 claiming he represented the "boys
who live back at the forks of the reek."
- Only governor of Texas that have been impeached and removed.
- Ma Ferguson: First female governor]
She passed an anti-mask law against the KKK
Some accused her of selling pardons
Some accused Ma and pa of accepting bribes of land and cash payments.
Geography, Economy, Demographics:
- Economic Pieces:
First stage - Take it
Cattle, cotton, crude
Second Stage - Make it
Manufacturing became an important part of the economy
The Third Stage - Serve it.
Service Sector
- Population
80% of the population lives in metropolitan counties.
3 cities among the 10 largest in the nation: Houston, San Antonio and
Dallas.
Political issues dominated by issues vital to suburbs and cities.
- Latino Texas
The only native Texans to sign the Declaration of Independence were Jose
Navarro and Francisco Ruiz
Latinos the largest ethnic minority
76% of Texas Latinos are of Mexican origin.
- African - American Texas
3rd largest number of African-Americans in the nation after New York and
California

Navarro and Francisco Ruiz


Latinos the largest ethnic minority
76% of Texas Latinos are of Mexican origin.
- African - American Texas
3rd largest number of African-Americans in the nation after New York and
California
Political influence has increased.
- Asian American Texas
Smaller compared to other groups.
Political Culture
- Overall Theme: Limited Government
- Define: The process by which individuals acquire beliefs, values, and habits of
thought and action related to government, politics, and society.
- Agents of Political Socialization
Parents - Starts by discussing at home
Schools - Provide you with the factual basis to understand how
government works
Churches -
Friends -
- Definition of Political Culture: Political Culture is a people's shared framework
of values, beliefs, and habits of behavior related to government and politics.
- Four Aspect of Political Culture:
The relationship between government and the people
The rights and responsibility of the people
The obligations of government
The limits on governmental authority.
- Political Culture in Texas
- Moralistic:
The role of government is an active one and that politics are
inclusive.
Emphasizes public good over private gain
The role of government is to improve conditions for the people.
- Individualistic
Individualism
Independence
Limited Government
Free Enterprise
Image of the rugged, self-reliant fronteiersman/ forntierswoman
View government as an adversary that taxes and regulates us.
- Traditionalistic
Emphasizes the prevailing order and is resistant to change
The role of government is to maintain the status quo
Political leaders are the privileged few.

View government as an adversary that taxes and regulates us.


- Traditionalistic
Emphasizes the prevailing order and is resistant to change
The role of government is to maintain the status quo
Political leaders are the privileged few.
- Tradition - Problems
- A Closer Look
- Poverty
- Water
- Environment
#4 most polluted state
Federalism and the Texas Constitution
- A structure of government characterized by the division of powers between a
national government and associated regional governments.
- Why Federalism?
- Checks the growth of tyranny
- Allows for unity without conformity
- Encourages experimentation with public policy
- Keeps the government closer to the people.
- Supremacy Clause
- Definition: Makes national law supreme over state law when the national
government is acting within its constitutional limits.
- Delegated Powers
- Definition: Specific powers entrusted to the national government by
Article 1, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution.
- Collect taxes
- Regulate interstate commerce
- Coin Money
- Declare War.
- Implied Powers
- Definition: These power that belong to the national government are not
literally stated, but reasonably implied and are derived from the
Necessary and Proper Clause.
- Necessary and Proper Clause: The federal government has the authority "
to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into
execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this
Constitution in the government of the United States.
- Tenth Amendment
- Reserved powers of the states.
- Police Power
- Definition: The power to protect the health, morals, safety and well-being
of citizens and provide for the general welfare.
- Taxing Power:

- Tenth Amendment
- Reserved powers of the states.
- Police Power
- Definition: The power to protect the health, morals, safety and well-being
of citizens and provide for the general welfare.
- Taxing Power:
- Definition: Raising revenue to pay for the costs of government.
- Propriety Power:
- Public ownership of property such as airports, energy producing utilities
and parks.
- Eminent Domain
- Taking private property for highway construction or other public use at a
fair price.
- The 5th amendment to the US. Constitution states, " no taking private
property without just compensation."
Kelo v. City of New London
- Significance: Greatly increased the power of government at all levels to use the
power of eminent domain even when the property is seized for private entities.
Examples of Reserved Powers:
- Control over property and contract law
- Criminal law
- Licensing
- Marriage and Divorce
- Provision of Education
- Run Elections
- Regulate intrastate commerce.
Montana - Fun Laws
- Intrastate commerce
Power Denied to the States:
- Cannot coin money
- Cannot enter into treaties with other nations
- Cannot interfere with the "obligation of contracts"
- Cannot levy taxes on imports or exports
- Cannot engage in war.
Concurrent Powers:
- Power shared by the federal and state governments.
- Examples:
- Taxing citizens and businesses
- Spending money

Concurrent Powers:
- Power shared by the federal and state governments.
- Examples:
- Taxing citizens and businesses
- Spending money
- Establishing courts
- Protecting civil liberties
- Passing and enforcing laws
- Examples of Additional Limitation on State Power
- U.S. Constitution contains further limits on state power in the
amendments
19th Amendment - Cannot deny the right to vote based on gender
26th Amendment - Lower the voting age to 18 years of age
14th Amendment - States must provide "equal protection of the
laws" and may not deprive persons of life, liberty or property
without " due process of law".
- Constitutional Guarantees to the States
- States cannot be divided or combined with any other state without the
consent of the state legislatures involved and Congress
- Guaranteed a republican form of government (representative form of
government)
- Each state has senators and at least one member in the House of
Representatives.
-

Constitutional Guarantees to the States


- States play a role in presidential elections through the Electoral College
- States play a role in the amending process of the US Constitution
- States are protected by the US Government.

Article IV
- Article IV of the US Constitution deals with interstate relation.
- It defines how states should work with one another
- Privileges and Immunities Clause
Protection of the laws
Access of the courts
Right to leave and enter any state.
- Full Faith and Credit Clause
Civil judgments of courts in one state must be recognized and
enforced by civil courts in other states and that most government
actions must be officially recognized by public officials in all states
Ex. If you get married in Texas and move to Ohio, you are still
married.

- Full Faith and Credit Clause


Civil judgments of courts in one state must be recognized and
enforced by civil courts in other states and that most government
actions must be officially recognized by public officials in all states
Ex. If you get married in Texas and move to Ohio, you are still
married.
Ex. If you get divorced in Texas and move to Main, you are still
divorced.
- Extradition
It provides the criminals in one state to be delivered to the state in
which they committed the crime(s).
- Impact of Grants
Anytime the federal government hands out grants, there are
stipulations and requirements that must be met.
Texas Constitution
- Characteristics of State Constitutions
- Tend to be lengthy and include numerous amendments
- 33 state constitutions exceed 20,000 words and U.S. Constitution has
8,500 words
- 483 Amendment as of 2013
- Seven Constitutions
- Throughout the history of Texas there have been seven Texas
Constitutions written and ratified.
- 1827 Constitution
We wrote it because we are a state in Mexico.
- 1836 Constitution
The year Texas declared independence and established a republic.
Followed US Model
- 1845 Constitution
It had become a part of the United States, a new constitution
needed to be written.
- 1861 Constitution
Texas becomes a part of the Confederate States of America and
needs to write another constitution
- 1866 Constitution
Confederates lose so Texas need to write another constitution.
- 1869 Constitution
Significance: Greatly strengthened the power of the government in
general and the power of the governor.
Kids have to go to school
Created permanent school fund
African American males were guaranteed the right to vote
Imposed martial law across the state

Significance: Greatly strengthened the power of the government in


general and the power of the governor.
Kids have to go to school
Created permanent school fund
African American males were guaranteed the right to vote
Imposed martial law across the state
- 1876 Constitution
Significance: Texans decided to write another constitution because
of their experience under Davis and a strong government
Limited the power of government across the board
Limited the power of the governor
Made sure to include a Bill of Right.
Currently governing our state.
- Mexican - American War:
- Determining the boundary lines of this new state called Texas set the
stage for war between Mexico and the United States
- Polk tried to negotiate with Mexico for the state of Texas to include all of
the territory to the Rio Grande
- When negotiations failed, War broke out
- A Mexican regiment attacked and war was formally declared on May 13,
1846 by the US congress
- During this time Santa Anna Came back.
-

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - Significance


- Fighting stopped in the Mexican - American War
- Mexico lost more than half of its territory
- Mexico recognized the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas.
- US gave 15 million in compensation for war-related damage to Mexican
land.

- Black Codes - 1866 Legislation


- Overall: System of segregation from almost every aspect of life
- Separate railway cars -segregation
- African American could not receive money from the public school fund.
- African Americans could not receive any land under the Homestead Act.
- Reconstruction Act of 1867
- Congressional Republicans passed this law that required the following:
Former Confederate states had to write constitutions that have to
be approved of the Federal Government.
-

Impact of Governor Davis


- Shortly thereafter, Republican EJ. Davis, was elected the first Republican

- Congressional Republicans passed this law that required the following:


Former Confederate states had to write constitutions that have to
be approved of the Federal Government.
-

Impact of Governor Davis


- Shortly thereafter, Republican EJ. Davis, was elected the first Republican
governor of Texas.
- Examples of corruption:
Spent public money extravagantly
Intimidated newspaper editors.
- Governor Davis - Obnoxious Acts
State Police Force created - under his command
Martial Law instated whenever he chose
Militia Bill - all men between the ages of 18-45 could be drafted into
its service.
Allowed him to fill vacancies by appointment .. Including the Texas
Supreme Court.
Gave the governor the power to appoint all local officials and all
judges
Gave the state ownership of the press.

1876 Texas Constitution


- Article I - Bill of Rights
- Article II - Separation of Power
- Article III - Legislative Department
- Article IV - Executive Department
- Article V - Judicial Department
- Article V I - Suffrage
- Article V II - Education.
- Bill of Rights
- The US Bill of Rights didnt apply to state.
- US Has 10
- TX has 34
- Many of the Texas Bill of Rights are similar to the US Bill of Rights
- States include protection that you dont have on the federal level.
- Section 6: It shall be the duty of the Legislature to pass such laws as may
be necessary to protect equally every religious denomination in the
peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of public worship.
Similar to US - Free Exercise Clause.
- Section 7 : No money shall be appropriated, or drawn from the Treasury
for the benefit of any sect, or religious society, theological or religious
seminary; nor shall property belonging to the State be appropriated for
any such purposes.

peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of public worship.


Similar to US - Free Exercise Clause.
Section 7 : No money shall be appropriated, or drawn from the Treasury
for the benefit of any sect, or religious society, theological or religious
seminary; nor shall property belonging to the State be appropriated for
any such purposes.
Similar to US - Establishment Clause.
Section 8: Every person shall be at liberty to speak write or publish his
opinions on any subject, being responsible of the abuse of that privilege;
and no law shall ever be passed curtailing the liberty of speech or of the
press.
Similar to US - Free Speech, Free Press
Section 9: The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers and
possessions, from all unreasonable seizure or searches, and no warrant to
search any place, or to seize any person or thing, shall issue without
describing them as near as may be, nor without probable cause,
supported by oath or affirmation.
Similar to US - Protection against unreasonable searches / seizures.
Section 10: In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall have a speedy
public trial by an impartial jury. He shall have the right to demand the
nature and cause of the accusation against him, and to have a copy
thereof. He shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself, and
shall have the right of being heard by himself or counsel, or both shall be
confronted by the witnesses against him.
Similar to US - Speedy Trial, right to a lawyer in a criminal trial, right
against self-incrimination.
Section 13: Excessive bail shall not be required , nor excessive fines
imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted. All courts shall be
open, and every person for an injury done him, in his lands, goods, person
or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law.
Similar to US - No excessive fines, bail, no cruel and unusual
punishment.
Section 14: No person, for the same offense, shall be twice put in
jeopardy of life or liberty; or shall a person be again put upon trial for the
same offense after a verdict of not guilty in a court of competent
jurisdiction.
Similar to US - Protection against double jeopardy.
Section 23 : Every citizen shall have the right to keep and bear arms in the
lawful defense of himself or the State: but the Legislature shall have
power, by law, to regulate the wearing of arms, with a view to prevent
rime.
Similar to US - Right to bear arms.
Section 27: The citizens shall have the right, in a peaceable manner, to
assemble together for their common good and apply to those invested

lawful defense of himself or the State: but the Legislature shall have
power, by law, to regulate the wearing of arms, with a view to prevent
rime.
Similar to US - Right to bear arms.
- Section 27: The citizens shall have the right, in a peaceable manner, to
assemble together for their common good and apply to those invested
with the powers of government for redress of grievances or other
purposes, by petition, address or remonstrance.
Similar to US - Right to assembly.
- UNIQUE - Section 18
No person shall ever be imprisoned for debt.
- UNIQUE - Section 20
No citizen shall be outlawed.
- UNIQUE - Section 21
Estates of those who destroy their own lives shall descend or vest as
in case of natural death.
- UNIQUE - Section 30
The rights of crime victims
The US Constitution has many protections for those accuse of
crimes but includes no protections for victims of crimes
- UNIQUE - Section 32
Marriage in this state is between a man and a woman
Overruled by SCOTUS
- Castle Doctrine:
A person's home is his castle
Can use force to attack invader.
Article III
- Separation of Powers; Constitutional distribution of powers among the
three branches of government: legislative, executive and judicial.
- Bicameral: House and Senate
- Meets once every 2 years for 120 days
- Quorum: must have 2/3 of its member present to operate
- 31 members of the Senate - 4years term
- 150 members of the House - 2 years term
- Salary $600 per month, unless a greater amount is recommended by the
TEC and approved by the voters.
Article IV
- The Executive consists of the following positions:
Governor

Article IV
- The Executive consists of the following positions:
Governor
4 year term
Commander in Chief of the state's military forces ( unless
under command of the president)
Responsible for enforcing the laws
Can veto - takes 2/3 to override.
Lieutenant Governor
Comptroller
Land Commissioner
Agricultural Commissioner
Attorney Genera
State board of Education
Railroad Commission
Secretary of State ( Appointed)
Article V
- Judicial Department
2 Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of Texas hears civil cases
The Court of Criminal Appeals hear criminal cases
We elect all of these judges.
Article V I
- Once a felon has completed his/her sentence and parole OR completed
probation, his/her voting rights are restored .
Article V II
- We will have public education
Article V III
- Taxation of property
- Exemption from Tax: Churches, burial places, schools, and public charity.
Article IX
- Counties
Article XI
- General Law: Less than 5000
- Home Rule: More than 5000

- Counties
Article XI
- General Law: Less than 5000
- Home Rule: More than 5000
Article XV
- Who can be impeached?
Every can be impeach except Secretary of State.
Article XV
- Impeachment and removal process:
Simple majority vote in the House for impeachment ( Meaning one
has been charged with something)
Onto the Senate with 2/3 vote necessary for conviction and
removal.
Article XVI
- States those convicted of perjury , forgery, treason and other high crimes
cannot run for office.
- States that if you do not reside in the district in which you represent or in
the state, you swill be removed from office.
- States that members of the U.S. Congress may not also represent Texans
concurrently at the state level.
Ammending Process
- There are 482 amendments to the Texas Constitution
- Proposed by a either a member of the House or Senate
- 2.3 vote by members of the House and Senate
- Simple majority vote by registered voters in the state to ratify.