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SPECIFICATION FOR

EARTHWORKS

Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 3
1.1
Scope ................................................................................................................................... 3
1.2
Project Description ............................................................................................................... 3
2. DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................... 3
2.1
Definitions ............................................................................................................................ 3
2.2
Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................... 4
3. REFERENCED DOCUMENTS ................................................................................................ 4
3.1
Codes and Standards........................................................................................................... 4
3.2
Local codes and standards................................................................................................... 7
3.3
Order of Precedence ............................................................................................................ 7
3.4
Deviations, Concessions and Change Control...................................................................... 7
3.5
Quality Assurance / Quality Control ...................................................................................... 7
3.6
Use of Language .................................................................................................................. 7
3.7
Documentations / Submittals ................................................................................................ 8
4. SURVEYING, EXISTING SERVICES AND FACILITIES ........................................................ 12
4.1
Surveying ........................................................................................................................... 12
4.2
Existing Services and Facilities .......................................................................................... 12
5. SITE GRADING ..................................................................................................................... 13
5.1
Site Clearing and Grubbing ................................................................................................ 13
5.2
Stripping of Top Soil ........................................................................................................... 13
5.3
Demolition .......................................................................................................................... 14
5.4
Underground Cavities......................................................................................................... 14
5.5
Earthwork in Excavation / Cutting ....................................................................................... 14
5.6
Earthwork in Filling ............................................................................................................. 15
5.7
Compaction Requirement ................................................................................................... 18
5.8
Grading Tolerance ............................................................................................................. 19
5.9
Dust Control ....................................................................................................................... 20
5.10 Clean Up ............................................................................................................................ 20
6. INSPECTION AND TESTING ................................................................................................ 20
7. SAFETY ................................................................................................................................ 22
8. PROTECTION OF PROPERTY AND PERSONNEL .............................................................. 23

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Scope
The purpose of this document is to provide minimum requirements for materials,
construction, installation and testing for site earthworks for Tacaamol and associated
zones. The document applies to during the FEED and EPC phases of the Project.

1.2

Project Description
Abu Dhabi National Chemicals Company (ChemaWEyaat) has been formed with the
mission of developing Madeenat ChemaWEyaat AI Gharbia (MCAG) for the
construction of world-scale integrated chemicals complexes in a 70 km2 site located in
the Western Region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, at the East of existing Ruwais
Industrial Complex.
Tacaamol is the name of Companys first complex based on the core integration
between a Medium heavy Naphtha Reformer and a naphtha Cracker, to be built on
MCAG site.
Tacaamol will be implemented in stages as an integrated chemicals complex based on
naphtha feedstock provided by Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) from the
nearby Takreer Ruwais Refinery.
The first stage of Tacaamol is Tacaamol Aromatics Project (TAP), and its products will
be aromatics (Xylenes, Benzene) and light naphtha.

2.

DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS

2.1

Definitions
AGREEMENT - means the signed agreement between COMPANY and LICENSOR.
COMPANY means ChemaWEyaat (as specified in the AGREEMENT or
CONTRACT).
COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE - shall mean a designated authority of either
COMPANY or CONSULTANT.
CONSULTANT or PMC means Project Management Contractor, engaged by
COMPANY to perform project management and engineering services.
CONTRACT - means the signed agreement between COMPANY and CONTRACTOR.
CONTRACTOR - shall mean any company, firm or partnership other than
CONSULTANT or LICENSOR contracted to COMPANY to carry out the agreed
WORK.
LICENSOR - means a party entering into a Licensing AGREEMENT with COMPANY.

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SUB-CONTRACTOR - means any company, firm or partnership engaged by


LICENSOR or CONTRACTOR to carry out any part of WORK.
SUPPLIER - shall mean any person, firm, business or VENDOR which manufactures
or supplies materials, equipment or services for the performance of any part of WORK.
TECHNOLOGY PROVIDER - shall mean either LICENSOR or EPC CONTRACTOR
for licensed technology.
VENDOR - shall be considered synonymous with the term SUPPLIER.
WORK - means all and any of the works and/or services specified in AGREEMENT or
CONTRACT.
Shall and Must indicate mandatory requirements.

2.2

Abbreviations
IPMT - Integrated Project Management Team, formed from COMPANY and PMC
representatives.
UAE - United Arab Emirates.

3.

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS

3.1

Codes and Standards


The following codes and standards to the extent specified herein form a part of this
specification. When an edition date is not indicated for a code or standard, the latest
edition in force at the time of contract award shall apply.
Alternate standards and codes meeting the requirements of the referenced standards
and codes may be used with the approval of COMPANY.
American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM)
ASTM C 40

Test Method for Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregates for Concrete;

ASTM C 131
Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse
aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine;
ASTM D 421
Practice for Dry Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-size
Analysis and Determination of Soil Constant;
ASTM D 422

Test Method for Particle-size Analysis of soils

ASTM D 638

Tensile Properties of Plastics;

ASTM D 698
Test Method for Moisture-Density Relationship of Soil and Soils
Aggregate Mixtures using 5.5-lb (2.49 kg) Rammer and 12-in (304.8mm) Drop;
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ASTM D 854

Test Method for Specific Gravity of Soil;

ASTM D 1505

Density for Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique;

ASTM D 1556
Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by
the Sand-Cone Method;
ASTM D 1557
Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of
Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft lbf/ft (2,700 kN-m/m));
ASTM D 1833
Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of
Laboratory-Compacted Soils;
ASTM D 2167
Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil In-Place by the
Rubber balloon Method;
ASTM D 2216

Laboratory Determination for Moisture Content of Soil;

ASTM D 2487
Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil
Classification System);
ASTM D 2488
Procedure);

Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual manual

ASTM D 2922
Standard Test Methods for Density of Soil and Soil- Aggregate in
Place by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth);
ASTM D 2937
Method;

Test Methods for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive Cylinder

ASTM D 2940
Standard Test Method for Graded Aggregate Material for Base or
Sub Base for Highways or Airports;
ASTM D 3017
Test Methods for Water Content of Soil and Rock In Place by
Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth);
ASTM D 3080
Conditions;

Methods for Direct Shear test of Soil Under Consolidated Drained

ASTM D 4318
Index of Soils;

Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity

ASTM D 4253
Table;

Test Methods for maximum Index Density of Soils Using a Vibratory

ASTM D 4254
Test Methods for minimum Index Density of Soils and Calculation of
Relative Density;
ASTM D 4767
Test Methods for Consolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test
on Cohesive Soils;

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ASTM D 5030
Test Method for Density of Soil and Rock in Placeby the Water
Replacement Method in a Test Pit;
ASTM D 5084
Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of
Saturated Porous materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter;
ASTM D3776 / D3776M Standard Test Methods for Mass Per Unit Area (Weight) of
Fabric;
ASTM D4632 Standard Test Method for Grab Breaking Load and Elongation of
Geotextiles;
ASTM D3786 / D3786M Standard Test Method for Bursting Strength of Textile Fabrics;
ASTM D4491 Standard Test Methods for Water Permeability of Geotextiles by
Permittivity.

BRITISH STANDARD (BS) or equivalent European Standards


BS 1377 Parts 1-9
BS EN 1997-2

Method of Testing Soils for Engineering Purposes;

Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design. Ground Investigation and Testing;

BS 6031 Code of Practice for Earthworks;


BS EN ISO 14688-1:2002
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification
and classification of soil. Identification and description;
BS EN ISO 14688-2:2004
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification
and classification of soil. Principles for a classification;
BS EN ISO 14689-1:2003
Geotechnical investigation and testing. Identification
and classification of rock. Identification and description.
BSEN ISO 22475-1:2006 Geotechnical investigation and testing - Sampling methods
and groundwater measurements;
BS EN ISO 22476-2:2005
Dynamic probing;

Geotechnical investigation and testing. Field testing.

BS EN ISO 22476-3:2005 Geotechnical investigation and testing. Field testing.


Standard penetration test;
BS 10175 Code of Practice for Investigation of Potentially Contaminated Sites;
BS EN 13251:2001 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products Characteristics
required for use in earthworks, foundations and retaining structures;
BS EN 13253:2001 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products Characteristics
required for use in erosion control works;
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BS EN 14475:2006 Execution of special geotechnical works Reinforced fill;


BS 8006-1:2010 Code of practice for strengthened/reinforced soils and other fills.
Other Publications
Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works, Volume 1 Specification for
Highway Works, Series 600 Earthworks, UK Highways Agency latest edition.

3.2

Local codes and standards


Applicable local UAE codes or standards shall be followed. It is CONTRACTORs
responsibility to identify and comply with applicable UAE regulatory documents.

3.3

Order of Precedence
CONTRACTOR shall advise of conflict among any reference Codes and Standards
and any applicable technical specification, and COMPANY will determine which shall
govern.

3.4

Deviations, Concessions and Change Control


CONTRACTORS, LICENSORS, SUB-CONTRACTORS and SUPPLIERS shall refer to
their CONTRACT/ AGREEMENT/ Purchase Order (as applicable) for the procedure for
raising deviations or concession requests to the technical content of this specification.
COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE will consider all deviations and concession requests.
Approval may be granted at the discretion of COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE. No
deviation or concession shall be implemented prior to approval being granted. Any
deviations or concession implemented prior to approval shall be subject to rejection.

3.5

Quality Assurance / Quality Control


CONTRACTORS quality system shall provide for the planned and systematic control
of all quality-related activities performed during design, development, production,
installation or servicing (as appropriate to the given system). Implementation of the
system shall be in accordance with the CONTRACTORS Quality Manual and Project
Specific Quality Plan, which shall, together with all related / referenced procedures, be
submitted to COMPANY for review, comment and approval as required by purchase /
contract documents.

3.6

Use of Language
Throughout this specification the words will, may, should, shall, when used, have
meaning as follows:
will is used normally in conjunction with a request from COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE;

may is used where alternatives are equally acceptable;

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shall is used where a provision is mandatory;

should is used where a solution is preferred.

3.7

Documentations / Submittals

3.7.1

Submittals
CONTRACTOR shall prepare and submit all reports, test results or documents
required by this specification to COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE within three (3) days
after testing, unless specified otherwise in this specification or instructed by COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE.
CONTRACTOR shall provide all material test certificates, technical data sheets,
material sources and supplier details for approval by COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE.
CONTRACTOR shall submit full details of all proposed borrow pit areas for COMPANY
acceptance.

3.7.2

CONTRACTOR shall submit proposed method of blending and carry out blending trials
from different sources to maximise use of onsite material, for approval by COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE.Excavation Safety Plan.
CONTRACTOR shall submit an Excavation Safety Plan to COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE for review and approval prior to commencement of any excavation
works. The plan shall indicate the systems, methods, and techniques to be used to
ensure that excavation sidewalls shall be properly guarded to protect personnel, and
existing facilities and structures in the vicinity of the work.

3.7.3

Water Control / Dewatering Plan


CONTRACTOR shall submit, a Water Control / Dewatering Plan to COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE for review and approval prior to commencement of any
earthworks. The plan shall indicate the methods and techniques to be used for control
of water (both surface runoff and groundwater) during work and the intended discharge
points and facilities.
CONTRACTOR shall dispose of all water encountered in the earthwork operations so
as not to damage property or create a nuisance or health menace. CONTRACTOR
shall provide well points, sumps, temporary ditches, culverts, trenches, drains, pumps,
pipes and all other equipment of sufficient capacity or other means as necessary to
keep the construction area free from water until construction is completed.
CONTRACTOR shall construct and maintain a temporary drainage and dewatering
system during the course of clearing, grubbing, stripping and grading operations.
CONTRACTOR shall design the temporary drainage and dewatering system to control
storm water runoff and groundwater and shall submit the plan to COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE and obtain its approval before beginning work.
Where the bulk or local excavation is likely to extend below the groundwater table,
measures shall be taken to lower the groundwater table to at least 0.5m below the
excavation level. Lowering the water table shall be carried out from a level of not less
than 0.5m below the excavation to curtail active hydraulic gradient into the excavation.

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This is to prevent loosening of sand below the formation level caused by seepage into
the excavation. The groundwater table shall be continuously maintained at least 0.5m
below the excavation bottom and the formation grade until foundations are constructed
and backfilled.
Groundwater lowering shall be accomplished by such measures as peripheral and
internal drains or pumped sumps extending sufficiently deep below the bottom of the
excavation, and / or by well points or other suitable measures, as necessary to
maintain the groundwater level at least 0.5m below the bottom of excavation.
Lowering of groundwater level by pumping from the bottom of the excavation shall not
be allowed. Where ponding of water occurs at the bottom of excavation, the water shall
be removed by gravity drainage to the peripheral or internal drains or to pumped
sumps.
3.7.4

Material Definition
Ha rd M at e ri al

Weathered rock, dense consolidated deposits, or conglomerate materials which are not
included in the definition of rock but which usually require the use of heavy
excavation equipment, ripper teeth, or jack hammers for removal.
Roc k

Solid homogeneous interlocking crystalline material with firmly cemented, laminated, or


foliated masses or conglomerate deposits, neither of which can be removed without
systematic drilling, drilling and the use of expansion jacks or feather wedges, or the
use of backhoe-mounted pneumatic hole punchers or rock breakers; also large
boulders, buried masonry, or concrete other than pavement exceeding 0.375 cubic
meter in volume. Removal of hard material will not be considered as rock excavation.
Su it a bl e Fi ll M at er i al

Materials that are in conformance with this and other applicable project specifications
and that are approved by COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE for their intended use.
Additionally, they shall be free from refuse, large stones or rocks or other material
which might prevent proper compaction or cause the compacted fill or embankment to
perform inadequately or to have insufficient stability or bearing capacity for the
superimposed loads to which it is likely to be subjected. Materials shall be classified /
described in accordance with ASTM D2487 or D2488.
Suitable fill material shall be naturally occurring material as found on site or obtained
from local borrow areas and shall comprise:
Non-Plastic Sand, Dune Sand or Granular Material (excluding gatch).
Low Plastic or non-plastic Sand or Granular Material (including gatch).
Various other than gypsum.
Material laid as fill shall be obtained from a suitable source or by laying material from
two or more suitable sources concurrently and shall have properties as follows:

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Type Passing
75 mm

Passing
75 mic

Liquid
Limit
-

Plasticity
Index

A:

100%

<15% max

N-P

B:

100%

<30% max

<35% max

<15 max

C:

100%

Type A and B material shall have a maximum allowable chloride content of 1% and a
maximum allowable sulphate content of 3.5%.
Type C material shall be onsite surplus material which does not fall into the category of
Unsuitable Fill Material.
The type of fill material to be used in each location shall be determined by
CONTRACTOR and defined on the drawings generally as follows:
Under and to sides of all structural foundations and Process areas (including
backfill): A
Above foundation level of major structures: A
General fill outside Process areas, bunds and embankments: B
Top 1000mm of general fill for roads and pavement: A
Bulk fill for landscaping: C
Uns uit ab le F il l M at e r i al

Unsuitable fill material shall include particles in excess of 75 mm size and which is,
Soils containing >2% organic material such as logs, stumps and perishable
materials.
Deposits of Sabkha or other material exceeding 2% of soluble salt.
Material susceptible to spontaneous combustion.
Materials with undefined properties.
Materials having moisture content greater than the maximum specified.
Building rubble and domestic and industrial wastes.
Soils and rock susceptible to deterioration / change of their properties.
Clay, silt and other loose or soft soils not in accordance with compaction
criteria.
Dredged material.
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Material containing gypsum or other soluble salts.


Over crushed gatch having excessive fines.
Any material or industrial or domestic product which will not compact to form a
stable fill or will adversely affect other materials in the works.
G eot e xt i le s an d g eot ext il e - r el at ed pr odu c ts

Where shown on drawings, geotextiles shall be a nonwoven, spun-bonded,


polypropylene fabric with the following characteristics.
Property

Test Method

Test Results

Density

ASTM D3776 /D3776M

Min. 1000g/m2

Grab Tensile Strength

ASTM D4632

Min. 9 kN/m

Elongation at Break

ASTM D4632

<50%

Bursting strength

ASTM D3786 /D3786M

Min. 1400 kPa

Coefficient of permeability

ASTM D4491

Min. 0.1m/sec per m of


head

Geotextiles for use as material separators and polymeric geogrids for use as
reinforcements shall be provided with manufacturers certification including:
Factors and characteristics relating to compliance with BS EN 13251, 13253
and associated codes where applicable;
Independently verified specification;
Assessment criteria and technical investigation;
Design consideration;
Installation guidance;
Regular surveillance of production;
Formal review.
Geotextiles and geotextile-related products shall have good resistance to chemical
degradation, biodegradation, temperature and weathering, and fit for use in fills
encountered on this site.

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4.

SURVEYING, EXISTING SERVICES AND FACILITIES

4.1

Surveying
All setting out and construction stacking required for the work shall be performed by
CONTRACTOR from Bench marks and base lines acceptable to COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE.
In addition to data supplied by COMPANY, CONTRACTOR shall decide and carry out
any supplementary investigation as deemed necessary in order for CONTRACTOR to
assess the nature of ground conditions on site and borrow areas.
CONTRACTOR shall co-operate in preserving all control bench mark monuments and
stacks, and other markers establishing lines, elevations, slopes etc. CONTRACTOR
shall replace at no cost monuments, stakes, and other markers which he disturbs or
destroys during the course of his work.
COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE may check lines, grades, and locations established by
CONTRACTOR. CONTRACTOR shall be responsible for the accuracy of his work.

4.2

Existing Services and Facilities


Before beginning of work, CONTRACTOR shall ascertain the nature and location of all
existing above and underground services and facilities on site and in adjacent areas by
inspecting available plans or, if necessary, by hand excavation. COMPANY will make
available, for review, any existing layout drawings which cover the area of work.
CONTRACTOR will be responsible for confirmation, or otherwise, of any such
information given.
CONTRACTOR shall take every precaution including providing temporary supports,
bridging, shoring, and safety barriers to protect the existing services and facilities from
damage or interference during construction. CONTRACTORS precautions shall be
subject to approval by COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE.
CONTRACTOR shall notify COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE in writing if any previously
unrecorded services or other objects are discovered before or during construction.
CONTRACTOR shall record and give to COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE accurate
description, dimensions, location, and elevations related to reference datum and other
relevant details of such services.
A certificate or permit shall be obtained from COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE,
indicating that services have been cut off and made safe and specifying any services
or other facilities adjacent to site including related safety aspects and measures which
must be maintained during the execution of the work. CONTRACTOR shall confirm
independently that service have in fact been cut off and made safe.
When CONTRACTOR needs to block the drainage paths during construction, he shall
provide temporary or permanent alternate routing during construction is complete.
When CONTRACTOR accidentally damages existing structures or facilities, he shall
repair or replace them to the satisfaction of COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE.

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Where naturally occurring cavities, e.g., caverns, underground water courses or manmade cavities, e.g., wells, cesspools, basements are detected under or adjacent to the
construction area, CONTRACTOR shall treat them as directed by COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE.

5.

SITE GRADING

5.1

Site Clearing and Grubbing


Site clearing shall include taking down or grubbing up and immediate removal from the
site all surface obstructions and unsuitable materials such as contaminated soil,
organic material, debris, rubble and existing improvements such as concrete slabs,
hedges, trees, stumps, roots, guard rails, concrete sleepers, lamp posts, abandoned
electrical cables and pipes within limits of new construction as shown on project
drawings. Live electrical lines and active pipelines shall be disconnected before
removal.
COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE may direct CONTRACTOR to protect in place certain
items such as fences or other features required for incorporation in landscaping.
CONTRACTOR shall, under such conditions, be responsible for the care and
protection of such items during the course of work.
All depressions and holes made below the sub-grade or sloped surfaces as a result of
grubbing operations shall be filled and compacted. All excavations and soils requiring
re-compactions shall be in accordance with the requirements of this specification.
Disturbed areas, surrounding the designated clearing areas, shall be cleaned of debris
and restored to the satisfaction of COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE.
As the work progresses, remove all materials resulting from clearing and grubbing
operations except those materials specified for reuse or as otherwise specified by
COMPANY. Dispose of those materials at locations acceptable to COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE. Accumulation of unwanted material on site shall not be permitted.
Maintain the site in a safe and accessible condition at all times.
Disposal of materials removed from site shall be in accordance with the governing local
national laws. CONTRACTOR shall propose acceptable dumping locations for
COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE approval.

5.2

Stripping of Top Soil


Strip topsoil in areas to be either filled or excavated to a minimum depth of 150mm or
deeper as required to remove all vegetation and soft spots. Removed topsoil shall not
be used as structural fill.
CONTRACTOR shall haul the excavated topsoil off site and dispose of it in accordance
with national and local laws and regulations. The material resulting from stripping may
be used as general fill with approval of COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE if they are

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removed from site and processed. The processing shall remove any organic matter or
unsuitable material.

5.3

Demolition
CONTRACTOR shall demolish and remove all existing abandoned structures, utilities
and other items as indicated or as may be required. Where applicable, CONTRACTOR
shall remove fencing to the existing facilities (at new works interface) only after the new
fences have been constructed and approved by COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE
meeting all security requirements.

5.4

Underground Cavities
Where naturally occurring cavities, e.g., caverns, underground water courses or manmade cavities, e.g., wells, cesspools, basements are detected under or adjacent to the
construction area, CONTRACTOR shall plug them as directed by COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE. Cavity packing / filling may include but not be limited to grout
injection, mass concreting, further excavation and placement with compacted structural
fill materials.

5.5

Earthwork in Excavation / Cutting


After clearing and stripping of areas as specified in above clauses, spot levels at
intervals and pattern shall be recorded. CONTRACTOR shall make all excavation to
the lines, grades and levels shown on the project drawings, and as required by this
specification. After excavation, COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE shall inspect the
exposed soils and the records of spot levels. CONTRACTOR shall remove any soft or
unsuitable materials to the satisfaction of COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE. After
approval by COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE, CONTRACTOR shall then scarify the
exposed soil to a depth of 150 mm and compact it to at least 95 percent of maximum
dry density as determined by ASTM D 1557.
When CONTRACTOR cannot compact the existing soils to the required density, upon
the approval of COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE, he shall replace and compact a 200
mm thick subgrade layer before placing fill material.
CONTRACTOR shall perform excavation in a manner which assures proper drainage
during the course of work. CONTRACTOR shall dewater flooded excavations and
remove all muck as directed and approved by COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE before
proceeding with the work.
If the excavation exceeds 1.2 meters, the excavation sidewalls shall be sloped or
shored in order to prevent cave-ins or hazardous conditions. Temporary slopes shall
be cut back to a minimum ratio of one horizontal to one vertical or as recommended by
COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE, whichever is flatter. Additionally, any existing
adjacent structures and footings shall be located outside of a 2H: 1V projection from
the base of the excavation cuts. CONTRACTOR shall assume full responsibility for
maintaining the stability of shoring systems or cut slopes.
CONTRACTOR shall assume full responsibility for safety of the personnel and for
maintaining all the excavated faces and cuts in a safe and stable condition and in

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compliance with the requirements of Geotechnical investigations report, as well as the


national laws and regulations until final acceptance of the work.
CONTRACTOR shall notify COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE of any obstructions
encountered and shall provide support, protection, or removal of such obstructions as
directed by COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE.
CONTRACTOR shall not leave excavated materials even temporarily, where they will
interfere with other construction works.
CONTRACTOR shall route the earth moving equipment so that minimum damage is
caused to the natural subsoil structure of exposed formations.
The excavated suitable material shall be stockpiled in an orderly manner at locations
approved by COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE and a distance from the banks of the
excavation sufficient to avoid overloading the banks. Stockpiles containing suitable
materials shall be protected from contamination with unsuitable material or other
material that may adversely affect the quality of the material and render it unfit for use.
The stockpiles shall be arranged so as not to obstruct drainage or other construction
operations in the vicinity of excavation.
All excavated materials that are unsuitable for use as fill or backfill, or are surplus to
that needed for backfilling, shall be disposed of in a safe and proper manner off the
project site.
Provisions for dewatering shall be governed by the relevant clause referred in this
specification.

5.6

Earthwork in Filling
Before filling commences, the site shall be cleared as per above said clauses, the
surface of the existing natural soils shall be scarified to a depth of 150mm, moisture
conditioned to 2% of the optimum and compacted to a density of not less than 92% of
the maximum dry density as per ASTM D 1557.
Superficial unsuitable materials shall be removed from the area to be graded to receive
fill. All materials removed shall be disposed of as unsuitable unless tested and
classified as suitable in which case they may be reused directly or stockpiled for reuse.
The over-excavated areas shall be backfilled with suitable material and compacted as
described herein.
Where significant depths of loose material extend below ground water level, the
method of treatment of such material shall be agreed with COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE.
All fill material shall be either suitable excavated material or a suitable imported
material according to material definition specified in this specification. All fill area
shown on the drawing shall be compacted as described herein.
The fill material shall be conditioned with water to within 2% of the optimum moisture
content (due allowance shall be made for evaporation), and placed in maximum

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300mm loose lifts. Areas as designated on the earthwork drawing shall then be
compacted as follow:
Process Plant areas and major structures /building areas shall be compacted
using type A fill material to a density of not less than 95% of maximum dry
density as per ASTM D 1557. Testing shall be carried out as described in this
specification under the clause of Inspection and Testing.
Fill material shall be placed in layers, moisture conditioned, spread to the
appropriate loose layer thickness and compacted to the specified density using
suitable mechanical equipment. If necessary, Type B material shall be broken
down by the passage of tracked equipment and remixed by a grader before
moisture conditioning so as to produce an adequately homogeneous material.
CONTRACTOR shall compact the surface of fill slopes until the slopes are
stable, and there is no loose soil on the slopes. CONTRACTOR shall compact
the slopes by an over-building and cutting method approved by COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE.
The ground water obtainable in the site vicinity may not be used for moisture
conditioning of soils for compaction.
After completion of cut and fill operation, all areas in both cut and fill shall be proof
rolled with at least four passes of a 10 metric ton vibratory roller.
T ank Bun ds

Sloping ground shall be shelved to give a good key. The over-burden shall be removed
down to approved formation level, to affect a good key. The grade below the bund shall
be scarified to a depth of 150mm; moisture conditioned to 2% of optimum and
compacted to a density of not less than 95% of the maximum dry density, as per ASTM
D 1557.
Fill in tank bunds shall be deposited in layers not exceeding 250mm loose depth,
moisture conditioned to 2% of optimum and compacted to a density of not less than
95% of maximum dry density, as per ASTM D 1557.
Bunds shall be constructed oversize (minimum 0.5m) and trimmed to the profiles
shown on the drawing following compaction.
The formation of bunds by end tipping shall not be permitted.
Tank bunds shall be constructed with Type B material.
In view of the effects of settlements and the possibility of leakages / seepage,
penetration of the earthen bund wall and that of the subsoil under the bund wall shall
be avoided, e.g. by pipes, cables, etc. Should penetration of the bund wall or the sub
soil under the bund wall be unavoidable the crossing shall be suitably sealed and free
to expand and contract. Filter cloth shall be placed round rigid elements where a
danger of wash-out of bund wall materials exists. For multi penetration of earthen bund
walls by pipes, consideration shall be given to the use of structural elements in forming
an integral part of the bund wall.
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SPECIFICATION FOR
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Roa d E mba nk m ent s

Fill shall be placed in 200mm thick layers, moisture conditioned to 2% of optimum,


and compacted to a density of not less than 95% of maximum dry density, In addition
the top level shall be compacted to achieve a minimum sub grade CBR value of 14.
Road embankment core shall be constructed with Type A material.
For embankment slopes within 2.0m of formation level, the side slopes (1.5 horizontally
: 1 vertically) shall be shaped and overlaid by 150mm of compacted Type B material.
Embankment shall be constructed oversize (minimum 0.5m) and trimmed to the
profiles shown on drawings following compaction.
The formation of Embankment by end tripping shall not be permitted.
Where pipe culverts are shown under new embankments, the embankment shall first
be constructed to the required height as shown on the project drawing extending at
least five culvert diameters each side of the culvert. Work shall be performed in
accordance with specification and drawings.
Embankment finish slope material shall be protected against erosion, (gatch, gravel,
concrete layer as indicated on drawing).
Ground Improvement
In order to stabilise subgrade for successful compaction of overlying fill, the following
ground improvement methods may be used. Treatment shall provide preconditions for
the required bearing capacity, shall restrict total and differential settlements to
acceptable magnitudes under the considered future loading.
a)

Vibro Stone Columns

The ground treatment shall be carried out by penetrating the ground with a large poker
vibrator and forming continuous dense columns of stone from the maximum depth of
penetration to up to the working platform grade. The stone columns diameter,
distribution spacing and plant employed shall be suitable to achieve the depth of
treatment to meet the particular design criteria in the prevailing ground and
groundwater conditions.
Material used to form the stone columns shall be hard and chemically inert so to
remain stable during column construction and working life in the anticipated
groundwater conditions. Material grading shall be appropriate for compaction to form a
dense column fully interlocked with the surrounding ground. The working platform,
made of granular material suitable for the existing ground conditions, shall be
designed, prepared and maintained for the safe working of the vibro plant.
Stone columns shall be constructed as near vertical as possible. The poker shall not
deviate by more than 1 (horizontal) in 20 (vertical) during column formation.
Suitable tests shall be carried out to ensure consistency in workmanship. Column plate
load tests shall be carried out using a nominal 600mm diameter plate placed
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SPECIFICATION FOR
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concentrically on individual columns, loaded in increments with settlements of the plate


measured against a stable reference beam.
Details of the treatment design, method of installation, plant type and testing regime
shall be developed by CONTRACTOR covering a particular site zone selected for this
treatment. The design shall demonstrate by calculation that the spacing and layout of
stone columns meet the end product criteria for fill.
b) Pre-compression and Vertical Drainage
Pre-compression is achieved by pre-loading, which requires placement and removal of
earth before filling, causing stress intensity similar or greater in weight than the
intensity from the final loading. Vertical drains may be used in combination with precompression surcharge to allow consolidation settlements of underlying clay/silt to take
place more rapidly.
Vertical drainage involves the use of prefabricated drains. Prefabricated band drains
consist of a core and a geotextile filter. The width of the core of band drains is typically
100mm and the thickness is between 2mm and 10mm.
Strength of band drains shall be high enough to prevent breakage during and after
installation. The discharge capacity and the filtration properties shall be fit for the
purpose. Drains shall comply with the verticality of the leader not be less than 1
(horizontal) in 50 (vertical) and installed to the depth specified in design. Hard layers
shall be penetrated by pre-drilling. The drainage blanket of a minimum thickness of
0.5m shall be required and may serve as the working platform.
Details of the pre-compression and vertical drainage design, method of work and
testing shall be developed by CONTRACTOR covering a particular site zone selected
for this treatment. The design shall demonstrate by calculation that the pre-loading
regime and drain spacing meet the end product criteria for fill.
c) Geogrid Reinforcement
Where proved rolled and compacted subgrade shows instability, even after soft spots
and made ground were removed below the formation, a base geotextile shall be
utilised, followed by an additional layers of geogrid reinforcement, if found necessary.
Geotextiles and geotextile-related products provide interlayer system bonded in
between two courses of soil. Manufactures certify the specific product data based on
the results of testing in accordance with applicable standards. The most important
characteristics, among others, include tensile strength, elongation at maximum load
and resistance to weathering.
CONTRACTOR shall develop requirements for application of these products in order to
fit the purpose.

5.7

Compaction Requirement
Unless otherwise specified, all fill materials shall be compacted at a moisture content of
2 percent of the optimum moisture content and to at least 95 percent of the maximum
dry density. The earthworks are related to basic foundations criteria which include:

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SPECIFICATION FOR
EARTHWORKS

Bearing capacity of 150 kN/m2 for a spread footing 3m square not exceeding
settlement of 25mm;
Roads /pavement settlement not exceeding distortion gradient of 1:300 when
exposed to heavy traffic load in operation.
The potential soft subgrade which contains significant content of silt /clays shall be
avoided at the fill interface. The subformation shall be cleaned /scraped to a level of
not less than 4.0m below finished grade. All present imported spoil material shall be
removed. The subgrade shall be proved rolled and compacted. Any soft spots or made
ground are to be further removed and backfilled in accordance with this specification,
but not deeper than the groundwater head.
Backfill / Fill shall be placed in layers and compacted to 92% of the maximum dry
density for the first metre and the rest to the final level at not less than 95% of the
maximum dry density. In a case of further signs of subgrade instability a base
geotextile should be utilised, followed by an additional 1-2 layers of geogrid
reinforcement, if necessary.
Fill materials for non structural areas which are not planned to support any foundations,
slabs, pavements, tank farm bunds (dikes) or roads, and landscaped areas shall be
compacted at a moisture content of 3 percent of the optimum moisture content and to
at least 92 percent of the maximum dry density.
The maximum dry density and optimum moisture content for all materials shall be
determined in accordance with ASTM D 1557 (Modified Proctor). Corrections to adjust
the laboratory maximum dry density and optimum moisture content for soils with
oversize particles shall be made in accordance with recommendations contained in
ASTM D 4718.
CONTRACTOR shall undertake compaction trials for each typical filling material and
compaction method proposed. The trial shall be used to demonstrate to COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE the suitability of the proposed technique. These trials and
associated testing CONTRACTOR shall use to determine the applicable filling layer
thickness and method of compaction on the case by case basis.

5.8

Grading Tolerance
The grade shall be properly shaped to the required elevations and parallel to the
required surface.
The elevation of any point and the line of any edge or centre of the earthworks shall
conform to that shown on the drawings within the tolerances stated below:
Tolerances from True Level
Basic Grading
Embankments & Bunds

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+0 / -25 mm
+75 mm / -0

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Tolerances from True


Line
+75 mm / -75 mm
+75 mm / -75 mm

DSN:369
Class 1

SPECIFICATION FOR
EARTHWORKS

The finished surface road sub grade shall not vary more than 12.5 mm when tested
with a 3 meter straightedge applied parallel with, and at right angles to, the centreline.
CONTRACTOR shall completely cut out and rework uneven areas as directed by
COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE.
Final elevations for drainage ditches and culverts shall be within 5mm of the elevations
given on the project drawings.

5.9

Dust Control
The amount of dust resulting from site preparation work shall be controlled to prevent
the spread of dust to the facilities in the plant site and to avoid creation of a nuisance in
the surrounding areas. CONTRACTOR shall control dust by cleaning, sweeping and
sprinkling with water or other means as frequently as may be necessary. Excessive
use of water resulting in hazardous or objectionable conditions shall be avoided.

5.10

Clean Up
Upon completion of work, CONTRACTOR shall leave the project site clear of debris
and surplus material resulting from the construction operations. CONTRACTOR shall
dispose of all debris and surplus materials off the project site in a manner meeting all
local authority requirements.

6.

INSPECTION AND TESTING


When tests indicate that the density or moisture content of any layer of fill or portion
thereof does not meet the specified density or moisture content, CONTRACTOR shall
rework the particular layer or portions until the material meets the density and moisture
content.
CONTRACTOR is responsible for providing the appropriate laboratory test results
performed on all fill, sand and erosion control and gravel surfacing materials from
outside sources, and to substantiate their properties and their conformance with the
specification requirements. All testing shall be performed and certified by a registered
independent Materials Testing Laboratory. COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE reserves
the right to separately arrange testing of any of the sourced materials.
Any testing needed to verify the suitability of the onsite soils for fill material will be
provided by licensed and COMPANY approved Materials Testing Laboratory.
CONTRACTOR shall co-operate fully with COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE and
Materials Testing Laboratory in the performance of all the required or requested onsite
moisture and density tests (Compaction Testing) and inspections. Testing will be in
accordance with this Specification.
Tests shall be carried out on each source of material to be used as fill whether from
excavations, site stockpiles or borrow pits, to establish the following properties as
applicable, see material definition, for acceptable limits of suitable materials.

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Natural Water Content in accordance with ASTM D 2216;


Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content in accordance with
ASTM D 1557;
Particle size distribution, including hydrometer analysis where fraction passing
75 micron sieve exceeds 20% in accordance with ASTM D 422;
Liquid Limit in accordance with ASTM D 4318;
Plasticity Index in accordance with ASTM D 4318;
Angle of Internal Friction (Structural Fill type A material only) in accordance with
ASTM D 3080 or ASTM D 4767;
Maximum salt and Organic matter content in accordance with ASTM C 40;
Chloride Ion in accordance with BS 1377, Part 3, C1.7.2;
Sulphate (S03) in accordance with BS 1377, Part 3, C1.5.3.
These tests shall be repeated if the source of material changes or the material itself
changes. A sufficient number of tests shall be performed to establish representative
average and range of properties (approximately one set of tests per 5,000 cu.m., but
number may vary depending on the quantity of the material and the consistency of
results).
The testing methods and frequencies specified herein are to be used as a guideline for
the Contract quality control system.
In-Situ density measurements will be carried out by the sand cone method (ASTM D
1556). The nuclear methods (ASTM D 2922) will be acceptable only after verification
by parallel testing performed by the sand cone methods, to the satisfaction of
COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE.
Initially, one ASTM D 1557 laboratory compaction test will be performed for every field
density test. Frequency of laboratory compaction tests will be reduced only when
uniformity of results has been established to the satisfaction of COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE. If changes in the source of materials occur or changes in the
characteristic of the material occur, additional ASTM D 1557 laboratory density test will
be performed.
M ass Fi ll

For Mass fill, one set of 3 compaction tests will be performed on every 1000 sq.m. of
each layer of compacted fill.
A higher frequency of testing (at least twice the above) will be performed until
adequacy of compaction has been established to the satisfaction of COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE.

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Bund s

Compaction tests for bunds will not be less than one set of 3 per 100 meter length of
bund or 200 cu.m. of soil.
T ank F oun dat ion s

Compaction tests for tank foundations will not be less than one set of 3 for every 500
sq.m. of each compacted layer.
Roa d E mba nk m ent s

One set of 3 Compaction tests will be performed per 2000 sq.m. of each layer of
compacted fill below roads and for the embankment slope portion one set of 3
compaction tests will be performed per 1000 sq.m. of each layer of compacted fill.
All laboratory and in situ test results shall be collated and further processed in a format
suitable for as built records. These shall be submitted to COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE regularly during construction and together with as built earthworks
drawing mark ups, shall be included in the end of contract technical report for
COMPANY to retain during design life operations.

7.

SAFETY
Daily inspection of excavation shall be made by a competent inspector appointed by
CONTRACTOR. If evidence of possible cave-ins or slides is apparent, all work in the
excavation shall cease until the necessary precautions have been taken to safeguard
the employees and the surrounding area.
Excavations shall be inspected by CONTRACTORS inspector after every rainstorm or
other hazard-increasing occurrence, and the protection against slides and cave-ins
shall be increased if necessary.
Formwork and shoring shall be designed, erected, supported, braced, and maintained
so that it will safely support all vertical and lateral loads that may be imposed upon it
during placement of concrete.
When mobile equipment is utilized or allowed adjacent to excavations, substantial stop
logs or barricades in signal colors shall be installed at least 3000 mm (or 1.5 times
the depth of excavation whichever is greater) from the edge of excavation.
Banks more than 1200 mm high shall be shored or laid back to a stable slope, or some
other equivalent means of protection shall be provided where employees may be
exposed to moving ground or cave-ins. Trenches less than 1200 mm in depth shall
also be effectively protected when examination of the ground indicates hazardous
ground movement may be expected.
When employees are required to be in trenches 1200 mm deep or more, a minimum of
two adequate means of exit, such as a ladder or steps, shall be provided and located
so as to require no more than 8 meters of lateral travel.

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CONTRACTOR shall submit method statements for all temporary works addressing
safety and environmental issues for COMPANY REPRESENTATIVEs approval.

8.

PROTECTION OF PROPERTY AND PERSONNEL


CONTRACTOR shall protect all active utility lines shown on the drawing or
encountered during the excavation. If he damages those lines, CONTRACTOR shall
repair or replace them. If existing utilities interfere with his work, CONTRACTOR shall
notify COMPANY REPRESENTATIVE and secure written instructions for further
action.
CONTRACTOR shall barricade open holes and depressions which he creates or
exposes as part of this work, and shall post warning signs and lights on property
adjacent to or with public access. He shall operate warning lights during hours from
dusk to dawn each day and as otherwise required for safety.
CONTRACTOR shall protect structures, utilities, pavements and other facilities from
damage caused by settlement, lateral movement, washout and other hazards created
by his operations.
Existing Bench Marks shall be protected during excavations. If an excavation requires
a Bench Mark relocated, CONTRACTOR shall construct a new identical Bench Mark at
his expense in its proximity away from excavations with COMPANY
REPRESENTATIVE approval and show its location on as-built drawings.
CONTRACTOR shall plan and execute all aspects of the site preparation work so that
the safety of personnel, the work and adjacent property is guaranteed and such that a
minimum of inconvenience is caused.

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