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EXAMINATION PAPER

SUBJECT:
CHAMBER OF MINES CERTIFICATE IN
ROCK MECHANICS - PAPER 1: THEORY

EXAMINER:

SUBJECT CODE:

MODERATOR:

COMRMC

M HANDLEY

EXAMINATION DATE: 13 MAY 2014

TOTAL MARKS: 100

TIME:14:30 17:30

PASS MARK:

JA MARITZ

60%

NUMBER OF PAGES:15 (including Cover and Formulae Sheets)


THIS IS NOT AN OPENBOOK EXAMINATION ONLY REFERENCES PROVIDED ARE ALLOWED
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS:
1. Answer all questions. Answer the questions legibly in English.
2. Write your ID Number on the outside cover of each book used and on any graph paper or
other loose sheets handed in.
NB :

Your name must not appear on any answer book or loose sheets.

3. Show all calculations and check calculations on which the answers are based.
4. Hand-held electronic calculators may be used for calculations. Reference notes may not
be programmed into calculators.
5. Write legibly in ink on the right hand page only left hand pages will not be marked .
6. Illustrate your answers by means of sketches or diagrams wherever possible.
7. Final answers must be given to an accuracy which is typical of practical conditions,
However be careful not to use too few decimal places during your calculations, as
rounding errors may result in incorrect answers
NB Ensure that the correct unit of measure (SI unit) are recorded as marks will be
deducted from answers if the incorrect unit is used. (even if the calculated value is
correct).
8. In answering the questions, full advantage should be taken of your practical experience as well as data
given.
9. Please note that you are not allowed to contact your examiner or moderator regarding
this examination.
10. Cell phones are NOT allowed in the examination room.

QUESTION 1 STRESS AND STRAIN


1.

1.1. By using the Mohr circle, find the magnitude and directions of the principle
stresses for the following state of stress:

(5)
1.2. Given stress state below,

1.2.1.Calculate the stress magnitudes on a plane rotated 40 clockwise to the given


scenario.
1.2.2.

(5)

Calculate the principle stresses and orientation for the given scenario.
(4)

1.3. The deflection on a cantilever beam is given by

. By use of a sketch,

explain and indicate the position of maximum deflection, compressive and


tensile stress and calculate the maximum strain that would be exerted on a
1.5m roofbolt at the point of maximum deflection, given the following
parameters:
Density
Thickness
Beam length
Youngs Modulus

1800 kg/m 3
0.8 m
2.0 m
5 GPa
(6)
[20]

QUESTION 2 CONSTITUTIVE BEHAVIOUR


2.

2.1. What is the significance of the following matrix? Explain what is meant by this
special stress condition

(3)

2.2. Name and explain the three elastic parameters of a rock sample and provide
the equation linking these three.

(7)

2.3. Given the following strain matrix, Youngs modulus = 55 GPa and Poissons
ration = 0.28, calculate the principle stresses:

(5)

2.4. On the attached sheet, find the Strain vs Strain graph of a particular rock
sample (Base sample). Various other samples had been tested of which you
are required to draw the given results on the graph. Remember to write your
ID on the loose paper and submit the plot together with your script.

2.4.1. Determine the secant Youngs Modulus at 4 millistrain.


2.4.2. A sample

which

has

the

same

Youngs

Modulus

characteristics, yet a 50% UCS compared to the Base


2.4.3. 50% of the Base sample Youngs modulus

(1)
and

post

failure
(1)
(1)

2.4.4. Same Youngs Modulus as the Base sample, yet shows elasto-platic
behaviour at 160 MPa
2.4.5. A sample showing perfectly plastic behaviour at 90 MPa

(1)
(1)

[20]
QUESTION 3 ROCK & JOINT STRENGTHS
3.

3.1. By means of a sketch, explain the change in post failure behaviour of a rock
sample with increasing confinement pressure

(6)

3.2. Joint strength is described by Bartons equation

According to this, discuss the 4 parameters that influence the strength of joints.
(8)
3.3. What is the major difference between a JOINT and a FRACTURE

(2)

3.4. Sketch and indicate the three general types of fractures one would find around
an underground excavation.

(4)
[20]

QUESTION 4 STRESS IN ROCK AND ROCKMASSES


4.

4.1. Name the two commonly-used pre-mining stress (primitive stress) models and
the k-ratios assumed for each case

(4)

4.2. By means of a sketch, indicate how discing of core from exploration drilling can
give an indication of the principle stresses

(2)

4.3. When using the flat jack method to measure in-situ stress levels, what would be
the typical stress range where this test is applicable and at what orientation
does it measure stress?

(2)

4.4. Explain the Kaiser Effect and what is the significance of this point when
measuring in-situ stress levels.

(2)

4.5. Explain by means of a flow diagram how you would go about in determining the
depth of fracturing into the sidewall for a circular excavation by using the Kirsch
set of equations and a failure criterion (name the criterion)

(6)

4.6. When using the Kirsch set of equations to solve problems in a 2D space, what
stresses are calculated? Field, Mining Induced or Virgin stresses

(1)

4.7. At what angle would the rock mass experience the maximum induced shear
stress?

(1)

4.8. At what angle would the radial stresses be 0 MPa on the skin of the
excavation?

(1)

4.9. How would you use the Kirsch equations to determine the Virgin stresses in the
rock mass?

(1)
[20]

QUESTION 5 ROCKMASS PROPERTIES & CLASSIFICATION


1.

5.1. By means of a sketch, indicate the applicability of the Hoek-Brown failure


criterion to different rock mass conditions

(5)

5.2. Applying the Hoek-Brown criteria to a highly fractured rockmass, plot the failure
envelope based on the following test results. The S and M values are 0.5 and
3.5 respectively with an UCS of 165 MPa.

Tabulate your data points for

confining stresses ranging from 0 MPa to 40 MPa at 8 MPa increments.

5.3. In the above question, would the rock be stable at

(8)

(1)

5.4. Name and describe the significance of the 6 parameters used in the Q-index
(6)
[20]
TOTAL MARKS: [100]

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