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11 Process heating, power and incineration

(energy applications

in industryl

hot metal temperature

with a forecast horizon of 40 min. As far as the
variables used to develop the model from data supplied by an actual
blast furnace sensors, it is necessary to analyse properly and handle
such data. Attention was paid to temporal data correlation
fitted by
the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the
model, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and the subtractive
clustering algorithms have been used.
Method for blow injection of powdered waste
plastics into blast furnace
Kamei, Y. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2000 178,614 (Cl. C21B5/00), 27
Jun 2000, Appl. 1998/356,245, 15 Dee 1998. 5. (In Japanese)
Powdered waste plastics is injected into a blast furnace by blowing
through a nozzle inserted in a blow pipe at the upstream; the auxiliary
fuel (powdered coal, heavy oil, tar, natural gas, etc.) is blow injected
through the nozzle in the blow pipe at the downstream. The maximum
particle diameter, S (mm), of the powdered plastics is determined by
the distance, D (mm), between the nozzle for injection of the powdered
plastics and that for injection of the auxiliary fuel: (1) (35s + 50) 5 D
5 (100s + 1000) for S < 10, and (2) (30s + 100) 5 D 5 2000 for S 2
Method for blow injection of synthetic resin
powder as fuel into shaft furnace
Sato, M. er al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2000 144,221 (Cl. C21B7/
00), 26 May 2000, Appl. 1998/322.233, 12 Nov 1998. 7. (In Japanese)
Powdered synthetic resin having an average particle diameter 22 mm is
blown into a shaft furnace at an average strength index 2500 kg/mm for
improved combustion
of the powdered
resin in the raceway. The
definition of the strength index is given mathematically.
Method for charging of cokes and iron ore in beiiless blast furnace
Ichida, M. er al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2000 160,214 (Cl. C21B5/
00). 13 Jun 2000, JP Anul. 19981285,863, 24 Sen 1998. 9. (In Jauanese)
The final-charging
cokes is fed into the furnace centre using a rotary
chute and then iron ore is fed into the positions between the charged
cokes and the furnace walls using a rotary chute. Cokes and iron ores
charged prior to the above treatment may be placed in layers. Melt
zone, stable against change in production amount, can be formed.
Method for loading blast furnace with ore raw
material and fuel
Kasai, A. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2000 144,218 (Cl. C21B5/
00) 26 May 2000, Appl. 1998/325,375, 16 Nov 1998. 6. (In Japanese)
A blast furnace is loaded reciprocally with an ore material and a fuel in
layers while agglomerated
solid reducing agent powder and ore powder
mixture with coke is supplied to the centre part of the blast furnace
through another route. The size of the agglomerate
of the reducing
agent powder and the ore powder is optionally specified. Without
causing pressure loss in the central core, the centre gas flow in the
central core of the blast furnace is surely retained and the central core
filling structure can be optimized to carry out stabile metal refining.
of the Luanshya Smelter, Zambia
Mukherjee, A. er al. Proc. COPPER 99-COBRE 99 Inr. Conf., 4th,
1999, 5, 1-15. Edited by George D.B.
The Luanshya Copper Smelter is a traditional Reverberatory
which once worked with up to three coal-fired
reverbs, and now
operates one Reverb and one hot Peirce-Smith Converter, projected to
produce approximately
42 000 tons/year of copper anodes. The aim of
this study is to select a smelting technology which best fits the upgrading of the Smelter, such that low capital and operating costs are
achieved for the projected design production capacity of 60000 tons/
year, limited by the available supplies of concentrations.
An equally
important requisite is the compliance of present and future environmental regulations, which determines the need to install an Acid Plant
to treat the smelter primary gases. In the process selection study, the
following technologies
were analysed, at a Conceptual
level: the Oxy-fuel Burner Reverb, the Teniente
Cyclone Smelting
and further,
the Ausmelt
Furnace, the engineering
of which was provided by the proprietary
firm. The engineering of the other processes was developed by INDEC,
which also integrated the comparative analysis of the four options. The
analysis of a comprehensive
set of technical
integrated smelter metallurgical models, together with the evaluations
of economical features, led to the selection of the CONTOP Smelting
Technology for the modernization
of the Luanshya Smelter.
Process for caicination of petrol coke by heattransfer material and device thereof
Cui, W., Chen, H. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu
CN 1,229,837 (Cl. ClOGSS/OO), 29 Sep 1999, Appl. 98,106,598, 19 Mar
1998. 6. (In Chinese)


Fuel and Energy Abstracts

January 2002

The device is coke oven, made of oven wall, central furnace barrel,
furnace barrel for heat-transfer
material, feeding inlet, and discharging
machine. The inner layer of the furnace wall is furnace barrel for heattransfer material made of insulation firebrick, whose inner barrel is
central furnace barrel (combustion chamber) made of silica brick. The
process comprises putting the petrol coke and heat-transfer
into the combustion chamber, heating to 2004 in the preheating zone,
then to 1000-1100~ in the calcination zone, calcinating at about 1OOOo
for 5 h to produce high quality petrol coke and byproduct. The volatile
matter with boiling point of 200-5004 is used to heat the heat-transfer
material. The heat-transfer
material is limestone.

Research and development of BL direct reduction

Li, Y. PI al. Gangfie, 1999, 34, (9), 610.
(In Chinese)
Industry Corporation
have jointly developed a new direct reduction
process named BL DR process, in which the Texaco coal gasification
process is used for direct reduction of iron ore in a shaft furnace. A
pilot shaft furnace has been set up and successful result has been
The present paper introduces
the R & D of this new

Softening and melting properties of pellets for a

high level of pulverized coal-injected blast furnace operation
Yi, S. et al. Stand. J. Merail., 1999, 28, (6), 260-265.
A study on the preferred physicochemical
and metallurgical properties
of fluxed pellets has been undertaken
assuming a higher pellet ratio in
order to maintain a higher productivity of sinter plants. Experimental
conditions were selected to simulate a high pulverized coal rate (PCR)
operation at the blast furnace for evaluating common pellets under
high production
rate operation.
The higher PCR would potentially
result in a wider cohesive zone due to the relatively increased load
distributed onto the burdens and encourage gradual widening of the
cohesive zone due to the higher level of hydrogen and a virtual load
increase onto the burdens. As a result of various changes inside the
furnace with increased PCR, the size consistency of all charge materials
must be controlled
and maintained,
aside from monitoring
Experiments were carried out to determine
the effects of the load, pre-reduction
and hydrogen gas on the high
of the common
pellets. The results
indicated that the high PCR operation would have a wider cohesive
zone compared to the all-coke operation.

Technical study and application of coal-burning

gas for heating furnace
Cao, Z. Gongye Jiare, 2000, 2, 27-31. (In Chinese)
The gas-producing
for use in heating
presented. The temperature
of working chamber and the temperature
control of the coal gas were analysed and calculated. The furnace is
used in the heating with clean air production.

Temperature control in blast furnace raysway
Ichida, M. et al. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 2000 160,215 (Cl. C21B5/
00), 13 Jun 2000, Appl. 1998/341,901, 1 Dee 1998. 8. (In Japanese)
A double-wall lance is used to blow a fine coal powder from a blast
furnace tuyere. The coal powder is supplied through an inner tube, and
a cooling flow is supplied from the space between the inner tube and
the outer tube. The cooling air rate is adjusted according to the charge
distribution (O/C) of the blast furnace, and the combustion focal point
of the coal powder is set in the optimum position.

The effect of pulverized coal injection in blast

furnace using computer simulation technique
Wong, P.L.M. et al. Mer. Mater. (Seoul), 2000, 6, (2), 151-154.
A computer model simulates the effect of different types of coals on
blast furnace operations.
In this study, two kinds of programmes,
CHEMIX and ESTIMA as parts of a thermochemical
package known
as THERMOChem.
were used for checking the adiabatic flame
Results showed that the adiabatic temperature
considerably as the pulverized coal injection (PCI) rate increased, with
the rate of decrease largely dependent on the chemical properties of
the coal-mainly the carbon content and calorific value. The coal with
the least carbon content has the least effect on the flame temperature.
However, the coal/coke replacement ratio is very low. PC1 increases the
rate of generation of the reducing gases, namely CO (g) and Hz (g),
which depend largely on the chemical properties of coal. The results
suggest that a simple calculation using computing programmes may be
useful for determining
the suitability of a coal for injection in blast

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