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Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5

Date / Tarikh : .....


CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN
Activity 5
For each of the reactions below,
- write the half-equations,
- identify the following:
(i) oxidised substance
(ii) reduced substance

(iii) oxidising agent


(iv) reducing agent

Example :
Zn + 2Ag+ Zn2+ + 2Ag
Oxidation Half-equation : Zn Zn2+ + 2eReduction Half-equation : 2Ag+ + 2e- 2Ag
Oxidised substance : Zinc (Zn)
Reduced substance : Silver ion (Ag+)
Oxidising agent
: Silver ion (Ag+)
Reducing agent
: Zinc (Zn)
a)
Cl2 + 2I 2Cl + I2

Oxidation Half-equation:

Oxidised Substance:

Reduction Half-equation:

Reduced Substance:

Oxidising Agent:

Reducing Agent:

Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN
b)
Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2

Oxidation Half-equation:

Oxidised
Substance:

Reduction Half-equation:

Reduced
Substance:

Oxidising Agent:

Reducing Agent:

c)
Pb + Br2 PbBr2

Oxidation Half-equation:

Oxidised
Substance:

Reduction Half-equation:

Reduced
Substance:

Oxidising Agent:

Reducing Agent:

d)
4Na + O2 2Na2O

Oxidation Half-equation:

Oxidised
Substance:

Reduction Half-equation:

Reduced
Substance:

Oxidising Agent:

Reducing Agent:

Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN
Activity 6
Changing Iron(II) ions, Fe2+ to Iron(III) ions, Fe3+

(1) 2.0 cm3 of Iron(II)


sulphate solution
(light green)

Procedure :
1.

The test tube contains 2.0 cm3 of ............................................. solution.

2.

Add .................................. drop by drop into the test tube and heat the mixture.

3.

Record the .............................................................

4.

Observation :
The colour of iron(II) sulphate solution change from ....................... to ................. The
bromine water change from ....................... to ........................ In order to detect
iron(III) ion in the solution, add ...................................................................................in
excess. .................................... precipitate of iron(III) hydroxide is formed.

5.

Concept :
a)

Iron(II) ion is ..................... to iron(III) ion by ................................... At the


same time, .............................................. is reduced to ...............................
ion.

b)

Half equation
Fe2+ ............. + ............
Br2 + ............ .....................

c)

Iron(II) ions .............. electrons to become iron(III) ions. Iron(II) ions


are .........................................

d)

Bromine molecules ............. electrons to form bromide ions. Bromine


molecules are ....................................

e)

Reducing agent : ...................................


Oxidising agent : ...................................

Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN

Changing Iron(III) ions, Fe3+ to Iron(II) ions, Fe2+

(1) 2.0 cm3 of


iron(III) chloride
solution (yellow)

Procedure :
1. The test tube contains 2.0 cm3 of ............................................. solution.
2. Add ......................................... into the test tube and heat the mixture.
3. Record the .............................................................
4. Observation :
a. The colour of iron(III) chloride solution change from (i) .......................
to (ii) .................
b. In order to detect iron(II) ion in the solution, add (i)........................................
in excess. A (ii).................................... precipitate of iron(II) hydroxide is
formed.
5. Concept :
a. Iron(III) ion is (i)..................... to iron(II) ion by (ii)................................... At the
same time, zinc is (iii)......................... to (iv)............................... ion.
b. Half equations :
Fe3+ +

.................... ..............

Zn .................. + ..................
c. Iron(III) ions (i) .............. electrons to become iron(II) ions. Iron(III) ions
are (ii) .......................
d. Zinc atom (i).................. electrons to form (ii)................ ions. Zinc atoms
are (iii)........................
e. Reducing agent : (i) .................................

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Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN
Oxidising agent : (ii) ...................................
Activity 7
Displacement of metal from its salt solution
M
1.

Mn+

ne

The (i) . (more/ less) electropositive element, is oxidized more


(ii) . (easily / harder )and acts as a (iii) ..
( stronger / weaker) reducing agent.

2.

The element that is located higher in the electrochemical series can displace other
elements that are (i) .. in the electrochemical series from its salt
solution.
Example :
Zn

Zn

Cu2+

CuSO4

ZnSO4

Zn2+

2e

[ Oxidation ]

2e

Cu

[ Reduction ]

Cu

Zinc, Zn is more electropositive than copper,Cu.


Thus Zn atom releases two electrons to form ion Zn2+.
The electrons are transferred from atom Zn to the copper(II) ion, Cu2+.
The copper(II) ion, Cu2+ receives the two electrons to form atom copper, Cu.
Zn atom acts as (ii)
Cu2+ ion acts as (iii)

Activity 8
Displacement of halogens from their halide solutions by other halogens.
less

receive

halide
seventeen

decreases

oxidising agent

more

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Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN
1)

Halogens are located in Group .. of the Periodic Table

2)

Halogen elements tend to electrons to achieve a stable octet


electron arrangement.

3)

Halogens are reduced to ions

4)

The

electronegativity

of

halogens

or

their

tendency

to

accept

electrons

.. when going down Group 17.


5)

Thus, the reactivity of halogens acting as .. decreases when


going down the group 17.

6)

In a displacement of halogen, a .. electronegative halogen displaces a


electronegative halogen from its halide solution.

Activity 9
Transfer of electrons at a distance
1.

Redox reaction involving bromine water and potassium iodide solution

1. Electrons flow from ..

Carbon
Electrode
Bromine
Water

to

potassium

Xiodide

2. The colour of potassium iodide solution


changes from to

Solution

.
3. The colour of bromine water changes
from to

Dilute
Sulphuric acid

4. Oxidation half-equation :
.
Reduction half-equation :
.

5.

Overall Ionic Equation :


.

6. Oxidising
agent :
7. Reducing
agent :

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Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN

Carbon rod

Acidified Potassium
Manganate (VII)
solution, 1.0 mol dm-3

Potassium Iodide
Solution, 1.0 mol dm-3
Dilute Sulphuric acid,
1.0 mol dm-3

2.

The half equation for the reaction that occurs around the carbon rod on the left is as
follow.
MnO4- +
a)

8H + +

5e

Mn 2+

4H2O

State the change in oxidation number of manganese.


..

b)

A brown vapour was observed around the carbon rod on the right. Name the
brown vapour formed.
..

c)

Write a half equation for the formation of the violet vapour.


..

d)

On the diagram above, show the direction of the flow of electron by


using arrows.

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Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN

B.

RUSTING AS A REDOX REACTION

Learning Outcomes :
You should be able to,
state the conditions for the rusting of iron
.state what corrosion of metal is.

describe the process of rusting in terms of oxidation and reduction.


Generate ideas on the use of other metals to control rusting,
Explain with examples on the use of a more electropositive metal to control metal
corrosion,

Activity 10
1. Fill in the blanks with suitable terms
a) (i).. is the oxidation of a metal while (ii)
is the oxidation of iron when the metal or iron interact with the environment by losing
electron.
b) The presence of

(i). and (ii).will cause

iron to rust, the rusting can be accelerated by adding (iii). or (iv)


.
c) Copper forms a green coating as a result of corrosion, it contains ..
ions.
d) Metals like (i). and (ii) forms a very tough
oxide which adhere tightly to the surface of the metal preventing further oxidation,
thus protecting the metals from further corrosion.
e) To prevent corrosion, metal A can be coated with a layer of metal B which is more (i)
. than A. Metal B will corrode first, thus preventing metal A from
corrosion. In this situation, metal B is also called the (ii). metal.
f)

If iron is in contact with another (i)which is less electropositive


than iron, the rate of rusting for iron will be (ii).

g) Zinc is used to protect iron or steel by coating a thin layer of zinc onto it, this process
is called (i).. In industry, zinc is chosen to serve the

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Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN
purpose rather than other metals because zinc is (ii)
in cost.
h) Some household and bathroom equipments are coated with a layer of shiny finishes,
the metals usually used for these coatings are (i). and (ii)
. .

2.

Write the equations for the processes below


a) The formation of iron(II) ions from the metal:
When iron contacts with water, the iron surface oxidizes to form iron(II) ions.
Equation: .
b) The formation of hydroxide ions:
Electrons travel to the edges of the water droplets, where there is high concentration
of dissolved oxygen. Water and oxygen molecules receive the electrons, they are
reduced to form hydroxide ions.
Equation: .
c) Fe2+ readily combines with OH- to form Fe(OH)2
Equation:
d) With excess oxygen, the rust is formed:
The Fe2+ ions are further oxidized to form Fe 3+ ions, which reacts with OH- ions to
form the hydrated iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3. xH2O, known as rust.
Equation: .

Activity 11
Answer the questions below.
1.

Name three main ways to prevent rusting.


(i)
(ii)
(iii)

2.

Galvanising

involves

coating

an

iron

of..

15

or

steel

sheet

with

thin

layer

Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN
3.

Name three metals that can be used in sacrificial protection for an underground pipe.

4.

Name a reagent that is usually used to detect the presence of iron (II) ion in an
experiment to investigate the rusting of iron.
..

Activity 12
1

Diagram below shows the apparatus set-up for the experiment to study the effect
of metals P and Q on the rusting of iron nail. The results are recorded after one
day.
Experiment
A

(a)

After 1 day

Observation
Some
dark
precipitate.

blue

Large amount of dark


blue precipitate

No dark blue
precipitate. Solution
turns pink.

Write the half-equation for the formation of iron(II) ion from iron.
..............................................................................................................................

(b)

State the function of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution in the experiment.


..............................................................................................................................

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Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN
(c)

Which test tube shows the highest rate of rusting of iron? Explain your answer.
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................

(d)

Arrange the metals Fe, P and Q in order of decreasing electropositivity.


..............................................................................................................................

(e)

(i)

What happens to metal Q in test tube C?


.................................................................................................................

(ii)

Suggest a metal that can be used as metal Q.


.................................................................................................................

(f)

State the ion that causes the solution in test tube C to turn pink.
..............................................................................................................................

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Chemistry Form 5 / Kimia Tingkatan 5


Date / Tarikh : .....
CHAPTER 3 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION / PENGOKSIDAAN DAN PENURUNAN

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