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COMPOSITES

SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY
Composites Science and Technology 69 (2009) 284291
www.elsevier.com/locate/compscitech

Development of viscoelastic/rate-sensitive-plastic constitutive law


for ber-reinforced composites and its applications. Part I: Theory
and material characterization
Kwansoo Chung *, Hansun Ryou
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Intelligent Textile System Research Center, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong,
Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744, Republic of Korea
Received 18 February 2007; received in revised form 30 May 2007; accepted 1 June 2007
Available online 14 June 2007

Abstract
The viscoelastic/rate-sensitive plastic constitutive law to describe the nonlinear, anisotropic/asymmetric and time/rate-dependent
mechanical behavior of ber-reinforced (sheet) composites was developed under the plane stress condition. In addition to the theoretical
aspect of the developed constitutive law, experiments to obtain the material parameters were also carried out for the woven fabric composite based on uni-axial tension and compression tests as well as stress relaxation tests, while the numerical formulation and verications with experiments are discussed in Part II.
2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: B. Stress/strain curves; B. Mechanical properties; B. Nonlinear behavior; C. Anisotropy; C. Stress relaxation

1. Introduction
Many attempts have been made to characterize the
mechanical properties of ber-reinforced composites, but
mainly based on the linear anisotropic elasticity. Experimental studies, however, conrm that ber-reinforced composites show nonlinear hardening behavior and permanent
deformation after unloading in addition to the elastic
behavior [1,2]. Also time/rate-dependent behavior is
observed for ber-reinforced composites [3,4]. Therefore,
the constitutive law with time/rate-dependency both in
the elastic and plastic ranges was developed for ber-reinforced (sheet) composites in this work as schematically
shown in Fig. 1: viscoelastic/rate-sensitive-plastic constitutive law. In general, ber-reinforced composites show
strong directional dierence (anisotropy) and also the dierent constitutive behavior between tension and compression,
called the bi-modular property or asymmetry [5,6]. The con*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 2 880 7189; fax: +82 2 885 1748.
E-mail address: kchung@snu.ac.kr (K. Chung).

0266-3538/$ - see front matter 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2007.06.003

stitutive equation developed in this paper accounts for the


time/rate-dependent behavior as well as anisotropic/asymmetric properties under the plane stress condition.
In particular, in addition to the anisotropic property of
viscoelasticity, researchers have observed the asymmetric
viscoelastic property of ber-reinforced composites [7,8].
Besides, composite materials show the nonlinear unloading
behavior, especially under the pre-strained condition [2,3].
Therefore, nonlinear asymmetric/anisotropic viscoelasticity is considered in this work.
There have been continuous eorts to include the time/
rate eect in plasticity. To describe the rate-dependent
behavior of composite materials, Weeks and Sun [9] developed a rate-dependent nonlinear constitutive model for
brous composites, while Thiruppukuzhi and Sun [10]
modied the model to properly account for anisotropy.
As for the time eect, Chaboche and Rousselier [11] modied the conventional plasticity by adding the viscous term.
Sun and Chen [12] developed the one-parameter viscoplastic model for creep analysis. As for the asymmetric/anisotropic rate-sensitive plastic property in this work, both

K. Chung, H. Ryou / Composites Science and Technology 69 (2009) 284291

285

Fig. 1. A schematic view of the stressstrain curve of ber-reinforced


composites.

the initial anisotropic yielding and anisotropic hardening


behaviors were considered. Regarding initial anisotropic/
asymmetric yielding, the DruckerPrager yield criterion
has been modied for composite materials [13]. To account
for anisotropic hardening, the anisotropic isotropic-kinematic hardening law has been utilized [14].
The polymer matrix used in composite materials (here,
the epoxy) shows the highly nonlinear behavior and rate
sensitivity, therefore, providing signicant eects on the
nonlinear and rate sensitive properties of composites. The
addition of textile bers may aect the directionality of
the composite property as well as nonlinearity and rate sensitivity, depending on the arrangement of bers. Therefore,
many researches have been carried out for the matrix properties. Drozdov and Christiansen [15,16] developed the
viscoplastic model to describe the rate dependent behavior
as a phenomenological approach. Oshmyan et al. [17] considered the structuralmechanical model to account for the
nonlinear behavior in both loading and unloading. Roguet
et al. [18] performed tension and torsion tests to characterize the rate-dependent behavior of a semi-crystalline thermoplastic far above its glassy transition temperature.
In this work, the proposed viscoelastic/rate-dependent
plastic constitutive law is summarized. Besides, experiments to obtain the material parameters of the developed
constitutive law are carried out for the woven fabric composite based on uni-axial tension and compression tests
as well as stress relaxation tests. The composite made of
the seven layers of the plain glass ber woven fabric with
the same directional alignment in the epoxy resin is used
for the sample material. In Part II [19], the numerical formulation and verications with experiments performed for
the time-dependent springback in rate-dependent three
point bending tests are discussed.

Fig. 2. A 5-element viscoelastic Maxwell solid model.

viscoelastic, dee, and rate-sensitive plastic parts, dep, i.e.,


de = dee + dep, where the Cauchy stress is related to the viscoelasticR strain history by the stress relaxation modulus, C,
e
t
as r 0 Ct  s deds ds. Here, t is the real (current) time
and s is the dummy time variable to represent the moment
of straining. For orthotropic sheet materials under the
plane stress condition,
Z t
Z t
deey
deex
ds
ds
C 11 t  s
C 12 t  s
rx t
ds
ds
0
0
Z
Z t
t
deey
dee
1
ry t
ds
C 21 t  s x ds
C 22 t  s
ds
ds
0
0
Z t
deexy
rxy t
ds
2C 66 t  s
ds
0
where the subscripts x and y stand for the two in-plane
orthogonal symmetric axes of the ber-reinforced sheet
composite (the axial and transverse directions). The stress
relaxation behavior was assumed to follow the 5-element
Maxwell solid
as shown in Fig. 2: Ct l0
 model

P2
P2
lj t
 l0 j1 lj exp  pt .1 Therefore,
j1 lj exp  kj
j

the component of the stress relaxation modulus becomes,


!
2
X
t
C 11 t lx 0
lx j exp 
;
px j
j1
!
2
X
t
ly j exp 
C 22 t ly 0
py j
2
j1
C 12 t C 21 t myx C 11 t mxy C 22 t;
C 66 t lxy 0

2
X
j1

lxy j exp 

t
pxy j

!
:

2. Constitutive law
2.1. Viscoelasticity
In the viscoelastic/rate-sensitive plasticity theory, the
total strain increment is assumed to be decoupled into

1
The particular stress relaxation expression is valid for the 5-element
linear Maxwell solid model. However, the same expression is also used for
the nonlinear case here, assuming that the material parameters are
partially not constants.

286

K. Chung, H. Ryou / Composites Science and Technology 69 (2009) 284291

The material parameters to be measured from the relaxation test are: (px/y/xy)j, (lx/y/xy)j, (lx/y/xy)0 = C11/22/66
(t = 1) and Poissons ratios, mxy and myx.
To account for the asymmetric viscoelastic behavior of
ber-reinforced composites, the dierent values of the
material parameters are used for tensile and compressive
modes, in particular during initial loading (when the accumulative eective plastic strain is zero: e 0 and when the
plastic deformation takes place along with the viscoelastic
deformation (plastic hardening: e0 and de0, i.e.,
8  0T  T T
for
li 0 li ; mij
>
>
>
< dee P 0;
where i; j x; y;
li 0 ; li ; mij  0C i
C C
>
> li 0 ; li ; mij for
>
:
deei < 0;

In Eq. (6), the components of D are determined from


Eqs. (3) and (4) considering the direction and the mode
of de at the moment of straining s, while lx/y and mxy/yx
in Eq. (7) are constants determined from Eq. (3) by the
deformation mode at s.

iso is the size of the


Here, r r  a, a is the back stress, r
yield surface, p, q, b22, b33 and j are material constants
characterizing the anisotropic and asymmetric behavior.
Note that the back stress components are initially set to
vanish (when e 0. The modied DruckerPrager yield
criterion can describe dierent values of tensile yield stresses
in two directions (anisotropy) and dierent values of tensile
and compressive yield stresses (asymmetry). Also, the shear
yield stress can be given independently. The ve material
parameters therefore can be determined from two tensile
yield stresses rTx , rTy , two compressive yield stresses rCx , rCy
in the axial and transverse directions and the shear yield
stress rY
xy or the tensile yield stress along the 45 direction
(or 1-direction) rY
1 . Here, the tensile yield stress in the x
iso e 0 rTx .
direction is the reference value: r

where superscripts T and C stand for tensile and compressive values, respectively. Note here that pj and the shear component parameters are assumed to be not asymmetric.
In order to describe the nonlinear unloading behavior,
the material parameters were further modied for unloading (when e0 and de 0 with the sign change of deei for
unloading):
 
dk !
r

r
k
lk 0 l0k 0 1:0  gk k 
where k x; y; xy;
rk
4
rk

where
is the stress states before unloading and rk is the
values at the moment of straining, s. Note that gx, gy and
gxy vanish during loading (e 0; initial loading or
e0=de0 plastic loading or e0=de 0 having the same
sign of deei with that of previous plastic loading). Note that
g ge in general with the initial condition,
g ge 0 0. With the nonvanishing g, viscoelasticity
becomes nonlinear. Also, lx/y and mxy/yx are determined
from Eq. (3) by the deformation mode during unloading,
while px/y/xy and lxy are always constants.
Considering Eq. (1),
!
Z t
Z t
2
X
dee
dee
ds
ds
Ct  s
Ds
Fj t  s
r
ds
ds
0
0
j1

2.2. Plastic yield criterion


The modied DruckerPrager yield criterion [13] was
used to describe the anisotropy and asymmetry of composite materials
h_
i1=2
_ _
_
_
U p r 2x  b22 r x r y b222 r 2y 3b233 r 2xy
_

_
iso 0:
q r x jr y  r
8
_

2.3. Plastic hardening rules


In order to represent anisotropic hardening and rate
sensitive behavior, the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening law was utilized. As for isotropic hardening, the following power law type hardening law was utilized:
 M
e_
N
iso K e e0
;
9
r
e_ 0





3
lx j exp  pts
mxy ly j exp  pts
0
x j
y j
7
6




7
6
ts
ts
7:
l
0
Fj ts 6
l

exp


exp

m
yx
x j
y j
px j
py j
7
6
4

5
ts
0
0
lxy j exp  p

where K, N, M, e0, and e_ 0 are material parameters. For the


back stress evolution, the following anisotropic kinematic
hardening rule to represent anisotropic hardening was
developed based on the Chaboche type back stress evolution rule [14,20]:
r  a
de  C2  ade;
10
da C1 
iso
r
where C1 and C2 are the fourth order tensors containing
parameters to be experimentally determined and de is the
eective strain increment. For the plane stress condition,
Eq. (10) becomes
2
3 02
32 3 2
32 31
dax
nx
ax
g11 g12 g13
h11 h12 h13
6
7 B6
76 7 6
76 7C
4 day 5 @4 g21 g22 g23 54 ny 5  4 h21 h22 h23 54 ay 5Ade;
daxy
g31 g32 g33 nxy
h31 h32 h33 axy

11

5
where

lx 0
6 m l
Ds 4 yx x 0
0
and

mxy ly 0
ly 0

0
0

lxy 0

3
7
5

xy j

K. Chung, H. Ryou / Composites Science and Technology 69 (2009) 284291

where n r  a=
riso , gij and hij are the components of C1
and C2 in the matrix form, respectively.
In the classical plasticity, the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening rules are used to account for the Bauschinger eect as well as the transient behavior of re-loading.
In this work, however, the combination type hardening
rules are proposed to describe the anisotropic hardening
and rate-sensitive behaviors of ber-reinforced composites. The anisotropic back stress evolution rule accounts
for anisotropic hardening as shown in Eq. (11) and
isotropic hardening describes the rate-dependent behavior
as shown in Eq. (9). The proposed viscoelastic/rate-sensitive plastic constitutive law was implemented into the
general purpose nite element program ABAQUS/Standard using the material user subroutine. The numerical
formulation is discussed in Part II [19] along with
verication.

287

38mm

2mm

3.1mm
25mm
84mm
160mm
30mm

40mm
15mm

3. Materials

75mm

3.1. Measurement of material properties

Fig. 3. Dimensions of test specimens for (a) tension and (b) compression.

The preform of the plain woven fabric composite was


made by laminating seven layers of the plain glass ber
woven fabric with the same directional alignment. To fabricate the composite perform, the hot press method was
used with the epoxy as a resin. The hot press machine
was set at a pressure at 7.35 MPa and 3.5 h for the whole
pressing process. After the curing process, the nal sample
with 3.1 mm thickness was obtained. The basic mechanical
properties of the glass ber and the epoxy resin used in this
work are shown in Table 1.
Simple tension and compression tests were carried out
in the x and y directions for the woven fabric composite
(supplied by Hankuk Fiber Glass CO,. LTD) by standard
procedures, ASTM D3039-76 and ASTM D3410-87 using
the Instron 8516 system. The specimen geometries are
shown in Fig. 3. The stressstrain curves of tension and
compression are measured at three dierent strain rates
as shown in Fig. 4(a)(b). Note that because the woven
fabric composite have the same structure for the x and
y directions, tension and compression have the same
material properties for the two directions. Fig. 4(a) shows
that the tensile stressstrain curve is almost linear initially
and becomes slightly nonlinear after the yield points. In
Fig. 4(b), the compressive stressstrain curve is also
almost linear initially but showed failure at smaller strain
due to micro-buckling of bers. Simple tension and com-

Table 1
Basic mechanical properties of the glass ber and the epoxy resin
Property

Fibera

Epoxy

Density (g/cm3)
Youngs modulus (GPa)
Poissons ratio

2.52
73.0
0.2

1.12
2.13
0.37

Hancox et al. [21]

pression tests along the 45 direction were also performed


at three dierent strain rates and the tensile curves were
quite nonlinear as shown in Fig. 4(c). In the 45 compression curves, buckling of samples followed soon after the
linear region and the measured strain range was signicantly smaller than other cases because of very early
buckling of samples as shown in Fig. 4(d). It was experimentally conrmed that the yield point is approximately the limit of linearity here.
Note that the nonlinear behavior is related to ber rotations and physical damages (e.g., matrix cracking, interfacial debonding and delaminations), therefore, the
nonlinearity diers for various loading directions. Also,
the amount of the matrix involvement in the deformation
mode also would aect the nonlinearity. Since the tension
in the 45 direction involves more signicant ber rotations
and matrix contribution, the nonlinearity in the 45 direction is more conspicuous compared to that in the x direction. Also, the compression test data were obtained until
samples buckle and the x direction test shows larger buckling load since bers are aligned along this direction so that
the sample is stronger. In the 45 test, the sample is weaker
with less resistance by bers so that the sample buckles
with smaller loading.
Poissons ratios for tension and compression were also
measured by the standard procedure, ASTM E132-04.
Because of the same structure for the x and y directions,
mTxy mTyx and mCxy mCyx for the particular sample used in this
work. Their measured values were mTxy mTyx 0:35 and
mCxy mCyx 0:33.
Unloading tests of simple tension and compression in
the x(=y) and 45 directions were also carried out for the
woven fabric composite at dierent strain rates as shown
in Fig. 5. The unloading results of tension and compression

288

K. Chung, H. Ryou / Composites Science and Technology 69 (2009) 284291

Fig. 4. Comparisons of measured and calculated stressstrain curves: (a) x(=y) direction tension (b) x(=y) direction compression (c) 45 direction tension
(d) 45 direction compression.

in the x(=y) direction show that the specimen is almost linearly unloaded, while tension in the 45 direction is
unloaded with changing stiness: nonlinear unloading.
Compression in the 45 direction is linearly loaded and also
linearly unloaded.
Materials with poly-crystal structures show almost the
same mechanical behavior in tension and compression
(therefore, the same stiness, yielding and hardening
behavior) as well as in loading and unloading since
micro-structural damage development is similar for various
deformation modes. However, the woven fabric composite
shows the dierent behavior not only between tension and
compression but also between loading and unloading
because its micro-structural evolution associated with the
matrix cracking and ber rotations signicantly diers
for various deformation modes.
Stress relaxation tests of tension and compression in the
x(=y) and 45 directions were also performed. Tests were
performed with two constant strains, below and above
yielding, for all cases except compression in the 45 direction (with strain below yielding), during 40 000 s as shown
in Fig. 6.
3.2. Characterization of material parameters
The viscoelastic properties were obtained from the stress
relaxation test results shown in Fig. 6, using the data measured below yielding. The shear property was indirectly
determined from the stress relaxation test of the 45 tension

based on the tensor transformation formula. The results


are shown in Table 2(a).
The ve material parameters for the proposed yield criterion were determined from the two tensile yield stresses
rTx , rTy , two compressive yield stresses rCx , rCy in the axial
and transverse directions and the tensile yield stress rY
1 in
the 45 direction. These yield stresses were determined as
the limits of linearity as marked in Fig. 4 and listed in Table
2(b). The resulting parameters for the yield criterion are
listed in Table 2(c). The predicted yield surface with initial
asymmetry and anisotropy is shown in Fig. 7.
To determine the hardening parameters, the simple
tension true stresstrue strain curves in the x, y and 45
directions were considered after the yield points. For the
uni-axial tension tests in the x and y directions, the following dierential equations are obtained from Eq. (11):dax
g11 nx  h11 ax de and day g22 ny  h22 ay de whose solug n
tions are ax gh1111nx 1  eh11e and ay h2222 y 1  eh22e ,
respectively. Now, Eq. (9) along with the denition
of n r  a=
riso gives the following stressstrain
relations:
 M
e_
g nx
11 1  eh11e and
rx nx K e e0 N
h11
e_ 0
 M
e_
g ny
ry ny Ke e0 N
22 1  eh22e :
12
e_ 0
h22
Note that from the parallelism of a and r for proportional
simple tension loading in the x and y directions, g21 =

K. Chung, H. Ryou / Composites Science and Technology 69 (2009) 284291

289

Fig. 5. Comparisons of measured and calculated stressstrain curves including unloading: (a) x(=y) direction tension (b) x(=y) direction compression (c)
45 direction tension (d) 45 direction compression.

Fig. 6. Comparisons of measured and calculated timestress curves from stress relaxation: (a) x(=y) direction tension (b) x(=y) direction compression (c)
45 direction tension (d) 45 direction compression.

290

K. Chung, H. Ryou / Composites Science and Technology 69 (2009) 284291

Table 2
Material Parameters
(a) Viscoelastic constants
lx T1 ly T1
lx T0 ly T0
25.19 GPa
3.29 GPa
C
C
lx C
lx C
0 ly 0
1 ly 1
37.6 GPa
39.07 GPa
(lxy)1
(lxy)0
6.68 GPa
1.76 GPa
(px)2 = (py)2
(px)1 = (py)1
296.0 s
14 578.2 s

lx T2 ly T2
3.16 GPa
C
lx C
2 ly 2
4.82 GPa
(lxy)2
3.70 GPa
(pxy)1
3528.6 s

(pxy)2
23.14 s

(b) Measured initial yield stresses


rTx rTy
40.8 MPa

C
rC
x ry
49.5 MPa

rY
1
45.4 MPa

(c) The material constants of the modied DruckerPrager yield criterion


p
0.91

q
0.09

j
1.0

b22
1.0

b33
0.85

(d) Material parameters for the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening


law
g13 = g23
g11 = g22
66 100.8 MPa
57 580.8 MPa
h13 = h23
h33
N
h11 = h22
151.1
189.2
340.3
0.98

g33
K
8520.0 MPa
318.8 MPa
e_ 0
M
e0
0.30
0.00678
0.00005

sion loading in the 45 direction leads to g13 = g33  g11,


h13 = h33  h11, g23 = g33  g22 and h23 = h33  h22. The
resulting material parameters for the combined isotropickinematic hardening law are listed in Table 2(d).
Using the material parameters obtained from the measured test data, true stresstrue strain curves for uni-axial
tests and stress relaxation curves were re-calculated as
shown in Figs. 4 and 6. Even though the hardening parameters were obtained from the tensile hardening curves, the
compressive behavior also shows good agreement with
experiments as shown in Fig. 4(b). Note that the material
parameters for stress relaxation curves in Table 2(a) were
calculated below yielding. However, results above yielding
also show good agreement with experiments as shown in
Fig. 6.
The true stresstrue strain curves for unloading were
also compared with calculation results obtained using the
proposed constitutive law as shown in Fig. 5. Especially
for the simple tension in the 45 direction, even though
the nonlinear unloading behavior was observed, the proposed constitutive law considering the following relationship of Eq. (4) properly described the nonlinear
unloading behavior:
lxy 0 l0xy 0 1:0  38:0e d

h21 = g31 = h31 = 0 and g12 = h12 = g32 = h32 = 0. In the


simple tension test in 45 direction, rx = ry = rxy = r1/2
where r1 is the stress in the simple tension test along the
45 direction. Then, the following stressstrain relation is
obtained:
 M
e_
r1
g nxy
N
33 1  eh33e ;
13
rxy nxy Ke e0
2
h33
e_ 0
after considering daxy g33 nxy  h33 axy de. The hardening
parameters shown in Eqs. (12) and (13), which are g11,
g22, g33, h11, h22, h33, e0, e_ 0 , K, N and M, are now obtained
from the curve tting of simple tension stressstrain curves
in the x, y and 45 directions at various strain rates. Also,
the parallelism of a, r and n for proportional simple ten-

60

xycontours every 10MPa


30

y (MPa)

-30

-60

rxy  rxy 0:7


;
rxy

14

where e is the accumulative eective plastic strain before


unloading and d = 0 when the material is loaded. Note that
the nonlinearity of (lx)0 and (ly)0 was ignored for this particular woven sample used in this work.
Note that the compression results in the 45 direction
were not utilized for material characterization. However,
comparisons in Figs. 4(d), 5(d) and 6(d) show good
agreement.
4. Summary
In order to describe the nonlinear, anisotropic/asymmetric and time-dependent mechanical behavior of ber-reinforced composites, the viscoelastic/rate-sensitive plastic
constitutive law was developed based on the modied
DruckerPrager yield criterion and the anisotropic isotropic-kinematic hardening law. Experiments to obtain the
material parameters of the developed constitutive law were
also carried out for the woven fabric composite based on
uni-axial tension and compression tests as well as stress
relaxation tests. The newly developed constitutive law is
useful to analyze the rate/time-dependent performance of
ber-reinforced composites, as conrmed in the verication
being documented in Part II.
Acknowledgements

-90
-90

-60

-30

30

x (MPa)
Fig. 7. Yield criterion of the woven fabric composites.

60

The authors of this paper would like to thank the Korea


Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) for sponsoring this research through the SRC/ERC Program of
MOST/KOSEF (R11-2005-065).

K. Chung, H. Ryou / Composites Science and Technology 69 (2009) 284291

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