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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the belief system and practices. For the organization, see
Church of Scientology. For other uses, see Scientology (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Religious Science or Christian Science.
Scientology Symbol Logo.png
The Scientology symbol is composed of the letter S, which stands for Scientology
, and the ARC and KRC triangles, two important concepts in Scientology.[1]
Corporation-owned religion[3][4]
Gold Base
Riverside County, California[5]
Chairman of Religious Technology Center
David Miscavige
Website www.scientology.org
Remarks Flagship facility: Church of Scientology International, Los Angeles, Cal
ifornia, USA
Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American autho
r L. Ron Hubbard (1911 1986), beginning in 1952 as an expansion of his earlier sys
tem, Dianetics.[6] Hubbard characterized Scientology as a religion, and in 1953
he incorporated the Church of Scientology in Camden, New Jersey.[7][8]
Scientology teaches that people are immortal beings who have forgotten their tru
e nature.[9] Its method of spiritual rehabilitation is a type of counselling kno
wn as auditing, in which an auditor guides a subject[10] into consciously re-exp
eriencing painful or traumatic events in his past in order to free himself of th
e limiting effects of those events.[11] Study materials and auditing sessions ar
e made available to members on a fee-for-service basis, which the church describ
es as a "fixed donation".[12][13]
A large number of organizations overseeing the application of Scientology have b
een established,[14] the most notable of these being the Church of Scientology.
Scientology sponsors a variety of social-service programs.[14][15] These include
the Narconon anti-drug program, the Criminon prison rehabilitation program, the
Applied Scholastics corporation to promote the Study Tech education methodology
, the Volunteer Ministers, the World Institute of Scientology Enterprises, and a
set of moral guidelines expressed in a booklet called The Way to Happiness.[16]
Scientology is one of the most controversial new religious movements to have ari
sen in the 20th century. The church is often characterized as a cult, and it has
faced harsh scrutiny for many of its practices, which, critics contend, include
brainwashing and routinely defrauding its members,[17] as well as attacking its
critics and perceived enemies with psychological abuse, character assassination
, and costly lawsuits.[13][18][19] In response, Scientologists have argued that
theirs is a genuine religious movement that has been misrepresented, maligned, a
nd persecuted.[20] The Church of Scientology has consistently used litigation ag
ainst its critics, and its aggressiveness in pursuing its opponents has been con
demned as harassment.[21][22] Further controversy has focused on Scientology's b
elief that souls ("thetans") reincarnate and have lived on other planets before
living on Earth[23] and that some of the related teachings are not revealed to p
ractitioners until they have paid thousands of dollars to the Church of Scientol
ogy.[24][25] Another controversial belief held by Scientologists is that the pra
ctice of psychiatry is destructive and abusive and must be abolished.[26][27]
Scientology is legally recognized as a tax-exempt religion in the United States,
South Africa,[28] Australia,[29] Sweden,[30] the Netherlands,[31] New Zealand,[
32][33] Portugal,[34] and Spain,[35][36][37][38][39] which facts the Church of S

cientology cites in asserting that Scientology is a religion.[40] In contrast, t

he organization is considered a commercial enterprise in Switzerland, a cult (Fr
ench secte) in France and Chile, and a non-profit organization in Norway; its le
gal classification is often a point of contention.
Contents [hide]
1 Etymology and earlier usage
2 History
2.1 L. Ron Hubbard
2.2 Dianetics
2.3 Church of Scientology
2.4 Hubbard's death and aftermath
3 Beliefs and practices
3.1 "Reactive mind", traumatic memories, and auditing
3.2 Emotion tone scale and Survival
3.3 ARC and KRC triangles
3.4 Toxins and Purification
3.5 Handling of Psychosis
3.6 Rejection of Psychology and Psychiatry
3.7 "Bridge to Total Freedom"
3.8 Body and Thetan
3.9 Space opera and confidential materials
3.10 Ethics, Suppressives, and Disconnection
3.11 "Fair Game"
4 Organization
4.1 Membership statistics
4.2 Sea Org
4.3 Rehabilitation Project Force
4.4 Office of Special Affairs
4.5 Practice and training organizations
4.6 Celebrity Centres
4.7 Scientology K-12 schools and "Study Tech"
4.8 Scientology Tech in Corrections and Management
4.9 Volunteer Ministers
4.10 Other entities
4.11 Free Zone and Independent Scientologists
5 Disputes over legal status
5.1 Scientology as a tax-exempt organization
5.2 Scientology as a commercial or criminal enterprise
6 Scientology in Religious Studies
6.1 Hubbard's motives
6.2 Scientology as a UFO religion
6.3 Influences
7 Controversies
7.1 Criminal behavior
7.2 Scientology and the Internet
7.3 Scientology and hypnosis
7.4 Auditing confidentiality
7.5 Scientology-initiated lawsuits
8 See also
9 References
10 Notes
11 External links
Etymology and earlier usage
The word Scientology is a pairing of the Latin word scientia ("knowledge", "skil
l"), which comes from the verb scire ("to know"), and the Greek ????? lgos ("word
" or "account [of]").[41][42] Scientology, as coined by L. Ron Hubbard, comes fr
om the Latin scio, which means "knowing, in the fullest meaning of the word" and
the Greek word logos, which means "study of". Scientology is further defined as
"the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself, universes, and

other life."[43]
The term scientology had been used in published works at least twice before Hubb
ard. In The New Word (1901) poet and lawyer Allen Upward first used scientology
to mean blind, unthinking acceptance of scientific doctrine.[44] In 1934, philos
opher Anastasius Nordenholz published Scientology: Science of the Constitution a
nd Usefulness of Knowledge, which used the term to mean the science of science.[
45] It is unknown whether Hubbard was aware of either prior usage of the word.[4
6][47][citation needed]
See also: Timeline of Scientology and History of Dianetics
L. Ron Hubbard
Further information: Early life of L. Ron Hubbard and Military career of L. Ron
L. Ron Hubbard (1911-1986) was the only child of Harry Ross Hubbard, a United St
ates Navy officer, and his wife Ledora. Hubbard spent three semesters at George
Washington University but in September 1931, he was placed on probation. He fail
ed to return for the fall 1932 semester.[48] Hubbard was commissioned as a Lieut
enant (junior grade) in the U.S. Naval Reserve on July 19, 1941 and was given co
mmand of a subchaser. [49] While in command, Hubbard ordered his crew to fire up
on the Coronado Islands. He did not realize that the islands belonged to Mexico
(an ally), nor that he had taken his vessel into Mexican territorial waters.[50]
Hubbard was reprimanded and removed from command.[50]
After the war, Hubbard was a prolific writer of science fiction and fantasy stor
ies. In 1949, Hubbard developed a system resembling psychotherapy called Dianeti
cs.[51] He subsequently developed his ideas into a wide-ranging set of doctrines
and rituals as part of a new religious movement that he called Scientology.[52]
Main article: Dianetics
L. Ron Hubbard in 1950
Dianetics uses a counseling technique known as auditing in which an auditor assi
sts a subject in conscious recall of traumatic events in the individual's past.[
53] It was originally intended to be a new psychotherapy and was not expected to
become the foundation for a new religion.[54][55] Hubbard variously defined Dia
netics as a spiritual healing technology and an organized science of thought.[56
] The stated intent of Dianetics is to free individuals of the influence of past
traumas by systematic exposure and removal of the engrams (painful memories) th
ese events have left behind, in a process called clearing.[56]
Hubbard, an American writer of pulp fiction, especially science fiction,[57] fir
st published his ideas on the human mind in the Explorers Club Journal and the M
ay 1950 issue of Astounding Science Fiction magazine.[58] The publication of Dia
netics: The Modern Science of Mental Health in May 1950 is considered by Sciento
logists a seminal event of the century.[59] Two of Hubbard's key supporters at t
he time were John W. Campbell Jr., the editor of Astounding Science Fiction, and
Dr. Joseph A. Winter. Winter, hoping to have Dianetics accepted in the medical
community, submitted papers outlining the principles and methodology of Dianetic
therapy to the Journal of the American Medical Association and the American Jou
rnal of Psychiatry in 1949, but these were rejected.[60][61]
Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health entered the New York Times best-s
eller list on June 18 and stayed there until December 24 of that year.[62] Diane
tics appealed to a broad range of people who used instructions from the book and
applied the method to each other, becoming practitioners themselves.[58][63] Hu
bbard found himself the leader of a growing Dianetics movement.[58] He became a
popular lecturer and established the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in Eli

zabeth, New Jersey, where he trained his first Dianetics counselors or auditors.
Rutgers scholar Beryl Satter says that "there was little that was original in Hu
bbard's approach" with much of the theory having origins in popular conceptions
of psychology.[64] Satter observes that, "keeping with the typical 1950s distrus
t of emotion, Hubbard promised that Dianetic treatment would tap dangerous emoti
ons in order to release and erase them, thereby leaving individuals with increas
ed powers of rationality."[64] Hubbard's thought was parallel with the trend of
humanist psychology at that time, which also came about in the 1950s.[64] Passas
and Castillo write that the appeal of Dianetics was based on its consistency wi
th prevailing values.[65]
Dianetics soon met with criticism. Morris Fishbein, the editor of the Journal of
the American Medical Association and well-known at the time as a debunker of qu
ack medicine, dismissed Hubbard's book.[66] An article in Newsweek stated that "
the Dianetics concept is unscientific and unworthy of discussion or review".[67]
In January 1951, the New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners instituted proceedin
gs against the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation for teaching medicine withou
t a license, which eventually led to that foundation's bankruptcy.[68][69][70]
Some practitioners of Dianetics reported experiences which they believed had occ
urred in past lives, or previous incarnations.[63] In early 1951, reincarnation
became a subject of intense debate within Dianetics.[71] Campbell and Winter (wh
o was still hopeful of winning support for Dianetics from the medical community)
championed a resolution to ban the topic,[71] but Hubbard decided to take the r
eports of past life events seriously and postulated the existence of the thetan,
a concept similar to the soul.[63] This was an important factor in the transiti
on from secular Dianetics to the religion of Scientology. Sociologists Roy Walli
s and Steve Bruce suggest that Dianetics, which set each person as his or her ow
n authority, was about to fail due to its inherent individualism, and that Hubba
rd started Scientology as a religion to establish himself as the overarching aut
Also in 1951, Hubbard introduced the electropsychometer (E-meter for short), a k
ind of electrodermal activity meter, as an auditing aid.[71] Based on a design b
y Volney Mathison, the device is held by Scientologists to be a useful tool in d
etecting changes in a person's state of mind.[71]
Scientologists sometimes use a "dating system based on the initial appearance of
this book. For example, 'A.D. 25' does not stand for Anno Domini, but 'After Di
anetics.'"[73] Publishers Weekly gave a plaque posthumously to L. Ron Hubbard co
mmemorating the appearance of Dianetics on its bestseller list for one hundred c
onsecutive weeks.[citation needed] Paul Gutjahr, professor of Religious Studies
at Indiana University, called Dianetics the bestselling non-Christian religious
book of the century.[73] Scholarly conjecture discusses the likelihood of the Ch
urch of Scientology falsifying the numbers of Dianetics books sold;[citation nee
ded] the Church says more than 90 million.[citation needed] Nevertheless, the bo
ok has seen very little attention from scholars.[73]
Church of Scientology
Main article: Church of Scientology
The Founding Church of Scientology in Washington D.C.
In 1952, Hubbard built on the existing framework set forth in Dianetics, and pub
lished a new set of teachings as Scientology, a religious philosophy.[74] In Dec
ember 1952, the Hubbard Dianetic Foundation filed for bankruptcy, and Hubbard lo
st control of the Dianetics trademark and copyright to financier Don Purcell.[75
] Author Russell Miller argues that Scientology "was a development of undeniable
expedience, since it ensured that he would be able to stay in business even if

the courts eventually awarded control of Dianetics and its valuable copyrights t
o ... Purcell".[76][77]
In April 1953, Hubbard wrote a letter proposing that Scientology should be trans
formed into a religion.[78] As membership declined and finances grew tighter, Hu
bbard had reversed the hostility to religion he voiced in Dianetics.[79] His let
ter discussed the legal and financial benefits of religious status.[79] Hubbard
outlined plans for setting up a chain of "Spiritual Guidance Centers" charging c
ustomers $500 for twenty-four hours of auditing ("That is real money ... Charge
enough and we'd be swamped."). He wrote:
I await your reaction on the religion angle. In my opinion, we couldn't get wors
e public opinion than we have had or have less customers with what we've got to
sell. A religious charter would be necessary in Pennsylvania or NJ to make it st
ick. But I sure could make it stick.[80]
In December 1953, Hubbard incorporated three churches
a "Church of American Scie
nce", a "Church of Scientology" and a "Church of Spiritual Engineering"
in Camde
n, New Jersey.[81] On February 18, 1954, with Hubbard's blessing, some of his fo
llowers set up the first local Church of Scientology, the Church of Scientology
of California, adopting the "aims, purposes, principles and creed of the Church
of American Science, as founded by L. Ron Hubbard."[81][82] The movement spread
quickly through the United States and to other English-speaking countries such a
s Britain, Ireland, South Africa and Australia.[83] The second local Church of S
cientology to be set up, after the one in California, was in Auckland, New Zeala
nd.[83] In 1955, Hubbard established the Founding Church of Scientology in Washi
ngton, D.C.[63] In 1957, the Church of Scientology of California was granted tax
-exempt status by the United States Internal Revenue Service (IRS), and so, for
a time, were other local churches.[66][84] In 1958 however, the IRS started a re
view of the appropriateness of this status.[66] In 1959, Hubbard moved to Englan
d, remaining there until the mid-1960s.[63]
The Church experienced further challenges. The United States Food and Drug Admin
istration (FDA) began an investigation concerning the claims the Church of Scien
tology made in connection with its E-meters.[66] On January 4, 1963, FDA agents
raided offices of the Church of Scientology, seizing hundreds of E-meters as ill
egal medical devices and tons of literature that they accused of making false me
dical claims.[85] The original suit by the FDA to condemn the literature and E-m
eters did not succeed,[86] but the Court ordered the Church to label every meter
with a disclaimer that it is purely religious artifact,[87] to post a $20,000 b
ond of compliance, and to pay the FDA's legal expenses.[88]
In the mid-sixties, the Church of Scientology was banned in several Australian s
tates, starting with Victoria in 1965.[89] The ban was based on the Anderson Rep
ort, which found that the auditing process involved "command" hypnosis, in which
the hypnotist assumes "positive authoritative control" over the patient. On thi
s point the report stated,
It is the firm conclusion of this Board that most scientology and dianetic techn
iques are those of authoritative hypnosis and as such are dangerous ... the scie
ntific evidence which the Board heard from several expert witnesses of the highe
st repute ... leads to the inescapable conclusion that it is only in name that t
here is any difference between authoritative hypnosis and most of the techniques
of scientology. Many scientology techniques are in fact hypnotic techniques, an
d Hubbard has not changed their nature by changing their names.[90]
The Australian Church was forced to operate under the name of the "Church of the
New Faith" as a result, the name and practice of Scientology having become ille
gal in the relevant states.[89] Several years of court proceedings aimed at over
turning the ban followed.[89]

In the course of developing Scientology, Hubbard presented rapidly changing teac

hings that some have seen as often self-contradictory.[91][92] According to Lind
holm, for the inner cadre of Scientologists in that period, involvement depended
not so much on belief in a particular doctrine but on unquestioning faith in Hu
bbard.[91] In 1965, a longtime Church member and "Doctor of Scientology" Jack Ho
rner (b. 1927) left the group, dissatisfied with its ethics program; he later de
veloped a splinter group, Dianology, renamed in 1971 to Eductivsm, "an applied p
hilosophy aimed at evoking the individual's infinite spiritual potentials."[93]
In 1966, Hubbard stepped down as executive director of Scientology to devote him
self to research and writing.[63][94] The following year, he formed the Sea Orga
nization or Sea Org, which was to develop into an elite group within Scientology
.[63][95] The Sea Org was based on three ships, the Diana, the Athena, and the A
pollo, which served as the flagship.[95] One month after the establishment of th
e Sea Org, Hubbard announced that he had made a breakthrough discovery, the resu
lt of which were the "OT III" materials purporting to provide a method for overc
oming factors inhibiting spiritual progress.[95] These materials were first diss
eminated on the ships, and then propagated by Sea Org members reassigned to staf
f Advanced Organizations on land.[95]
In 1967, the IRS removed Scientology's tax-exempt status, asserting that its act
ivities were commercial and operated for the benefit of Hubbard, rather than for
charitable or religious purposes.[84] The decision resulted in a process of lit
igation that would be settled in the Church's favor a quarter of a century later
, the longest case of litigation in IRS history.[66]
In 1979, as a result of FBI raids during Operation Snow White, eleven senior peo
ple in the church's Guardian's Office were convicted of obstructing justice, bur
glary of government offices, and theft of documents and government property. In
1981, Scientology took the German government to court for the first time.[96]
On January 1, 1982, Scientology established the Religious Technology Center (RTC
) to oversee and ensure the standard application of Scientology technology.[97]
On November 11, 1982, the Free Zone was established by former top Scientologists
in disagreement with RTC.[98] The Free Zone Association was founded and registe
red under the laws of Germany, and believes that the Church of Scientology has d
eparted from its original philosophy.[99]
In 1983, in a unanimous decision, the High Court of Australia recognized Sciento
logy as a religion in Australia, overturning restrictions that had limited activ
ities of the church after the Anderson Report.[100]
Hubbard's death and aftermath
On January 24, 1986, L. Ron Hubbard died at his ranch in Creston, California,.[1
01] David Miscavige emerged as the new head of the organization.
Starting in 1991, persons connected with Scientology filed fifty lawsuits agains
t the Cult Awareness Network (CAN), a group that had been critical of Scientolog
y.[102] Although many of the suits were dismissed, one of the suits filed agains
t the Cult Awareness Network resulted in $2 million in losses for the network.[1
02] Consequently, the organization was forced to go bankrupt.[102] In 1996, Stev
en L. Hayes, a Scientologist, purchased the bankrupt Cult Awareness Network's lo
go and appurtenances.[102][103] A new Cult Awareness Network was set up with Sci
entology backing, which operates as an information and networking center for non
-traditional religions, referring callers to academics and other experts.[104][1

Beliefs and practices

Main article: Scientology beliefs and practices
According to Scientology, its beliefs and practices are based on rigorous resear
ch, and its doctrines are accorded a significance equivalent to that of scientif
ic laws.[106] "Scientology works 100 percent of the time when it is properly app
lied to a person who sincerely desires to improve his life", the Church of Scien
tology says.[106] Conversion is held to be of lesser significance than the pract
ical application of Scientologist methods.[106] Adherents are encouraged to vali
date the value of the methods they apply through their personal experience.[106]
Hubbard himself put it this way: "For a Scientologist, the final test of any kn
owledge he has gained is, 'did the data and the use of it in life actually impro
ve conditions or didn't it?'"[106]
"Reactive mind", traumatic memories, and auditing
See also: Dianetics and Auditing (Scientology)
A Scientologist introduces the E-meter to a potential student
Scientology presents two major divisions of the mind.[107] The reactive mind is
thought to absorb all pain and emotional trauma, while the analytical mind is a
rational mechanism which is responsible for consciousness.[108][109] The reactiv
e mind stores mental images which are not readily available to the analytical (c
onscious) mind; these are referred to as engrams.[110] Engrams are painful and d
ebilitating; as they accumulate, people move further away from their true identi
ty.[111] To avoid this fate is Scientology's basic goal.[111] Dianetic auditing
is one way by which the Scientologist may progress toward the Clear state, winni
ng gradual freedom from the reactive mind's engrams, and acquiring certainty of
his or her reality as a thetan.[112]
Scientology asserts that people have hidden abilities which have not yet been fu
lly realized.[113] It is believed that increased spiritual awareness and physica
l benefits are accomplished through counseling sessions referred to as auditing.
[114] Through auditing, it is said that people can solve their problems and free
themselves of engrams.[115] This restores them to their natural condition as th
etans and enables them to be at cause in their daily lives, responding rationall
y and creatively to life events rather than reacting to them under the direction
of stored engrams.[116] Accordingly, those who study Scientology materials and
receive auditing sessions advance from a status of Preclear to Clear and Operati
ng Thetan.[117] Scientology's utopian aim is to "clear the planet", a world in w
hich everyone has cleared themselves of their engrams.[118]
Auditing is a one-on-one session with a Scientology counselor or auditor.[119] I
t bears a superficial similarity to confession or pastoral counseling, but the a
uditor records and stores all information received and does not dispense forgive
ness or advice the way a pastor or priest might do.[119] Instead, the auditor's
task is to help a person discover and understand engrams, and their limiting eff
ects, for him- or herself.[119] Most auditing requires an E-meter, a device that
measures minute changes in electrical resistance through the body when a person
holds electrodes (metal "cans"), and a small current is passed through them.[11
Scientology asserts that watching for changes in the E-meter's display helps loc
ate engrams.[119] Once an area of concern has been identified, the auditor asks
the individual specific questions about it, in order to help him or her eliminat
e the engram, and uses the E-meter to confirm that the engram's "charge" has bee
n dissipated and the engram has in fact been cleared.[119] As the individual pro
gresses, the focus of auditing moves from simple engrams to engrams of increasin
g complexity.[119] At the more advanced OT auditing levels, Scientologists perfo
rm solo auditing sessions, acting as their own auditors.[119]
Emotion tone scale and Survival

Main articles: Tone scale and Science of Survival

Scientology uses an emotional classification system called the tone scale.[120]
The tone scale is a tool used in auditing; Scientologists maintain that knowing
a person's place on the scale makes it easier to predict his or her actions and
assists in bettering his or her condition.[121]
Scientology emphasizes the importance of survival, which it subdivides into eigh
t classifications that are referred to as "dynamics".[122][123] An individual's
desire to survive is considered to be the first dynamic, while the second dynami
c relates to procreation and family.[122][124] The remaining dynamics encompass
wider fields of action, involving groups, mankind, all life, the physical univer
se, the spirit, and the Infinity, often associated with the Supreme Being.[122]
The optimum solution to any problem is held to be the one that brings the greate
st benefit to the greatest number of dynamics.[122]
ARC and KRC triangles
The Scientology symbol is composed of the letter S, which stands for Scientology
, and the ARC and KRC triangles, two important concepts in Scientology.
See also: Scientology terminology and Scientology beliefs and practices ARC and
KRC triangle
The ARC and KRC triangles are concept maps which show a relationship between thr
ee concepts to form another concept. These two triangles are present in the Scie
ntology symbol. The lower triangle, the ARC triangle, is a summary representatio
n of the knowledge the Scientologist strives for.[111] It encompasses Affinity (
affection, love or liking), Reality (consensual reality) and Communication (the
exchange of ideas).[111] Scientologists believe that improving one of the three
aspects of the triangle "increases the level" of the other two, but Communicatio
n is held to be the most important.[125] The upper triangle is the KRC triangle,
the letters KRC positing a similar relationship between Knowledge, Responsibili
ty and Control.[126]
Among Scientologists, the letters ARC are used as an affectionate greeting in pe
rsonal communication, for example at the end of a letter.[127] Social problems a
re ascribed to breakdowns in ARC
in other words, a lack of agreement on reality,
a failure to communicate effectively, or a failure to develop affinity.[128] Th
ese can take the form of overts
harmful acts against another, either intentional
ly or by omission which are usually followed by withholds
efforts to conceal the
wrongdoing, which further increase the level of tension in the relationship.[12

Toxins and Purification

Main article: Purification Rundown
The Purification Rundown [129] is a controversial detoxification program develop
ed by Scientology's founder L. Ron Hubbard and used by the Church of Scientology
as an introductory service.[129][130] Scientologists consider it the only effec
tive way to deal with the long-term effects of drug abuse or toxic exposure.[130
] The program combines exercise, dietary supplements and long stays in a sauna (
up to five hours a day for five weeks).[131] It is promoted variously as religio
us or secular, medical or purely spiritual, depending on context.[132][133]
Narconon is a drug education and rehabilitation program founded on Hubbard's bel
iefs about toxins and purification. [134][135] Narconon is offered in the United
States, Canada and a number of European countries; its Purification Program use
s a regimen composed of sauna, physical exercise, vitamins and diet management,
combined with auditing and study.[134][135]
Handling of Psychosis

Main article: Introspection Rundown

The Introspection Rundown is a controversial Church of Scientology auditing proc
ess that is intended to handle a psychotic episode or complete mental breakdown.
Introspection is defined for the purpose of this rundown as a condition where t
he person is "looking into one's own mind, feelings, reactions, etc."[136] The I
ntrospection Rundown came under public scrutiny after the death of Lisa McPherso
n in 1995.[137]
Rejection of Psychology and Psychiatry
Further information: Scientology and psychiatry, Citizens Commission on Human Ri
ghts and Psychiatry: An Industry of Death
Scientologists on an anti-psychiatry demonstration
Scientology is publicly, and often vehemently, opposed to both psychiatry and ps
ychology.[138][139][140] Scientologists view psychiatry as a barbaric and corrup
t profession and encourage alternative care based on spiritual healing.
The psychiatric establishment rejected Hubbard's theories in the early 1950s.[14
1] Ever since, Scientology has argued that psychiatry suffers from the fundament
al flaw of ignoring humanity's spiritual dimension, and that it fails to take in
to account Hubbard's insights about the nature of the mind.[142] Scientology hol
ds psychiatry responsible for a great many wrongs in the world, saying it has at
various times offered itself as a tool of political suppression and "that psych
iatry spawned the ideology which fired Hitler's mania, turned the Nazis into mas
s murderers, and created the Holocaust."[141][142]
The anti-psychiatry organization Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR) was
founded by Hubbard in 1969. It operates Psychiatry: An Industry of Death, an ant
i-psychiatry museum. [141][142]
"Bridge to Total Freedom"
Seeking spiritual development within Scientology is undertaken by studying Scien
tology materials. Scientology materials (called Technology or Tech in Scientolog
y jargon) are structured in sequential levels (or gradients), so that easier ste
ps are taken first and greater complexities are handled at the appropriate time.
This process is sometimes referred to as moving along the "Bridge to Total Free
dom", or simply "the Bridge".[125] It has two sides: training and processing.[14
3] Training means education in the principles and practices of auditing.[143] Pr
ocessing is personal development through participation in auditing sessions.[143
The Church of Scientology believes in the principle of reciprocity, involving gi
ve-and-take in every human transaction.[13] Accordingly, members are required to
make donations for study courses and auditing as they move up the Bridge, the a
mounts increasing as higher levels are reached.[13] Participation in higher-leve
l courses on the Bridge may cost several thousand dollars, and Scientologists us
ually move up the Bridge at a rate governed by their income.[13]

Body and Thetan

Main article: Thetan
Scientology beliefs revolve around the thetan, the individualized expression of
the cosmic source, or life force, named after the Greek letter theta (?).[108][1
11][144] The thetan is the true identity of a person
an intrinsically good, omni
scient, non-material core capable of unlimited creativity.[108][111]
In the primordial past, thetans brought the material universe into being largely
for their own pleasure.[111] The universe has no independent reality, but deriv
es its apparent reality from the fact that most thetans agree it exists.[108] Th

etans fell from grace when they began to identify with their creation, rather th
an their original state of spiritual purity.[111] Eventually they lost their mem
ory of their true nature, along with the associated spiritual and creative power
s. As a result, thetans came to think of themselves as nothing but embodied bein
Thetans are reborn time and time again in new bodies through a process called "a
ssumption" which is analogous to reincarnation.[111] Like Hinduism, Scientology
posits a causal relationship between the experiences of earlier incarnations and
one's present life, and with each rebirth, the effects of the MEST universe (ME
ST here stands for matter, energy, space, and time) on the thetan become stronge
Space opera and confidential materials
See also: Operating Thetan and Space opera in Scientology doctrine
The Church of Scientology holds that at the higher levels of initiation ("OT lev
els"), mystical teachings are imparted that may be harmful to unprepared readers
. These teachings are kept secret from members who have not reached these levels
. The church says that the secrecy is warranted to keep its materials' use in co
ntext and to protect its members from being exposed to materials they are not ye
t prepared for.[115]
Scientology cruise ship Freewinds
These are the OT levels, the levels above Clear, whose contents are guarded with
in Scientology. The OT level teachings include accounts of various cosmic catast
rophes that befell the thetans.[145] Hubbard described these early events collec
tively as "space opera".
In the OT levels, Hubbard explains how to reverse the effects of past-life traum
a patterns that supposedly extend millions of years into the past.[146] Among th
ese advanced teachings is the story of Xenu (sometimes Xemu), introduced as the
tyrant ruler of the "Galactic Confederacy". According to this story, 75 million
years ago Xenu brought billions of people to Earth in spacecraft resembling Doug
las DC-8 airliners, stacked them around volcanoes and detonated hydrogen bombs i
n the volcanoes. The thetans then clustered together, stuck to the bodies of the
living, and continue to do this today. Scientologists at advanced levels place
considerable emphasis on isolating body thetans and neutralizing their ill effec
Excerpts and descriptions of OT materials were published online by a former memb
er in 1995 and then circulated in mainstream media. This occurred after the teac
hings were submitted as evidence in court cases involving Scientology, thus beco
ming a matter of public record.[146][148] There are eight publicly known OT leve
ls, OT I to VIII.[149] The highest level, OT VIII, is disclosed only at sea on t
he Scientology cruise ship Freewinds.[149] It has been rumored that additional O
T levels, said to be based on material written by Hubbard long ago, will be rele
ased at some appropriate point in the future.[150]
A large Church of Spiritual Technology symbol carved into the ground at Scientol
ogy's Trementina Base is visible from the air.[151] Washington Post reporter Ric
hard Leiby wrote, "Former Scientologists familiar with Hubbard s teachings on rein
carnation say the symbol marks a 'return point' so loyal staff members know wher
e they can find the founder s works when they travel here in the future from other
places in the universe."[152]
Ethics, Suppressives, and Disconnection
Main articles: Ethics (Scientology), Suppressive Person and Disconnection
Scientology has an internal justice system (the Ethics system) designed to deal
with unethical or antisocial behavior.[153][154] Ethics officers are present in

every org; they are tasked with ensuring correct application of Scientology tech
nology and deal with violations such as non-compliance with standard procedures
or any other behavior adversely affecting an org's performance, ranging from err
ors and misdemeanors to crimes and suppressive acts, as defined by internal docu
ments.[155] Scientology teaches that spiritual progress requires and enables the
attainment of high "ethical" standards.[143] In Scientology, rationality is str
essed over morality.[143] Actions are considered ethical if they promote surviva
l across all eight dynamics, thus benefiting the greatest number of people or th
ings possible while harming the fewest.[156]
While Scientology states that many social problems are the unintentional results
of people's imperfections, it asserts that there are also truly malevolent indi
viduals.[128] Hubbard believed that approximately 80 percent of all people are w
hat he called social personalities
people who welcome and contribute to the welf
are of others.[128] The remaining 20 percent of the population, Hubbard thought,
were suppressive persons.[128] According to Hubbard, only about 2.5 percent of
this 20 percent are hopelessly antisocial personalities; these make up the small
proportion of truly dangerous individuals in humanity: "the Adolf Hitlers and t
he Genghis Khans, the unrepentant murderers and the drug lords."[128][157] Scien
tologists believe that any contact with suppressive or antisocial individuals ha
s an adverse effect on one's spiritual condition, necessitating disconnection.[1
In Scientology, defectors who turn into critics of the movement are declared sup
pressive persons,[158][159][160][161] and the Church of Scientology has a reputa
tion for moving aggressively against such detractors.[162] A Scientologist who i
s actively in communication with a suppressive person and as a result shows sign
s of antisocial behaviour is referred to as a Potential Trouble Source.[163][164
"Fair Game"
Main article: Fair Game (Scientology)
The term Fair Game is used to describe policies and practices carried out by the
against people the Church perceives as its enemies. Hubbard established the pol
icy in the 1950s, in response to criticism both from within and outside his orga
nization.[165][166] Individuals or groups who are "Fair Game" are judged to be a
threat to the Church and, according to the policy, can be punished and harassed
using any and all means possible.[165][166][167]
Hubbard and his followers targeted many individuals as well as government offici
als and agencies, including a program of covert and illegal infiltration of the
IRS and other U.S. government agencies during the 1970s.[165][166] They also con
ducted private investigations, character assassination and legal action against
the Church's critics in the media.[165] The policy remains in effect and has bee
n defended by the Church of Scientology as a core religious practice.[168][169][
According to a Church account, the Scientology cross represent the spirit "risin
g triumphantly, ultimately transcending the turmoil of the physical universe to
achieve salvation".[171]
Main article: List of Scientology organizations
The incomplete Super Power Building of the FLAG Scientology complex in Clearwate
r, Florida
There are a considerable number of Scientology organizations (or orgs) which gen
erally support one of the following three aims: enabling Scientology practice an
d training, promoting the wider application of Scientology technology, or campai
gning for social change.[172]

The internal structure of Scientology organizations is strongly bureaucratic, wi

th detailed coordination of activities and collection of stats
or statistics, to
measure organizational and individual performance.[153] Organizational operatin
g budgets are performance-related and subject to frequent reviews.[153]
Membership statistics
Scientology center in New York City
In 2005, the Church of Scientology stated its worldwide membership to be eight m
illion, although that number included people who took only the introductory cour
se.[173] In 2007, a church official claimed 3.5 million members in the United St
ates,[174] but a 2001 survey conducted by the City University of New York found
only 55,000 people in the United States who claimed to be Scientologists. Worldw
ide, some observers believe a reasonable estimate of Scientology's core practici
ng membership ranges between 100,000 and 200,000, mostly in the U.S., Europe, So
uth Africa and Australia.[115] In 2008, the American Religious Identification Su
rvey found that the number of American Scientologists had dropped to 25,000.[175
Scientologists tend to disparage general religious surveys on the grounds that m
any members maintaining cultural and social ties to other religious groups will,
when asked their religion, answer with their traditional and more socially acce
ptable affiliation. The Church of Scientology claims to be the fastest growing r
eligious movement on earth.[176] On the other hand, religious scholar J. Gordon
Melton has said that the church's estimates of its membership numbers are signif
icantly exaggerated.[177] In the UK, Scientology is declining.[178]
Sea Org
These organizations are supported by a three-tiered hierarchical structure compr
ising lay practitioners, staff and, at the top of the hierarchy, members of the
so-called Sea Organization or Sea Org.[153] The Sea Org, comprising over 5,000 m
embers, has been compared to the monastic orders found in other religions; it is
composed of the most dedicated adherents, who work for nominal compensation and
symbolically express their religious commitment by signing a billion-year contr
Rehabilitation Project Force
A controversial part of the Scientology justice system is the Rehabilitation Pro
ject Force (RPF).[155] When a Sea Org member is accused of a violation, such as
lying, sexual misconduct, dereliction of duty, or failure to comply with Church
policy, a Committee of Evidence examines the case.[155] If the charge is substan
tiated, the individual may accept expulsion from the Sea Org or participate in t
he RPF to become eligible to rejoin the Sea Org.[155] The RPF involves a daily r
egimen of five hours of auditing or studying, eight hours of work, often physica
l labor, such as building renovation, and at least seven hours of sleep.[155] Do
uglas E. Cowan and David G. Bromley state that scholars and observers have come
to radically different conclusions about the RPF and whether it is "voluntary or
coercive, therapeutic or punitive".[155]
Office of Special Affairs
Main articles: Office of Special Affairs and Guardian's Office
The Office of Special Affairs or OSA (formerly the Guardian's Office) is a depar
tment of the Church of Scientology. According to the Church, the OSA is responsi
ble for directing legal affairs, public relations, pursuing investigations, publ
icizing the Church's "social betterment works," and "oversee[ing its] social ref
orm programs". Observers outside the Church have characterized it as an intellig
ence agency, comparing it variously to the CIA or the KGB.[180][181][182] The de
partment has drawn criticism for its involvement in targeting critics of the Chu
rch for dead agent operations. OSA has mounted character assassination operation

s against many critics of the Church.[183][184]

Practice and training organizations
Many Scientologists' first contact with Scientology is through local informal gr
oups and field auditors practicing Dianetics counseling.[185] In addition to the
se, Scientology operates hundreds of Churches and Missions around the world.[134
] This is where Scientologists receive introductory training, and it is at this
local level that most Scientologists participate.[134] Churches and Missions are
licensed franchises; they offer services for a fee, and return a proportion of
their income to the mother church.[134] They are also required to adhere to the
standards established by the Religious Technology Center (RTC), which supervises
the application of Scientology tech, owns the trademarks and service marks of S
cientology, and collaborates with the Commodore's Messenger Organization to admi
nister and control the various corporate entities within Scientology.[186][187]
According to Melton, the Religious Technology Center preserves, maintains and pro
tects Scientology against misuse or misinterpretation but is not involved in Scie
ntology daily affairs or management.[188] The RTC's Chairman is David Miscavige,
who, while not the titular head of the Church of Scientology, is believed to be
the most powerful person in the Scientology movement.[189]
Once an individual has reached Clear and wishes to proceed further, he or she ca
n take OT auditing and coursework with Advanced Organizations located in Los Ang
eles, Sydney, East Grinstead and Copenhagen.[190] Beyond OT V, the Flag Service
Organization in Clearwater, Florida, offers the auditing and course work for OT
levels VI and VII, while OT VIII is offered only by the Flag Ship Service Organi
zation aboard the Scientology ship Freewinds.[191] Since 1981, all of these Chur
ches and organizations have been united under the Church of Scientology Internat
ional umbrella organization, with the Sea Org providing staff for all levels abo
ve the local Churches and Missions.[134][191]
In 2012, the Ideal Center of Scientology for the Middle East opened in a refurbi
shed historic building in Jaffa, Israel.[192]
Celebrity Centres
See also: Celebrity Centres, Scientology and celebrities and List of Scientologi
Hubbard envisaged that celebrities would have a key role to play in the dissemin
ation of Scientology, and in 1955 launched Project Celebrity, creating a list of
63 famous people that he asked his followers to target for conversion to Scient
ology.[193] In a church policy letter in 1973, L. Ron Hubbard wrote, "The purpos
e of [the] Celebrity Centre is, to forward the expansion and popularization of S
cientology through the arts."[194] Former silent-screen star Gloria Swanson and
jazz pianist Dave Brubeck were among the earliest celebrities attracted to Hubba
rd's teachings; in recent decades, prominent actors including Tom Cruise and John
Travolta have spoken publicly about their commitment to Scientology.[193][195]
Scientology operates eight churches that are designated Celebrity Centres, the l
argest of these is in Hollywood, California, called Church of Scientology Celebr
ity Centre International.[196] Celebrity Centres are open to the general public,
but are primarily designed to minister to celebrity Scientologists [196] and to
provide a haven for artists and others. The Celebrity Centre International was th
e first one that was opened in 1969 and its opening is celebrated the first week
of August each year in an evening gala.[197]
Scientology K-12 schools and "Study Tech"
Further information: Applied Scholastics, Delphi Schools and The Delphian School
Applied Scholastics promotes the use of Hubbard's educational methodology, known
as study tech.[198] Originally developed to help Scientologists study course ma
terials, Hubbard's study tech is now used in some private and public schools as
well.[199] Applied Scholastics is active across Europe and North America as well

as in Australia, Malaysia, China and South Africa.[199] It supports literacy ef

forts in American cities and Third World countries, and its methodology is somet
imes included in management training programs.[200]
Delphi Schools operates numerous private schools throughout the United States, i
ncluding the flagship academy The Delphian School in Yamhill County, Oregon.
Scientology Tech in Corrections and Management
Church of Scientology of Tampa, Florida
A number of Scientology organizations specialize in promoting the use of Sciento
logy technology as a means to solve social problems.
Criminon is a program designed to rehabilitate criminal offenders by teaching th
em study and communication methods and helping them reform their lives.[134] The
program originally grew out of the Narconon effort and today is available in ov
er 200 prisons.[135] According to Melton, it has experienced steady growth, base
d on a good success rate, with low recidivism.[135]
The World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE) is a not-for-profit organi
zation which licenses Hubbard's management techniques for use in businesses.[198
] The most prominent training supplier to make use of Hubbard's technology is St
erling Management Systems.[198]
The Way to Happiness Foundation promotes a moral code written by Hubbard, to dat
e translated into more than 40 languages.[198]
The Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE) acts as an umbrella organ
ization for these efforts.[201]
Volunteer Ministers
The Church of Scientology has also instituted a Volunteer Ministers program to p
rovide disaster relief; for example, Volunteer Ministers were active in the afte
rmath of 9/11, providing food and water and applying Scientology methods such as
"Assists" to people in acute emotional distress.[202][203] The Scientology Volu
nteer Ministers also used the "assist" to help Haiti quake victims.[204][205] Th
e Volunteer Ministers have also been sent to the site of relief efforts in South
east Asia in the wake of the December 2004 tsunami and to London Underground sta
tions that were attacked in July 7, 2005 London bombings. Eight hundred were sen
t to New Orleans and the Gulf Coast following Hurricane Katrina.[206][207] In Ma
rch 2010, twelve Volunteer Ministers sailed from Miami to Haiti to bring medical
supplies and join the existing 61 volunteers who were already in Haiti. Since t
he earthquake, the Volunteer Ministers have been a consistent presence in the ar
ea, aiding in disaster relief.[208]
For the "general upgrading of health", Scientologists give support to "the Red C
ross, the Salvation Army, the Cerebral Palsy Association, the Cystic Fibrosis Fo
undation, drug-free blood drives, distribution of Toys for Tots to underprivileg
ed children, drives for public television, emergency Food for All programs, Brya
n's House for children stricken with AIDS, and Operation Caring to support the e
lderly."[citation needed] To mitigate crime, "Scientologists foster a volunteer
minister program outlined in Hubbard's Scientology Handbook (1976) to save troub
led marriages, resolve community conflict, end gang warfare, promote literacy an
d study skills and improve business prospects."[209][better source needed]
Other entities
Other Scientology-related organizations include:
International Association of Scientologists, the official Scientology membership
Church of Spiritual Technology, a non-profit organization that owns the copyrigh
ts to Scientology books.
The National Commission on Law Enforcement and Social Justice, devoted to combat
ing what it describes as abusive practices by government and police agencies, es

pecially Interpol.[141][210]
Free Zone and Independent Scientologists
Although Scientology is most often used as shorthand for the Church of Scientolo
gy, a number of groups practice Scientology and Dianetics outside of the officia
l church. These groups, collectively known as the Free Zone or as Independent Sc
ientologists, consist of both former members of the official Church of Scientolo
gy, as well as entirely new members. Capt. Bill Robertson, a former Sea Org memb
er, was a primary instigator of the movement in the early 1980s.[211] The church
labels these groups as "squirrels" in Scientology jargon and often subjects the
m to considerable legal and social pressure.[212][213][214] More recently, highprofile defectors Mark Rathbun and Mike Rinder have championed the cause of Inde
pendent Scientologists wishing to practice Scientology outside of the Church.[21
Disputes over legal status
Main article: Scientology status by country
A Scientology Center on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, Los Angeles, Californi
The Church of Scientology has pursued an extensive public relations campaign for
the recognition of Scientology as a tax-exempt religion in the various countrie
s in which it exists.[25][217][218] Scientology's legal status differs between j
Scientology has often encountered opposition due to its strong-arm tactics direc
ted against critics and members wishing to leave the organization.[159] A number
of governments regard the Church as a religious organization entitled to tax-ex
empt status, while governments variously classify it as a business, cult, pseudo
religion, or criminal organization.[220][221] The differences between these clas
sifications have become a major problem when discussing religions in general and
Scientology specifically.[173]
Scientology as a tax-exempt organization
Scientology is officially recognized as a religion in the United States.[36][37]
[38][39] Recognition came in 1993,[222] when the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
stated that "[Scientology is] operated exclusively for religious and charitable
The New York Times noted in this connection that the Church of Scientology had f
unded a campaign which included a whistle-blower organization to publicly attack
the IRS, as well as the hiring of private investigators to look into the privat
e lives of IRS officials.[84] In 1991, Miscavige, the highest-ranking Scientolog
y leader, arranged a meeting with Fred T. Goldberg Jr., the Commissioner of the
Internal Revenue Service at the time.[225] The meeting was an "opportunity for t
he church to offer to end its long dispute with the agency, including the dozens
of suits brought against the IRS." The committee met several times with the Sci
entology legal team and "was persuaded that those involved in the Snow White cri
mes had been purged, that church money was devoted to tax-exempt purposes and th
at, with Mr. Hubbard's death, no one was getting rich from Scientology."[84] In
August 1993, a settlement was reached; the church would receive its tax-exempt s
tatus and end its legal assault on the IRS and its personnel. The church was req
uired only to resubmit new applications for exemption to the IRS exempt organiza
tions division; the division was told "not to consider any substantive matters"
because those issues had been resolved by the committee.[84] The secret agreemen
t was announced on October 13, 1993, with the IRS refusing to disclose any of th
e terms or the reasoning behind its decision.[84] Both the IRS and Scientology r
ejected any allegations of foul play or undue pressure having been brought to be
ar upon IRS officials, insisting that the decision had been based on the merits
of the case.[226] IRS officials "insisted that Scientology's tactics had not aff
ected the decision" and that "ultimately the decision was made on a legal basis"

.[84] Miscavige claims that the IRS s examination of Scientology was the most exha
ustive review of any non-profit organization in history.[227]
Elsewhere, Scientology has been able to obtain religious recognition in such cou
ntries as Australia,[37][228] Portugal,[229] Spain,[230][231] Slovenia,[232] Swe
den,[232][233][234] Croatia,[232] Hungary[232] and Kyrgyzstan.[235] In New Zeala
nd, the Inland Revenue Department classified the Church of Scientology as a char
itable organization and stated that its income would be tax exempt.[236] It has
gained judicial recognition in Italy,[237][clarification needed] and Scientology
officials have won the right to perform marriages in South Africa.[238]
Scientology failed to win religious recognition in Canada.[238] In the UK, the C
harity Commission for England and Wales ruled in 1999 that Scientology was not a
religion and refused to register the Church as a charity, although a year later
, it was recognized as a not-for-profit body in a separate proceeding by the UK
Revenue and Customs and exempted from UK value added tax.[238][239] In December
2013, the United Kingdom s highest court officially recognized Scientology as a re
ligion. The ruling was a response to a five-year legal battle by Scientologist L
ouisa Hodkin, who legally fought for the right to marry at the Church of Sciento
logy chapel in central London. Five supreme court justices redefined religion in
law along with the ruling, rendering the 1970 ruling out of date in defining reli
gious worship as involving reverence or veneration of God or of a Supreme Being. [2
In recent years, religious recognition has also been obtained in other countries
, including Sweden,[37][232] Spain,[232][244] Portugal,[245] Slovenia,[232] Croa
tia[232] and Hungary,[246] as well as Kyrgyzstan[235] and Taiwan.[37]
Scientology as a commercial or criminal enterprise
Main article: Scientology as a business
Scientology desk near the Potsdamer Platz in Berlin
Scientology has been accused of being "a business, often given to criminal acts,
and sometimes masquerading as a religion."[247][248]
In conjunction with the Church of Scientology's request to be officially recogni
zed as a religion in Germany, around 1996 the German state Baden-Wrttemberg condu
cted a thorough investigation regarding the group's activities within Germany.[2
49] The results of this investigation indicated that at the time of publication,
Scientology's main sources of revenue ("Haupteinnahmequellen der SO") were from
course offerings and sales of their various publications. Course offerings rang
ed from (German Marks) DM 182.50 to about DM 30,000
the equivalent today of appr
oximately $119 to $19,560 USD. Revenue from monthly, bi-monthly, and other membe
rship offerings could not be estimated in the report, but was nevertheless place
d in the millions. Defending its practices against accusations of profiteering,
the Church has countered critics by drawing analogies to other religious groups
who have established practices such as tithing, or require members to make donat
ions for specific religious services.[250]
Since 1997 Germany has considered Scientology to be in conflict with the princip
les of the nation's constitution. It is seen as an anticonstitutional sect and a
new version of political extremism and because there is "evidence for intention
s against the free democratic basic order" it is observed by the Federal Office
for the Protection of the Constitution.[251][252] In 1997, an open letter to the
n-German Chancellor, Helmut Kohl, published as a newspaper advertisement in the
International Herald Tribune, drew parallels between the "organized oppression"
of Scientologists in Germany and the treatment of Jews in 1930s' Nazi Germany.[2
53][254] The letter was signed by Dustin Hoffman, Goldie Hawn and a number of ot
her Hollywood celebrities and executives.[254][255] Commenting on the matter, a
spokesman for the U.S. Department of State said that Scientologists were discrim

inated against in Germany, but condemned the comparisons to the Nazis' treatment
of Jews as extremely inappropriate, as did a United Nations Special 8Rapporteur
.[255][256] Based on the IRS exemptions, the U.S. State Department formally crit
icized Germany for discriminating against Scientologists and began to note Scien
tologists' complaints of harassment in its annual human rights reports,[84] as w
ell as the annual International Religious Freedom Reports it has released from 1
999 onwards.[257] Germany will continue to monitor Scientology's activities in t
he country, despite continued objection from Scientology which cites such monito
ring as abuse of freedom of religion.[258]
France and Belgium have not recognized Scientology as a religion, and Stephen A.
Kent, writing in 2001, noted that no such recognition had been obtained in Irel
and, Luxembourg, Israel or Mexico either.[259] The Belgian State Prosecution Ser
vice has recommended that various individuals and organizations associated with
Scientology should be prosecuted.[260][261] An administrative court is to decide
if charges will be pressed.[260][261]
In Greece, Scientology is not recognized as a religion by the Greek government,
and multiple applications for religious status have been denied, for example in
2000 and 2003.[262]
Scientology maintains strict control over the use of its symbols, icons, and nam
es. It claims copyright and trademark over its "Scientology cross", and its lawy
ers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have publ
ished the image in books and on Web sites. Because of this, it is very difficult
for individual groups to attempt to publicly practice Scientology on their own,
independent of the official Church of Scientology. Scientology has filed suit a
gainst a number of individuals who have attempted to set up their own auditing p
ractices, using copyright and trademark law to shut these groups down.[263]
The Church of Scientology and its many related organizations have amassed consid
erable real estate holdings worldwide, likely in the hundreds of millions of dol
lars.[21] Scientology encourages existing members to "sell" Scientology to other
s by paying a commission to those who recruit new members.[21] Scientology franc
hises, or missions, must pay the Church of Scientology roughly 10% of their gros
s income.[264] On that basis, it is likened to a pyramid selling scheme.[265] Wh
ile introductory courses do not cost much, courses at the higher levels may cost
several thousand dollars each.[266] As a rule, the great majority of members pr
oceeds up the bridge in a steady rate commensurate with their income. Most recen
tly the Italian Supreme Court agreed with the American IRS that the church's fin
ancial system is analogous to the practices of other groups and not out of line
with its religious purposes.[267]
In November 2009, Australian Senator Nick Xenophon used a speech in Federal Parl
iament to allege that the Church of Scientology is a criminal organization. Base
d on letters from former followers of the religion, he said that there were "all
egations of forced imprisonment, coerced abortions, and embezzlement of church f
unds, of physical violence and intimidation, blackmail and the widespread and de
liberate abuse of information obtained by the organization"[268]
Scientology in Religious Studies
Describing the available scholarship on Scientology, David G. Bromley and Dougla
s E. Cowan stated in 2006 that "most scholars have concluded that Scientology fa
lls within the category of religion for the purposes of academic study, and a nu
mber have defended the Church in judicial and political proceedings on this basi
s."[247] Hugh B. Urban writes that "Scientology's efforts to get itself defined
as a religion make it an ideal case study for thinking about how we understand a
nd define religion."[269] According to the Encyclopedia of Religious Controversi
es in the United States, "even as Scientology raises questions about how and who

gets to define religion, most scholars recognize it as a religion, one that eme
rges from and builds on American individualism and the spiritual marketplace tha
t dominated 1950's America."[270]
Bromley and Cowan noted in 2008 that Scientology's attempts "to gain favor with
new religion scholars" had often been problematic.[217] According to Religious S
tudies professor Mary Farrell Benarowski, Scientology describes itself as drawin
g on science, religion, psychology and philosophy but "had been claimed by none
of them and repudiated, for the most part, by all."[271]
In Scientology, ceremonies for events such as weddings, child naming, and funera
ls are observed.[111] Friday services are held to commemorate the completion of
a person's religious services during the prior week.[111] Ordained Scientology m
inisters may perform such rites.[111] However, these services and the clergy who
perform them play only a minor role in Scientologists' religious lives.[247]
Frank K. Flinn, adjunct professor of religious studies at Washington University
in St. Louis wrote, "it is abundantly clear that Scientology has both the typica
l forms of ceremonial and celebratory worship and its own unique form of spiritu
al life."[272] Flinn further states that religion requires "beliefs in something
transcendental or ultimate, practices (rites and codes of behavior) that re-inf
orce those beliefs and, a community that is sustained by both the beliefs and pr
actices", all of which are present within Scientology.[173] Similarly, Jacob Neu
sner, editor of World Religions in America, states that "Scientology contains th
e same elements of most other religions, including myths, scriptures, doctrines,
worship, sacred practices and rituals, moral and ethical expectations, a commun
ity of believers, clergy, and ecclesiastic organizations."[273]
While acknowledging that a number of his colleagues accept Scientology as a reli
gion, sociologist Stephen A. Kent writes: "Rather than struggling over whether o
r not to label Scientology as a religion, I find it far more helpful to view it
as a multifaceted transnational corporation, only one element of which is religi
ous" [emphasis in the original].[274][275]
Donna Batten in the Gale Encyclopedia of American Law writes, "A belief does not
need to be stated in traditional terms to fall within First Amendment protectio
n. For example, Scientology a system of beliefs that a human being is essentially
a free and immortal spirit who merely inhabits a body does not propound the existe
nce of a supreme being, but it qualifies as a religion under the broad definitio
n propounded by the Supreme Court." [276]
J. Gordon Melton asserts that while the debate over definitions of religion will
continue, scholars will probably continue in the future to adopt a broad definit
ion, thus including Scientology in a wider religious field. [277]
The material contained in the OT levels has been characterized as bad science fi
ction by critics, while others claim it bears structural similarities to gnostic
thought and ancient Hindu beliefs of creation and cosmic struggle.[145][278] Me
lton suggests that these elements of the OT levels may never have been intended
as descriptions of historical events and that, like other religious mythology, t
hey may have their truth in the realities of the body and mind which they symbol
ize.[145] He adds that on whatever level Scientologists might have received this
mythology, they seem to have found it useful in their spiritual quest.[145]

Hubbard's motives
During his lifetime, Hubbard was accused of using religion as a faade for Sciento
logy to maintain tax-exempt status and avoid prosecution for false medical claim
s.[248] The IRS cited a statement frequently attributed to Hubbard that the way

to get rich was to found a religion.[279][280] According to Melton, the statemen

t is unsubstantiated, although several of Hubbard's science fiction colleagues d
o recall Hubbard raising the topic in conversation.[280]
Hubbard grew up in a climate that was very critical of organized religion, and f
requently quoted anti-religious sentiments in his early lectures.[281] The schol
ar Marco Frenschkowski (University of Mainz) has stated that it was not easy for
Hubbard "to come to terms with the spiritual side of his own movement. Hubbard
did not want to found a religion: he discovered that what he was talking about i
n fact was religion. This mainly happened when he had to deal with apparent memo
ries from former lives. He had to defend himself about this to his friends."[281
] Frenschkowski allows that there naturally were practical considerations about
"how to present Scientology to the outside world", but dismisses the notion that
presentation as a religion was just an expedient pretense, pointing to many pas
sages in Hubbard's works that document his struggle with this issue.[281]
Drawing parallels to similar struggles for identity in other religious movements
such as Theosophy and Transcendental Meditation, Frenschkowski sees in Hubbard'
s lectures "the case of a man whose background was non-religious and who neverth
eless discovers that his ideas somehow oscillate between 'science' (in a very po
pular sense), 'religion' and 'philosophy', and that these ideas somehow fascinat
e so many people that they start to form a separate movement. As in the case of
similar movements, it was quite unclear to Hubbard in the beginning what Sciento
logy would become."[281]
The Church of Scientology denounces the idea of Hubbard starting a religion for
personal gain as an unfounded rumor.[282] The Church also suggests that the orig
in of the rumor was a quote by George Orwell which had been misattributed to Hub
bard.[283] Robert Vaughn Young, who left the Church in 1989 after being its spok
esman for twenty years, suggested that reports of Hubbard making such a statemen
t could be explained as a misattribution of Orwell, despite having encountered t
hree of Hubbard's associates from his science fiction days who remembered Hubbar
d making statements of that sort in person.[284] It was Young who by a stroke of
luck came up with the "Orwell quote": "but I have always thought there might be
a lot of cash in starting a new religion, and we'll talk it over some time" It
appears in a letter by George Orwell (signed Eric Blair) to a friend Jack Common
, dated 16-February-38 (February 16, 1938), and was published in Collected Essay
s, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, vol. 1.[285] In 2006, Rolling Stone'
s Janet Reitman writes Hubbard said the same thing to science fiction writer Llo
yd Eshbach, a fact quoted in Eshbach's autobiography.[286]

Scientology as a UFO religion

Scientology can be seen as a UFO religion in which the existence of extraterrest
rial entities operating unidentified flying objects (UFOs) are an element of bel
ief. In this context, it is discussed in UFO Religions by Christopher Partridge,
[287] and The Encyclopedic Sourcebook of UFO Religions by James R. Lewis,[4] whi
le Susan Palmer draws several parallels with Raelianism.[288] Gregory Reece, in
his book UFO Religion: Inside flying saucer cults and culture, writes:
Scientology is unique within the UFO culture because of this secretiveness, as w
ell as because of the capitalist format under which they operate. Scientology is
also difficult to categorize. While it bears strong similarities to the Ashtar
Command or the Aetherius Society, its emphasis upon the Xenu event as the centra
l message of the group seems to place them within the ancient astronaut traditio
n. Either way, Scientology is perhaps most different from other UFO groups in th
eir attempt to keep all of the space opera stuff under wraps. They really would
have preferred the rest of us not to know about Xenu and the galactic federation
. Alas, such secrets are hard to keep[289]

Regardless of such statements by critics, Hubbard wrote and lectured openly abou
t the material he himself called "space opera." In 1952, Hubbard published a boo
k (What to Audit / A History of Man[290]) on space opera and other material that
may be encountered when auditing preclears.[291][292]
The general orientation of Hubbard's philosophy owes much to Will Durant, author
of the popular 1926 classic The Story of Philosophy; Dianetics is dedicated to
Durant.[293] Hubbard's view of a mechanically functioning mind in particular fin
ds close parallels in Durant's work on Spinoza.[293] According to Hubbard himsel
f, Scientology is "the Western anglicized continuance of many early forms of wis
dom." Ankerberg and Weldon mention the sources of Scientology to include "the Ve
das, Buddhism, Judaism, Gnosticism, Taoism, early Greek civilization and the tea
chings of Jesus, Nietzsche and Freud."[294] In Dianetics, Hubbard cites Hegel as
an influence, but a negative one due to his being "confusing."[295]
Sigmund Freud's psychology, popularized in the 1930s and 1940s, was a key contri
butor to the Dianetics therapy model, and was acknowledged unreservedly as such
by Hubbard in his early works.[296] Hubbard never forgot, when he was 12 years o
ld, meeting Cmdr. Joseph Cheesman Thompson, a U.S. Navy officer who had studied
with Freud[297] and when writing to the American Psychological Association in 19
49, he stated that he was conducting research based on the "early work of Freud"
Another major influence was Alfred Korzybski's General Semantics.[296] Hubbard w
as friends with fellow science fiction writer A. E. van Vogt, who explored the i
mplications of Korzybski's non-Aristotelian logic in works such as The World of
Null-A, and Hubbard's view of the reactive mind has clear and acknowledged paral
lels with Korzybski's thought; in fact, Korzybski's "anthropometer" may have bee
n what inspired Hubbard's invention of the E-meter.[296]
Beyond that, Hubbard himself named a great many other influences in his own writ
in Scientology 8-8008, for example, these include philosophers from Anaxagor
as and Aristotle to Herbert Spencer and Voltaire, physicists and mathematicians
like Euclid and Isaac Newton, as well as founders of religions such as Buddha, C
onfucius, Jesus and Mohammed
but there is little evidence in Hubbard's writings
that he studied these figures to any great depth.[296]
As noted, there are elements of the Eastern religions evident in Scientology,[29
8] in particular the concepts of karma, as present in Hinduism and in Jainism.[2
99][300] In addition to the links to Hindu texts, Hubbard tried to connect Scien
tology with Taoism and Buddhism.[301] According to the Encyclopedia of Community
, Scientology "shows affinities with Buddhism and a remarkable similarity to fir
st-century Gnosticism."[302][303]
In the 1940s, Hubbard was in contact with Jack Parsons, a rocket scientist and m
ember of the Ordo Templi Orientis then led by Aleister Crowley, and there have b
een suggestions that this connection influenced some of the ideas and symbols of
Scientology.[304][305] Religious scholars Gerald Willms and J. Gordon Melton ha
ve stated that Crowley's teachings bear little if any resemblance to Scientology
According to James R. Lewis, Scientology is in the same lineage of supernatural
religious movements such as New Thought. Scientology goes beyond this and refers
to their religio-therapeutic practices as religious technology. Lewis wrote, "S
cientology sees their psycho-spiritual technology as supplying the missing ingre
dient in existing technologies namely, the therapeutic engineering of the human ps

Main article: Scientology controversies
See also: Scientology and the legal system
Official German information leaflets from the Bavarian Office for the Protection
of the Constitution on (from left to right) Islamic extremism, Scientology, and
organized crime.[307][308] "Several states published pamphlets about Scientolog
y (and other religious groups) that detailed the Church's ideology and practices
. States defended the practice by noting their responsibility to respond to citi
zens' requests for information about Scientology as well as other subjects. Whil
e many of the pamphlets were factual and relatively unbiased, some warned of all
eged dangers posed by Scientology to the political order, to the free market eco
nomic system, and to the mental and financial well being of individuals. Beyond
the Government's actions, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Churc
h have been public opponents of Scientology. Evangelical 'Commissioners for Reli
gious and Ideological Issues' have been particularly active in this regard."
Of the many new religious movements to appear during the 20th century, the Churc
h of Scientology has, from its inception, been one of the most controversial, co
ming into conflict with the governments and police forces of several countries (
including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada,[309] France[310] and Ge
rmany).[6][21][284][311][312] It has been one of the most litigious religious mo
vements in history, filing countless lawsuits against governments, organizations
and individuals.[313]
Reports and allegations have been made, by journalists, courts, and governmental
bodies of several countries, that the Church of Scientology is an unscrupulous
commercial enterprise that harasses its critics and brutally exploits its member
s.[284][311] Time magazine published an article in 1991 which described Scientol
ogy as "a hugely profitable global racket that survives by intimidating members
and critics in a Mafia-like manner."[21]
The controversies involving the church and its critics, some of them ongoing, in
Scientology's disconnection policy, in which members are encouraged to cut off a
ll contact with friends or family members who are "antagonistic" to Scientology.
The death of a Scientologist Lisa McPherson while in the care of the church. (Ro
bert Minton sponsored the multi-million dollar lawsuit against Scientology for t
he death of McPherson. In May 2004, McPherson's estate and the Church of Sciento
logy reached a confidential settlement.)[315]
Conflicting statements about L. Ron Hubbard's life, in particular accounts of Hu
bbard discussing his intent to start a religion for profit and of his service in
the military.[21]
Scientology's harassment and litigious actions against its critics encouraged by
its Fair Game policy.[21]
Attempts to legally force search engines such as Google and Yahoo! to omit any w
ebpages critical of Scientology from their search engines (and in Google's case,
AdSense), or at least the first few search pages.[316]
Allegations by a former high-ranking Scientologist that Scientology leader David
Miscavige beats and demoralizes staff, and that physical violence by superiors
towards staff working for them is a common occurrence in the church.[317][318] S
cientology spokesman Tommy Davis denied these claims and provided witnesses to r
ebut them.[317]
Due to these allegations, a considerable amount of investigation has been aimed
at the church, by groups ranging from the media to governmental agencies.[284][3

Scientology social programs such as drug and criminal rehabilitation have likewi
se drawn both support and criticism.[319][320][321][322]
Stephen A. Kent, a professor of sociology, has said that "Scientologists see the
mselves as possessors of doctrines and skills that can save the world, if not th
e galaxy."[323] As stated in Scientology doctrine: "The whole agonized future of
this planet, every man, woman and child on it, and your own destiny for the nex
t endless trillions of years depend on what you do here and now with and in Scie
ntology."[324] Kent has described Scientology's ethics system as "a peculiar bra
nd of morality that uniquely benefited [the Church of Scientology] ... In plain
English, the purpose of Scientology ethics is to eliminate opponents, then elimi
nate people's interests in things other than Scientology.".[325]
Many former members have come forward to speak out about the Church and the nega
tive effects its teachings have had on them, including celebrities such as Leah
Remini. Remini spoke about her split from the Church, saying that she still has
friends within the organization that she is no longer able to speak to.[326]
Criminal behavior
See also: Operation Snow White and Operation Freakout
Much of the controversy surrounding Scientology stems from the criminal convicti
ons of core members of the Scientology organization.
In 1978, a number of Scientologists, including L. Ron Hubbard's wife Mary Sue Hu
bbard (who was second in command in the organization at the time), were convicte
d of perpetrating what was at the time the largest incident of domestic espionag
e in the history of the United States, called "Operation Snow White". This invol
ved infiltrating, wiretapping, and stealing documents from the offices of Federa
l attorneys and the Internal Revenue Service. [327] L. Ron Hubbard was convicted
in absentia by French authorities of engaging in fraud and sentenced to four ye
ars in prison.[328] The head of the French Church of Scientology was convicted a
t the same trial and given a suspended one-year prison sentence.[329]
An FBI raid on the Church's headquarters revealed documentation that detailed Sc
ientology's criminal actions against various critics of the organization. In "Op
eration Freakout", agents of the church attempted to destroy Paulette Cooper, au
thor of The Scandal of Scientology, an early book that had been critical of the
movement.[330] Among these documents was a plan to frame Gabe Cazares, the mayor
of Clearwater, Florida, with a staged hit-and-run accident.
In 1988, Scientology president Heber Jentzsch and ten other members of the organ
ization were arrested in Spain on various charges including illicit association,
coercion, fraud, and labor law violations.[331]
In October 2009, the Church of Scientology was found guilty of organized fraud i
n France. [332] The sentence was confirmed by appeal court in February 2012.[333
In 2012, Belgian prosecutors indicted Scientology as a criminal organization eng
aged in fraud and extortion.[334][335][336]
Scientology and the Internet
See also: Scientology and the Internet and Project Chanology
In the 1990s, representatives of Scientology began to take action against increa
sed criticism of Scientology on the Internet. The organization says that the act
ions taken were to prevent distribution of copyrighted Scientology documents and
publications online, fighting what it refers to as "copyright terrorists".[337]
In January 1995, church lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the newsgrou
p alt.religion.scientology by sending a control message instructing Usenet serve

rs to delete the group.[338] In practice, this rmgroup message had little effect
, since most Usenet servers are configured to disregard such messages when sent
to groups that receive substantial traffic, and newgroup messages were quickly i
ssued to recreate the group on those servers that did not do so. However, the is
suance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech adv
ocates.[339][340] Among the criticisms raised, one suggestion is that Scientolog
y's true motive is to suppress the free speech of its critics.[341][342]
An Internet-based group which refers to itself as 'Anonymous' held protests outs
ide Scientology centers in cities around the world in February 2008 as part of P
roject Chanology. Issues they protested ranged from alleged abuse of followers t
o the validity of its claims to qualify as a state-sponsored religion.[343]
The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copyrighted texts
on the newsgroup and the World Wide Web, and lobbied for tighter restrictions o
n copyrights in general. The Church supported the controversial Sonny Bono Copyr
ight Term Extension Act as well as the even more controversial Digital Millenniu
m Copyright Act (DMCA). Some of the DMCA's provisions (notably the Online Copyri
ght Infringement Liability Limitation Act) were heavily influenced by Church lit
igation against US Internet service providers over copyrighted Scientology mater
ials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers.
Beginning in the middle of 1996 and ensuing for several years, the newsgroup was
attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed sporgery by some, in the fo
rm of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group. Some in
vestigators said that some spam had been traced to church members.[344][345] For
mer Scientologist Tory Christman later asserted that the Office of Special Affai
rs had undertaken a concerted effort to destroy alt.religion.scientology through
these means; the effort failed.[346]
On January 14, 2008, a video produced by the Church of Scientology featuring an
interview with Tom Cruise was leaked to the Internet and uploaded to YouTube.[34
7][348][349] The Church of Scientology issued a copyright violation claim agains
t YouTube requesting the removal of the video.[350] Subsequently, the group Anon
ymous voiced its criticism of Scientology and began attacking the Church.[351] C
alling the action by the Church of Scientology a form of Internet censorship, pa
rticipants of Anonymous coordinated Project Chanology, which consisted of a seri
es of denial-of-service attacks against Scientology websites, prank calls, and b
lack faxes to Scientology centers.[352][353][354][355][356] On January 21, 2008,
Anonymous announced its intentions via a video posted to YouTube entitled "Mess
age to Scientology", and a press release declaring a "war" against both the Chur
ch of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center.[355][357] In the press re
lease, the group stated that the attacks against the Church of Scientology would
continue in order to protect the freedom of speech, and end what they saw as th
e financial exploitation of church members.[358]
A protester criticizes Scientology
On January 28, 2008, an Anonymous video appeared on YouTube calling for protests
outside Church of Scientology centers on February 10, 2008.[359][360] According
to a letter Anonymous e-mailed to the press, about 7,000 people protested in mo
re than 90 cities worldwide.[361] Many protesters wore masks based on the charac
ter V from V for Vendetta (who was influenced by Guy Fawkes) or otherwise disgui
sed their identities, in part to protect themselves from reprisals from the Chur
ch of Scientology.[362][363] Many further protests have followed since then in c
ities around the world.[364]
The Arbitration Committee of the Wikipedia internet encyclopedia decided in May
2009 to restrict access to its site from Church of Scientology IP addresses, to
prevent self-serving edits by Scientologists.[365][366] A "host of anti-Scientol

ogist editors" were topic-banned as well.[365][366] The committee concluded that

both sides had "gamed policy" and resorted to "battlefield tactics", with artic
les on living persons being the "worst casualties".[365]
Scientology and hypnosis
Main article: Scientology and hypnosis
Scientology literature states that L. Ron Hubbard demonstrated his professional
expertise in hypnosis by discovering the Dianetic engram.[citation needed] Hubba
rd was said to be an accomplished hypnotist, and close acquaintances such as For
rest Ackerman (Hubbard's literary agent) and A. E. van Vogt (an early supporter
of Dianetics) witnessed repeated demonstrations of his hypnotic skills.[279]
Hubbard wrote that hypnosis is a "wild variable," and compared parlor hypnosis g
ames to an atom bomb.[367] He also wrote:
Hypnotism plants, by positive suggestion, one or another form of insanity. It is
usually a temporary planting, but sometimes the hypnotic suggestion will not "l
ift" or remove in a way desirable to the hypnotist.[368]
Auditing confidentiality
Scientology E-Meter
During the auditing process, the auditor may collect personal information from t
he person being audited.[369] Auditing records are referred to within Scientolog
y as preclear folders.[370] The Church of Scientology has strict codes designed
to protect the confidentiality of the information contained in these folders.[36
9] However, people leaving Scientology know that the Church is in possession of
very personal information about them, and that the Church has a history of attac
king and psychologically abusing those who leave it and become critics.[370] On
December 16, 1969, a Guardian's Office order (G. O. 121669) by Mary Sue Hubbard
authorized the use of auditing records for purposes of "internal security."[371]
Some former members have said that while they were still in the Church, they co
mbed through information obtained in auditing sessions to see if it could be use
d for smear campaigns against critics.[372][373]
Scientology-initiated lawsuits
In a 1993 U.S. lawsuit brought by the Church of Scientology against Steven Fishm
an, a former member of the Church, Fishman made a court declaration which includ
ed several dozen pages of formerly secret esoterica detailing aspects of Sciento
logist cosmogony.[374] As a result of the litigation, this material, normally st
rictly safeguarded and used only in Scientology's more advanced "OT levels", fou
nd its way onto the Internet.[374] This resulted in a battle between the Church
of Scientology and its online critics over the right to disclose this material,
or safeguard its confidentiality.[374] The Church of Scientology was forced to i
ssue a press release acknowledging the existence of this cosmogony, rather than
allow its critics "to distort and misuse this information for their own purposes
."[374] Even so, the material, notably the story of Xenu, has since been widely
disseminated and used to caricature Scientology, despite the Church's vigorous p
rogram of copyright litigation.[374]
See also
Portal icon
Scientology portal
Scientology and other religions
Scientology and sexual orientation
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4 million in
the United States, 8 to 9 million worldwide
are exaggerated. "You're talking abo
ut anyone who ever bought a Scientology book or took a basic course. Ninety-nine
percent of them don't ever darken the door of the church again." If the church
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". The Sunday Times. Marty Rathbun, who like Rinder is now an independent scient
ologist ... Rinder, though a 'heretic' to the church, lives and breathes Indepen
dent scientology.
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e, Scientology insider blasts 'extreme' fundraising". Tampa Bay Times. Archived
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eading figure in a movement for Scientologists to practice independently of the
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dle reporters' questions.
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blishing itself as a religion, and therefore should be granted exempt status for
tax purposes. The Court went on to state that a religion did not have to be the
istic, and that a religion involved both belief and behavior ... This case is st
ill the leading case in Australia defining religion, and is cited in other court
s and countries as well."
2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Pract
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ices: Portugal".: "In November the government officially recognized Scientology
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miento fundado en 1954 por el autor de ciencia ficcin Lafayette Ron Hubbard (1911 1
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registered as a religious community by the National Judicial Board for Public L
ands and Funds following a new law, titled the Act on Religious Communities ...,
which took on effect on January 1, 2000, with the separation of the Church of S
weden from the state. On June 10, 2000, the first legal Scientology wedding in E
urope was celebrated in Stockholm."
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Freedom: Kyrgyzstan".: "In the past year the State Commission on Religious Affai
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ion to New and Alternative Religions in America, ISBN 978-0-275-98712-1, p. 185
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2008-01-09, Le Monde: "L'Eglise de scientologie s'installe peu peu dans le pays
age cultuel europen. Aprs la Sude, le Portugal, la Slovnie, la Croatie ou la Hongrie
, la justice espagnole vient son tour d'inscrire la scientologie au registre lgal
des religions. Cette inscription, intervenue le 19 dcembre, fait suite une dcisio
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?????? / srpski
Srpskohrvatski / ??????????????
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