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Chapter2

CellularSystems
Wirelesscommunicationslinksareespeciallyusefulformobileapplicationsandwireless
communicationssystemsareoftendesignedtocoversuchareasbysplittingthemintomanysmaller
cells.Thatcellularpropertyintroducesmanydifficultiessuchashowtohandover(orhandoff)from
onecelltoanother,whilemaintaininggoodservicequality.Coverage,capacity,interference,and
spectrumreuseareimportantconcernsofcellularsystemsthischapterreviewstheseaspectsaswell
asthetechnologies,tools,andstandardsusedtooptimizethem.

2.1CellularConcepts
Themanyfrequencyblocksdetailedearlierareusedforavarietyofcommunicationsservices.Higher
frequencies(sayabove6GHz)aremostlyusedforpointtopointservicessuchasdedicatedprivate
lines.Lowerfrequenciesarebettersuitedforbroadercoverage,andaresplitintogeographicalcells.
2.1.1FrequencyReuse
Coveringalargegeographicareawithlimitedamountofspectrumleadstothereuseofthesame
frequencyinmultiplelocationsthisleadstocochannelinterferenceconsiderations,meaning
interferencefromdifferentareas(orcells)thatusethesamefrequencychannel.1Cochannel
interferenceconsiderationsareusuallyapproachedbyconsideringthefollowingparameters:
St:totalnumberofRFchannelsavailable(giventheamountofspectrumandchannelwidth
dictatedbytechnologystandard),
S0:numberofchannelspercell,whichreflectssystemcapacityatagivenlocation,
K:thereusefactor,thenumberofcellsthatisrepeatedtoprovidecoverageoveralargearea.
Thethreequantitiesarelinkedbythestraightforwardrelation:
(2.1)
ThereusefactorKisthereforeanimportantparameterforcapacity.Thelowestreusefactor(K=1)
maximizescapacitybutthishastobebalancedwithinterferenceconsiderations:indeedahigher
reusefactor(K=3,4,7,orhigher)providesmoredistancebetweencellsusingthesamefrequency,
whichlowersinterferences.
2.1.2InterferenceConsiderationsinReuse
Toquantifyinterferenceduetoreusewehavetoconsiderhowasignalpropagatesfromonecellto
another.Wewillstudypropagationmodelslaterinchapter??,butweneedafewsimplenotionshere.
Assumeapropagationmodelusingapowerpathlossexponentn,thatisamodelwherepowerdecays
in1Rn(Rbeingthedistanceseparatingtransmitstationfromreceiver).Thismeansthattheratioof
receivedpowertotransmitpowermaybeexpressedasPrPt=ARn,whereAissomeconstant.


Figure2.1:FrequencyreusepatternsK=3,4,and7,onhexagonalcells.Boldcontour
showsthepatternofcellsrepeatedtoprovidewideareacoverage.Dishowsthe
shortestdistancebetweencellsreusingthesamefrequency.
Withthismodel,signaltointerferenceratiosareestimatedas
(2.2)
wherei0isthenumberofcochannelcellsnearesttothecell(calledfirsttierortierone)thatnumber
increaseswithK.AndDiisthedistancetothetieronecellsreusingthesamefrequency(asshownin
figure2.1).Inthecaseofhexagonalcellapproximationtheexpressionsimplifiesto[1]:
(2.3)
Wellseemoredetailsonnfurther,itsvaluesvarytypicallybetween2and4withthetypesof
terrain.Wellalsoseethatspecificwirelesstechnologiesrequireacertainsignaltonoiseand
interferenceratio(mostlybasedondatarates)soequation(2.3)leadstoaminimalacceptablevalue
forK.
2.1.3MultipleAccess
Amajorrequirementofcellularnetworksistoprovideanefficienttechniqueformultipledevicesto

accessthewirelesssystem.Thesetechniquesinclude:
FDMA:
frequencydivisionmultipleaccess,perhapsthemoststraightforward,inwhicheveryuser
deviceusesitsownfrequencychannel.Thismethodwasusedinthefirstgenerationanalog
systems.
TDMA:
timedivisionmultipleaccess,inwhicharadiochannelisdividedintimeslots,andusedevices
usetheirallocatedtimeslots.InfactTDMAsystemsareoftenhybridFDMAaswellas
multiplechannelsareused,most2GsystemswereTDMA.
CDMA:
codedivisionmultipleaccess,inwhichorthogonal(orpseudoorthogonal)codesareusedto
differentiateuserdevices.CDMAisveryspectrumefficient,andwasusedby3Gstandards.
ThereareseveralapproachestoachieveCDMA,suchasfrequencyhooping(FHCDMA)or
directspreading(DSCDMA).
Thesearethemainmultipleaccesstechniques,butsubtleextensionsandcombinationscanbedevised
toobtainmoreefficientschemes,whichwewillexamineinlaterchapters(includingorthogonal
frequencydivisionmultiplexingOFDMA).

2.2SystemCapacity
Wirelesscommunicationsdealwithatleasttwomainconcerns:coverageandcapacity.Wewilllook
atcoveragepredictioninthenextchapters,andstartherewithafewwordsoncapacity.
2.2.1ChannelCapacity
Onefundamentalconceptofinformationtheoryisoneofchannelcapacity,orhowmuchinformation
canbetransmittedinacommunicationchannel.Inthe1940sClaudeShannoninventedformal
characterizationofinformationtheoryandderivedthewellknownShanonscapacitytheorem
(Theorem17in[13],p.628).Thattheoremappliestowirelesscommunications.Agreatpresentation
ofthisequationcanbefoundin[10]p.82itpresentsaconcisederivationoftheequation,and
includesagoodintroductiontoimportantinformationtheoryconceptssuchasinformationand
entropy.2
TheShannoncapacityequationgivesanupperboundforthecapacityinanonfadedchannelwith
addedwhiteGaussiannoise:
(2.4)
whereC=capacity(bits/s),W=bandwidth(Hz),SN=signaltonoise(andinterference)ratio.
Thatcapacityequationassumesonetransmitterandonereceiver,thoughmultipleantennascanbe
usedindiversityschemeonthereceivingside.Theformulawillberevisitedformultiantenna
systemsin9.1.3.Theequationsinglesouttwofundamentallyimportantaspects:bandwidthand
SNR.Bandwidthreflectshowmuchspectrumawirelesssystemuses,andexplainswhythespectrum
considerationsseenin1.2aresoimportant:theyhaveadirectimpactonsystemcapacity.SNRof
coursereflectsthequalityofthepropagationchannel,andwillbedealtwithinnumerousways:
modulation,coding,errorcorrection,andimportantdesignchoicessuchascellsizesandreuse
patterns.
2.2.2CellularCapacity

PracticalcapacityofmanywirelesssystemsarefarfromtheShannonslimit(althoughrecent
standardsarecomingclosetoit)andpracticalcapacityisheavilydependentonimplementationand
standardchoices.
Digitalstandardsdealintheirownwaywithhowtodeployandoptimizecapacity.Mostsystems
arelimitedbychannelwidth,timeslots,andvoicecodingcharacteristics.CDMAsystemsare
interferencelimited,andhavetradeoffsbetweencapacity,coverage,andotherperformancemetrics
(suchasdroppedcallratesorvoicequality).
Cellularanalogcapacity:
Fairlystraightforward,everyvoicechannelusesa30kHzfrequencychannel,thesefrequencies
maybereusedaccordingtoareusepattern,thesystemisFDMA.Theoverallcapacitysimply
comesfromthetotalamountofspectrum,thechannelwidthandthereusepattern.
TDMA/FDMAcapacity:
IndigitalFDMAsystems,capacityimprovementsmainlycomefromthevoicecodingand
elaborateschemes(suchasfrequencyhopping)todecreasereusefactor.Thefrequencyreuse
factorhidesalotofcomplexityitsvaluedependsgreatlyonthesignaltointerferencelevels
acceptabletoagivencellularsystem([1]ch.3.2,and9.7).TDMAsystemscombinemultiple
timeslotsperchannels.
CDMAcapacity:
ausualcapacityequationforCDMAsystemsmaybefairlyeasilyderivedasfollows(forthe
reverselink):firstexamineabasestationwithNmobiles,itsnoiseandinterferencepower
spectraldensityduestoallmobilesinthatsamecellisISC=(N1)S,whereSisthereceived
powerdensityforeachmobile,andisthevoiceactivityfactor.OthercellinterferencesIOCare
estimatedbyareusefractionofthesamecellinterferencelevel,suchthatIOC=ISC(usual
valuesofarearound12).ThetotalnoiseandinterferenceatthebaseisthereforeNt=ISC(1+
).NextassumethemobilesignalpowerdensityreceivedatthebasestationisS=REbW.
EliminatingISC,wederive:
(2.5)
where
Wisthechannelbandwidth(inHz),
Ristheuserdatabitrate(symbolrateinsymbolpersecond),
EbNtistheratioofenergyperbitbytotalnoise(usuallygivenindBEbNt7dB),
isthevoiceactivityfactor(forthereverselink),typically0.5,
andistheinterferencereusefraction,typicallyaround0.5,andrepresentstheratioof
interferencelevelfromthecellinconsiderationbyinterferencesduetoothercells.(The
number1+issometimescalledreusefactor,and1(1+)reuseefficiency)
Thissimpleequation(2.5)givesusanumberofvoicechannelsinaCDMAfrequencychannel
3.
WecanalreadyseesomehintsofCDMAoptimizationandinvestigatecertainpossible
improvementfora3Gsystem.Inparticular:improvingcanbeachievedwithdimandburst
capabilities,withinterferencemitigationandantennadowntiltconsiderations,Rwithvocoder
rate,WwithwiderbandCDMA,EbNtwithbettercodingandinterferencemitigation
techniques.
Someaspectshoweverareomittedinthisequationandarerequiredtoquantifyothercapacity
improvementsmainlythoseduetopowercontrol,andsofter/softhandoffalgorithms.

Ofcourseotherlimitationscomeintoplayforwirelesssystems,suchasbasestation(andmobile)
sensitivity,whichmaybeincorporatedintosimilarformulasandfurtherconsiderationscomeinto
playsuchas:forwardpowerlimitations,channelelementblocking,backhaulcapacity,mobility,and
handoff.
Afinalnoteoncapacity:voicecapacityisoftengiveninErlang,andreferstotrunkingefficiency
givenacertainblockingprobability.([1]3.6,[2]p.350.)

2.3ModulationandCoding
Modulationtechniquesareanecessarypartofanywirelesssystem,withoutthem,nouseful
informationcanbetransmitted.Codingtechniquesarealmostasimportant,andcombinetwo
importantaspects:firsttotransmitinformationefficiently,andsecondtodealwitherrorcorrection(to
avoidretransmissions).
2.3.1Modulation
Acontinuouswavesignal(atacarrierfrequencyfc)initselfencodesandtransmitsnoinformation.
Thebitsofinformationareencodedinthevariationsofthatsignal(inphase,amplitude,ora
combinationthereof).Thesevariationscausetheoccupiedspectrumtoincrease,thusoccupyinga
bandwidtharoundfcandtheoptimaluseofthatbandwidthisanimportantpartofawirelesssystem.
Variousmodulationschemesandcodingschemesareusedtomaximizetheuseofthatspectrumfor
differentapplications(voiceorhighspeeddata),andinvariousconditionsofnoise,interference,and
RFchannelresourcesingeneral.
Classicmodulationtechniquesarewellcoveredinseveraltexts[1][10],andwesimplyrecallhere
afewimportantaspectsofdigitalmodulations(thatwillbeimportantinlinkbudgets).Themain
digitalmodulationsusedinmodernwirelesssystemsareoutlinedintable2.1.
Modulation
AmplitudeShiftKeying
FrequencyShiftKeing
PhaseShiftKeying
QuadratureAmpl.Mod.

Bitsencodedby:
Discreteamplitudelevels
Multiplediscretefrequencies
Multiplediscretephases
Bothphaseandamplitude

Examples
On/offkeying
BPSK,QPSK,8PSK
16,64,256QAM

Table2.1:Digitalmodulations
Modulationisapowerfulandefficienttoolusedtoencodeinformationafewsimpledefinitions
arecommonlyused:
Symbol
denotesthephysicalencodingofinformation,overaspecificsymboltime(orperiod)Ts,during
whichthesystemtransmitsamodulatedsignalcontainingdigitalinformation.
Bit
denotesalogicalbit(0or1)ofinformationoneormorebitsareencodedbyamodulation
schemeinasymbol.
Higherordermodulationscanencodemultiplebitsinasymbol,andrequirehigherSNRtodecode
errorfree.Figure2.2illustrateshowmultiplephasesandamplitudesareusedtocombinemultiplebits
intoonesymboltransmission.Thetradeoffbetweenbitsencodedpersymbolisoftenreferredtoasa
measureinbitsperHertz(b/Hz),itsrelationtoSNRisboundedbyShannonstheoremseenearlier

(2.2.1).

Figure2.2:Digitalmodulationsencodemultiplebitsofinformationoverthetransmitted
signal.Thesimplestmodulation(BPSK)simplyencodesonebitofinformationinthe
signofthewave.Higherordermodulationscombineorthogonalsignals(sineand
cosine)andmultipleamplitudestoencodemultiplebits:2inQPSK,4in16QAM,and
6in64QAM.
2.3.2Coding
Efficientcodingschemesarethepowerfulenginesbehindthegrowthofthewirelessindustry.They
haveallowedwirelesssystemstobebothspectrallyefficientandrobustintermsoferrorcorrections.
Blockcodingaretheclassicalapproach:blocksofdataareusedasinputtoproduceusuallylarger
outputblockscontainingaddedredundancy.
SecondgenerationwirelesssystemslikecdmaOneintroducedtheuseofconvolutionalcoding.
Thecodingschemeprovidesanefficientredundantanderrorcorrectingscheme.Thisisparticularly
usefulforvoicetransmissionwheretheneedforretransmissioncausesdelaysanddegradesvoice
quality.

Figure2.3:Convolutionalcodingconsistsinsendingadatastreamofbitsintoanencoder
thatproducesmultipleoutputstreams.
Wirelessdatasystemsofhigherratesoftenuseturbocoding,whichareacombinationoftwo
convolutionalcodersreadingeachother(thenamecomesfromtheturbochargedengine,whichuses
someofitsoutputpowertocompresssomeairfedtotheintake,andissomewhatreminiscentofthe
turbocodingdiagramoffigure2.4).

Figure2.4:Turbocodingconsistsinsplittingadatastream,andsendingitandan
interleavedreplicaintoconvolutionalencoders.
Convolutionalcodingandturbocodingareexampleofcontinuouscodingschemes,whereabit
streamisencodedintoanotherbitstream,usuallyofgreaterspeed(withamultiplierof2,3,4or
more).Theaddednumberofbitscanbeseenasspreadingthespectrum,andtheinformation,which
requiresmoredatatotransmit,butinherentlycontainsusefulredundancyproperties(aformoftime
diversity).Thedecodingofsuchschemeswashistoricallydifficultandhasbecomepossibleonlywith
recentprocessingpower(seeforinstanceViterbialgorithms[102]).
2.3.3CombinedModulationandCoding
Thecombinationofmodulationandcodingprovidesgreatflexibilitybetweenredundancyand

throughput.Highermodulationincreasesspectralefficiencyingoodpropagationconditionwhen
conditionsworsen,lowermodulationhelps,butincreasedredundancyissometimesanefficient
alternative.Combined,thetwoschemescanreachimpressiveefficiencies,closetoShannonslimit
(2.2).

2.4StandardAirInterfaces
Wefirstbrieflyreviewcurrentmobiledigitaltechnologies,howtheywereinitiallyintroduced,and
howandtheyevolved.4
FirstGenerationAnalogcellularphones:
Advancedmobilephoneservice(AMPS)wasdevelopedbyBellLaboratoriesinthe1970s,and
startedintheUSafterFCCallocationin1983of40MHzpairedspectruminthe800MHz
frequencyrange.Thesystemusedafrequencydividedmodulationaccess(FDMA),duplex
frequenciesforupanddownlink(frequencydivisionduplexingFDD),with30kHzchannels,
oneuserperchannel,analogvoicemodulation(FM),blankandbursttransmission.
RFchannel
Reusepattern
Duplex
Multipleaccess
Multiplex
Voice

30kHz
typically7
FDD
FDMA
1trafficchannelperRFchannel
FMmodulation

SecondGenerationDigitalwirelesssystems:
Secondgenerationcellularsystemsarecharacterizedbytheintroductionofvoicedigitizingand
digitalencoding,thusopeninganumberofDSPpossibilitiessuchasforwarderrorcorrection
schemes.Frequencyortimedivisionmultipleaccesstechniquesareused(FDMAorTDMA).
Codedivisionmultipleaccess(CDMA)isintroducedbyQualcomm(TIAEIAIS95,orANSI
95)andbecomesthebasisforthemain3Gsystems.Overallcapacityisincreased,signaling
capabilitiesandsystemintelligenceisconsiderablyenriched.
RFchannel
Reusepattern
Duplex
Multipleaccess
Voice

30kHz,200kHzinGSM,1.25MHzforCDMA
7(lesswithfrequencyhopping),1forCDMA
mostlyFDD(emergenceofTDD)
FDMA,TDMA(8fullratetimeslotsforGSM),orCDMA
Digitalencoded:GSMfullrate13.4kbps,CDMA13kbpsQCELPor
8kbpsEVRC

Thirdgenerationsystems:
Digitalsystemswerefurtherimprovedupon,mostlyforhighervoicecapacityandhigherdata
ratestheyevolvedintothirdgenerationstandards.
RFchannel
Reusepattern
Duplex
Multipleaccess
Voice
Data

1.25,5,10,15MHz
1(CDMA)
mostlyFDD,someTDD
CDMA
Digitalencoded:bitrates8kbpsandbelow
UptoseveralMbps(3.1MbpsforEVDO,15MbpsforHSDPA)

Fourthgenerationsystems:
Fourthgenerationstandardsdealwithhigherthroughput,lowlatency,IPnetworkarchitecture.
AirinterfacesfocusonmulticarriertechniqueslikeOFDM,andadvancedantennasystemssuch
asmultipleinputmultipleoutput(MIMO)systems.
RFchannel

generallywider:10,20MHz,more

Reusepattern
Duplex
Multipleaccess
Voice
Data

11.5(OFDMAsee8.3.3)
FDDorTDDdependingonspectrum
OFDMA
basedonVoIP
IPbased,flatarchitecture,convergence

2.5SpeechCoding
Theintroductionofdigitalwirelesssystemsmeansthattheacousticvoicewavefrontisnotsimply
convertedtoanelectricalsignaldirectlytransmittedoverRFchannel.Voiceisnowdigitized,
encoded,andtheresultingbitstreamistransmittedandofcoursedecodedonthereceivingside.
Althoughthisprocessrequiresadditionaldigitalsignalprocessing(DSP),itopensthedoortomany
optimizationalgorithmsandismuchmoreefficientthanusualanalogvoicetransmission.
2.5.1BasicVocoderTheory
Digitalvoicecoding(vocoding)isveryimportantyetverysubjective.Voicecodingtheoryisa
domainofstudyofitsownintroductoryoverviewsarepresentedforinstancein[1]ch.8or[2]
ch.15.
2.5.2ClassicCellularVocoders
AnalogvocodershaveemergedatBellLaboratoriesinthelate1920s,andhavebecomemore
elaborateandefficientindealingwithharmonicsimportanttoagoodunderstandingofvoice(500Hz
to3400Hz)whileminimizingbandwidth.Thedigitalareabroughtsignificantchanges.Initialdigital
systemssampledthatrange,whichattheNyquistrateleadstoa64kilobitspersecond(kbps,kbit/s,
orkb/s)bandwidth.Thisisreferredtoaspulsecodemodulation(PCM).Moreelaboratealgorithms
howevercanachievereasonablygoodvoicetransmissionbytransmittingacodebook(setof
parametersforagivenvoicecodingalgorithm)withaslittleas2.4kbpsrate:a26foldimprovement.
Usuallythesealgorithmsprovideacceptablevoicequality,butmayprovidepoorperformancein
specificsituationssuchasinanoisyenvironment,withbackgroundmusic,orwhencombinedwith
differentvoicecodingsystems(suchasPCMorvoicemailsystems).Severalvocodersystemsexist
andhavebeenchosenin2Gand3Gstandards:
CELP:
CodeExcitedLinearPrediction,2.4and4.8kbps,FederalStandard1016,usedinSTUIII.
QCELP:
QualcommCodeExcitedLinearPrediction,developedin1994,wasusedininitialIS95
CDMAnetworks.Twobitratesavailable:QCELP8andQCELP13using8and13kbps
respectively,whichiswelladaptedforthisstandards9.6kbpsand14.4kbpsframes.Itwas
laterimproveduponbyEVRC.
RCELP:
RelaxedCodeExcitedLinearPrediction,amoreadvancedadvancedalgorithmthatdoesnot
attempttomatchtheoriginalsignalexactlybutasimplifiedpitchcontour.
EVRC:
EnhancedVariableRateCODECisaspeechcodecusedinCDMAnetworks,itusesRCELP8
kbpsandimprovesqualityover8QCELP.HalfrateEVRCwerealsodevelopedtofurtherlower
bitrateatthecostofsomequality.
CVSD:
ContinuouslyVariableSlopeDeltamodulation,16kbps,usedinwidebandencryptorssuchas
theKY57.
MELP:
MixedExcitationLinearPrediction,MILSTD3005,2.4kbps.

ADPCM:
AdaptiveDifferentialPulseCodeModulation(G.721,G.726).
Comparingthequalitydifferencesbetweenvocoderisusuallydonebytestinganumberof
standardphrases,andassessingthequalityofthetransmittedresultundervariousconditions.That
assessmentissubjectiveandisusuallygivenagradecalledMeanOpinionScore(MOS)between0
(completelyunintelligible)and4(perfectquality).Initialtestsreliedonactualopinionsurveys,but
testdevicesnowofferalgorithmsprovidingaMOSandareregularlyusedbywirelessnetwork
operatorstobenchmarknetworkquality.

2.6Migrationto3G
Secondgenerationcellularsystemscertainlyachievedmajorcapacityimprovementsandcontributed
tothefastadoptionofwirelesshandsetsthroughouttheworld.Andthegrowthcontinues.
Thirdgenerationsystemsfocusedonincreasingcapacityyetagain,andonintroducingefficient
highspeedmobiledatasystems.Givenpastheavyinvestmentsindifferent2Gnetworks,adoptionof
acommon3Gstandardhadtremendouscostimplicationsandcompetitiveadvantages.
Theseeffortsfromthewirelessindustryfocusedonimprovingwidelydeployedsystems,and
migratethemtowardsathirdgeneration.Allmajordigitaltechnologiesproposedanevolutionpathto
anextgeneration,typicallybroaderband(inthroughputandspectrum).
Severalproposals:
Initially10newproposalsweresubmittedtotheITUbodyresponsibleforstandardizingnext
generationsystems:2TDMA,8CDMA.(SeedetailsinaUScontributiontotheITU:US8F01
16,February2001.)
Harmonizationprocess:
Adifficultharmonizationeffortwasundertakenfrom1998to2001bytheITU.Manytechnical
comparisonsanddiscussionsensued,resultinginsomeharmonization,butfallingshortof
selectingoneuniqueworldwidestandard.
Successes:
TDMAsolutionsdisappeared.CDMAsolutionswerenarroweddowntotwo.Otherissuessuch
asspectrumplansandemissionlevelswerealsodiscussedandapprovedwithrelativesuccess.
Failures:
Onemajorissueremained:tomergethelasttwoCDMAcamps:the3Gpartnershipproject
(3GPP)proposedUMTS(WCDMA),and3GPP2proposedcdma2000.Theformerwasvery
reluctanttotreadonintellectualpropertyofthelatter,andthelatterwasadamantabout
conservingsmoothevolutionandbackwardcompatibilitywithcdmaOne.Anddiscussions
stalleditseemedobviousthatneithercamphadanyincentiveingivingin,hencetwo
competingstandards:UMTSWCDMAandcdma2000.

Figure2.5:ExistingCDMAcarrieruse(left)isconvenientformigrationto
multicarrierstandard,butmaybelessefficientthanfullspreadingonsame
frequencyblock(right).

Inshorttwomajor3Gstandardsremainincompetition,andthechoiceofanycarrierisclear:
GSMoperatorsclearlyoptforamigrationtoUMTS(3GPP),andcdmaOneoperatorstocdma2000
(3GPP2).Thelatteriscertainlyinitiallycheaper,hasadvantagesinequipmentavailability,andhas
wellknownperformancesbuttheformermaybenefitfromlargereconomiesofscalesasGSM
carriersmigratetoUMTSservices.
In2002,CDMAAmericasCongress(SanDiego,December2002)estimatedthatcdmaOne
operatorsbenefitedfromasmoothtransitionandawellknownstandard,thusgivingthemaoneor
twoyearadvanceoverGSMeffortstowardsUMTS.Indeedcdma2000(3G1X)systemshavebeen
availablesince2002,IS856(3G1XEVDO)havebeenwidelyavailableintheUSandAsiasince
2004.GPRSandUMTSarefinallycatchingupin2006.Highspeeddataservices(HSPA)stilllagin
coveragebehindEVDOin2008,butmostdenseareasintheUSarewellcoveredbyboth
technologies.
Choosingamigrationpathisonlythefirststepupgradingthenetworkisofcourseverycostly.
Initiallyserviceprovidershadtodecidehowlongtodelaynetworkupgrade:voicecapacityandtime
tomarketforhighspeeddataserviceswerethedrivingfactors.Nowserviceprovidershavetodecide
howmuchresourcestodedicatetovoiceversusdata.

2.7Anothermigrationto4G
Secondgenerationcellularsystemsachieveddigitalvoiceefficiency,thirdgenerationsystemsfocused
onincreasingcapacityanddatarates,whatmorecanafourthgenerationstandardachieve?
Accordingtomostdefinitions(fromtheITUinparticular),4Gsystemsarerequiredtoachieve
throughputratesaround100Mbpsformobilityand1Gbpsforfixedwirelessaccesssotheair
interfacehastobeincrediblyefficient.Therearecertainlyadditionalrequirements(mostlyonthe
networkinfrastructure)suchaslowlatency,flatIParchitecture,andtheuseofsmallcells,
heterogeneousnetworks,andmore(whichwellreviewinlaterchapters).
Themain3Gstandardshaveanevolutiontowardsa4Gstandard,evenifnotallaspectsareetin
itsearlyiteration,these4Gstandardshaveevolutionlinestowardstrue4Grequirements.Theyhavea
numberofcommonalities:
LTE:
LongTermEvolutionofthecurrentGSM/UMTS/3GPPsetofstandardisOFDMAonthe
forwardlink,andSCFDMA(asinglecarrierOFDMAscheme)onreverselink.Interestingly,
GSMcarriersmigratedoncetoCDMA,andnowproposetoabandonitforOFDMA.LTE
promisestocarrymuchoftheinternationalcrowdofoperatorsandcreateeconomiesofscale,
allowforinternationalroaming,etc.
WiMAX:
WiMAXisawirelessstandardbasedonIEEE802.16e(anditsevolution802.16m).Itsstrength
isthat(unlikeother4Gstandards)itsevolutionpathpreservesbackwardcompatibilitywith
current802.16esystems.
Oddlyenoughtwodifferentcampsseemtoemergeagain:LTEandWiMAX,eachbackedupby
differentsuppliers,anddifferentoperators,bothusingverysimilartechnologies(basedonOFDMA),
andwithveryfewtechnicalreasonswhytheyshouldnotharmonizetoauniquestandard.
Animportantargumenttoconsideristhatofspectrum:thevastmajorityofmobileoperators
operateinFDDspectrum(seesections1.2.3and1.3)LTEprovidedanevolutionfirstinthatmode.
WiMAXontheotherhandchosetofocusfirstonTDDbandsandistheobviouschoiceforTDD
spectrumowners.Theoveralltimelineforevolutionisalsoimportant:somecellularprovidershave
madesignificantinvestmentsinEVDOorinHSPA.Newcomersontheotherhandwhoneedhigh

dataratestodaywithsmoothevolutiontowards4GlatermaybemorelikelytochoseWiMAX.
Practicallyhowever,since2010thevastmajorityofthemobileindustryisfollowingLTEplans,and
thatstandardisbecomingthedefactostandardforthe4Gmobilewirelessworld.

2.8TechnologyAdvances
Recenttechnologyadvancesaimatincreasingcapacityfurther.Technologyimprovementsare
sometimestheresultofamajorstandardmodification,butsometimessimpleschemesthatcanbe
addedtoexistingstandardsandallowforadditionalimprovementswithminimalinfrastructure
changes.
2.8.1SpeechCodingImprovement
VoicecodingalgorithmsandDSPcapabilitieshaveimproved,andcurrentvoicecodecsoperateon
lesspower,andwithgreaterprocessingefficiencies.(Referto[2]ch.15,or[1]ch.8forspeech
codingdetails).GSMforinstanceisimprovingvoicedigitizationandquantizingfromRPELPTtoa
seriesofAMRstandards.IS95systemshaveaparallelevolution,withEVRC,andhalfrateEVRC.
Anotherstandardforselectablemodevocoder(SMV)wasintheworkbutneversawanysuccess
intheindustryitbasedrequirementson:operationinpresenceofframeerasures,noisesuppression
recommendedforbackgroundnoises,reasonableperformancewithmusicforonholdsituations,
equivalentperformanceswithdifferentlanguages,multiplequalitymodesandmultiplebitrates,
seamlesstransitionfrommodetomode.SMVwasdesigntoofferfourmodesofoperations:
Mode0isdesignedtoimprovevoicequalityoverEVRCwiththesamecapacityrequirements
asEVRC.
Mode1isdesignedtomaintainthequalityprovidedbyEVRCwhilerealizingacapacity
benefit.
Mode2isforthesystemoperatorwhoiswillingtosacrificesomevoicequalityrobustnessin
ordertorealizeasignificantcapacitygain.
Similarly,Mode3ofSMVprovidesevenmorecapacitygains.Butthevoicequalityis,bytoll
gradestandards,poor.
Theresultingcapacityvs.qualitytradeoffsseemusefulandattractivetoserviceproviders,yetthis
standardnevertookoff,whichmayillustratethatsomestandardevolutions(evenwhenbasedon
soundrequirementsandgoodimprovements)maymisstheirwindowofopportunity.
2.8.2EfficientCodingandModulation
Forsystemsprimarilydesignedforvoice,latencywasamainconcern,andmodulationswerechosen
tobereliableandoperatingwellatfairlylowSNR(likeQPSK).Fordatasystemsitisadvantageous
totakeadvantageofhighermodulationschemessuchas16QAMand64QAMwhentheradiolink
allowsit.Highermodulationsaremorespectralefficientbutpronetomorebiterrorratesandmay
causemoreretransmissions,latency,orjitter.
Databursts:
whenlowSNRallowsforit,usehighermodulationandcodingratesforbetterspectral
efficiency.
Adaptivemodulation:
fastmodulationchangesframebyframeallowforefficientschedulingofhighspeeddatabursts
whentheradiochanneliscapableofit.
ForwardErrorCorrection:
averyimportantaspectofwirelesscommunication:errorcorrectingcodingvariesfromvoiceto

databurstsblockcoding,convolutionalcoding,andturbocodingcanbeusedoptimize
efficiency.
ARQ:
automaticretransmitrequestsareusedtolowermodulationwhennecessaryandretransmit
fadeddata.
2.8.3InterferenceMitigation
Interferencesmaybecancelledormitigatedbychangingantennapatternsasrequired.Suchsystems
aresometimesreferredtoassmartantennas,andareinessenceanelaborateextensionofsectoring.
Theaimmaybetobalancetheload,orsteeramainlobetowardauser,orcreateanullinthedirection
ofaninterferer.Somesystemsarestatic,othersaredynamicandchangewithcellload.Somesystems
arepassiveothersincludeactiveamplificationdevices.Themaintypesofsmartantennasystemsmay
bedescribedasfollows:
Activeantennas:
Anarrayofpassiveandactiveelementsusingmultiplepoweramplifiersonthetransmitside,
andalownoiseamplifieronthereceiveside.
Switchedbeams:
Afixedarrayofnarrowbeams,combinedtoformvarioussizesectors.
Adaptivearrays:
Anarrayofelementsofferingseveraldegreesoffreedomtosteerabeaminacertaindirection,
orcreatenulls.Arrayelementaresometimesamplified,orattenuated,orarepurelypassiveand
utilizephaseshifttocreatethewantedpatterns.
SpatialDivisionMultipleAccess(SDMA):
Asophisticatedcombinationofmanyadaptiveelements.
Smartantennasystemsareefficientindenseareas.Theircostofequipmenthowever(sometimesdue
tothecomplextransmitaspect)andlargeantennasizesaremajordrawbacks[11].Smartantennasare
nowreplacedbyMIMOsystemscoveredinchapter9.
2.8.4Diversity
Antennadiversityisawonderfultechniquetoimprovelinkbudgetsreceivingdiversitysimply
consistsinhavingmorethanoneantennaatthereceivingsite.Giventhepowerlimitationsofamobile
handset,receivingdiversityhasbeenimplementedatcellsitefromtheearlydaysofcellularsystems.
Gooddiversityschemescanadd8to11dBontheuplinkbudget,thussignificantlyimproving
coverage,qualityandcapacityonthatlink.Thegoalofantennadiversityistoprovidetwo
uncorrelatedpathsandcombinethetwosignals,thusreducingtheprobabilityofdeepfades.Ageneral
guidelineistomeasureorcalculatethecorrelationcoefficient,,andtrytoachievethelowest
possiblecorrelationbetweenthetwopaths.
Diversityimprovementsareoftwokinds:improvementsonexistingreceivediversityinthe
uplink,andintroductionoftransmitdiversityfortheforwardlink.


Figure2.6:Testsetuptomeasureseveralantennaspacingforhorizontalspacediversityfor
aPCSsystem:antennasareplaced2,5,and10apart.

Figure2.7:Cellularnetworksutilizemanytypesoftowersandpoles,andevensome
disguisedependingontheareastocover.Differentantennasmakeuseofdifferent
diversityschemes(spaceforthelefttwo,polarizationforthefarright).Andsome
antennasareslightlydowntilted(right)toreduceinterferencestoneighboringcells.
Receivediversityhasbeenusedfromtheearlydaysofcellular,andisaspopularasever.Classic
diversityschemesusetwoantennasatthebasestationandsomealgorithmstocombinesignals5
Spatialdiversity:
Usedateverysector,wellknowncombiningtechniques,probablythemostefficienttypeof
diversity.
Angulardiversity:
Typicallyoflittleuse,itsbenefitsareusuallyexploitedbysofterhandoff(withinasite)orsmart
antennas.
Timediversity:
HeavilyusedinmodernstandardslikeCDMA:interleaving,halfchipoffsetinIandQ

transmission,rakereceivers.
Polarizationdiversity:
Widelyused,convenientforsmallbasestationsiteswhereantennascannotbeseparated.
Transmitdiversityisanimportantfeatureforforwardlinkcapacityimprovement.Sincehandsets
arerathersmall,theirreceivediversitycapabilitiesarelimitedandtheretransmitdiversityschemes
werelongignored,butarenowusedinmanystandards.
OrthogonalTransmitDiversity(OTD):
Codedsymbolstreamsaresplitintotwodatastreams,eachcontaininghalfthenumberof
symbols,modulatedandspreadseparately(withtwodifferentcodes),andtransmittedontwo
differentantennasthusdoublingtransmitrate.
SpaceTimeSpreading(STS):
Codedsymbolstreamsareduplicatedintotwoidenticalstreams,modulatedandspread
separately(withtwodifferentcodes),andtransmittedontwodifferentantennas.Thekey
differencewithOTDisthatinSTSallofthedataissentoutoneachantenna.Thisscheme
providesredundancyratherthandatarateimprovement.
Multipleinput,multipleoutputsystems(MIMO):
Thesesystemsarekeytorecentwirelessstandards,fromwirelessLANlike802.11ntocellular
evolutionslikeLTE.MIMOsystemsusemultiplestreamsencodeddifferently,transmittedover
differentantennas,andreceivedbymultipleantennas.(SeemoreonMIMOinchapter9.)
2.8.5OtherOptimizationTechniques
Technologyadvancesandstandardimprovementstargetanincreaseincapacity,coverage,datarate,
orsomeothersystemperformanceaspect.Inmanycaseshoweversomesimpleoptimization
techniquescanbeusedtoincreaseperformance:
Antennaheight:higherforfurtherrange,orlowertoreduceinterference.
Cellsplitting(intosmallercells:microcells,picocells,femtocells).
Sectoring:often3to6sectors.
ImprovingRFcomponents:duplexers,combiners,jumpercables,connectors.
Rangeextensionbyrepeatersorlownoiseamplifiersincreasecoverage.
Changingantennasaccordingtoneeds:diversity,gain,beamwidth,downtilt,etc.
Andanumberofparameteradjustments(powerlevels,handoffparameters,etc.)
Thesetechniquesareveryimportanttoolsusedbyoperatorstooptimizecapacityandcoverage.In
somecasesoptimizationmaybeseasonalduetofoliageordifferentusagepatterns.InallcasesRF
networkdemandconstanttweakingtoprovideoptimalperformance.Morerecentlyselfoptimizing
networks(SON)havetheabilitytocontinuallyandautomaticallyoptimizetheseparameters.

2.9FixedWirelessAccess
Fixedwirelessaccessissometimesreferredtoaswirelesslocalloop(WLL),andisanalternativeto
providePlainOldTelephoneServices(POTS)andhighspeeddataservicesinremoteareaswhere
wiredsolutionsareimpracticalforvariousreasons.Inmostcases,trenchinglongdistancestoplace
communicationconduits(forfiberorcopper)isverycostly,suchasinmountainousareas.Cellular
serviceisoftenscarcetooinremoteareas.
2.9.1ClassicArchitectures
Radiosolutionsforwirelesslocalloopswererolledoutextensivelysincethe1970s.Somesuchradio
servicesarestillinplace,andinusetoday.Earlysystemsuseanalogradiostooffervoiceserviceover

fairlylongdistances.NewerWLLsystemneedtobecosteffective,reliable,adaptabletoawiderange
ofsituations,andcompliantwithlocalexchangecarriertechnical,legal,andregulatorystandards.But
thedemandforWLLservicesaregenerallylow,andsuppliersconsequentlytreattheopportunityasa
fairlylowpriority.
InitiallyWLLfocusedonprovidingextensionsofthepublicswitchedtelephonenetwork(PSTN)
toreachremotecustomers.AsthePSTNevolvedtodigitalvoice,digitalswitching,andClass5
features(suchascallwaiting,callerID,3waycalling,andothers),WLLsystemsevolvedtoinclude
manyofthesefeatures.WLLproductsthereforefocusedonprovidingfeatureparityfortheseclass5
services.ConnectivitytoClass5switcheslikeLucent5ESSorNortelDMS100isspecifiedin
TelcordiastandardssuchasGR303orGR008andWLLsystemsevolvedtousethesestandard
interfacestothePSTN.
Radiofrequencieswereallocatedforwirelesslocalloopapplications,andarereferredtoasLand
MobileRadio(LMR).LMRradiolinksfortelephonyusefrequenciesintheUHF/VHFband(138512
MHz),whichprovidegreatpropagationcharacteristicsevenindifficultterrainandheavytreedensity.
Thesefrequencieshoweverarebecomingveryrare.Infact,theyareinsuchdemandthattheFCC
recentlymandatedradiosystemstoincreasetheirspectralefficiencies,anduseonlyanarrowbandof
spectrum.ManylegacyLMRequipmentusing2025kHzRFchannelsmustmigratetonarrowband
LMR12.5kHzchannelsbyJanuary1,2013.Inaddition,theFCCordermentionsthegoaltoreach
6.25kHzchannelizationsonewWLLsystemsareurgedtodeploythesenarrowRFchannels.6
Otherradiosolutionsworkinthe2.4GHzand5GHzunlicensedbands,buildingonthepopularity
andthereforeeconomiesofscaleof802.11a/b/gradios.Unfortunatelythepopularityoftheseradios
forWiFiLANalsocreatesalotofinterferences,whichisaconcernwhenprovidingemergency
service(911lifeline).Afewsystemsthereforehavea900MHzversionalthoughlessspectrumis
availableandlesspowerisallowed,thatfrequencycanbeaveryusefulalternative.Finally,newTV
whitespacesareawonderfulnewopportunitytoexplore.
2.9.2CellularWLL
Inadditiontofrequenciesmentionedabove,wirelesscarrierscanusetheirlicensedspectrumto
providefixedapplications.Fixedradiolinksusuallybehavedifferentlyfrommobileradiolinks,they
aretypicallylessvariableintime(thereforeeasiertopredictandequalize),andtheirfadingstatistics
aregenerallyeasiertodealwith.Consequentlyfixedpropagationisusuallyadvantageousfora
wirelesssystem.Severalimportantaspectsoffixedsystemshouldbeemphasized.
Propagation

Mobilecommunicationslinkaremorelikelytobeobstructedandhaveahighpathlossexponent(see
chapter??fixedlinksontheotherhandcanuseelevatedantennasinordertoestablishnearlineof
sightwiththebasestationandthereforeimprovepropagationcharacteristics.
Propagationmodelingofafixedradiolinkhasfundamentaldifferenceswiththatofamobilelink.
Wirelesspropagationmodelsnearlyalwayscomefromextensivedrivetesting(hencemobile)
collectingfixeddataforanempiricalmodelismoredifficult:inmanycasesexperimenterspresent
methodstolocallyaveragedata(overonehalfofawavelength)toremovesmallscalefadingdueto
multipath.(Smallscalefadingisdifficulttoquantifyaccurately,andevenalargenumberoffixed
datapointswouldprovideinsufficientsamplingtobeabletoevaluateitsimpact.)Anotherimportant
issueisthatofantennabeamwidth(ordirectivity).Mobiledatacollectionsareconductedusingan
omnidirectionalantenna(isotropicwithrespecttoazimuth).Ithaslongbeenknownthattheantenna
beamwidthandmorespecificallythedistributionofanglesofarrivalwithrespecttothedirectionof
motionofamobileareimportantparameterstoquantifythefadingofamobilelink[1].

Consequentlyfixeddatamodelsmaydifferinsomecasesfromtheusualempiricalmodels.Good
fixedmodelswouldbepreciousforfixedwirelessaccess,butthecurrentuseofmobilemodelsis
likelytocontinueforanumberofreasons:first,theyprovideagoodestimateforinitialdesign(site
specificmodelsandsimulationsareusedformoreprecisepredictions)second,sometimeis
necessarytorolloutlargefixedwirelesssystemsthatcanbeusedandanalyzedinordertoprovidea
widemodelingrangelastly,thefocusofwirelessaccessmostlyremainsonmobility.
AdvantagesofFixedLinks

Fixedlinkshaveafewimportantdifferencesinpropagationcharacteristics,whichhaveasignificant
impactonreach,capacity,andthereforeoverallcostofafixedwirelesssystem.
Mobileradiolinksoftenincurfastchangingfadingconditions.Fixedlinksontheotherhand
experienceslowerfading,mostlyduetothechangesintheneighboringscatterers.Asaresult
errorratesaretypicallyimprovedforagivenSNR.InanIS95CDMAsystemforinstance,the
industryusuallyacceptsEb/Nolevelsof4forfixedcommunication,ratherthan7neededfor
mobility.Allotherparametersbeingequal,areductionofEb/Notargetof3dBnearlydoubles
capacity.(RefertoCDMAcapacityin2.2.)
Fixedusersusingnarrowantennabeamwidthsorientedtowardagivenbasestationoffersmore
efficientspectrumreusepatternsthanwhatmobileomnidirectionalusersrequire.
Fixedusageincreasessystemcapacityasitdoesnotrequiretheradioresourcesthatmobile
usersneedtohandoverbetweenbasestations.
Anotheradvantageofnarrowbeamwidthantennasisthatantennagainisimproved.Inaddition,
repeaterscanbestrategicallyplacedatcustomerpremisetofurtherimprovethelink.
Antennaheightscanbeincreasedtobenefitpropagationcharacteristics.Antennascanbeplaced
outdoorswithacablereachinganindoordevice.
Anotherimportantaspectofthewirelesschannelisitsvariability:themobilechannelis
typicallymuchmorevariable,afixedaccesschanneliseasiertopredictandcanthereforebe
morespectralefficient.
Fixedwirelesslinkscanthereforeprovideincreasedreachandcapacitythanequivalentmobile
links.Asaresult,someoftheseotherwisecostlycellularsystemshavebeenusedforfixeduse,
sometimeswithminormodifications.Insomecases,wirelesslocalloopbasestationsbecamehandy
todeployinruralareastoprovideextendedcoverage,andreachminimumservicemandatedbythe
FCCforPCSspectrumauctionsforinstance.Morerecently3Gand4Gsystemsareadvertisingtheir
fixedcapabilitiesagainandmaybetryingtocompetewithotherwiredbroadbandservices.
2.9.3VoiceIntegration
VoiceoverIP(VoIP)isanefficientandwidelyacceptedmethodofprovidingtelephony.When
consideringwirelesstransport,theefficientcompressionofVoIPisanespeciallyvaluableproperty.
MostrecentWLLradiosolutionsthereforeuseVoIPtransportthisisespeciallyconvenientasmost
consumerandenterpriseradiosolutionsarebasedonIPandEthernet.Consequentlyfairlycheapoff
theshelfsystemscanbeadaptedtoWLLvoiceanddatadelivery.Theproblemremainshoweverto
interfacethesesystemswiththenearesttelephonynetwork.Severalarchitecturesarepossiblefor
WLL,dependingonthelocationofnetworkelementswithvoicefeatures.


Figure2.8:Fixedwirelesslinks,orwirelesslocalloop(WLL)providefixedwirelessvoice
and/ordatalinks.VoiceservicesuseavoiceoverIPgatewayadditionaldataservices
areroutedtoabroadbanddatanetwork,andbypassthevoicegateway.
Inmostruralareas,alocalcentralofficehasTDMvoicecircuitsavailableratherthanaVoIP
system,soaVoIPgatewayisrequiredforWLLpurposes.SuppliersofWLLsystemsoftenhavea
VoIPgatewayaspartofthesolutionuntilrecently,thesesolutionswerestilldifficulttorollout
becauseoftheVoIPgatewaycost,anditsoperationsintegration.Todaysmallsizegatewaysare
availableatreasonablepriceswithgoodinterfacestandards.Interfacesfromthegatewaytothe
switchingfabrichavetorelyonlegacytelephonystandards.OnesolutionistoconnecttheVoIP
gatewaytoatelephonyCLASS5switchviaGR008orGR303.TheseTelcordiastandardsallowfor
agatewaytoconnecttoaswitch(withoneortwoT1lines),andtoaccessclass5features(suchas
callwaiting,callerID,3waycalling,etc.)AnalternativesolutionwhenGR008orGR303interfaces
arenotsupportedaretosimplyinterfacewithanalogtipandringlines,butthatmethodhasthe
disadvantageofofferingnoremotealarmingortroubleshootingcapability.
Theremainderofthevoicetransportbetweenthevoicegatewayandthecustomerendpoint
followstypicalIPtransportarchitectures.NetworkelementsusuallyinterfacewithEthernet(10/100
sometimes1000bT).ManyradiosystemsuseasomewhatproprietaryphysicalandMAClayerto
insurereliablevoicetransport,butoftenthesesystemsarebasedonWiFiorWiMAXphysicallayers.
AnumberofprotocolsareavailabletoestablishareliableIPsessionthatcanprovidevoicetransport,
includingsessioninitiationprotocol(SIP),orandMediaGatewayControlProtocol(MGCP)ITU
recommendationH.323alsoprovidesinteroperabilitystandardsformultimediacommunicationsover
IPincludingvoicefeatures.
2.9.4DataServices
DatafeaturesarealsoavailableonmanyWLLradios,butaresomewhatdifferent.Featureslikefax
andlowdatarates(upto56kbps)arefairlysimpletoaddtomostWLL,butthetaskisslightly
differentwhentryingtoaddhigherdatarates(inthemultipleMbpsrange).Indeed,higherdatarates
cannolongerinterfacewiththevoiceswitchandneedtobesplitintoadatanetworkofitsown.Ifa
highspeedinternetnetworkisavailableinthearea,datasessionshavetoberoutedtothatnetwork
whilevoicetrafficneedstobeidentifiedassuch,androutedtowardstheVoIPgateway.

2.10Homework
1. Inatable,listallthewirelesstechnologiespopularinmodernwirelessservices(2G,3G,WiFi,
WiMAX,HSPA,LTE).Researchandlisttheirmainparameterssuchas:(a)frequencyof
operation(b)RFchannelbandwidth(c)peakuplinkanddownlinkdatarates(d)standard
bodyforairinterface(e)modulationtype(f)multipleaccess(g)andsomekindofcapacity
estimatesuchasthroughputperMHz.
2. ExaminetheShannoncapacityequationandcommentonwhathappensintochannelcapacity

inthefollowingdifferentsituations.
a. YouoperateinafixedbandwidthW0,andincreasethepower(S)inthechannel.How
doescapacitybehave?
b. Youhavealimitedpowerradio(thereforeSisfixed)youincreasesystembandwidth,but
asyoudothatsystemnoisetypicallyincreasesaswell:N=N0W(whereN0isafixed
noisedensity).Howdoescapacitybehaveasbandwidthincreasesindefinitely?(calculate
limitofCasW).
c. Younowfixyourpowerspectraldensity:S=S0W(S0isyourfixedtransmitpower
density).Howdoescapacityincreasewithbandwidth?
3. Calculatethecapacity(invoicechannelpercellperMHz)ofthefollowingstandards(see2.2
and2.4).Ineachcase,simplyassumeK=7asthereusefactor.
a. VerifythatAMPSsystemcapacityinindependentoftheamountofspectrumavailable,
andism=4.7ch./cell/MHz.
b. CalculateGSMfullratesystemcapacity.(Answer:m=5.7)
4. CDMAcapacityimprovement:
a. WhatcapacitygaindoesaCDMAserviceproviderachievebychangingitshandsetfrom
QCELPvocoderstoEVRCvocoders?
b. Inaddition,thebetterspeechcodingallowstypicalEbNttobereducedfrom7dBto
6.5dB.Whatisthetotalcapacitygain?
5. CDMAcapacity:
a. Deriveindetailsthecapacityformula(2.5)forCDMAsystems.
b. Computearadiosystemcapacity(mCDMA)forIS95halfrateEVRC(EbNt=6.5dB)
6. Differentradiostandardssystemcapacity:
a. CompareradiosystemcapacityforaboveIS95halfrateEVRC,GSMhalfratevoice
frames,DECT,andPHS(searchonline,orreferforinstanceto[1]chapter11forthelast
2).
b. WhatarethechancesofPHSorDECTtoevolveintoa3Gstandard?
7. Youinventedanewvoicecoderthatallowsyoutocodevoicein4.8kbpsratherthan9.6kbps
withnosignificantvoicedegradation.
a. Whatwillthelinkbudgetimprovementbe?
b. Usingcapacityequations,quantifytheimpactonnetworkcapacity.
8. Asanoperator,youarefacedwiththedifficultdecisionsofhavingtoregularlyupgradeyour
networktobetterstandardsandnewerequipment.AssumeyouareoperatingaGSMnetwork
andyouconsiderupgradingittoUMTS.Consider(a)priceandavailabilityofequipment,(b)
timelinetoupgrade,(c)impactofothercarrierstimeline,(d)fieldexperienceandproven
technology,(e)otherconsiderations.
9. Similarlytotheaboveproblem,younowoperateaUMTSnetworkwithvoiceandhighspeed
packetdata.WriteaproposaltoupgradeittoafourthgenerationsystemusingLTE(withthe
sameaboveconsiderations).
10. Youoperateawirelessserviceinasmalltown.YouinstalledaCDMAsystemthatcan
typicallysupport50mobilecallspersector,butyouchosetoofferfixedserviceonly.Referto
section2.9.2,estimateallthegainyoucanrealizeandassumethattheyhaveadirectimpacton
thesystemEb/No.Howwouldyouestimateyourfixedsystemcapacity.