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OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC):

A Sustainable Economic Development Option for Puerto Rico

EXPO Convención Anual CIAPR 2015 Río Mar Beach Resort, Río Grande, PR

Manuel A.J. Laboy-Rivera, PE, MBA, CSP

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC): A Sustainable Economic Development Option for Puerto Rico EXPO Convención Anual

Presentation Outline

*  Introduction *  Chronological Review of Major Events
*  Introduction
*  Chronological Review of Major Events

üPrior to the 70’s üFrom 1974 to 1981 üPREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 üFrom 1982 to 2006

*Recent developments and current projects: 2007 to present *Understanding OTEC history – what really happened *Puerto Rico and OTEC: today *Puerto Rico and OTEC: the future

*A vision for Puerto Rico: options for sustainable economic development

*Suggested roadmap for implementation

*Q&A session

“…there are few things that are unprecedented and few opportunities for changing the game” – George

“…there are few things that are unprecedented and few opportunities for changing the game”

– George Friedman

The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21 st Century (2010)

Introduction:

What is OTEC?

Introduction: What is OTEC? [As defined by US Public Law 96-310 on July 17, 1980] “Method

[As defined by US Public Law 96-310 on July 17, 1980]

“Method of converting part of the heat from the Sun which is stored in the surface layers of a body of water into electrical energy or energy product equivalent.”

[Closed-Cycle Shown]

Introduction: What is OTEC? [As defined by US Public Law 96-310 on July 17, 1980] “Method

Picture from TU Delft

Introduction:

The Resource

Picture from OTEC.org
Picture from OTEC.org

Solar energy absorbed by oceans is ≈ 4000 x humanity annual consumption. Less than 1% of this energy will satisfy all global needs (@ thermal/electric conversion of ~ 3%). OTEC recovers part of the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

Introduction:

What is Required?

Heat Source
Heat Source
Introduction: What is Required? Heat Source Deep Cold Water (Heat Sink) Accessibility of Resources & Demand
Introduction: What is Required? Heat Source Deep Cold Water (Heat Sink) Accessibility of Resources & Demand

Deep Cold Water (Heat Sink)

Accessibility of Resources & Demand for Energy

Introduction:

Type of Systems

Introduction: Type of Systems Closed-Cycle [Technically & economically feasible today at commercial scale – 10 to
Introduction: Type of Systems Closed-Cycle [Technically & economically feasible today at commercial scale – 10 to

Closed-Cycle

[Technically & economically feasible today at commercial scale – 10 to 75 MW]

Introduction: Type of Systems Closed-Cycle [Technically & economically feasible today at commercial scale – 10 to

Open-Cycle

[Requires more

Introduction: Type of Systems Closed-Cycle [Technically & economically feasible today at commercial scale – 10 to

R&D – less than 1 MW; Co-produces water]

Introduction: Type of Systems Closed-Cycle [Technically & economically feasible today at commercial scale – 10 to
Introduction: Type of Systems Closed-Cycle [Technically & economically feasible today at commercial scale – 10 to

Hybrid-Cycle

[Suitable for Pilot or Demonstration Plant – 1 to 5 MW; Co- produces water]

Introduction:

OTEC Evaluation Criteria

Introduction: OTEC Evaluation Criteria Evaluation of OTEC as a commercial option should focus on the following

Evaluation of OTEC as a commercial option should focus on the following points:

*Technical viability (engineering/design, off-the-shelf equipment, deployment/construction)

*Environmental impact

*Economics (competitive cost of electricity versus fossil fuels such as oil)

*Appropriate financing strategy and structure (utility project) *Baseload versus intermittent electric power production

Introduction:

OTEC Evaluation Criteria (cont.)

Introduction: OTEC Evaluation Criteria (cont.) The Importance of Baseload Power Generation (ENR 2011) “… even wind,
Introduction: OTEC Evaluation Criteria (cont.) The Importance of Baseload Power Generation (ENR 2011) “… even wind,
Introduction: OTEC Evaluation Criteria (cont.) The Importance of Baseload Power Generation (ENR 2011) “… even wind,

The Importance of Baseload Power Generation

(ENR 2011)

“… even wind, geothermal and solar energy supporters say they cannot replace the massive baseload power provided by nuclear, natural gas and coal.”

“… solar farms could not produce electricity 24 hours a day, as coal, gas or nuclear can.”

Introduction:

OTEC Evaluation Criteria (cont.)

Introduction: OTEC Evaluation Criteria (cont.) *   OTEC is a baseload viable technology (closed-cycle 50-75 MW;

*OTEC is a baseload viable technology (closed-cycle 50-75 MW; hybrid-cycle 1-5 MW)

*OTEC uses no fuel

*Efficiency or capital cost are important but do not represent the economic bottom-line

*OTEC cost of electricity is competitive (closed cycle; final $/kW-h depends on size due to economies of scale, location/market, financing specifics, contract terms & conditions, etc.)

*Equipment for closed-cycle system is commercially available (off-the-shelf) *Safe operation with minimal environmental impacts *Reliable operation with minimum maintenance

*Platform and/or cold water pipe construction/deployment similar to the marine and other related industries

*Low pressures and temperatures of OTEC process represent lower equipment cost compared to high P/T of other similar energy sources

Introduction:

OTEC Social & Environmental Impact

*  No fuel needed
*  No fuel needed

üOne 100-MW plant can save 1,300,000 bbl per year or $130 MM per year (@ $100/bbl)

*No emissions of conventional air pollutants

üOne 100-MW plant can save 500,000 tons of CO2 per year or $15 MM per year (@ $30/ ton Carbon Credit)

*No solid wastes *Discharge essentially similar to ambient water *Can concurrently produce potable water (hybrid or open-cycle) *Stable supply (not vulnerable to external factors) *Very high availability factor (>85%) *Cost is known and fixed from day 1 (very low volatility) *Public is very receptive to idea, once the basic principle is understood *Baseload electricity (available 24/7/365)

Introduction:

OTEC Risks

*  Thermal fluid system leak
*  Thermal fluid system leak

üAmmonia proven safety/environmental record; OSHA PSM; EPA RMP

*Effect of chemicals used to reduce/control biofouling

üProposed intermittent doses below EPA’s allowable concentrations

*Upwelling effect

üOccurs naturally in various sites worldwide; most famous site is in Peru’s off-coast in the Pacific; to be avoided in first plant; combined discharge just below the photic zone to match conditions of receiving body

*Marine organisms entrainment and impingement

üUse similar technology used in existing coastal power plants

*Movement of large amounts of water

üLong-term effects need further study

Introduction:

OTEC Risks (cont.)

Introduction: OTEC Risks (cont.) *   All potential issues can be avoided, controlled and/or mitigated during

*All potential issues can be avoided, controlled and/or mitigated during system design, industry standards, engineering best practices and/or through preventive measures during operation

*Environmental impact assessments and strict permitting process required by both PR and EEUU (NOAA, EPA, EQB, etc.)

*First plant to include program to study long-term environmental effects during operation – UPR recommended as partner

“Every energy source pollutes… some do so badly and some not so badly, but all do.” – Editor-in-Chief, Journal of the Association of Energy Engineers, 2011

Introduction:

Use of Technology to Mitigate Risks

Introduction: Use of Technology to Mitigate Risks Oceanography Modeling for one 100-MWe plant discharges Modeling for

Oceanography

Introduction: Use of Technology to Mitigate Risks Oceanography Modeling for one 100-MWe plant discharges Modeling for

Modeling for one 100-MWe plant discharges

Introduction: Use of Technology to Mitigate Risks Oceanography Modeling for one 100-MWe plant discharges Modeling for

Modeling for three 100-MWe plants, 2.2 km spacing, 100 m combined discharge

Review of Major Events:

Prior to the 70’s

*  Jacques D’Arsonval formally proposed the idea in France in the 1880’s
*  Jacques D’Arsonval formally proposed the idea in France in the 1880’s

*Dr. Georges Claude built and operated the first plant in Matanzas, Cuba in 1930 (22 kW); “Power from the Tropical Seas” is published in 1930 by

Mechanical Engineering *In 1950’s

üFrench engineers attempted to build an OTEC plant in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) but project was too costly

üSea Water Conversion Laboratory at University of California was founded and obtained government funds for research

*James H. Anderson Jr. presented his thesis “A Proposal for a New Application of Thermal Energy from the Sea” to MIT in 1964

*Oil embargo occurred in 1974 – a game changer…

Review of Major Events:

From 1974 to 1981

Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 *   Federal government provided funds for OTEC

*Federal government provided funds for OTEC research *Significant amount of work done by

üLockheed üJohns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory üArgonne National Laboratory üGeneral Electric

üUPR Mayaguez Center for Energy and Environment Research (CEER) – Oceanography, heat exchanger design and operation (biofouling, corrosion, microfouling), environmental studies

Review of Major Events:

From 1974 to 1981 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) Argonne National Lab 1-MWt HX Test Facility

Argonne National Lab 1-MWt HX Test Facility

Review of Major Events:

From 1974 to 1981 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) Demonstration Project @ Hawaii: Closed-Cycle with NH3
Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) Demonstration Project @ Hawaii: Closed-Cycle with NH3

Demonstration Project @ Hawaii:

Closed-Cycle with NH3 Alfa Laval Titanium Plate Heat Exchangers Gross Power: 53 kW Net Power: 18 kW Approx. 4 months of operation

Review of Major Events:

From 1974 to 1981 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) *   1980: General Electric prepared conceptual

*1980: General Electric prepared conceptual design for Department of Energy (DOE) for Hawaii

üGross Power: 55 MWe, Net Power: 40 MWe üShelf-Mounted üClosed-Cycle with NH3 üTrane Al-Bz Plate-Fin HXs (submerged

*1980: JHU/APL prepared preliminary design for DOE for both Hawaii and Puerto Rico

üGross Power: 52 MWe, Net Power: 40 MWe üFloating/Moored Platform (Puerto Rico), Grazing NH3 Plantship (Hawaii) üClosed-Cycle with NH3 üTwo HX Modules: Folded-Tube and PHE; Interchangeable Modules üHX Installation: On-Platform

Review of Major Events:

From 1974 to 1981 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) 1980: A conference is conducted in Maunabo
Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) 1980: A conference is conducted in Maunabo

1980:

A conference is conducted in Maunabo to explain OTEC and its environmental impact

(Sponsored by UPR Sea Grant Program and UPR Mayaguez CEER)

Review of Major Events:

From 1974 to 1981 (cont.)

*  1980: US Congress approved Public Law 96-310
*  1980: US Congress approved Public Law 96-310

üSolar energy technologies to supply 1% US energy needs by 1990 and 20% by

2000

üDemonstration of a minimum of 100 MWe from OTEC by 1986 üDemonstration of a minimum of 500 MWe by 1989 üAchieve an average COE by installed OTEC systems that is competitive with conventional energy sources for US Gulf Coast region, US islands, US territories and possessions by mid 1990’s üNational goal of 10,000 MW of OTEC electrical energy capacity by 1999

*1980: US Congress approved Public Law 96-320

üTo establish guidelines for OTEC financial and regulatory assistance by Federal agencies

üNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) as “one-stop- shop” for licensing process

Review of Major Events:

From 1974 to 1981 (cont.)

The OTEC Act of 1980:
The OTEC Act of 1980:
Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) The OTEC Act of 1980: Sec 2.(a)

Sec 2.(a) “The Congress finds that:

üThe supply of nonrenewable fuels in the US is slowly being depleted

üAlternative sources of energy must be developed

üOTEC is a renewable energy resource that can make a significant contribution to the energy needs of the US

üThe technology base for OTEC has improved over the past two years and has consequently lowered the technical risk involved in constructing moderate size pilot plants with an electrical generating capacity of about 10 to 40 MW

ü… it is in the national interest to accelerate efforts to commercialize OTEC by building pilot and demonstration facilities and and to begin planning for the commercialization of OTEC technology

üA strong and innovative domestic industry committed to the commercialization of OTEC must be established…”

Review of Major Events:

From 1974 to 1981 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) Environmental Impact Statement (prepared by NOAA in

Environmental Impact Statement (prepared by NOAA in 1981)

Review of Major Events:

From 1974 to 1981 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) Demonstration Project @ Hawaii: OTEC-1 (1981) 1-MWe
Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) Demonstration Project @ Hawaii: OTEC-1 (1981) 1-MWe
Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) Demonstration Project @ Hawaii: OTEC-1 (1981) 1-MWe

Demonstration Project @ Hawaii:

OTEC-1 (1981) 1-MWe At-Sea Test Facility Closed-Cycle with NH3 No Turbine (Throttle Valve)

Shell & Tube Titanium Heat Exchangers

Approx. 3 months of operation

Review of Major Events:

From 1974 to 1981 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) Meanwhile, Tokyo Electric Co., Toshiba and the
Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) Meanwhile, Tokyo Electric Co., Toshiba and the
Review of Major Events: From 1974 to 1981 (cont.) Meanwhile, Tokyo Electric Co., Toshiba and the

Meanwhile, Tokyo Electric Co., Toshiba and the Republic of Nauru completed a demonstration plant @ Nauru in 1981:

Closed-Cycle with Freon (R-22) Shell & Tube Titanium Heat Exchangers Gross Power: 120 kW Net Power: 31.5 kW Aprox. 3 months of operation

Plant connected to the island’s electric grid (supplied power to a school)

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.)

Key Statements: ü  PREPA as prime contractor ü  Turn-key project ü  Safety, O&M and environmental factors
Key Statements:
ü  PREPA as prime
contractor
ü  Turn-key project
ü  Safety, O&M and
environmental factors
considered
ü  Novel approach to
deployment of tower and
CWP
ü  Project depended on
Federal support

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.)

Key Statements: ü  No fuel needed (free ocean energy) ü  Correlation between OTEC and economic growth,
Key Statements:
ü  No fuel needed (free
ocean energy)
ü  Correlation between
OTEC and economic
growth, new industries
and job creation

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.)

Proposal considered and emphasized on two major aspects:
Proposal considered and emphasized on two major aspects:

üWorld-wide unique characteristics of Punta Tuna in terms of thermal and cold deep water resources, its proximity to shore, as well as oceanography and bathymetry related profile and advantages

üOne of the best documented OTEC sites in the world

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.) Proposal considered and emphasized on two

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.)

ü  40-MW electric power generation
ü  40-MW electric power generation
PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.) ü  40-MW electric power generation ü

üJacket-type fixed tower in 300 feet of water 1 to 2 miles to shore

üModularized power system (10 MW each module)

üClosed cycle ammonia power system

üNear bottom mounted shell & tube titanium heat exchangers for (1) minimum loading on tower, (2) wave and hurricane protection and (3) process performance

ü3,000 feet CWP – considered at the time as the biggest challenge

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.)

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.) A vision for Puerto Rico Hard

A vision for Puerto Rico

Hard to believe, many would argue, that PREPA did have an economic development vision for Puerto Rico almost 35 years ago based on short, medium and long term commercialization goals of OTEC – PREPA’S proposal was not just to generate power, IT WAS AN INTEGRATED AND VISIONARY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR PUERTO RICO

PHASE
PHASE
INTERNATIONAL CARIBBEAN & PUERTO RICO
INTERNATIONAL
CARIBBEAN &
PUERTO RICO
FIRST MINIMUM SIZE COMMERCIAL PLANTS (10, 20, 40 & 50 MW) 1986-1990 I
FIRST MINIMUM SIZE
COMMERCIAL PLANTS
(10, 20, 40 & 50 MW)
1986-1990
I

TEST

OPERATE

DOD & Isolated Industrial Sites

Developing Island Nations (Caribbean & World)

TEST OPERATE DOD & Isolated Industrial Sites Developing Island Nations (Caribbean & World)
TEST OPERATE DOD & Isolated Industrial Sites Developing Island Nations (Caribbean & World)
FIRST LARGE SIZE COMMERCIAL PLANTS (100 & 300 MW) 1990-1996 II
FIRST LARGE SIZE
COMMERCIAL PLANTS
(100 & 300 MW)
1990-1996
II
FIRST LARGE SIZE COMMERCIAL PLANTS (100 & 300 MW) 1990-1996 II
FIRST LARGE SIZE COMMERCIAL PLANTS (100 & 300 MW) 1990-1996 II
FIRST LARGE SIZE COMMERCIAL PLANTS (100 & 300 MW) 1990-1996 II
FIRST LARGE SIZE COMMERCIAL PLANTS (100 & 300 MW) 1990-1996 II
FIRST LARGE SIZE COMMERCIAL PLANTS (100 & 300 MW) 1990-1996 II

MULTIPLE OTEC POWER PLANTS LAND & NEAR SHORE (400 MW)

1996-2010

III

Punta Tuna & Vieques OTEC Farms plant ocean thermal resource Data on large field multiple Supply
Punta Tuna & Vieques OTEC Farms
plant ocean thermal resource
Data on large field multiple
Supply Vieques, Culebra,
Dominican Republic
PR & St. Thomas
Central America
(2/4/6 400 MW)
Jamaica
World
Haiti
PHASE INTERNATIONAL CARIBBEAN & PUERTO RICO FIRST MINIMUM SIZE COMMERCIAL PLANTS (10, 20, 40 & 50
PHASE INTERNATIONAL CARIBBEAN & PUERTO RICO FIRST MINIMUM SIZE COMMERCIAL PLANTS (10, 20, 40 & 50

ADDITIONAL OTEC PLANTS AT SEA & GRAZING

2010-2030

IV

Expanded maximum OTEC resource use

Grazing OTEC plant ships based in PR

Power supplied to DR, Haiti & USVI

Offshore out of sight (25 miles) moored plants

OTEC principal PR electric power source

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.)

PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.) PR as a global OTEC leader:
PREPA’S 40 MW Plant Proposal to DOE in 1981 (cont.) PR as a global OTEC leader:

PR as a global OTEC leader:

A long-term plan integrating energy with economic growth – manufacturing chemicals, exporting energy, product and related services.

Review of Major Events:

From 1982 to 2006

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 Robert Cohen’s “Energy from the Ocean” is published
Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 Robert Cohen’s “Energy from the Ocean” is published

Robert Cohen’s “Energy from the Ocean” is published

(1982)

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 Robert Cohen’s “Energy from the Ocean” is published

J. Hilbert Anderson’s “OTEC: The Coming Energy Revolution” is published (1982)

Review of Major Events:

From 1982 to 2006 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) ANL published “Conceptual Design of a 10

ANL published “Conceptual Design of a 10 MW Shore-Based OTEC Plant” (1982)

Eugene Kinelski’s “OTEC Heat Exchangers: A Review of R&D” is published (1985)

Review of Major Events:

From 1982 to 2006 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) NOAA published “The Potential Impact of OTEC
Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) NOAA published “The Potential Impact of OTEC

NOAA published “The Potential Impact of OTEC on Fisheries” (1986)

SSEB published “OTEC: An option for PR” based on a 100- MW by SSP to the Government of PR (1987)

Review of Major Events:

From 1982 to 2006 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) SSEB Report Key Statements: ü   PR’s
Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) SSEB Report Key Statements: ü   PR’s
Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) SSEB Report Key Statements: ü   PR’s

SSEB Report Key Statements:

üPR’s vulnerable and fragile economy due to dependency on US manufacturing corporations, federal transfers and imported oil to generate electric power

üPR’s potential to become world leader in OTEC technology and its related spin-off industries

Review of Major Events:

From 1982 to 2006 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) Fluor Daniel published “Feasibility Study of an

Fluor Daniel published “Feasibility Study of an 100 MW OTEC ASCE published “Conceptual Design of an Open Cycle OTEC

Plant” for SSP (1989)

Plant for Production of Electricity and Water” (1989)

Review of Major Events:

From 1982 to 2006 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) Demonstration Project @ Hawaii: 210 kW Open
Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) Demonstration Project @ Hawaii: 210 kW Open

Demonstration Project @ Hawaii:

210 kW Open Cycle Experimental Plant NELHA-PICHTR (1993-1999)

Actual power:

255 kW (gross), 103 kW (net) Water production:

0.4 l/s (9,130 gal/day)

[Facility is still operational (CWP only) for DOW applications and R&D]

Review of Major Events:

From 1982 to 2006 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) Luis Vega’s “Economics of OTEC” is published

Luis Vega’s “Economics of OTEC” is published (1992)

William Avery & Chih Wu’s “Renewable Energy from the Ocean: A Guide to OTEC” is published (1994)

Review of Major Events:

From 1982 to 2006 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) Richard Crews’ “OTEC Sites” is published (1997)

Richard Crews’ “OTEC Sites” is published (1997)

William Avery & Walter Berl’s “Solar Energy from the Tropical Oceans” is published (1998)

Review of Major Events:

From 1982 to 2006 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) Luis Vega’s “OTEC” is published (1999) Luis

Luis Vega’s “OTEC” is published (1999)

Luis Vega’s “OTEC Primer” is published (2003)

Review of Major Events:

From 1982 to 2006 (cont.)

Review of Major Events: From 1982 to 2006 (cont.) ASME published “The First Commercial OTEC Power

ASME published “The First Commercial OTEC Power Plant” (2004)

Don Lennard’s “OTEC: Its Position in the Renewable Energy Scene” is published (2005)

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present

In Puerto Rico…
In Puerto Rico…

“An Energy Solution for PR” video is launched by OIA – with over 349,000 views in YouTube since 2007

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present In Puerto Rico… “An Energy Solution for PR”

Proposal to PREPA for 75 MW OTEC plant is submitted by OIA (2007)

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

In Puerto Rico…
In Puerto Rico…
Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) In Puerto Rico… Multiple conferences across the
Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) In Puerto Rico… Multiple conferences across the
Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) In Puerto Rico… Multiple conferences across the

Multiple conferences across the Island to raise awareness and educate about OTEC and its benefits to Puerto Rico

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

In Puerto Rico…
In Puerto Rico…

Press Article about OTEC (El Nuevo Día on June 24, 2008)

Press Article about OTEC (El Vocero on April 17, 2010)

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

In Puerto Rico…
In Puerto Rico…

PREPA’s strategic plan including OIA’s proposal to develop OTEC (Caribbean Business on March 12, 2009)

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

In Puerto Rico…
In Puerto Rico…

Press Article about OTEC (Primera Hora on February 18, 2010)

Press Article about OTEC (El Nuevo Día on September 21, 2011)

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

In Puerto Rico…
In Puerto Rico…

“OTEC: Heat Exchanger Evaluation and Selection” is published (Manuel Laboy et al. 2010)

“Commercial Implementation of OTEC” is published (Manuel Laboy et al. 2010)

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

In Puerto Rico…
In Puerto Rico…

Proposal to PRASA for OTEC plant (electric power and water) is submitted by OIA (2009)

OTEC is included in the PPD 2012 political proposal “Plan Energético Nacional”

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

In Puerto Rico… 2012:
In Puerto Rico…
2012:
Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) In Puerto Rico… 2012: “Senate Resolution 289

“Senate Resolution 289 directs the island government’s Energy Affairs Administration to seek federal funds and private financing for a power plant in the Punta Tuna area of Maunabo. The Senate bill aims “to position Puerto Rico as a world- class center of research, development and production.” The Senate report on the measure projects $90 million in annual revenue from the sale of OTEC power at 15 cents per kilowatt hour, which is well below the current cost of oil-fired power production in Puerto Rico. It notes that an OTEC project could be undertaken through a public- private partnership (PPP). A 2008 report by researchers at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayagüez characterized Puerto Rico as the best location in the world for OTEC.”

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

Meanwhile, outside PR…
Meanwhile, outside PR…
Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… ANL Workshop Washington DC

ANL Workshop Washington DC

2007

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… ANL Workshop Washington DC

NOAA-UNH Workshops 2009 & 2010

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… ANL Workshop Washington DC

Energy Ocean International

2009

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… ANL Workshop Washington DC

Energy Ocean International

2010

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

Meanwhile, outside PR…
Meanwhile, outside PR…
Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… OTEC Assessing Potential Physical,

OTEC Technical Readiness Report from NOAA (2009)

OTEC Assessing Potential Physical, Chemical and Biological Impacts and Risks Report from NOAA (2010)

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

Meanwhile, outside PR…
Meanwhile, outside PR…

Hawaii published “Federal and State Approvals for Marine and OTEC” (2011)

Lockheed Martin published “A Developer’s Roadmap to OTEC Commercialization” (2011)

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

Meanwhile, outside PR…
Meanwhile, outside PR…

NELHA published “Draft EIA for OTEC Plant in Hawaii” (2012)

Makai Engineering published “The Hydrogen Economy of 2050 – OTEC Driven?”

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

Meanwhile, outside PR…
Meanwhile, outside PR…

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

Meanwhile, outside PR…
Meanwhile, outside PR…

1 st OTEC International Symposium – Hawaii (2013) 2 nd OTEC International Symposium – Korea (2014) 3 rd OTEC International Symposium – Malaysia (2015)

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… 1 OTEC International Symposium

R&D and Commercialization Facilities:

OTEC and Desalination Room Heat Exchanger Room Hydrogen Experimental Room Deep Seawater Simulation Room

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… 1 OTEC International Symposium

R&D and Commercialization Activities:

Heat Exchangers Power Cycle Process Simulation

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

Meanwhile, outside PR…
Meanwhile, outside PR…

R&D and Commercialization Activities:

OTEC power cycle design analysis OTEC power cycle component analysis Offshore OTEC research OTEC implementation studies

TU Delft spin-off company: Bluerise

Technology provider and project developer of Ocean Thermal Energy solutions located in the Netherlands

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… R&D and Commercialization Activities:

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.)

Meanwhile, outside PR…
Meanwhile, outside PR…

Hawaiian Electric Company is in negotiations for a power purchase agreement with an ocean thermal energy conversion company. A preliminary agreement has been reached for a unit off the southwest coast of Oahu near the utility’s Kahe Power Plant.

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… Hawaiian Electric Company is

Hawaii Ocean Science and Technology Park (HOST Park)

R&D Activities:

Heat Exchanger Test Facility Deep Ocean Water Applications

Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… Hawaiian Electric Company is
Recent Developments and Current Projects: 2007 to Present (cont.) Meanwhile, outside PR… Hawaiian Electric Company is

R&D Activities:

Aluminum Corrosion and Biocorrosion Testing Interactive OTEC Power Atlas

Understanding OTEC History What Really Happened?

The world…
The world…

*Cost of oil dropped back to $30/bbl in 1987 and $15/bbl in 1998 *Reagan administration favored nuclear power *OTEC was perceive as “high risk and yet-to-be-demonstrated technology”

üThis alleged perception contradicts the conclusions that formed the basis for PL 96-310 and PL 96-320

*Perceptions of the need for alternative energy sources diminished

üSupported by low cost of oil (< $30/bbl)

*Essentially all efforts depended on government funding

üFederal government (and other nations) stopped most funding for OTEC research in mid 1980’s 1990’s

*Global warming not a major concern until much later

Understanding OTEC History What Really Happened? (cont.)

Puerto Rico…
Puerto Rico…

*Cost of oil dropped back to $30/bbl in 1987 and $15/bbl in 1998 *PREPA’s avoided cost (used to be a serious barrier) *Local government waiting for Uncle Sam (or someone else from the outside) to be the first and/or make things happen… *Lack of support from some local renewable energy advocates and proponents

üErroneous perception that OTEC competes with Solar, Wind, Biomass/ Biofuels or other renewable energy sources

*Local government lack (poor or deficient?) of leadership and vision…

üPerhaps afraid (or not used to the idea) to lead the world…

Understanding OTEC History What Really Happened? (cont.)

Puerto Rico and the world…
Puerto Rico and the world…
Understanding OTEC History What Really Happened? (cont.) Puerto Rico and the world… History of Oil Prices

History of Oil Prices (1975-2008) (in 2008 $$)

1981: ~$100/bbl (PREPA’s proposal for 40 MW plant) 1987: ~$30/bbl (Private proposal for 100 MW plant) 1994: ~$25/bbl (Avery’s proposal for government-funded 40 MW plant) 1998: ~$15/bbl

(Avery’s proposal for government-funded 40 MW plant; private proposal for 200 MW in PR)

2008: ~$148/bbl (OIA’s proposal for 75 MW plant in PR)

August 7 th , 2015: ~$45/bbl

Understanding OTEC History What Really Happened? (cont.)

Puerto Rico and the US… Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico and the US…
Puerto Rico
Understanding OTEC History What Really Happened? (cont.) Puerto Rico and the US… Puerto Rico 1985: 98%

1985:

98% oil-fired, 2% renewable (hydro)

2006:

~73.1% oil-fired, ~12.8% natural gas, ~13.6% carbon, ~0.5% renewable (hydro)

2013:

[Approx. 11-12% today]

In 2013, 55% oil-fired, 28% natural gas, 16% coal, 1% from renewable (solar, wind & hydro)

Puerto Rico and OTEC: Today

After 35 years since PREPA’s proposal to the DOE…
After 35 years since PREPA’s proposal
to the DOE…

*No OTEC commercial plant *No OTEC demonstration or pilot plant *No OTEC R&D facilities, initiatives and programs *No OTEC cluster(s) or centers of excellence *No specific legislation for OTEC commercialization roadmap *No OTEC specific (or general) curriculum at university level (BS, MS or PhD) *No government support or government-led programs and initiatives for OTEC *No private sector support or private sector-led programs and initiatives for OTEC *Still, and sadly, no local government leadership and vision for OTEC…

üStill, waiting for Uncle Sam (or someone else from the outside) to be the first and/ or make things happen…

üStill, erroneous perception that OTEC competes with Solar, Wind, Biomass/ Biofuels or other renewable energy sources üPerhaps, we are still afraid (or not used to the idea) to lead the world…

Puerto Rico and OTEC: The Future

A vision for Puerto Rico: Options for Sustainable Economic Development

Puerto Rico and OTEC: The Future A vision for Puerto Rico: Options for Sustainable Economic Development

The window of opportunity still exists…

Puerto Rico has the best location, natural resources and market conditions to built and operate the 1 st OTEC commercial plant in the world TODAY – to become the world-wide leader in OTEC

Puerto Rico and OTEC: The Future A vision for Puerto Rico: Options for Sustainable Economic Development
Puerto Rico and OTEC: The Future A vision for Puerto Rico: Options for Sustainable Economic Development

Puerto Rico and OTEC: The Future

A vision for Puerto Rico: Options for Sustainable Economic Development

This is what we can achieve…
This is what we can achieve…

*OTEC renewable and baseload electric power generation

üLocal consumption – clean, renewable and competitive cost üExport to the Caribbean region

*OTEC co-generation of desalinated water at competitive cost

üLocal consumption – for potable water and irrigation üExport to the Caribbean region and the world

*Deep ocean water applications

üSea water air conditioning for coastal facilities (i.e. hotels and resorts) üMariculture/aquaculture (lobsters, shrimp, salmon, others) üMicro-algae (for production of bio-fuels and specialty chemicals)

Puerto Rico and OTEC: The Future

A vision for Puerto Rico: Options for Sustainable Economic Development

This is what we can achieve…
This is what we can achieve…

*World-class R&D, clusters and centers of excellence

üOTEC engineering and design üHeat exchangers and power cycles üOceanography and marine science üDeep ocean water applications

*World leader in OTEC products and services

üExport OTEC manufacturing equipment üExport services (engineering scientific know-how, R&D)

*World leader in the production of green chemicals

üUse OTEC 2 nd and 3 rd generation plants to produce energy-intensive green chemicals such as Hydrogen, NH3, Methanol, Nitrogen, Oxygen and CO2

üAttract other industries for manufacturing products that required these green chemicals as raw materials üExport these green chemicals to the Caribbean, US and the world

Puerto Rico and OTEC: The Future

A vision for Puerto Rico: Options for Sustainable Economic Development

This is what we can achieve…
This is what we can achieve…
Puerto Rico and OTEC: The Future A vision for Puerto Rico: Options for Sustainable Economic Development

True economic development, growth and industry/academy integration:

üCreation of OTEC/DOW centers of excellence and clusters around the local universities and OTEC natural resources

üIntegration, maximization and optimal utilization for CORCO old facilities/ land and Port of the Americas

Puerto Rico and OTEC: The Future

Suggested Roadmap for Implementation

Actions that can be taken today…
Actions that can be taken today…

*First commercial plant (>50 MW) in Punta Tuna (closed-cycle, electric power only) – PPA with PREPA or PPP (4-5 years development – engineering/design, permitting/licensing, procurement, construction/deployment, start-up and operation)

*Parallel, a demonstration or pilot plant (1-5 MW) in Punta Tuna (hybrid cycle, electric power and water) – PPA with PRASA or PPP (3-4 years development) – integrate UPR

*Pass two state laws, one for OTEC commercialization and development, and one for regulatory framework (similar to PL 96-310 and PL 96-320)

üTreat OTEC as a top economic development priority

üFormulate (and implement) bold strategy and integrate both public sector (DDEC, PRIDCO, OEPPE, etc.) and private sector (CIAPR, etc.)

*Develop the first Puerto Rico OTEC/DOW R&D and Center of Excellence

üPSTRT to lead and finance efforts in collaboration with UPR and private sector

The End

Remember…
Remember…

“…there are few things that are unprecedented and few opportunities for changing the game”

– George Friedman

The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21 st Century

(2010)

WE HAVE A UNIQUE OPPORTUNITY TO CHANGE THE GAME TO ACHIEVE LONG- TERM GROWTH AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FOR PUERTO RICO…

Q&A Session

Email: laboy.manuel@rocketmail.com

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