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About the Author

After qualifying from Sheffield University Medical School in

1952, he held hospital posts in Paediatrics and Orthopaedics.

A brief spell of service in the Royal Army Medical Corps was

followed by general practice in Coventry.

As a single handed G.P. for twenty five years, he used hypnosis for a wide variety of problems. He was also in charge

of a school for emotionally disturbed children during this time,

developing innovatory techniques in group hypnosis settings.

Since 1971 he has lectured for the British Society of Medical and Dental Hypnosis. In 1976 the Swedish Society for Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis invited him to demonstrate his techniques with children. Ever since, his workshops and lectures have formed part of their three-year training programme in hypnosis for psychiatrists and psychologists.

In 1981 the B.B.C. invited him to take part in their television documentary “Hypnosis and Healing” and again in 1984 in “Alternative Medicine”.

In June 1982 he completed 350 hours training in short-term Psychoanalytic psychotherapy under the personal supervision of Prof. Lewis Wolberg M.D. and Prof. Arlene Wolberg Ph.

D. of the Postgraduate Centre for Mental Health, University of New York. Since then he has been in full-time private practice

in psychotherapy.

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He was co-chairperson with Gordon Ambrose, Gail Gardner and Karen Olness in the Paediatric workshop at the 9th International Congress in Hypnosis and Psychosomatic Medicine held in Glasgow in 1983, and was workshop chairperson at the 2nd, 3rd, and the 6th European congresses in subsequent years.

In 1986 he was invited to be the keynote speaker on hypnosis

at the Canada West Medical Congress, and in the same year he

obtained a Master Practitioner’s Certificate in Neurolinguistic

Programming (NLP). Since then he has been conducting NLP seminars in Scandinavia and the U.K. with particular emphasis on its application in psychotherapy and education.

He has published several articles on hypnosis, its neurological aspects and clinical applications; and NLP. In 1988 he evolved

a new model of Personality Disorder Traumatic Separation

Theory and has been teaching its application in short-term

dynamic psychotherapy, in Sweden, Denmark and South Africa.

On 23 September 1994 in Gotenburg Sweden, he was awarded The Annie Fasth Foundation Prize for his development of Traumatic Separation Theory and researching its clinical applications.

He is a member of the British Society of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis; and has been awarded honorary memberships of the Swedish Society of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis, and the Danish Society of Medical Hypnosis in recognition of his teaching. And the South African Society of Clinical Hypnosis has presented him with their Certificate of Tribute.

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To Ben Turan Fasth

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Copyright © Don W. Ebrahim (2015 )

The right of Don W. Ebrahim to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with section 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers.

Any person who commits any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages.

A CIP catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.

ISBN 9781784557119 (Paperback) ISBN 9781784557133 (Hardback)

www.austinmacauley.com

First Published (2015) Austin Macauley Publishers Ltd. 25 Canada Square Canary Wharf London E14 5LQ

Printed and bound in Great Britain

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This paper is about Personality Disorder (PD). The following description is reprinted with permission from

This paper is about Personality Disorder (PD). The following description is reprinted with permission from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Copyright 1994 American Psychiatric Association.

A Personality Disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behaviour that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment.

Paranoid Personality Disorder is a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others' motives are interpreted as malevolent.

Schizoid Personality Disorder is a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is a pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behaviour.

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Antisocial Personality Disorder is a pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others.

Borderline Personality Disorder is a pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image,

and affects, and marked impulsivity.

Histrionic Personality Disorder is a pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder is a pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy.

Avoidant Personality Disorder is a pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation.

Dependent Personality Disorder is a pattern of submissive and clinging behaviour related to an excessive need to be taken care of.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder is

a pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control.

Personality Disorder Not Otherwise Specified is a category provided for two situations: 1) the individual's personality pattern meets the general criteria for a Personality Disorder and traits of several different Personality Disorders are present, but the criteria for any specific Personality Disorder are not met; or 2) the individual's personality pattern meets

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the general criteria for a Personality Disorder, but the individual is considered to have a Personality Disorder that is not included in the Classification (e.g., passive-aggressive personality disorder).

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Abstract Problem: - Traditional psychodynamic concepts impede intelligible interpretations of Personality Disorder (PD).

Abstract

Problem: - Traditional psychodynamic concepts impede intelligible interpretations of Personality Disorder (PD). Combining traditional with contemporary behavioural biological cognitive and humanistic concepts clarifies explanations, facilitating psychotherapy.

Method: - Collecting data, making assumptions and synthesising ideas. From clinical observations: - “pairing” birth and childhood with trauma, pairs subsequent maturational and adaptational separations with PD. From neonatal developmental studies:- classical and operant conditioning exist at birth. From trauma theory:- neuroendocrinological responses to perinatal trauma exaggerate fear anger and rejection, activated at birth. As terror hate and abandonment, they provoke defences of hyperarousal and intense attachment; and reinforced through operant conditioning by maternal love, they evolve intolerable masochisms. Masochisms provoke repression, conflict with reason and

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