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8.

Strut-and-Tie Model

• Background
• AASHTO LRFD Provisions
• Design Example
8.2
Background
z STM is a Truss Analogy
z Truss Analogy Used in Standard and
LRFD Specifications
Vn = Vc + V s Vs = [Asfy/s]d(cotθ)
- AASHTO Standard
Vs Æ 45º Truss
- AASHTO LRFD
Vs Æ Variable Angle Truss
8.3
8.4
STM in Codes
z CSA 23.3-84
z OHBDC Third Edition, 1991
z AASHTO LRFD - First Edition, 1994
z CHBDC - 2000
z ACI 318-02 Appendix A
8.5
Quiz

z A Three-Span Concrete Beam Is Built


Monolithically, with Continuous
Reinforcement Placed Only in the
Bottom of the Beam
z How Will this Beam Perform Under
Service Loads? and at Ultimate?
8.6
As Built
Under Service Loads 8.7

- Uncracked Condition -
Under Service Loads 8.8

- Cracked Condition -
8.9
Observations

z Reinforcement Becomes Active After


Concrete Cracks
z Redistribution of Internal Stresses
Occurs After Concrete Cracks
z After Cracking, Concrete Structures
Behave the Way they Are Reinforced
z For Best Serviceability, the
Reinforcement Must Follow the Flow
of Elastic Tensile Stresses
8.10

Strut-and-Tie Model (STM)

z Valuable tool for the analysis and


design of concrete members,
especially for regions where the
plane sections assumption of beam
theory does not apply
8.11
Deep Beam Stress Trajectories
8.12
STM for D-Regions

Dapped Beam

Tee Beam
8.13
Past Practice

z D-Regions Designed Based On:


» Experience
» Empirical Rules
» Rules of Thumb
Basic Description of the 8.14

Strut-and-Tie Model
z A design tool for “disturbed” regions
where the flow of stresses is non-uniform
and the usual rules of analysis do not
apply
z A rational approach to visualize the flow of
forces at the strength limit state based on
the variable-angle truss analogy
z A unified approach that considers all load
effects simultaneously
z A highly flexible and conceptual method
that recognizes that several possible
solutions may exist for any problem
8.15
STM Basic Principle

z Concrete is Strong in Compression


Æ Compression Struts
z Steel is Strong in Tension
Æ Tension Ties
8.16

φ >

P P
2 2
8.17

P
Strut
C C
Fill Fill
Fill
C C
T T
Nodal
P Tie P
Zones
2 2
8.18

C C
C
>
f u
c

φ A c

C C
T φ As fy > T T

P P
2 2
8.19
Basic Concepts

Visualize a truss-like system to transfer load


to the supports where:
• Compressive forces are resisted by
concrete “struts”
• Tensile forces are resisted by steel
“ties”
• Struts and ties meet at “nodes”

For best serviceability, the model should


follow the elastic flow of forces
Strut-and-Tie Model for Simple Span Beam8.20
Examples of Strut-and-Tie Models 8.21
Methods for Formulating 8.22

Strut-and-Tie Models

z Stress trajectories from elastic analysis

z Load path approach

z Experimentally

Æ Standard models
8.23
Deep Beam Stress Trajectories
8.24
Examples of Strut-and-Tie Models
8.25
Examples of Strut-and-Tie Models
8.26
Procedures for Load Path Approach

z Find reactions
z Subdivide loads and internal forces
- Replace stresses with resultants
- Replace asymmetrical stresses with
couple and resultant
z Provide struts and ties to provide load
path
z Locate ties using practical dimensions
8.27
STM from Tests - Dapped Beam
8.28
Dapped Beam
Types of Nodes 8.29

(Schlaich et al. 1987)

CCC

CCT

CTT

TTT

C - Compression
T - Tension
8.30
Assumptions
z Ties yield before struts crush (for ductility)
z Reinforcement adequately anchored
z Forces in struts and ties are uniaxial
z Tension in concrete is neglected
z External forces applied at nodes
z Prestressing is a load

Equilibrium must be maintained


Strut-and-Tie Model Design Procedure 8.31
Examples of Good and Poor 8.32

Strut-and-Tie Models
Factors Affecting Size of Strut 8.33

Width of the strut is affected by:


• Location and distribution of reinforcement (tie)
and its anchorage
• Size and location of bearing
Strut-and-Tie vs. 8.34

Traditional Analysis/Design

Traditional section analysis/design


z Linear strain over member depth

z Uniform shear stress distribution

z Not valid for D-regions

Strut-and-tie
z Regions with nonlinear strain distribution

» Deep beams, pile caps


» Brackets, beam ledges, P/T anchors
» Shear span/member height < 2
8.35

V/bdfc’

a/d
Source: Prestressed Concrete Structures by Collins & Mitchell
8.36
LRFD 5.2 - Definitions
Strut-and-Tie Model - A model used
principally in regions of concentrated
forces and geometric discontinuities to
determine concrete proportions and
reinforcement quantities and patterns
based on assumed compression struts in
the concrete, tensile ties in the
reinforcement, and the geometry of nodes
at their points of intersection
8.37
5.6.3.1 D-Regions
Strut-and-tie models may be used to
determine internal force effects near supports
and the points of application of concentrated
loads at strength and extreme event limit
states.
The strut-and-tie model should be
considered for the design of deep footings and
pile caps or other situations in which the
distance between the centers of applied load
and the supporting reactions is less than about
twice the member thickness.
8.38
5.8.1.1 D-Regions
Components in which the distance from
the point of zero shear to the face of the
support is less than 2d, or components for
which a load causing more than ½ of the
shear at a support is closer than 2d from the
face of the support, may be considered to be
deep components for which the provisions
of Article 5.6.3 and the detailing
requirements of Article 5.13.2.3 apply.
8.39
Strength Limit State for STM

Pr = ϕ Pn (5.6.3.2-1)

where:

Pr = Factored resistance

Pn = Nominal resistance of strut or tie

ϕ = Resistance factor for tension or compression (5.5.4.2)


8.40
Strength of Struts
LRFD 5.6.3.3
Unreinforced strut:
Pn = fcu Acs (5.6.3.3.1-1)

Reinforced strut:
Pn = fcu Acs + fy Ass (5.6.3.3.4-1)

where:
ϕ = 0.70 for compression in strut-and-tie models
(LRFD 5.5.4.2.1)
Acs= effective cross-sectional area of strut
(LRFD 5.6.3.3.2)
Ass= area of reinforcement in the strut
STM for Deep Beam 8.41

LRFD Fig. C5.6.3.2-1


Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut, Acs
8.42

LRFD 5.6.3.3.2
Determined by considering available concrete area
and anchorage conditions.
When anchored by reinforcement, strut may extend
from the anchored bar.

a) Strut Anchored by Reinforcement


C-T-T Node
Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut, Acs
8.43

LRFD 5.6.3.3.2

b) Strut Anchored by Bearing and Reinforcement


C-C-T Node
Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut, A8.44
cs
LRFD 5.6.3.3.2

c) Strut Anchored by Bearing and Strut


C-C-C Node
8.45
Limiting Compressive Stress in Strut
LRFD 5.6.3.3.3
fc′
fcu = ≤ 0.85fc′
0.8 + 170 ε1

where:
ε1 = ε s + (ε s + 0.002 ) cot 2 α s
fcu = the limiting compressiv e stress
α s = the smallest angle between the
compressiv e strut and adjoining
tension ties (DEG)
ε s = the tensile strain in the concrete
in the direction of the tension tie (IN/IN)
Strength of Tie 8.46

LRFD 5.6.3.4.1

Pn = Ast fy + Aps ( fpe + fy )

where

Ast = Total area of longitudinal mild steel reinforcement


on the tie
Aps = Area of prestressing steel
fy = Yield strength of mild steel longitudinal
reinforcement
fpe = Stress in prestressing steel due to prestress after
losses
Development of Ties 8.47

Critical
Section

=x

If x < ld Æ fs = fy (x/ld)
8.48
Development of Ties (ACI 318)
Limiting Stresses for STM Elements 8.49
LRFD 5.6.3.3 - 5.6.3.5

Element Limiting Stress ϕ


1 - CCC Node 0.85 fc’ 0.70
2 - CCT Node 0.75fc’ 0.70
3 - CTT or TTT Node 0.65fc’ 0.70
4 - Strut fcu 0.70
5 - Tie fy or (fpe + fy) 0.90 or 1.00
8.50
Crack Control Reinforcement
LRFD 5.6.3.6

z Provide orthogonal grid of reinforcement


near each face of D-Region
z Maximum Bar Spacing = 12 in.
z Ratio As / Ag ≥ 0.003 in each of the
orthogonal directions
z Crack control reinforcement, located
within tie, considered as part of tie
8.51
Summary
1. Visualize flow of stresses
2. Sketch an idealized strut-and-tie model
3. Select area of ties
4. Check nodal zone stresses
5. Check strength of struts
6. Provide adequate anchorage for ties
8.52
8.53
Strut-and-Tie Model
8.54
Strut-and-Tie Model
8.55
Design Examples
1. Two Column Bent Cap
2. Spread Footing
3. Pile Cap
4. Dapped-End Beam
5. Hammerhead Pier