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Strut-and-Tie Model

• Background

• AASHTO LRFD Provisions

• Design Example

8.2

Background

z STM is a Truss Analogy

z Truss Analogy Used in Standard and

LRFD Specifications

Vn = Vc + V s Vs = [Asfy/s]d(cotθ)

- AASHTO Standard

Vs Æ 45º Truss

- AASHTO LRFD

Vs Æ Variable Angle Truss

8.3

8.4

STM in Codes

z CSA 23.3-84

z OHBDC Third Edition, 1991

z AASHTO LRFD - First Edition, 1994

z CHBDC - 2000

z ACI 318-02 Appendix A

8.5

Quiz

Monolithically, with Continuous

Reinforcement Placed Only in the

Bottom of the Beam

z How Will this Beam Perform Under

Service Loads? and at Ultimate?

8.6

As Built

Under Service Loads 8.7

- Uncracked Condition -

Under Service Loads 8.8

- Cracked Condition -

8.9

Observations

Concrete Cracks

z Redistribution of Internal Stresses

Occurs After Concrete Cracks

z After Cracking, Concrete Structures

Behave the Way they Are Reinforced

z For Best Serviceability, the

Reinforcement Must Follow the Flow

of Elastic Tensile Stresses

8.10

design of concrete members,

especially for regions where the

plane sections assumption of beam

theory does not apply

8.11

Deep Beam Stress Trajectories

8.12

STM for D-Regions

Dapped Beam

Tee Beam

8.13

Past Practice

» Experience

» Empirical Rules

» Rules of Thumb

Basic Description of the 8.14

Strut-and-Tie Model

z A design tool for “disturbed” regions

where the flow of stresses is non-uniform

and the usual rules of analysis do not

apply

z A rational approach to visualize the flow of

forces at the strength limit state based on

the variable-angle truss analogy

z A unified approach that considers all load

effects simultaneously

z A highly flexible and conceptual method

that recognizes that several possible

solutions may exist for any problem

8.15

STM Basic Principle

Æ Compression Struts

z Steel is Strong in Tension

Æ Tension Ties

8.16

φ >

P P

2 2

8.17

P

Strut

C C

Fill Fill

Fill

C C

T T

Nodal

P Tie P

Zones

2 2

8.18

C C

C

>

f u

c

φ A c

C C

T φ As fy > T T

P P

2 2

8.19

Basic Concepts

to the supports where:

• Compressive forces are resisted by

concrete “struts”

• Tensile forces are resisted by steel

“ties”

• Struts and ties meet at “nodes”

follow the elastic flow of forces

Strut-and-Tie Model for Simple Span Beam8.20

Examples of Strut-and-Tie Models 8.21

Methods for Formulating 8.22

Strut-and-Tie Models

z Experimentally

Æ Standard models

8.23

Deep Beam Stress Trajectories

8.24

Examples of Strut-and-Tie Models

8.25

Examples of Strut-and-Tie Models

8.26

Procedures for Load Path Approach

z Find reactions

z Subdivide loads and internal forces

- Replace stresses with resultants

- Replace asymmetrical stresses with

couple and resultant

z Provide struts and ties to provide load

path

z Locate ties using practical dimensions

8.27

STM from Tests - Dapped Beam

8.28

Dapped Beam

Types of Nodes 8.29

CCC

CCT

CTT

TTT

C - Compression

T - Tension

8.30

Assumptions

z Ties yield before struts crush (for ductility)

z Reinforcement adequately anchored

z Forces in struts and ties are uniaxial

z Tension in concrete is neglected

z External forces applied at nodes

z Prestressing is a load

Strut-and-Tie Model Design Procedure 8.31

Examples of Good and Poor 8.32

Strut-and-Tie Models

Factors Affecting Size of Strut 8.33

• Location and distribution of reinforcement (tie)

and its anchorage

• Size and location of bearing

Strut-and-Tie vs. 8.34

Traditional Analysis/Design

z Linear strain over member depth

Strut-and-tie

z Regions with nonlinear strain distribution

» Brackets, beam ledges, P/T anchors

» Shear span/member height < 2

8.35

V/bdfc’

a/d

Source: Prestressed Concrete Structures by Collins & Mitchell

8.36

LRFD 5.2 - Definitions

Strut-and-Tie Model - A model used

principally in regions of concentrated

forces and geometric discontinuities to

determine concrete proportions and

reinforcement quantities and patterns

based on assumed compression struts in

the concrete, tensile ties in the

reinforcement, and the geometry of nodes

at their points of intersection

8.37

5.6.3.1 D-Regions

Strut-and-tie models may be used to

determine internal force effects near supports

and the points of application of concentrated

loads at strength and extreme event limit

states.

The strut-and-tie model should be

considered for the design of deep footings and

pile caps or other situations in which the

distance between the centers of applied load

and the supporting reactions is less than about

twice the member thickness.

8.38

5.8.1.1 D-Regions

Components in which the distance from

the point of zero shear to the face of the

support is less than 2d, or components for

which a load causing more than ½ of the

shear at a support is closer than 2d from the

face of the support, may be considered to be

deep components for which the provisions

of Article 5.6.3 and the detailing

requirements of Article 5.13.2.3 apply.

8.39

Strength Limit State for STM

Pr = ϕ Pn (5.6.3.2-1)

where:

Pr = Factored resistance

8.40

Strength of Struts

LRFD 5.6.3.3

Unreinforced strut:

Pn = fcu Acs (5.6.3.3.1-1)

Reinforced strut:

Pn = fcu Acs + fy Ass (5.6.3.3.4-1)

where:

ϕ = 0.70 for compression in strut-and-tie models

(LRFD 5.5.4.2.1)

Acs= effective cross-sectional area of strut

(LRFD 5.6.3.3.2)

Ass= area of reinforcement in the strut

STM for Deep Beam 8.41

Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut, Acs

8.42

LRFD 5.6.3.3.2

Determined by considering available concrete area

and anchorage conditions.

When anchored by reinforcement, strut may extend

from the anchored bar.

C-T-T Node

Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut, Acs

8.43

LRFD 5.6.3.3.2

C-C-T Node

Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut, A8.44

cs

LRFD 5.6.3.3.2

C-C-C Node

8.45

Limiting Compressive Stress in Strut

LRFD 5.6.3.3.3

fc′

fcu = ≤ 0.85fc′

0.8 + 170 ε1

where:

ε1 = ε s + (ε s + 0.002 ) cot 2 α s

fcu = the limiting compressiv e stress

α s = the smallest angle between the

compressiv e strut and adjoining

tension ties (DEG)

ε s = the tensile strain in the concrete

in the direction of the tension tie (IN/IN)

Strength of Tie 8.46

LRFD 5.6.3.4.1

where

on the tie

Aps = Area of prestressing steel

fy = Yield strength of mild steel longitudinal

reinforcement

fpe = Stress in prestressing steel due to prestress after

losses

Development of Ties 8.47

Critical

Section

=x

If x < ld Æ fs = fy (x/ld)

8.48

Development of Ties (ACI 318)

Limiting Stresses for STM Elements 8.49

LRFD 5.6.3.3 - 5.6.3.5

1 - CCC Node 0.85 fc’ 0.70

2 - CCT Node 0.75fc’ 0.70

3 - CTT or TTT Node 0.65fc’ 0.70

4 - Strut fcu 0.70

5 - Tie fy or (fpe + fy) 0.90 or 1.00

8.50

Crack Control Reinforcement

LRFD 5.6.3.6

near each face of D-Region

z Maximum Bar Spacing = 12 in.

z Ratio As / Ag ≥ 0.003 in each of the

orthogonal directions

z Crack control reinforcement, located

within tie, considered as part of tie

8.51

Summary

1. Visualize flow of stresses

2. Sketch an idealized strut-and-tie model

3. Select area of ties

4. Check nodal zone stresses

5. Check strength of struts

6. Provide adequate anchorage for ties

8.52

8.53

Strut-and-Tie Model

8.54

Strut-and-Tie Model

8.55

Design Examples

1. Two Column Bent Cap

2. Spread Footing

3. Pile Cap

4. Dapped-End Beam

5. Hammerhead Pier

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