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Measurement of Reflection and Radiation Characteristics of Antenna

of Reflection and Radiation Characteristics of Antenna Kushmanda Saurav and Debdeep Sarkar Department of Electrical

Kushmanda Saurav and Debdeep Sarkar

Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kanpur

What is an Antenna?

A means for radiating or receiving radio waves (IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas)

1. Antenna acts as a transitional structure between

1. Antenna acts as a transitional structure between free-space and a guiding device

2. Antenna optimizes or accentuate the

radiation energy in some directions and suppress it in others. Thus the antenna must also serve as a directional device in addition to a probing device.

Single Antenna Configurations

Single Antenna Configurations Dipole Antenna Pyramidal Horn Antenna Loop Antenna Microstrip Patch Antenna

Dipole Antenna

Single Antenna Configurations Dipole Antenna Pyramidal Horn Antenna Loop Antenna Microstrip Patch Antenna

Pyramidal Horn Antenna

Single Antenna Configurations Dipole Antenna Pyramidal Horn Antenna Loop Antenna Microstrip Patch Antenna

Loop Antenna

Single Antenna Configurations Dipole Antenna Pyramidal Horn Antenna Loop Antenna Microstrip Patch Antenna

Microstrip Patch Antenna

Antenna Array Configurations

Antenna Array Configurations Yagi Uda Array Array of Microstrip Patch Antenna Slotted Waveguide Array

Yagi Uda Array

Antenna Array Configurations Yagi Uda Array Array of Microstrip Patch Antenna Slotted Waveguide Array

Array of Microstrip Patch Antenna

Slotted Waveguide Array
Slotted Waveguide Array

Main Performance Metrics of any Antenna

Return Loss Input Reflection Coefficient (S 11 )

Radiation Pattern

Directivity / Gain

Radiation Efficiency

Polarization characteristics: Linear / Circular

S 11 measurement using Vector Network Analyzer

Approximate reflection characteristics of antenna in the entire operating range of VNA

Preset the VNA

Connect the antenna under test to the port 1 of VNA

Measure the S 11

Once the desired operating frequency range is known

Perform the one port calibration of the VNA in the desired frequency range

Connect the antenna under test to the port 1 of VNA

Measure the S 11

Radiation Pattern of Antenna

Defined as mathematical function or a graphical representation of the radiation properties of the antenna as a function of space coordinates.

Radiation Properties include Power density, Radiation intensity, Field strength, Directivity.

Radiation

pattern

is

generally

determined

in

far-field

of

antenna

Challenge: Automatic Measurement of Radiation Pattern.

Automatic Radiation Pattern measurement setup

PC loaded with LabVIEW 2010.

Antenna under test (AUT) and reference antenna.

Vector Network Analyzer (HP 8712ET).

Position Controller (HOLMARC ver 2.0)

Turn table

Radiation pattern measurement set-up (transmitting

and probe antenna, cables, connectors etc.)

Linearly Polarized Printed Dipole Antenna

acting as AUT

Balun Dipole
Balun
Dipole

Theoretical Radiation Pattern of the AUT

Theoretical Radiation Pattern of the AUT
Theoretical Radiation Pattern of the AUT

Radiation pattern measurement setup in anechoic chamber

Radiation pattern measurement setup in anechoic chamber

Position Controller

Position Controller

Antenna stand mounted on the turn table

Antenna stand mounted on the turn table

Control through RS232

Control through GPIB

Radio Frequency Vector Network Analyzer Position controller
Radio Frequency
Vector Network Analyzer
Position controller
Control through RS232 Control through GPIB Radio Frequency Vector Network Analyzer Position controller
Control through RS232 Control through GPIB Radio Frequency Vector Network Analyzer Position controller

Acknowledgement

Acknowledgement S. Vinoth Naidu PhD Student EE Department, IIT Kanpur

S. Vinoth Naidu PhD Student EE Department, IIT Kanpur

Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller
Position controller

Friis transmission equation

P r

P

t

 

4

R

2

G

ot

G

or

R P t P r G ot G or
R
P t
P r
G ot
G or

P t = Input power of transmitting antenna P r = Power delivered to the receiving antenna R = Distance between transmitting and receiving antenna G ot = Gain of transmitting antenna G or = Gain of receiving antenna

4

R

2

= Free space loss factor

λ corresponds to the operating wavelength

S

21

P

r

P

t

If we make use of VNA for antenna radiation characteristics measurement

R

2D

2

(Far-field region of antenna)

Gain measurement

Absolute method: A pair of identical test antennas are required

Identical test antennas are used as transmitters and receivers

2 P r       G G ot or P 
2
P r
 
 
G
G
ot
or
P
4
 R
t
Thus,
 G
G ot
or
And
r
G
  P 
/
ot
 P
4
R
t
/   ot   P   4  R  t P G

P

G

t

ot

R

P

G

r

or

Relative method: Standard gain antenna with known value of gain in the desired frequency range is required

G ot

P  

P

 

r

t

/

4

R

2

G

or

6 April, 2015 Metamaterial Antenna: Demo

6 April, 2015

Metamaterial Antenna: Demo