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Topic: The impact of rebranding on brand equity, customer perception


and retention in telecommunication industry: case study the rebranding of
Nedjma Algerian operator to the group Ooredoo

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Abstract
Corporate rebranding is a strategic activity undertaken by corporations as
they try to revitalise their firm and reassert their market position. As
corporate rebranding is conceived as a viable strategic option for
brand/corporate revitalisation, it is also worrying that CEOs and senior
management assume that changing the companys identity will
automatically translate to enhance company image. From this perspective,
the study explores the impact of corporate rebranding to brand equity
through a look into the Nedjma, a telecommunication service provider in
Algeria, which has been rebranded recently as Ooredoo. Focusing on the
corporate rebranding of Nedjma to Ooredoo, the primary research problems
of this study are the following: What is the impact of corporate rebranding to
brand equity? How does corporate rebranding impact brand equity? And how
does corporate rebranding influence customer perception and retention?
In addition, to further clarify the two questions, the following sub-questions
will also be addressed: What is corporate rebranding? What is the connexion
between customer perception and retention and corporate rebranding?
The research methodology adopted in the course of research is case study
research. For the data collection, both the quantitative and qualitative
methods were utilised. Together with archival search, survey questionnaires
were distributed to gather the necessary quantitative data. While interviews
were conducted for the collection of the qualitative data. For the analysis of
the collected data, coding and analysis of the questionnaire were made and
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thematic analysis was applied in the qualitative data. Some of the findings of
the study are: 1.The definition of corporate rebranding must include the
notion of risk and uncertainty as part of its inherent connotation. 2. The
concept of brand equity continuum provides the connexion among corporate
rebrand, brand equity and customer perception.

Contents
Abstract....................................................................................... 2
Chapter 1: Introduction.................................................................6
1.1 Purpose of the study............................................................................................. 6
1.2 Context of the study............................................................................................. 6
1.3 Problem statement............................................................................................... 7
1.3.1 Main problem................................................................................................. 7
1.3.2 Sub-problems................................................................................................. 8
1.4 Significance of the study...................................................................................... 8
1.5 Limitation of the study......................................................................................... 8

Chapter 2: Literature Review.......................................................10


2.1 Introduction........................................................................................................ 10
2.2 Branding............................................................................................................. 10
2.2.1 Definition of a brand.................................................................................... 10
2.2.2 Definition of branding.................................................................................. 11
2.2.3 Objective of branding................................................................................... 11
2.2.4 Brand equity................................................................................................ 12
2.2.5 Component of brand equity.........................................................................13
2.3 Rebranding......................................................................................................... 15
2.3.1 Definition and the meaning of rebranding...................................................15
2.3.2 The role of rebranding................................................................................. 16
2.3.3 Rebranding frameworks............................................................................... 17
2.3.4 Drivers of corporate rebranding...................................................................17
2.3.5 Dimension of corporate rebranding.............................................................19
2.3.6 Types of corporate rebranding.....................................................................20
2.4 Service rebranding............................................................................................. 22
2.4.1 The concept of service rebranding...............................................................22
2.4.2 Rebranding in telecommunication...............................................................22
2.4.3 Customers and corporate rebranding in telecommunication.......................23
2.5 Telecommunication industry in Algeria...............................................................25
2.6 The rebranding of the corporation Nejma to Ooredoo........................................26
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2.7 Summary of the review...................................................................................... 27

Chapter 3 Research Methodology.................................................29


3.1 The choice of methodology and case companies...............................................29
3.2 Method of research............................................................................................. 29
3.2.1Qualitative Method........................................................................................ 29
3.2.2Quantitative Method..................................................................................... 30
3. 3 Types of Research.............................................................................................. 31
3.3.1 Descriptive Research................................................................................... 31
3.3.2Exploratory Research.................................................................................... 32
3.3.3 Explanatory Research.................................................................................. 32
3.4. Population and sampling of research.................................................................33
3.4.1 Population.................................................................................................... 33
3.4.2 Sampling...................................................................................................... 34
3.5. Data collection.................................................................................................. 34
3.5.1 Interviews.................................................................................................... 34
3.5.2 Survey questionnaire................................................................................... 35
3.6 reliability and validity......................................................................................... 36

CHAPTER 4: Analysis...................................................................37
4.1 Findings and analysis......................................................................................... 37
4.1.1 Impact of rebranding on brand equity.........................................................37
4.1.2 Impact of rebranding on customer perception.............................................40
4.1.3 Impact of rebranding on customer retention...............................................44
4.2 Theoretical implication: the case Nedjma to Ooredoo........................................48
4.2.1 The Impact of corporate rebranding on brand equity..................................48
4.2.2Attachment with the Brand and Role of Corporate rebranding.....................49
4.2.3 Major factors affecting customer perception and retention:......................49
4.3 Rebranding descriptive framework.....................................................................53

Chapter 5 Conclusion..................................................................54
5.1 Suggestions for the Future Research and managerial implications....................54
5.2 Limitation of the study....................................................................................... 55

References.................................................................................56
Web Sources............................................................................................................. 60

Appendices................................................................................61
Questionnaire........................................................................................................... 61
Interview Questions.................................................................................................. 64
Survey Responses.................................................................................................... 65

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List of Figures
Figure 1: The Drivers of Corporate Rebranding.............................................19
Figure 2: Rebranding as a continuum............................................................20
Figure 3: Impact of rebranding in creating disillusion in customers..............37
Figure 4: Impact of rebranding on customer identity of company.................38
Figure 5: Impact of rebranding on customer understanding and confidence in
company........................................................................................................39
Figure 6: Acceptability of rebranding if service quality is maintained...........41
Figure 7: Impact of rebranding in creating negative customer view.............41
Figure 8: Extent of customer happiness with the rebranding........................42
Figure 9: Impact of new brand in improving customer perception................43
Figure 10: Customer satisfaction after the rebranding..................................45
Figure 11: Impact of rebranding on improvement of service.........................46
Figure 12: Readiness of customers to remain with the new brand................47

List of Table
Table 1: Reasons behind corporate rebranding........................................................21

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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Purpose of the study
The primary aim of the research is to clarify and understand the
intricate connexion between corporate rebranding and brand equity by
determining the implication of the rebranding of Nedjma to Ooredoo to its
consumers. With this, the research intends to explain the concept of
corporate rebranding. Since, there is still confusion in its definition and
conceptualisation (Goi and Goi, 2011). It will also explore the association
between corporate rebranding and consumer perception and retention. This
is to give emphasis to the supposition that corporate rebranding opens room
for the transformation of consumer perception and retention. Finally, the
study will identify possible reframing of the connotations attached to
rebranding, brand equity and consumer perception.

1.2 Context of the study


This study is anchored on the implicit connexion between corporate
rebranding and brand equity. It assumes that corporate rebranding impacts
brand equity. However, it argues that the manner in which corporate

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branding affects brand equity is not mere dichotomy between good or bad.
The complexity of its relation is manifested both in the process and on the
outcome in which the relation between the two is sustained. In order to gain
a better understanding this study seeks to explore the impact of corporate
rebranding to brand equity by looking at Nedjma, a telecommunication
service provider in Algeria that has been rebranded as Ooredoo.
The telecommunication sector is considered as one of the most robust
sector all over the world. Following the changes brought about by
globalisation, liberalisation and privatisation and technological development,
telecommunications sector is integrated globally through wire and wireless
connectivity making exchanges of data, voice and video possible networks
and customer devices (Olmsted and Jasmison, 2001). With this
transformation in the global telecommunication sector, the sector has
witnessed the convergence of various sectors in the society. Through
strategic alliances, mergers, convergence between multinational companies
and local service provider robust response to the changing demands of the
market and increasing needs and sophistication of customers have become
the dominant challenge in the global telecommunications sector (Oh, 1996).
Algerias telecommunications sector attests to these strategic alliances.
On the other hand, Ooredoo sees the rebranding as a proud moment
for the whole Ooredoo family, as another operation takes on the mantle of
our new brand We believe the transformation into Ooredoo and our launch

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of 3G in Algeria will serve to enhance our performance there and enable us


to further enrich lives across the country (Nedjma rebrands as Ooredoo,
2013). However, in the midst of all these messages and communications,
customers perception and view of the rebranding Nedjma-Ooredoo and
brand equity are minimally discussed.

1.3 Problem statement


1.3.1 Main problem

The research problem was to analyse the impact of rebranding on brand


equity in Algerian telecommunication industry and the drivers influencing the
customers perception and retention. The rebranding that was done by the
corporation is the change of the brand name. The company switched from
Nedjma to Ooredoo, one of the greatest telecommunication operators in
Algeria.

1.3.2 Sub-problems

The first problem was to explore the impact of corporate rebranding and
brand equity.
The second problem was to understand the impact of rebranding on
customers perception and retention

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1.4 Significance of the study


The subject of this research is significant because despite the
importance of corporate rebranding as a strategic issue and option for
corporations, there are limited literatures expounding the topic of rebranding
and brand equity (Pauwels, Raluca and Descotes, 2012). Hence, this study
fills in the research gap that is observed currently in the field. Furthermore,
as this study will understand corporate rebranding from the perspective of
consumers, it can add to existing knowledge about the issue since, few
similar studies have been undertaken (Pauwels et al., 2012). Decision
makers may use the knowledge as they try to look into the viability of
rebranding within their own respective firms. Lastly, this study is significant
because a more holistic perspective of the issue is achieved by clarifying the
connexion between corporate rebranding and brand equity through
examination of its conceptual framework by way of its empirical context.

1.5 Limitation of the study


Considering the wide discourse on the topic of corporate brand, this
research will solely focus on the notion of corporate rebranding in the
telecommunications sector of Algeria. It will particularly look into the
rebranding of Nedjma to Ooredoo last 2013. This is a limitation that needs to
be stated because corporate rebranding is happening in many corporations
across the globe (Muzellac and Lambkin, 2006). While, this study will focus
only on one particular rebranding, which occurred very recently, the Nedjma-

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Ooredoo rebranding. Likewise, the study will touch on brand equity towards
corporate rebranding. It will not provide a thorough discussion of brand
equity. This is being stated as a limitation because brand equity is a
fundamental concept, which has been numerously and deeply discussed by
experts in the field.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review


2.1 Introduction
Change and transformation are considered as viable options for
company survival. However, some company transformations are rabblerousing that it changes the company at its heart company brand and its
rebranding (Schultz, 2001). It is in line with such global competitive demands
that the need to rebrand Nedjma to Ooredoo within the Algerian
telecommunication market became necessary. The literature review chapter
of the research is dedicated to collecting secondary data that focuses on the
purpose of the study and the researchs aim as has been outlined in the first
chapter of the study. This means that the research looks to create a
theoretical framework based on which primary data will be collected.

2.2 Branding
2.2.1 Definition of a brand

Kotler and Keller (2008, 94) explained that a brand is a name, term,
symbol, design, or a combination of them intended to identify goods or
services of one seller or groups of sellers and to differentiate them from
competitors. Based on this definition, there has been a school of thought
which has counter argued that a brand is not only about the physical and
tangible aspects of a corporation or a company (Thomson, MacInnis & Park,
2005). According to this second school of thought, corporate brand signifies
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not only the product but also all the elements of the organisation combinedthe product, the management, the employees, the stakeholders, the
corporate culture, the corporate values, corporate identity, corporate
communication and its customers (Kuusela, 2013; Schultz, 2011). The latter
basis of definition is largely accepted and used in the context of the study, as
a brand is perceived to embody both the tangible and intangible aspects of a
companys existence. Einwiller and Will (2002) drummed home the fact that
corporate brand becomes an intangible asset communicating to both the
internal and external stakeholders of the corporation of what the firm is
about, its core values and its ethos.

2.2.2 Definition of branding

Branding on the other hand has been explained to be the process of


creating a brand (Goi & Goi, 2011). As a process, branding will be noted to be
a concept that happens as a connection between several individual events
that takes place within an identified institution or firm (Thomson, MacInnis &
Park, 2005). More specifically, Kay (2006) argues that corporate branding is a
communication of identity. This means that branding embodies all the
processes that the company engages in as a way of communicating what it
represents to its audience who are the internal and external stakeholders of
the company. Even though there are several actions that can be taken by the
company as part of its branding process, Dunnion and Knox (2004) saw two
broad strands of corporate branding. The first strand pertains to the internal
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values, culture and vision of the organisation (Urde, 2003). The second
strand alludes to the external environment and market of the company
(Aaker, 2004). The two stands are stated to be well meshed into the
realisation of branding when the combination is perceived as the systematic
communication of vision, identity, promise, position, image or covenant
between the company and its stakeholders (Dunnion and Knox, 2004).

2.2.3 Objective of branding


Throughout literature, there are several factors presented as
constituting the objectives of branding. The first line of literature identifies
the need to build customer awareness as the most important objective of
branding (Stuart & Muzellec, 2004). By this, it is explained that branding
brings the company closer to its customers and makes the customers aware
of what is happening within the company and outside of it (Goi & Goi, 2011).
In the second line of argument, the objective of promoting the brand that the
company presents has been noted to be the reason behind branding
(Thomson, MacInnis & Park, 2005). Here, the concept of brand is better
differentiated from branding whereby branding is seen as the means by
which the brand of company is publicised. In a third argument put forth by
Dunnion and Knox (2004), branding was noted to be necessary for the
objective of adding value to the company. From this perspective, branding is
considered as a major strategy that companies use to gain competitive
advantage by branding the company in such a way that gives the company
an edge over what other competitors present (Hatch and Schultz, 2003).
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2.2.4 Brand equity


According to Aaker (1992), Brand equity is a set of brand assets and
liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol, which add to or subtract
from value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or to that firms
customers. Brand equity has been noted to be a very important marketing
concept that describes the ability of a company to generate customers
patronage merely based on the popularity of its brand (Goi & Goi, 2011).
From this context, it would be noted that for a company to claim having
brand equity, there should a basis for which customers will choose the
companys brand over others based on the familiarity of the brand with the
customers. The popularity of a brand among customers is an important
determinant of brand equity, Hatch and Schultz (2003) stressed that
branding is very important for the creation of brand equity. This is because; it
is through branding that customers within the market start to be more
familiar with the brand and loyal to the company. Having said this, it can be
appreciated that a company might have spent a very long time competing
within a market but the absence of branding will result in low brand equity
(Dunnion & Knox, 2004).

2.2.5 Component of brand equity


Brand awareness
Writing on brand awareness, Dacin and Brown (2006) explained that
brand awareness comprises a combined utilisation of brand recognition and
brand recall. This explains that in the presence of numerous similar products
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in the market, brand awareness stands for a successful marketing strategy


adopted by the company. There are a number of ways in which brand
awareness adds to the competitive value of the product (Macdonald and
Sharp, 2003). First, brand awareness puts the brand in the mind of the
customer (Macdonald and Sharp, 2003). Secondly, brand awareness can
prevent the entry of new competition in the market (Stokes 1985).
Furthermore, it can serve as a reassurance to the customer of the products
quality (Aaker, 1991). Again, Aaker (1991) debated that brand awareness
can provide leverage to product distribution. Because of the relationship
between brand awareness and the creation of competitive value, Homburg
et al (2010) claimed that brand awareness acts as a strong signal to the firm
pertinent to its market performance. They have found in their study that
brand awareness is translated into return sales.
Perceived quality
Perceived quality has been found to be another component of brand
equity, which helps in ensuring that based on the leverage of a brands
quality, the brand becomes easily identifiable with customers (Dacin and
Brown, 2006). Stuart and Muzellec (2004) explained perceived quality to be a
customer based assertion that can be influenced by the qualitative and
quantitative measure that customers can make about the extent of value
they gain by doing business with a given company. Based on this, Lin and
Min (2013) also explained that perceived quality of the product pertains to

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the connexion between brand popularity, sales volume and price (Lin and
Min, 2013). In their study, they have found that perceived quality directly
contributes to increase sales volume even if the price of the product may
seem to be high. In fact, they have noted that high price is often seen as a
support for the quality of the product, hence, its popularity. Hatch and
Schultz (2003) on the other hand argued that perceived quality of product
posits a risk in view of the possibility that the product/service may not be
able to live up or meet the expected perceived quality. Nonetheless,
perceived quality of product is a result of several elements that are aligned
strategically, thus, creating the perception of quality.
Brand association
Brand association is a mental process that is transpiring in the
customers memory of the brand (John et al., 2006). Hence, it is essential to
note that brand association is connected with several factors that will
establish the connexions between the mind of the consumer and the product
(Mentz et al., 2013). Product quality is primordial in developing brand
association (Mentz, 2011). A product considered as the market leader has an
edge over other similar commodities in the market. Aside from quality, it is
essential that the product understands customers needs (Keller, 2008). This
means that products/services have the capacity of resonating those
sentiments deemed significant to the customers (Keller, 2008). Thus, aside
from giving value to the customers money, the product should also be

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likable. The brand has its own personality (Mentz, 2011) with which
customers can identify and on which solid organisational reputation is built
(Keller, 2008; Mentz, 2011). All of these combined elements contribute to the
creation of brand association in the minds of consumers.
Brand loyalty
Homburg, Klarmann & Schmitt (2010) explained brand loyalty as the
extent to which a customer decides to select one brand over others,
regardless of the perceived advantages that the rejected brand may offer. In
literature, there are two general schools of thought. The first argues that
brand loyalty can be created through such elements of as customer
promotion (Stuart & Muzellec, 2004). There is another school of thought,
which states that brand loyalty is earned through effective branding and
value creation (Schultz, 2001). In this regard, brand loyalty is not a single
element in brand equity. It is a conflation of various attitudes and behaviours
that customers have towards the products/ services while the firm keeps a
high level of product quality as it ensures a reputable corporate identity
(Thomson, McInnis and Park, 2005). Brand loyalty pertains to the deeply held
commitment of customers to purchase and re-patronize the same
products/services in the future (Oliver, 1999). This establishes a guarantee
that the same set of products or services will continue to be purchased
regardless whether there are new competitors in the market, situational
changes occur, or market transformation happens (Li, Li and Kambele, 2012).

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2.3 Rebranding
2.3.1 Definition and the meaning of rebranding
There are several fragmented definitions and meanings that have been
given to rebranding in literature. Merrilees and Miller (2008, p. 538) argued
that corporate rebranding refers to the disjunction or change between an
initially formulated corporate brand and a new formulation. It is the creation
of a new name, symbol, image, and design for an established brand in order
to create an established differentiation in the minds of stakeholders and
competitors (Muzellac and Lambkin, 2006). It is about communicating new
messages and benefits to the stakeholders of the corporate brand (Saunders
and Guoqun, 1997). Corporate rebranding pertains to the process by which a
product or a service linked with a particular brand and marketed with a new
brand identity (Kaikati, 2003; Knox and Bickerton, 2003). Its consequence
can be either good or bad. As such, company rebranding can be considered
as full of incertitude. Muzellac, Doogan and Lambkin (2003) have found out
in a study that 42 % of corporate rebranding happened in the UK while 31%
in the USA. This is not surprising considering that most of multi-national
companies are from these countries. Katkari and Andrew (2003) have noted
that between 2000 and 2001, rebranding across the globe increased by 7 %.
This means that 1,766 companies have undergone corporate rebranding with
companies in the USA leading the action.

2.3.2 The role of rebranding


Companies have been known to engage in rebranding with the sole
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purpose of giving themselves a new identity that can result in brand related
advantages (Schultz, 2001). There are however those who have argued that
corporate rebranding endeavours are risky, as they often require
considerable investment, with no guarantee of achieving successful
outcomes (Miller et al., 2014 p. 265). Nonetheless, corporate rebranding is
viewed as a panacea, a powerful strategic move that serves the role of
aligning the firm to new values and vision, which in turn, will propel it to
success (Hatch and Schultz, 2003). Disagreeing with this position, Muzellac
and Lambkin (2006) argued that corporate rebranding destroys what has
been established. In this sense, it may be ironic and contradictory to
marketing rationale, however; it should be noted that in the midst of the
irony corporate rebranding by its definition is purposive- it is set to change
the viewpoint of stakeholders. Putting the two points together, it would be
noted that the best role that will be served by rebranding is largely
dependent on how the company involved approaches the concept.

2.3.3 Rebranding frameworks

Based on most definitions of rebranding which only look to the merits


of the process, a number of frameworks have been constructed that focus on
risks associated with rebranding. This framework claims that an important
factor missing in the definition of corporate rebranding is the term risk or
uncertainty in the operationalisation of corporate rebranding. Nonetheless, it
does not mention any thing about the risk and uncertainty entailed
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intrinsically in corporate rebranding. The typology of corporate rebranding


provides insight into the different kinds of rebranding that may be
undertaken. Hence, there are variations in the degrees of risk or uncertainty
encountered by corporations as they embark on rebranding. However, these
variations do not alter the fact that risk and uncertainty are inherent in the
nature of rebranding. As such, it must be approached with caution and much
understanding of the context and conditions in which it is undertaken. With
this observation, inclusion of risk and uncertainty in the definition of
corporate rebranding is seen as crucial in providing a more holistic meaning
to the idea of corporate rebranding. Downplaying the risk and uncertainty
inherent in rebranding may, in itself, increase risk and uncertainty associated
with corporate rebranding.

2.3.4 Drivers of corporate rebranding


Rebranding has been identified to be a multi-variables concept that is
influenced by several drivers. Some of these drivers are reviewed below.
Globalisation: As the market becomes global, both consumers and
companies have also become global. This means that the reach of a
company is no longer limited within countries or regional geographic
boundaries, thus, opening unlimited possibilities for it.
Developments in Information and Computer Technology
(ICT):Integral in the success of organisations is its ability to adapt in the fast
phase development of information and computer technology (Calder and
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Watkins, 2008). There is a need for firms to be knowledgeable with current


trends and developments in ICT as all business processes and systems are
performed within the frame of technology (Axelrod, 2004).
Customers: With more access to information (Calder and Watkins,
2008), with more recognised rights as consumers (Mehta, 2000), and with
the acceptance of consumer empowerment (Hastings and McDermott, 2006),
corporations cannot simply assume that customers will do as they did.
Instead, it is held strongly that customers satisfaction is critical in the
success or death of a corporation.
Identified Stakeholders: Broadly defined, stakeholders pertain to
people, individuals or communities who have stake in the success, failure
and actions of the corporation (Tencati and Zolsnai, 2009). In order to realise
the goals and visions of the firm, it is essential that an authentic
collaboration between the firm and its stakeholders needs to be built.
Communication of the firms goals, visions, position and image is a constant
necessity in keeping a good relation with the companys stakeholders. It is
important to note that stakeholders are crucial in the continued success of
the firm because they provide the crucial support that the company needs.
Employees and Third-Party Relations: Recognising the critical role
of employees and third-party relations of the company ensures the success
of the corporation. In fact, keeping a collaborative relation with them is a
sure strategy securing the success of the firm (Fox et al., 2007).
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Figure 1: The Drivers of Corporate Rebranding


Internal:
Employees and
Third Party
Relations
DECISION AND ACTION
CORPORATIO

External: Globalisation,
ICT,
Customers,Identified
Stakeholders

CORPORATIO
N
External: Socio-Political
and Economic
Environment of the
Host Country

aaaaaaaaaaaaaaACTION

Corporation Goals,
Visions, Values and
Ethos

Source: Researcher

2.3.5 Dimension of corporate rebranding

In addition, these drivers are push and pull factors, which act as the
dimension for rebranding. It can be inferred that: (1) the unique condition of
the global, fierce and competitive market acts a primordial push factor for
corporate rebranding. (2) The challenge of the internal factors to corporate
rebranding highlights not only the irony of corporate rebranding but also it
brings to fore what rebranding is discarding and who are the members of the
organisation that will be firstly affected by the rebranding. (3) These drivers
are constantly interacting with one another. Hence, the corporation is in
perpetual pursuit of the appropriate strategy that will yield the best for the
company. (4) The socio-political-cultural and economic condition of the
country where the company is situated is an integral factor in corporate
rebranding. Including this aspect in rebranding will give the company
advantage when deciding if there is a need for the corporation to rebrand.
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(5) It highlights the fact that corporations do not operate in a vacuum. For its
continued success, corporations must adjust to the various drivers that are
constantly affecting and operating on it.

2.3.6 Types of corporate rebranding


There are two kinds of corporate rebranding illustrated by Figure 2:
evolutionary rebranding and revolutionary rebranding (Muzellac and Lambkin
2006; Stuart and Muzellac, 2004). The first kind is evolutionary rebranding.
Under this type of rebranding, minor changes are made to the firms logo
and slogan. These changes may be accompanied by modifications in the
firms position and marketing aesthetics. In the end, changes under
evolutionary rebranding are considered as less perceptible to outside
observers (Muzellac and Lambkin, 2006). On the other hand, revolutionary
rebranding is a radical transformation. It results into the creation and
formulation of new corporate brand name. Major changes in the corporate
position and marketing aesthetic are aimed (Muzellac and Lambkin, 2007). In
revolutionary rebranding, fundamental changes transpire. It wipes out
existing corporate name (Muzellac and Lambkin, 2006). Moreover, under
revolutionary rebranding, customers and stakeholders easily perceive the
transformation as it is fundamental (Lomax and Mador, 2006; Muzellac and
Lambkin, 2006). As such, Stuart and Muzellac (2004) cautions that extensive
study must be undertaken before pushing for a revolutionary rebranding
since aside from being costly, the risk and uncertainty entailed in the
decision is far reaching.
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Figure 2: Rebranding as a continuum

(Muzellac and Lambkin, 2006)

2.3.7 Reasons for corporate rebranding:


Table 1: Reasons behind corporate rebranding
Author
Branca and Borges,
2011
Juntunen et al., 2009;
Muzellac and Lambkin,
2006

Reasons
An evolutionary rebranding like a change in the
name of the organisation may increase firms value

Change in the ownership of the corporation


which happens through acquisition or
mergers, spin-off or private to public
ownership
A change in the strategy which may come
through
diversification
and
investment,
internationalisation and localisation

Moore and Birtwistle,


2004
Lomax and Mador,
2006
Goi and Goi, 2011

An alteration in the corporations position in


the market, reputation problem, out-dated
image, and erosion of market trust
A change in the market environment that may
threaten market growth
A response to the legal requirement resulting from
demergers and other similar events
A strategy to increase market share, out manoeuvre
competition, and keep phase with the changing
market
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Kaikati and Kaikati,


2003
Stuart and Muzellac,
2004
Gotsi and
Andriopoulos, 2007

Economic slowdown
Transformation in the corporate values, goals,
missions and ethos
Alignment

Rebranding is a critical issue that corporations may face in the light of


various drivers influencing the company and the unique context the firm may
be encountering. As such, understanding the underlying principle behind the
reasons provided and the sufficiency of the reasons to support the decision
for rebranding should be well stipulated. With the risk and uncertainty that is
inherent in rebranding itself, the need to provide the justification behind the
reasons for rebranding should be clear and substantial.

2.4 Service rebranding


2.4.1 The concept of service rebranding
It has already been mentioned; branding does not only focus on
tangible aspects of a company. It is based on the principle that both abstract
and tangible components of a company can be branded that the concept of
service rebranding is possible. Schultz (2001) stressed further that for
service rebranding to take place, companies in the service sector are
expected to adopt a new brand that modifies the actual feature of service
that they render. In this regard, understanding the nature of corporate
rebranding is essential in the face of its perceived utility in strategic
management and service delivery. From these perspectives, it can be
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inferred that service rebranding is an attempt to break or separate from the


former corporate brand that a service provider offered (Dacin and Brown,
2006). Homburg, Klarmann & Schmitt (2010) also considered service
branding as a process of establishing something new while separating from
the old way of delivering service. Service rebranding can thus be perceived
as being a critical decision and change process for many companies.

2.4.2 Rebranding in telecommunication


As service providers, when rebranding takes place in the
telecommunication sector, it is said that service rebranding in
telecommunication has taken place. Over the years, there are records of
several rebranding in telecommunication that has taken place across the
globe. Muzellec, Doogan and Lambkin (2003) however explained that in most
of the cases, rebranding in telecommunication takes place when there is
change of hands in either the management or ownership of one company to
another one. Such change of hands may take place either as the result of a
merger or an acquisition. There are several factors that influence rebranding
in telecommunication sector. Most of these are based on the presupposition
that a corporate brand has already made its mark in the minds of the
customers and stakeholders (Pauwels, Raluca & Descotes (2012). The mark
created may either be a positive or a negative one. When the mark is
positive, the new service provider comes in with the need of building on the
old brand and taking advantage of the brand equity already built (Muzellec,
Doogan & Lambkin, 2003). But when the old brand is negative, the new
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brand comes in with the challenge of improving the market position of the
older brand (Pauwels, Raluca & Descotes (2012).

2.4.3 Customers and corporate rebranding in telecommunication.


2.4.3.1 Brand image
Homburg, Klarmann & Schmitt (2010) posited that brand equity is the
impression that a customer holds in mind about a brands total personality.
Juntunen (2014) added that brands personality is determined by such
variables as real and imaginary qualities and shortcoming. By explanation,
brand image is not only informed by the qualities of the company but its
shortcomings also. Chan-Olmsted and Jamison (2001) argued that within the
telecommunication sector, brand image on corporate rebranding is often
created based on the perceived position of the company before the
rebranding took place (Moore and Birtwistle, 2004). What this implies is that
in case customers perceived the company to be delivering quality service,
the brand image created is a sceptical one which is not certain about what
the outcome with the rebranding would be. On the other hand, if the service
quality was generally regarded as abysmal, the customer brand image
created is such, that it sees the rebranding as a way of resurrecting the
service delivery of the company. However, it has been observed that these
reasons are given for corporate rebranding as guidance and evaluation, to
whether consider them as sufficient grounds to undertake rebranding.

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2.4.3.2 Service quality


In most parts of the world however, there are performance assessment
agencies that evaluate telecommunication service providers according to the
extent to which their services meet required standards (Juntunen, 2014). As
it was rightly mentioned above, service quality is an important variable for
determining and creating brand image within the telecommunication sector.
Relating service quality to rebranding therefore, it can be said that the
search for rebranding can even be informed by customers through their
purchasing behaviour (Knox & Bickerton, 2003). What this means is that
when customers feel that service quality being rendered by their
telecommunication service providers is not good enough, their purchasing
behaviour can become negative and this can give authorities clues on the
need to rebrand.
2.4.3.3. Trust
Kim, Morris and Swait (2008) assert that perceived brand quality and
brand trust are the two most important factors leading to brand loyalty.
Moore and Birtwistle (2004) however argued that it is not possible to gain
brand trust through customer loyalty as brand trust can only be earned and
merited. Relating this to the telecommunication sector, it would be assumed
that brand trust derives directly as a result of service quality. This quality is
however expected to be a frequent, reliable and readily available (Knox &
Bickerton, 2003). Where such brand trust cannot be created, rebranding by

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introducing a new entity with a different approach to service delivery may be


used to salvage the situation (Chan-Olmsted and Jamison, 2001).

2.4.3.4 Customer loyalty


In the telecommunication industry, there are several important
elements that have to be properly aligned for brand loyalty to be achieved.
The perceived quality of the product (Batra et al, 2000), individual values
(Donthu and Yoo, 1988), meaning ascribed to the brand (Triandis, 1995) and
the perceived value of the brand (Dacin and Brown, 2006) are all factors that
can bring about the creation of customer loyalty in the telecommunication
sector. The debate as to whether or not rebrand in the telecommunication
industry affects customer loyalty negatively continues to be a debate in
literature. Moore and Birtwistle (2004) held the opinion that if the same
variables that accounted for a customers loyalty remain the same after the
rebranding, it is likely that rebranding will not affect customer loyalty.
2.4.3.5 Switching
Switching is the practice of changing ones service provider in the
telecommunication industry (Lomax and Mador, 2006). Switching has been
directly associated with retention, which explains the situation where a
customer remains with a particular service provider or continues doing
business with a specific service provider for a very long time (Knox &
Bickerton, 2003). The correlation is such that where there is switching,
retention cannot be achieved. Meanwhile when there is retention, customers
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come to know and understand a companys brand better. Such


understanding leads to customer loyalty and all the benefits that comes with
it (Lomax and Mador, 2006). Carauna and Ewing (2010) suggest that
corporate reputation and its relation to perceive brand quality plays a crucial
role in switching.

2.5 Telecommunication industry in Algeria


In the past decade, Algeria telecommunication sector has seen one of
the fastest growths in telecom services across the globe. Since the
liberalisation of the mobile telephony sector, mobile penetration skyrocketed
from 1.5% of the population in 2002 to 94.4% in 2011, or 33.74 million
mobile subscriptions (Algeria: Deepening the market, June 2012). From 2002
to 2008, total turnover in the mobile sector increased sevenfold, from
530.34m to 3.71bn. The proportion of GDP coming from mobile telephony
declined slightly over the same period, from 6.3% in 2002 to 4.05% in 2008,
but this is largely due to higher hydrocarbons revenue on the back of rising
global oil prices (Algeria: Deepening the market, June 2012). Algeria ranks
seventh among Arab states for the affordability of the information and
communications technology (ICT) services across the board, including fixedline telephone and internet services; and 71st globally. Data from the ITU
show that Algerias overall ICT price basket, or the total expenditure on ICT
as a percentage of average per-capita income, decreased from 3.5% of
annual income in 2008 to 3% in 2010. Yet there is considerable demand for

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internet among the population; in 2010, the overall internet penetration rate
reached 12.5%, but only 2.5% of the population held broadband internet
subscriptions (Algeria: Deepening the market, June 2012).

2.6 The rebranding of the corporation Nejma to Ooredoo


According to CEO Joseph Ged, Nedjma was a national brand that will
never be forgotten and that Nedjma was also a national operator that
invested all of its profits in Algeria instead of repatriating its dividends
(Nedjma becomes Ooredoo Algeria, 2013). Nedjma although a late player
in Algerias telecommunication, rose fast into popularity because of its high
quality service to its customers and to the community. With this, customers
and stakeholders of Nedjma regarded the company highly and associated the
name of Nedjma with quality service and technologically adroitness and
excellence. As such, it is not surprising that both its customers and
stakeholders look at it with high esteem and expectations, then 25th of
February 2013 marked the drastic change. It was announced in GSMA World
Congress that Nedjma will be rebranded to Ooredoo and that transition
period will begin on 2013 until 2014. Joseph Ged stated that the rebranding
was a new chapter in the history of Nedjma, while THE Sheikh Abdullah Bin
Mohammed Bin Saud Al Thani, its a proud moment in the Ooredoo family.
Ooredoo is a global telecommunications company. In a span of six
years, it has transformed from a single market operator of Qatar to an
international communications company with a global customer base of more
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than 91.0 million people (as of 31 March 2013) and consolidated revenues of
US$ 9.2 billion for fiscal year 2012. Delivering mobile, fixed, broadband
internet and corporate managed services tailored to the needs of consumers
and businesses in emerging markets, Ooredoo has been the fastest-growing
telecommunications company in the world by revenue since 2006 and its
enterprise value has more than tripled since 2005.(Ooredoo Algeria, 2013)
Ooredoo strategic framework is anchored on three fundamental Cs.
Caring, Connecting and Challenging. Caring rests on lead on customer
experience. Connecting is founded on strengthening its foundations via
securing and fortifying its relations with employees, shareholders while
keeping abreast with technological developments and keeping a wellrounded management. Finally, challenging is built on finding more ways to
accelerate growth by innovative and creative means

2.7 Summary of the review


The concept of rebranding is affected by several factors working on it.
Drivers of the concept, reasons behind the concept and acknowledged
advantages and disadvantages are all working together in creating a
complex foundation in which to apprehend the concept. In this sense,
existing rebranding definition necessitates a transformation that will
accommodate these numerous elements, which affect the idea and remove
the apparent vagueness that is attached to the notion of rebranding (Goi and
Goi, 2011). The literature review lays down the conceptual frameworks
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necessary in understanding the study. Several conceptual frames are


developed, which are drawn from the literature review. First of the
conceptual frames is the inclusive definition of corporate rebranding. It has
been shown that the definition of corporate rebranding has been limited in
presenting it as a process. The fact of it being a risk or an uncertainty has
been downplayed in its connotation. In this regard, through the review, it is
stipulated that the meaning of corporate rebranding should also be inclusive
of the truism that as it is a process, it is also a risk and an uncertainty a
guarantee of its success is not automatic reality.

Chapter 3 Research Methodology


3.1 The choice of methodology and case companies
The research was conducted through the use of the case study
methodology. Clifford and Clark (2004) explained a case study as a type of
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methodology where the researcher identifies a unique issue or case within a


research setting and critically studies or analyses the issue through the
collection of data. The decision to use case study research was based on the
presupposition that case study provides the research the opportunity to
understand the contemporary phenomenon being observed within the
context and condition where it happening and while it is happening (Yin,
2014). Moreover, as the aim of the research is to clarify and understand the
phenomenon of corporate rebranding, case study research is suitable
because the purpose of this study is to focus on in-depth understanding of a
phenomenon and its context (Cavaye, 1996). The issue or case that was
selected had to do with the rebranding of Nedjma. The case was studied to
better understand how the rebranding impacted on brand equity, customer
perception and retention as a member of the telecommunication industry.

3.2 Method of research


3.2.1Qualitative Method
Qualitative research has been explained to be a type of research, which is
conducted, with the aim of gathering in-depth data that makes it possible to
understand human behaviour and the reasons that inform how people
behave (Clifford and Clark, 2004). Qualitative research is a paradigm, which
holds that reality is subjective and as such its meanings and discourses are
constructed and perpetually changing (Guba and Lincoln, 1994; Denzin and
Lincoln, 1994). With this framework, in qualitative methods, both the

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investigator and participants are linked in the phenomenon being observed


and as such, the focus in these methods is the search for meaning and
processes within the lived experiences of the people who are living in the
phenomenon being studied (Reid, 1996; Smith, 1993). The current study
employed the use of qualitative research method in understanding the
factors and reason behind the rebranding of Nedjma. This form of qualitative
research was taken from the perspective of officials of the company as they
were noted to be the people in the best position to giving answers to some of
these critical management questions. Another component of the qualitative
method of the research comprised the collection of data on customer
perception about the rebranding. Customer perception was chosen to be
explored qualitatively as it is an abstract concept that cannot be quantified.

3.2.2Quantitative Method
Quantitative research can be said to be the opposite of qualitative
research method as in quantitative research there is a systematic empirical
investigation of an observable issue or concept through the use of
mathematical, statistical and numeric data collection (Blaxter, Hughes &
Tight, 2001). This means that for quantitative to be successful, it is important
that the researcher identifies a set of data that can be quantified. In line with
the research problem and the aim of the current study, quantitative research
was employed with the aim of investigating how the rebranding of Nedjma
had impacted on brand equity and customers retention. It would be
observed that brand equity could be quantified through its effect on
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customer patronage and market share of the company. Retention can also be
quantified through the sales made from recurring customers. Quantitative
method was therefore part of the overall research methods used in this
study. Quantitative research is based on positivism, which holds that there is
one objective reality and one truth (Denzin and Lincoln, 1994). In this
context, quantitative method allows for the objective study of the
phenomenon since researchers cannot influence the variables and
phenomenon understudy (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004). Moreover, it
paves for the analysis of variables in a value-free framework (Denzin and
Lincoln, 1994). Hence, quantitative search and its methods, the techniques
adopted remain neutral as it excludes bias and as such, time and context
free (Nagel, 1986).

3. 3 Types of Research
3.3.1 Descriptive Research
From a very broad perspective, Gerrish and Lacey (2013) explained
that a descriptive research seeks to answer the question of what is, and is
used to describe the characteristics of a population or concept that is being
studied in a research. This definition gives a perfect fit into the current study
as part of the objectives of the researcher is to what the characteristics of
customers of Nedjma are as far as the impact of the rebranding of the
company on their retention is concerned. It is expected that the retention of
customers will help to understand the characteristics of customers of Nedjma

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when it comes to their purchasing behaviour. It was for this reason that a
descriptive research was employed in the current study to investigate
customer purchasing behaviour as manifested through their retention with
Nedjma as a rebranded company into Ooredoo. The descriptive research was
structured according to the philosophical supposition that the issue under
study in this research is an independent phenomenon happening in the world
but at the same time, its meaning is construed by the people who are
involved and affected by the phenomenon. In this regard, the descriptive
researcher served as a philosophical framework of the research, which
covered both interpretevists and critical realism. The descriptive research
was integrated into the quantitative method of the study where customer
retention was measured.

3.3.2Exploratory Research
Diriwchter and Valsiner (2006) explained that an exploratory research
is conducted for a concept that cannot be clearly defined. In effect,
exploratory research is necessary as a preliminary data collection approach
which is used to later gain a detailed understanding about a concept
Moballeghi & Moghaddam, 2008). It is therefore very difficult to draw
conclusions based on exploratory research alone. The current study has
aspects of exploratory research that was directly linked to the qualitative
component of the study where managers and authorities from Nedjma were
engaged in qualitative data collection through the use of an interview to
explore reasons behind the decision of the company to rebrand. The
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rationale for selecting exploratory research for this aspect of the study was
that the researcher preconceived that it was only after connecting the
responses and outcomes of the interview with the quantitative data
collection from customers that real conclusion on the real impact of the
rebranding could be drawn. This is because as a public profit-making
company, it is important to note that management decisions of Nedjma have
to be considered as one that is well received by customers and thus
positively responded to through improved customer retention and increased
brand equity. This was upheld due to a number of reasons. Mainly, the
phenomenon of corporate rebranding is happening in the external world. It is
neither a mere figment of imagination nor it is a result of the subjective
reality of corporations. Hence, it falls under the purview of critical realisms,
which must be endorsed by customers (Gerring, 2000).

3.3.3 Explanatory Research


An explanatory research has been explained as one in which the
researcher attempts to connect ideas to understand cause and effect
(Diriwchter & Valsiner, 2006). By implication, explanatory research takes
place when the researcher is concerned with explaining what is going on
(Moballeghi & Moghaddam, 2008). Explanatory research can thus be noted
to be a type of research where there is a form of correlation drawn between
the cause of a decision and the effect that resulted from it. When put in this
context, it is easier to appreciate that aspects of the current study dealt with
explanatory research. This is because there had been the implementation of
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a cause, which was the rebranding of Nedjma into Ooredoo. It was therefore
important to understand the effect of this cause through brand equity,
customer perception and retention trends that were recorded after the
rebranding. Independently real as it is, nonetheless, the meanings and
discourses of corporate rebranding are embedded in the construed meaning
and interpretations of the people and entities affected by the phenomenon
(Gerring, 2000). Thus, the interpretevists framework was essential for the
explanatory component of the study.

3.4. Population and sampling of research


3.4.1 Population
Population is defined as an entire group of individuals, events or
objects, which share common characteristics (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003).
Based on the use of two research methods, which were the quantitative and
qualitative research methods, there were two groups of population for the
study. The first target population of the study was customers of Nedjma
before, during and after its corporate rebranding to Ooredoo. Customers of
Nedjma-Ooredoo who fall within this characteristic were targeted because
their perspective regarding the entire event of Nedjmas rebranding to
Ooredoo is a qualitative focus of the study. The second component of the
population was made up of managers from the company. The managers were
included for the purpose of collecting qualitative data that bordered on
reason for which the rebranding was necessitated and how the managers

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perceive the outcome of the rebranding. Initial visit to the company showed
that the company operated a functional organisational structure, which was
made up of 12 different functional portfolios.

3.4.2 Sampling
Because there were two groups of respondents in the population, the
sampling also comprised two sets of participants. The first sampling was
performed to select a group of participants from among the customers of the
company. The study used random sampling of Nedjma-Ooredoo customers.
Five stores of Ooredoo Algeria were randomly selected and visited. At the
time of the visit to each store, the first 10 customers who were exiting from
the store who expressed interest to be part of the study were automatically
included in the same size. The rationale for selecting random sampling for
the customers is because of the advantage of fairness and absence of biases
that it offers (Kasim, Alexander & Hudson, 2010). At the end of the sample,
there were 23 females and 27 males making 50 customers who had been
selected at random from the customers to be part. On the part of the
managers, the researcher used a purposive sampling technique. Purposive
sampling was used because not all people within the population can be said
to be in a position to offer expected depth of knowledge that addresses the
issues raised in the study (Hunter & Leahey, 2008). To this end, six (6)
managers whose positions were public relations manager, corporate brands
manager, chief finance officer, human resource manager, corporate affairs
manager, and marketing manager were selected and included in the sample.
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3.5. Data collection


3.5.1 Interviews
A set of interview questions was a constructed for the managers. The
interview questions served as a guide in the conduct of the interview. The
interview questions were designed in a way that it will encourage the
participants in sharing their views and perspectives regarding the issues of
why the rebranding was necessary and how the rebranding has impacted on
the company. As it has been indicated earlier, the interview was performed
to be part of exploratory study to gaining preliminary understanding to the
main issues of the study (Hart, 2008). Using the interview guide ensured that
all respondents responded to the same set of questions. The only exceptions
were where answers that required follow up questions came up. The average
time spent on each interview was 45 minutes and was done through Skype
conference. For each person, one day was dedicated for the interview, which
means that the whole interview process lasted for 6 working days.

3.5.2 Survey questionnaire


Data collection via the use of survey questionnaire was directed at the
customers of the company. This was done due to the sample size of the
customers, which was considered too large for the researcher to use an
interview. As noted by Given (2008), survey questionnaire is less time
consuming because it does not involve the direct input of the researcher
during the answering process. After the questionnaire had been prepared,
the researcher sent them to the five shops where the data collection was to
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take place. Because the questions were all close-ended questions, it was
very easy for the respondents to answer them on the spot and present them
to the researcher. The questions were basically an extension of the research
questions of the study. In all there were both qualitative questions on
customer perception and quantitative questions on brand equity and
retention. A total of 10 questions were presented. The average person
completed the questionnaire in 15 minutes. Before the respondents were
given the questionnaire, the rationale of the study was thoroughly explained
to them through the use of a consent form. Their anonymity and
confidentiality were also guaranteed, as they were not expected to introduce
themselves on the questionnaire.

3.6 reliability and validity


The reliability of the study examines the extent to which findings from
the study can be generalised within any research setting where similar
variables as the ones that prevail at the premises where the study was
conducted can be found (Green, Johnson and Adams, 2006). Validity on the
other hand refers to the extent to which the research instrument collects
items for which it was prepared to collect (Hart, 2008). The data collection
was conducted in two phases. The first phase was the distribution of the
survey questionnaire. A Likert Scale questionnaire was constructed. The
bounded questionnaire provided more structured responses in order to assist
in the formulation of tangible recommendations. Before its actual

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distribution, a pilot testing was made. This was necessary in order to validate
the questions and at the same time improved the questionnaire. The
questionnaire was administered in five shops of Ooredoo and among
customers who had been selected at random. This was done to ensure that
there were no biases or manipulations with resulting outcomes of the study
so that the studys findings could be replicated in other settings were similar
variables were used.

CHAPTER 4: Analysis
4.1 Findings and analysis
4.1.1 Impact of rebranding on brand equity
At an early stage, customers were asked if the rebranding caused as
disillusion, which affected their knowledge, familiarity and identification of
Nedjma. The outcome of their responses has been given below.
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Figure 3: Impact of rebranding in creating disillusion in customers

Disillusion

AGREE; 30%
STRONGLY DISAGREE; 44%
NEUTRAL; 8%
DISAGREE; 18%

Figure 3 shows the percentage of people who were disillusioned as


against those who were not disillusioned from the rebranding of Nedjma. The
question was straightforward. It sought to know the exact reaction of the
participants regarding the rebranding of Nedjma. It has been observed that
30% of the sample, which represents 15 people, indicated that they agree on
the fact that rebranding disillusioned them. 18% of the sample disagreed to
being disillusioned while 44% representing 22 people of the total of 50
people strongly disagreed to being disillusioned. There was 8% of the sample
with a neutral feeling about disillusion. The high number of customers not
being disillusioned is mainly attributed to a strong publicity and a significant
communication campaign that was launched ahead of the rebranding by the
company.
In question 7, the respondents were asked if the rebranding had

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affected the identity they gave to the company. This question was asked due
to the relationship between brand equity and customer identity given to a
company (Aaker, 2004). The responses gathered have been shown below.
Figure 4: Impact of rebranding on customer identity of company

Effect of rebranding on company identity


STRONGLY AGREE

14% 2%

AGREE
30%

NEUTRAL
DISAGREE

24%

STRONGLY
DISAGREE
30%

This pie chart represents the ambivalence of respondents when it


comes to the idea of the rebranding. Just like in the preceding graph, they
have indicated that a year after the rebranding, the respondents are still
divided as to how they view the rebranding. This is because 30% of
respondents representing 15 people agreed to the fact that the rebranding
had changed the identity they gave to the company. A close percentage of
24% disagreed to this whiles 14% strongly disagreed. Another 30% of
respondents held a neutral position. This line of response offers the
opportunity for Ooredoo to build on the strong brand equity of Nedjma. Since
not as many customers as before has the same extent of identity they
associated with the company.
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There was also a question on the questionnaire that sought to know if


the rebranding had brought a new feeling of understanding and confidence
in the brand of the company. The responses gained in this regard have been
presented as follow.
Figure 5: Impact of rebranding on customer understanding and
confidence in company

Confidence and Understanding of company

STRONGLY DISAGREE; 14%


DISAGREE; 10%
NEUTRAL; 26%

STRONGLY AGREE; 16%


AGREE; 34%

Comparing those who agreed that the rebranding has boosted their
confidence and understanding of the company to those who disagreed, it can
be said that the rebranding has been useful for brand equity. This is because
34% agreed whiles only 10% disagreed. On the other hand, there were 14%
who strongly disagreed whiles 16% strongly agreed. 26% of respondents
representing 13 people held a neutral opinion. This evidence manifests that
the rebranding is starting with positive vision. Despite the tentativeness of
the participants regarding being happier or having an outright positive
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perception of the rebranding, they have shown that they have confidence on
what Ooredoo can offer. Hence, this is a positive sign by which Ooredoo can
start rebuilding its brand equity.
Another significant question related to brand equity was asked on the
interview guide. As managers of the company, they were asked if comparing
Ooredoo to other telecom service providers, they felt the popularity of their
company, which was the basis of brand equity, had been negatively affected.
Greater number of the interviewees held the opinion that Ooredoos
international brand equity had rather impacted on Nedjma positively. One
respondent stated for example explaining that most Algerians were already
familiar with Ooredoo as an international competitor and so after the
rebranding, the company still held its brand equity. On the part of those who
thought the rebranding had affected brand equity of the company, one
stated most existing customers are still in an evolution stage, trying to
acquaint with the new brand of Ooredoo. This means that there are both
positive and negative impacts of rebranding on the company. This gives
managers a huge task of ensuring that they continue to build the brand of
the company to make the positive impacts outweigh the negative impacts.

4.1.2 Impact of rebranding on customer perception


Impact of rebranding on customer perception was identified as a
qualitative aspect of the study. This notwithstanding, questions were
structured in the questionnaire that focused the views of customers on their

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perception of the rebranding. Customer perception as used in this context


generally refers to the level of acceptability that customers attach to the
rebranding that took place. From the questionnaire that has been attached,
questions 2, 3, 6, and 9 focused on customer perception. The various
responses from the questionnaire have been presented and analysed below.
In question 2 of the questionnaire, customers were asked if they found
the rebranding to be acceptable if service quality was going to be
maintained. Their responses are illustrated by figure 6.
Figure 6: Acceptability of rebranding if service quality is maintained

Rebranding accepted with quality maintained


STRONGLY AGREE

AGREE

NEUTRAL

DISAGREE

STRONGLY DISAGREE
4%
46%

50%

From the figure above, it is seen that there were only 4% of the
respondents represented by 2 people who did not agree or strongly agree
that the rebranding was acceptable if service quality was to be maintained.
Remaining 46% and 50% of respondents agreed and strongly agreed
respectively.
Still on customer perception, respondents were asked if they held any
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negative view about the rebranding. Their responses in this regard have
been given below.
Figure 7: Impact of rebranding in creating negative customer view

Rebranding: Negative View


4

STRONGLY DISAGREE

26

DISAGREE
10

NEUTRAL
7

AGREE
STRONGLY AGREE
0

3
5

10

15

20

25

30

This statement directly touches on the possibility that the participants


have a negative perception to the rebranding that emerged with Nedjma.
Although there are a number of participants who have voiced their negative
view of the rebranding, it has been noted that almost 60% of the
respondents did not view the rebranding of Nedjma as something negative.
Although this does not preclude that they do think positively about it, but
what is certain from the survey is that participants do not see the rebranding
as a negative act.
In question 6 of the questionnaire, the research considered the fact of
customers perception about being happier as subscribers of the
telecommunication network after the rebranding. The chart below gives a

49 | P a g e

pictorial understanding of customer perception on how happy they are after


the rebranding.
Figure 8: Extent of customer happiness with the rebranding

Customer happy
16 with
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

13
9
5

This shows the response of the participants to the rebranding that had
occurred. As the percentages are almost equivalently distributed, there is no
clear result whether the respondents are happier with the rebranding. This
presents a challenge to Ooredoo. The graph shows that, as actually, Ooredoo
is dealing with group of customers that can be persuaded to be happier with
the services of the company after the rebranding. It signals the possibility
that the participants are waiting and are ready to be happier or not to be
happy with Ooredoo. More importantly, the company has to do a lot of public
education and generate new brand awareness among Algerian
telecommunication industry, which ensures that the 9% and 7% who

50 | P a g e

disagree and strongly disagree to being happy respectively will be made to


understand and appreciate the need for the rebranding.
Still on the perception of customers on the rebranding, they were
asked through the questionnaire if the companys new brand including its
new logo had changed the views and acceptability of the company. The chart
below depicts their responses.
Figure 9: Impact of new brand in improving customer perception

New brand improving perception


STRONGLY AGREE

2% 4%

AGREE
34%

40%

NEUTRAL
DISAGREE
STRONGLY DISAGREE

20%

From the chart above, it is not possible to clearly state whether the
new brand of Ooredoo that was brought on board has improved customer
perception on the company. This is because although 34% said agreed, a
close figure of 40% disagreed. Considering that minimal change has been
done with the logo of Nedjma-Ooredoo, it is not surprising that the logo
change is not considered as a substantial factor in the rebranding. The

51 | P a g e

impact of the logo change is not considered as a major concern among the
respondents of the survey.
The interview was also used to solicit views of the managers on how
they thought the rebranding had affected customer perception. As seen in
the appendix, the interview asked the managers how the rebranding made
the customers reacts and how it affected theirs perception.
Managers were expected to have information to this question as they
directly interact and relate with customers. From the opinions collected from
the interview, it was noted from greater number of the respondents that
customer perception about the rebranding has been a mixed feeling. This is
because according to one interviewee, most customers are still giving the
company time to know how the rebranding affects the service they receive.
Another respondent added that I am sure their actual perception will be
developed after some few more years of knowing what the rebranding was
all about for them. There were some few interviewees who believed that the
rebranding had affected the company negatively. In the view of one
interviewee, customers think that the rebranding occurred because the
company is now short of ideas and innovation.

4.1.3 Impact of rebranding on customer retention


Another important objective of the study was to know the extent to
which customers were ready to remain loyal to the company even after the
rebranding or as a result of the rebranding. To collect such data, three
52 | P a g e

questions, which were questions 4, 5 and 10, were posed to the respondents.
For the part of retention, customers ought to be satisfied with service
delivery (Aaker, 2004). The customers were asked if they felt satisfied with
the service of Nedjma even after the rebranding. The responses given are
presented and analysed below.
Figure 10: Customer satisfaction after the rebranding

Satisfaction
DISAGREE; 15%
NEUTRAL; 11%

STRONGLY AGREE; 11%


AGREE; 63%

Figure 10 shows the level of satisfaction that the participants have


towards the company. A high 74% shows that remains satisfied with the
company . The high rate of satisfaction that the customers of NedjmaOoredoo gave marks a positive regard for the company.
After measuring customer level of satisfaction, the research seeks to
explore the actual factors that have accounted for their satisfaction levels.
This made the research pose a question on whether customers felt the
rebranding had brought an improvement in the services of Nedjma to
Ooredoo. Customers opinion about improvement in services after the
rebranding has been given below.
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Figure 11: Impact of rebranding on improvement of service

Improvement
STRONGLY DISAGREE
DISAGREE
NEUTRAL
AGREE
STRONGLY AGREE
0

10

15

20

25

In the context of the rebranding, there is a seeming split between


those who agree there is an improvement in the service of Nedjma-Ooredoo
and with those who are currently neutral with the issue of improvement.
This shows the tentativeness or the waiting period that the costumers are
giving to Ooredoo. After a year of rebranding, they remained neutral with
their views regarding improvement within the company. This is a situation
could affect retention if it is not changed immediately. This is because
customers may be tempted to switch brand with the aim of getting more
satisfying service (Balmer & Gray, 2003).
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The last question about retention was very specific in knowing if


customers were ready to remain with the company after its rebranding. The
answers from this question have been given below.

Figure 12: Readiness of customers to remain with the new brand

Retention
STRONGLY AGREE
16%

20%

AGREE
NEUTRAL
DISAGREE
STRONGLY
DISAGREE

22%
42%

Figure 12 shows that the willingness of the participants to stick to


Nedjma even if its corporate rebranding of Ooredoo has already transpired.
This is because there was no customer strongly agreeing not to stay with the
company while only 16% representing 8 people disagreed with staying with
the company as a result of the rebranding. They give Ooredoo the
continuation and the chance to further develop its own brand equity from the
brand equity of Nedjma.
55 | P a g e

The mangers were asked through the interview if their market research
had showed that customers were ready to stay with the company and
continue to use their network as a result of the rebranding. In this, the trend
of answers showed that most interviewees did not believe that the
rebranding alone could cause customers to be retained. As explained by one
interviewee, I do not think that in todays competitive market, the name of
a telecommunication company alone yields customer retention. Rather,
customers are enlightened enough to judge from the quality of service they
receive. There were a few interviewees who were very confident that the
rebranding would lead to customer retention. This is because one
interviewee explained that customers know that rebranding always comes
with a new inspiration, innovation and promotion which I believe they will
wait for.

4.2 Theoretical implication: the case Nedjma to Ooredoo.


Relating the findings that have been made above to literature, it is possible
to construct a theoretical implication about the case of Nedjmas rebranding
to Ooredoo and how this rebranding has affected brand equity, corporate
branding and customer perception and retention. This section of the chapter
therefore critically discusses and gives implication to the findings with the
use of literature so as to create theoretical implications for the entire study.

56 | P a g e

4.2.1 The Impact of corporate rebranding on brand equity


Drawing from the survey outcomes and the theme of expectations
from the interviews, the positive brand identity and equity that people had of
Nedjma is being passed to Ooderoo. The passing is tentative and cautious.
There is a sense that the consumers are also waiting for Ooredoo to prove
their claim that they share the same vision, goals and ethos with Nedjma.
This is the first finding of the study, the two-fork response of the customers
to rebranding. The first fork is tentativeness - the wait and see attitude of the
customers. The second fork is the expectations of similar or even better
services from Ooredoo. Writing on the relationship between rebranding and
service quality, Balmer and Gray (2003) debated that the extent to which
rebranding companies are able to guarantee service quality and
improvement is a major stake in deciding the extent of brand equity that will
be achieved. This is because customers will be expecting to see a smooth
transition in quality that is as easily identifiable with the new brand that is
created as the old one that was rebranded (Branca & Borges, 2011). In
effect, corporate rebranding will not impact on brand equity until the
company has taken steps to maintain the same level of service identity, or a
better one from the unbranded company (Berry, 2000).

4.2.2Attachment with the Brand and Role of Corporate rebranding

The Nedjma-Ooredoo rebranding brings the idea that the corporate


57 | P a g e

rebranding happened not because the company had to break from an ill
reputation or from a wrongful act, but an evolutionary rebranding. This
evolutionary rebranding is seen as a way in which the company sought to
build positive brand equity and brand identity from the old brand by offering
a more positive leverage for the re-branding effort. This claim can confidently
be made regardless of the fact that it pressures the rebranded firm to live up
and surpass the brand identity and brand equity of the prior corporate brand
(Branca & Borges, 2011). Nonetheless, it offers a good platform or even
better possibility of success for the rebranding. As such, the findings showed
a positive outcome of rebranding that is built on a positive view of prior
corporate brand. It also offers a friendly environment for the rebranding
process. With all these points made, Balmer and Gray (2003) emphasised on
the importance of the company attaching itself to the new brand that results
from the rebranding. This is because, when this is done that a claim of
corporate rebranding can be said to have taken place (Berry, 2000). In effect,
customers must not only see the rebranding as something that happened to
the companys logos and other symbols but to Nedjma as a corporate entity.

4.2.3

Major factors affecting customer perception and retention:

4.2.3.1 Service Quality


Caruana and Ewing (2010) argued that customers of today have
become more enlightened and informed about the choices they make with
services and products. In effect, it is not easy to assume that by merely
58 | P a g e

associating with a known brand, a rebranded company can be guaranteed of


positive customer perception and retention. Indeed this opinion was also
shared by one of the interviewees as was stated above. Part of the actions
that any rebranded company needs to do to achieve retention and positive
customer perception is improvement in service quality (Chan-Olmsted &
Jamison, 2001). In the case of Ooredoo, expectations are high because the
rebranding of Nedjma is perceived as the coming together of two giants in
the telecom business. It is sharing the vision and goal of achieving the
position of being the best telecom service provider not only in Algeria but
also in Africa and Asia. Hence, the quality, extent and kind of service clients
and stakeholders are expecting not just to be good, but even better. As such,
there is no disillusion but only expectations of quality service. This mind-set
can be justified by the presupposition that Nedjma offered its clients quality
service. Thus, the same expectations are expected from Ooredoo. It is worthy
to note that the quality service that Ooredoo provides is not only limited to
the users of their services. In the financial report of Ooredoo Algeria, it has
been shown that since the rebranding, the financial gains of the company
continue to increase (Muzellac, 2006).

4.2.3.2Brand image
Closely related to the issue of service quality is what Caruana and
Ewing (2010) refers to as brand image. Brand image has been explained as
an important factor, which determines how successful a rebranded company

59 | P a g e

would be. Chan-Olmsted and Jamison (2001) clarified that the public
perception given about a company and its commitment to customer
satisfaction constitutes brand image. In the context of Nedjma, it is expected
that the extent to which the new brand, which is Ooredoo will be able to put
in effort in creating a positive brand image will go a long way to influence the
outcome of customer perception and retention. This is event is referred to as
the brand equity continuum in the literature review. Moreover, in the brand
equity continuum, it has been asserted that the past brand equity of the
corporate brand is one of the significant factors that may influence
rebranding. Furthermore, it challenges the notion of rebranding as separation
or removal of the new corporate brand from the old one. Since, it is observed
in the study that the rebranding to Ooredoo heavily capitalised on the high
brand equity of Nedjma. Similarly, it also questions the knowledge of
destruction of brand equity. Therefore, it can be concluded that destruction
of brand equity is not solely achieved by rebranding.
4.2.3.3Trust
Trust is another factor that can influence customer perception and
retention (Muzellac, 2006). Specifically, it is expected that the service
delivery from Ooredoo will give customers some level of confidence that the
rebranding was not necessitated because the company was lacking out of
innovation as was expressed by one of the interviewees. Leaping into
rebranding without closely looking into the conditions that brought about the
need for it is unwise and very risky for the firm. To retain the trust of
60 | P a g e

customers, alignment must be ensured among rebranding, corporate values,


visions, culture, brand equity and the inclusion and integration of
stakeholders (Muzellac, 2006). However, as shown by the case of NedjmaOoredoo rebranding, the old, excellent and positive brand equity of the old
corporate brand is a strong and powerful strategic point that can be utilised
as the starting point in the corporate rebranding. The case of Nedjma
Ooredoo shows that shared vision, goals and ethos between old corporate
brand and corporate rebranding create a smooth and level transition. As the
company is in the telecommunications sector, which is a service sector, a
guarantee of better service from corporate rebranding establishes a better
leverage for creation of trust (De Chernatony, 2002).
4.2.3.4 Customer loyalty
Chan-Olmsted and Jamison (2001) argued that the behaviour and
attitude of loyal customers of a firm undergoing rebranding is tentative with
suspension of judgment. However, the suspension of judgement does not
imply negative reaction but cautiousness with the happening corporate
rebranding. This cautious and tentative attitude of the loyal customers can
be capitalised by the new corporate as a take-off slate in the building of
brand equity (de Chernatony, 2002). This also needs further study, as it has
not been given much attention in the discourse on rebranding in the case of
Nedjma-Ooredoo. Relating the data collected to the literature on customer
loyalty, the newly branded company have a lot to worry about at the

61 | P a g e

moment such as; the notion of rebranding, as inconsequential to the


customers decision-making should be given ample consideration. This is
because such notion implies that there are other salient factors that
customers may be considering more than the rebranding itself. Once such
factors are not met, chance that their loyalty can be secured will be much
challenging.
4.2.3.5. Why Switching or not switching
There has been sufficient evidence in the data collected, which
confirms that the rebranding will not lead to switching by the customers. This
shows that customer perception and retention was positive and that
customers will not be in a rush to switch just because the company
experienced a rebranding. The case of Nedjma Ooredoo shows the
following; First, corporate rebranding that works on a positive brand equity
and identity of the old corporate brand has an increased advantage for
success. This shows that the association involved in brand equity and
corporate brand is not something that can be easily removed in the minds
and perceptions of the clients. A corporate rebranding that assumes that it
can be totally separated and removed from the old corporate brand is
working from a wrongful presupposition. For this reason, corporate
rebranding has an arrow that goes back to the old corporate brand. The case
of Nedjma-Ooredoo shows that people are aware of what is being let go in
the rebranding or what is being removed and at the same time, they are

62 | P a g e

aware of the change that is transpiring. As such, they are willing to give time
to Ooredoo to turn its promises into reality. Thus, there is an observable
suspension of judgment towards Ooredoos performance.

4.3 Rebranding descriptive framework


Ooredoo is also known for its continuing community service
empowering women and youth in the country. This communicates the fact
that Ooredoo continues with the legacy of Nedjma- taking care of all its
identified stakeholders, leaving no one behind in the midst of the challenge
of growth and progress and continuously connecting with the Ooredoos
identified stakeholders. With this, the notion of disillusionment in the
rebranding that happened is inconsequential while the expectations for
quality service remains a threshold for evaluation of the rebranding process.
In terms of confidence and retention (survey questions 2 and 10), in
the case of Nedjma-Ooredoo, it is important to note that first both Nedjma
and Ooredoo have good brand identity and brand reputation. Secondly, both
offer a more dynamic and holistic growth for all its stakeholders. Hence, the
rebranding of Nedjma to Ooredoo is seen by many as a move forward.
Thirdly, the rebranding of Nedjma to Ooredoo is also a signal of a more open
Algeria telecom sector since the telecommunication sector of Algeria is
controlled by the government. The entry of Ooredoo is a sign that
government is now willing to slacken its hold on the sector. Hence, the
possibility of a better service to customers could be achieved.
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Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1 Suggestions for the Future Research and managerial
implications
Based on the experiences gained by the current study and some of the
challenges that were faced in the course of undertaking the study, there are
a number of recommendations that will be made for future researchers who
may be pursuing a similar research or may be seeking to build on what was
just completed. The first recommendation has to do with the need to
maintain the mixed research approach that was used. This is because
combining data collection from both customers and staff ensured that a very
balanced discussion on the issue of the impact of rebranding on brand
equity, customer perception and retention could be achieved. However, as
mixed research is maintained, it will be important to expand the sample size
that was used in both cases. On the part of customers, expanding the sample
size from 50 to 100 will be recommended. On the part of the managers, it is
suggested that a minimum of 10 managers be engaged in the study. While
doing this, it will be important that the sample will be selected from as many
locations of the country as possible. As this study used only five shops, there
is the challenge with expanding the results to cover all customers of the
64 | P a g e

company.
There are also some implications that findings of the study could be
useful for managers. With the established understanding of the connection
between corporate rebranding and brand equity, customer perception and
retention, it is expected that management of the newly branded company
will make the following implications. First, managers must continue to
research on the impact of the rebranding that took place on the rebranded
companys customer perception, brand equity and retention. In this way,
they will be able to see how they will capitalise on excellent old brand equity
or properly address negative old brand equity. Second it is important for
management to appreciate the fact that customer, shareholder, workers
sentiments, perspectives, and other stakeholders perception are critical in
rebranding. Integrating their viewpoints can assist in developing appropriate
actions that may ensure the success of rebranding. The customers wait and
see attitude, suspension of judgment regarding the rebranding, workers
apprehension and issue of job security are critical elements.
Third, since, one of the most important goals of rebranding is
customers retention, management must be aware of the old brand equity of
the corporate brand and on how it is accepted by all of the firms
stakeholders. The gained knowledge that results from this can then be
incorporated in their decision to rebrand. Finally, management must
appreciate the fact that corporate rebranding is not the panacea for bad

65 | P a g e

brand equity but it can be a very strong strategic approach if there is


effective alignment of the old and new brand equity. It is important to align
customer and other stakeholders perception, as well as organisational value,
ethos, goals, culture, and time in order to ensure the overall perception of
rebranding in the public domain.

5.2 Limitation of the study


Although the study has provided insights into the intricate connexion
among corporate rebranding, brand equity and customer perception and
retention, the study would have been enriched if a comparative study, with
empirical data, from a corporate rebranding that failed had enriched the
study and findings. Since, a comparison of the events would have been made
possible. However, due to time limitation and budget, this was not feasible.
From this perspective, future study regarding this topic should do well based
on comparative study of failed and successful corporate rebranding in order
to be able to identify various nuances and factors contributing to divergent
results of the same phenomenon corporate rebranding.

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Web Sources
Algeria: Deepening the market, June 2012
www.spyghana.com/algeria-deepening-the-market
Nedjma becomes Ooredoo Algeria 2013
http://www.telecompaper.com/news/nedjma-becomes-ooredoo-algeria-978222
Nedjma rebrands as Ooredoo

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http://www.itp.net/595644-nedjma-rebrands-as-ooredoo
www.ooredoo.com
https://www.linkedin.com/company/wataniya-t-l-com-alg-rie.
Ooredoo Delivers Net Profit of QAR 1.7 billion in 1H 2014
http://www.trustnet.com/Investments/Article.aspx?
id=201407231500231412N
http://www.telecomreview.com/index.php?
option=com_content&view=article&id=1063:ooredoo-best-3g-network-inalgeria&catid=72&Itemid=399

Appendices
Questionnaire
You are kindly requested to be part of the study by answering to the
questions that are posed in this questionnaire. Be assured that your
information will be kept anonymous and not third person shall be allowed
access to the information you provide. The questionnaire is to aid the
researcher understand the impact of Nedjmas rebranding on customer
perception, brand equity and retention. Thank you.
A. General Information
73 | P a g e

1. What is your gender?


Male

Female

18 -30 years

31- 40 years

41-50 years

51 years and above

Separated

Widowed

Divorced

2. What is your age?

3. Marital status
Single

Married

B. Major Questions
1. I am disillusioned by the rebranding of Nedjma.
Strongly agree
[
]
Agree
[
]
Neutral
[
]
Disagree
[
]
Strongly disagree
[
]
2. What matters is the quality of service given by Nedjma-Ooredoo.
Strongly agree
[
]
Agree
[
]
Neutral
[
]
Disagree
[
]
Strongly disagree
[
]
3. The rebranding negatively changed my view of the company
Strongly agree
[
]
Agree
[
]
Neutral
[
]
Disagree
[
]
Strongly disagree
[
]
74 | P a g e

4. I am very satisfied with the company.


Strongly agree
[
]
Agree
[
]
Neutral
[
]
Disagree
[
]
Strongly disagree
[
]
5. Their service has improved after rebranding
Strongly agree
[
]
Agree
[
]
Neutral
[
]
Disagree
[
]
Strongly disagree
[
]
6. I am happier with the rebranding.
Strongly agree
[
]
Agree
[
]
Neutral
[
]
Disagree
[
]
Strongly disagree
[
]
7. The rebranding affected my identification of the firm.
Strongly agree
[
]
Agree
[
]
Neutral
[
]
Disagree
[
]
Strongly disagree
[
]
8. I have gained more understanding and confidence for the firm after the
rebranding
Strongly agree
[
]
Agree
[
]
Neutral
[
]
Disagree
[
]
Strongly disagree
[
]
9. The new logo changed my view of the company.
Strongly agree
[
]
Agree
[
]
Neutral
[
]
Disagree
[
]
Strongly disagree
[
]
10.
I will continue using the firms services.
Strongly agree
[
]
Agree
[
]
Neutral
[
]
Disagree
[
]
Strongly disagree

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Interview Questions
The following are questions presented to the managers as part of the
interview conducted.
1. How long have you been using Nedjma-Ooredoo?
2. What was the major motivation that made you select NedjmaOoredoo?
3. In what ways has working in this company transformed your
professional competence as a manager?
4. What can you say were the factors that influenced the rebranding of
Nedjma to Ooredoo?
5. Which stakeholders of the companies did management discuss the
need to rebrand with?
6. How did shareholders embrace the idea of rebranding the company?
7. How will you describe the extent of publicity made to sensitise
customers about the rebranding that took place?
8. What improvements do you see about the services of the company
since the rebranding was effected?
9. What has been the overall customer reaction to the rebranding and in
what ways are the company going to make customers accept the new
brand?
10.
Do you feel more motivated to work with the company after the
rebranding?

76 | P a g e

Survey Responses
The analysis of survey questionnaire were based on the following responses
gathered from the 50 respondents
Participa
nts
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
P11
P12
P13
P14
P15
P16
P17
P18
P19
P20
P21
P22
P23
P24
P25

S1
-2
-1
-2
-2
-2
-1
-2
0
-2
-2
-2
-2
1
1
1
1
-2
1
-2
-1
-1
-2
-1
-2
0

S2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-1
-1
1
1
1
1
1

S3
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
-1
-1
1
-1
-1
-1
-1

S4
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-1
-1
-1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
-1
-1
-1
1

S5
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
2
2
2
0
0
0
1
1
1

S6
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
0
0
0
-2
-2
2

S7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
-2

S8
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
2
2
2

S9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1

S10
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
-1
-1
-1

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P26
P27
P28
P29
P30
P31
P32
P33
P34
P35
P36
P37
P38
P39
P40
P41
P42
P43
P44
P45
P46
P47
P48
P49
P50

0
0
1
1
1
-2
1
1
-2
-2
-2
-2
-1
-1
0
-1
1
1
1
-2
-2
1
-2
1
-2

1
2
2
2
-2
-2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
2

-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
0
-1
-1
2
2
2
-1
-1
-2
-2
-2
-1
-1
0
0
-1
1
1

-1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
-2
0
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
2

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
-2
-2
1
2
2

0
-2
-2
-2
-1
-1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
-1
-1
-2
2
-2

-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-2
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
0
0
1
-1
-1
-1
1
1
0
-1
-1
2

2
-2
-2
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
-2
-2
-2
1
1
1

-1
-1
-1
-1
1
1
1
1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
0
0
0
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
2
2
-2
2

-1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
-1
-1
-1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
0
0
0
-1
1
1
1

78 | P a g e