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Pre-Greek

Brill Introductions to
Indo-European Languages
Series Editors
Michiel de Vaan
Alexander Lubotsky

volume 2

The titles published in this series are listed at brill.com/iiel

Pre-Greek
Phonology, Morphology, Lexicon

By

Robert S.P. Beekes


Edited by

Stefan Norbruis

leiden | boston

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data


Beekes, R. S. P. (Robert Stephen Paul), author
Pre-Greek : phonology, morphology, lexicon / By Robert S.P. Beekes ; Edited by Stefan Norbruis.
p. cm. (Brill introductions to Indo-European languages ; Volume 2)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-90-04-27938-4 ((pbk.) : alk. paper) ISBN 978-90-04-27944-5 (e-book)
1. Greek language, ModernGrammar. 2. Greek language, ModernPhonology. 3. Greek language,
ModernMorphology. 4. Greek language, ModernSyntax. 5. Greek language, ModernLexicology. I.
Norbruis, Stefan, editor. II. Title.
PA1058.B44 2014
487'.1dc23
2014027870

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Contents
Preface ix
Abbreviations

1 Introduction 1
2 Phonology 4
1
The Phonemic System of Pre-Greek 4
2a Characteristic Phonemes and Phoneme Clusters 9
2b How to Recognize Words as Pre-Greek? 13
3
Prothetic Vowel 13
4
s-mobile 14
5
Consonant Variation 14
5.1 Voiceless / Voiced / Aspirated Stop 14
5.2 Prenasalization 14
5.3 Nasalization 14
5.4 Labial Stops / / u 15
5.5 Stops Interchanging with (), with Stop + / or with +
Stop 16
5.6 Velar / Labial / Dental Stops; Labiovelars 19
5.7 Dentals / Liquids 20
5.8 Simple / Geminate 21
5.9 / Zero 21
5.10 Velar or Dental Stop / Zero 21
5.11 -, - / Zero 22
5.12 Metathesis, Shift of Aspiration 22
5.13 Secondary Phonetic Developments 22
5.14 Other Variation 22
6
Vowel Variation 23
6.1 Single Vowels (Timbre) 23
6.2 Long / Short 25
6.3 Single Vowel / Diphthong 25
6.4 Rising Diphthongs? 26
6.5 Secondary Vowels (or Elision) 26
3 Morphology 27
1
Reduplication 27
2
Suffixes 27

vi

contents

2.1 Introduction 27
2.2 Survey of the Suffixes 28
2.3 The Suffixes 29
Word End 43
3.1 Words Ending in a Vowel 43
3.2 Words Ending in - 44
3.3 Words with a Nom. in - or - 44
3.4 Words in - 44
3.5 Words Ending in - (-stems) 44

4 The Unity of Pre-Greek 45


5 Pre-Greek is Non-Indo-European 46
6 The Pre-Greek Lexicon 47
1
Landscape and Natural Phenomena 47
2
Minerals 51
3
Flora 54
3.1 Trees and Shrubs (and Their Products) 54
3.2 Wild and Cultivated Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts 58
3.3 Aromatic, Medicinal and Toxic Herbs 62
3.4 Other (Useful) Plants and Flowers 66
3.5 Fungi 70
4
Fauna 71
4.1 Domesticated Animals and Their Attributes 71
4.2 Other Mammals (Also Aquatic) 73
4.3 Birds 75
4.4 Reptiles and Amphibians 79
4.5 Fish 80
4.6 Molluscs, Crustaceans, and Other (Marine) Invertebrates 84
4.7 Insects and Arthropods 87
4.8 Worms (Also Parasites) 90
5
Agriculture 90
5.1 Cereal Culture 90
5.2 Viniculture 92
6
Prepared Food 94
7
Human Physiology 97
7.1 The Human Body 97
7.2 Affections and Diseases 102
7.3 Sex 105

vii

contents

8
9

10

11

12

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Attire and Jewellery 106


Equipment and Utensils 108
9.1 Furniture 108
9.2 Containers 109
9.3 Dishware 113
9.4 Domestic and Craft Tools 114
9.5 Hunting and Fishing Equipment 117
9.6 Armor and Weaponry 117
9.7 Horse Tack 119
9.8 Means of Transport 120
9.9 Other Technical Terms 121
Construction 124
10.1 Architecture and Constructional Elements 124
10.2 Infrastructure 127
Society 128
11.1 Social Hierarchy and Administration 128
11.2 Military Expressions 130
11.3 Professions and Other Societal Appellatives 131
Culture 133
12.1 Contest 133
12.2 Sculpture 134
12.3 Musical Instruments, Performing Arts 135
12.4 Religious Festivals and Feasting 136
12.5 Divine and Numinous Beings, Priests and Temples 137
Adjectives Marking a Certain Quality 138
Abstract Expressions 148
Verbs 150
Adverbs 158
Sounds and Interjections 159
Theonyms, Divine Epithets, Mythical Characters 160
Toponyms and Ethnonyms 163

Bibliography
Index 170

165

Preface
One of Robert Beekes main objectives in writing his Etymological Dictionary of
Greek (edg) was to collect and analyze the Pre-Greek material contained in the
Greek lexicon, building especially on studies by F.B.J. Kuiper and E.J. Furne,
and on his own research conducted over several decades. The present book
provides an overview of Beekes findings, with sections on phonology, morphology, linguistic unity and affiliation, as well as a lexicon of Greek etyma which
in Beekes view are certainly of Pre-Greek origin (those marked with pg in
edg).
When working on this book, Beekes received assistance from Alexander
Lubotsky and Wouter Henkelman, who compiled and classified the lexicon,
respectively. Unfortunately, Beekes health did not allow him to complete the
book himself; he was unable to work on it after February 2010. Some parts,
especially the lexicon, were still in a rather rudimentary condition at this point.
Initial efforts to remedy this were made by Michal Peyrot, who supplied part of
the lexicon with references to the preceding chapters. Later, I was asked to bring
the book to completion; I am grateful to Alexander Lubotsky for entrusting me
with it.
As a starting point in the creation of the lexicon, the most important textual
elements pertaining to Pre-Greek had been extracted from the corresponding
lemmas in edg. Where necessary I have reestablished cohesion, added more
information from edg or supplemented the argumentation. The practice of
adding references has been extended to the rest of the lexicon. In the first
chapters, I have corrected some inconsistencies and typographical errors, and
adapted and added a number of variations and suffixes on the basis of the
lexicon. At some points in the book I have added suggestions of my own or
adduced new material; such additions are introduced by [sn]. Finally, I have
standardized the format of the bibliographical references and compiled the
section on abbreviations, the bibliography and the index.
Stefan Norbruis
April 2014

Abbreviations
For book abbreviations, see the bibliography.

1
Aeol.
Alb.
Arc.
Arm.
Att.
Berb.
Boeot.
Corcyr.
Cret.
Cypr.
Dor.
Epid.
Etr.
gloss.
Go.
Gr.
Heracl.
Hitt.
Hurr.
ia
ie
Ion.
Lac.

2
acc.
acc. to
adj.
adv.
aor.

Languages
Aeolic
Albanian
Arcadian
Classical Armenian
Attic
Berber
Boeotian
Corcyrean
Cretan
Cyprian
Doric
Epidaurian
Etruscan
in glosses
Gothic
Greek
Heraclean
Hittite
Hurrian
Ionic-Attic
Indo-European
Ionic
Laconian

Lat.
Lesb.
Lith.
Locr.
Luw.
Lyc.
Maced.
Meg.
Mess.
MGr.
MoE
MoGr.
Myc.
ohg
ORu.
Pamph.
pg
PGm.
Phoc.
pie
Rhod.
Syrac.
Thess.

Latin
Lesbian
Lithuanian
Locrian
Luwian
Lycian
Macedonian
Megarian
Messenian
Middle Greek
Modern English
Modern Greek
Mycenaean
Old High German
Old Russian
Pamphylian
Pre-Greek
Proto-Germanic
Phocian
Proto-Indo-European
Rhodian
Syracusan
Thessalian

bc
c.
cf.
cod.
coll.

before Christ
century
compare
codex, manuscript
collective

Grammar and Text


accusative
according to
adjective
adverb
aorist

xi

abbreviations
compar.
conj.
dat.
du.
e.g.
en
et al.
f.
fut.
gen.
hn
id.
i.e.
inscr.
intr.
ipv.
litt.
m
m.
med.
ms.
n.

comparative
conjecture
dative
dual
for example
ethnonym
and others
feminine
future
genitive
hydronym
idem
that is
inscription(s)
intransitive
imperative
literature
mountain
masculine
middle
manuscript
neuter

nom.
opt.
ostr.
p.
p.c.
pap.
perf.
pl.
plpf.
pn
pres.
s.v.
sch.
sg.
subst.
tn
v.
var.
vel sim.
viz.
v.l.
voc.

nominative
optative
ostracon, ostraca
page
personal communication
papyrus, papyri
perfect
plural
pluperfect
personal name
present
sub voce
scholium
singular
substantive
toponym
verb
variant
or similarly
namely, to wit
varia lectio
vocative

Authors and Works

Only the most common authors and works are mentioned here. Please refer to
lsj for a complete list.
A.
A. R.
ab
Ael.
Alc.
Alcm.
Anacr.
ap
Ar.
Archil.
Arist.

Aeschylus
Apollonius Rhodius
Anecdota Graeca, v. i
Aelianus
Alcaeus
Alcman
Anacreon
Anthologia Graeca
Aristophanes
Archilochus
Aristoteles

Ath.
Call.
Com.
Cratin.
D.
D. S.
Dsc.
E.
em
Epich.
Eub.

Athenaeus
Callimachus
Comedy, Comic
Cratinus
Demosthenes
Diodorus Siculus
Dioscorides
Euripides
Etymologicum Magnum
Epicharmus
Eubulus

xii
Eup.
Eust.
Gal.
Gp.
Gr.
gramm.
H.
h. Hom.
Hdn.
Hdt.
Hell.
Hes.
Hippon.
Hom.
Hp.
Il.
Luc.
lxx
Lyc.
lyr.
Lys.
Nic.
Od.

abbreviations
Eupolis
Eustathius
Galenus
Geoponica
Grammaticus
grammarians
Hesychius
Hymni Homerici
Herodianus
Herodotus
Hellenistic
Hesiodus
Hipponax
Homer
Hippocrates
Iliad
Lucianus
Septuagint
Lycophron
lyric poetry
Lysias
Nicander or Nicias
Odyssey

Opp.
Paus.
Ph.
Pherecr.
Phot.
Pi.
Pl.
Plb.
Plin.
Plu.
poet.
Poll.
post-Hom.
S.
Sapph.
Str.
Suid.
Tab. Heracl.
Th.
Theoc.
Thphr.
trag.
X.

Oppianus
Pausanias
Philo
Pherecrates
Photius
Pindarus
Plato
Polybius
Pliny
Plutarchus
poetica
Pollux
post-Homeric
Sophocles
Sappho
Strabo
Suidas
Tabulae Heracleenses
Thucydides
Theocritus
Theophrastus
tragic, tragedy
Xenophon

chapter 1

Introduction
The substrate language of Greek will here be called Pre-Greek; this is a translation of the German term das Vorgriechische. No written texts exist in this
language, but it is known from a considerable number of loanwords in Greek.
The study of Pre-Greek has had an unfortunate history. In the past century, it was called Pelasgian and considered a dialect of Indo-European. This
idea fascinated scholars, and research concentrated on this proposal. But the
whole idea was clearly wrong. The latest attempt to defend it was Heubecks
Minoisch-Mykenisch (discussed by Furne 1972: 5566), where the material
was reduced to some ten words. The theory, which has done much harm, has
by now been tacitly abandoned and it is currently generally agreed upon that
the substrate was non-Indo-European. Therefore, the term Pelasgian can no
longer be used. Frisk already had strong doubts about the Pelasgian theory, but
nevertheless often mentioned the proposals of its adherents in his dictionary.
Since all work following this line has turned out to be useless, I decided to make
no mention of the theory anymore.
When Frisk completed his dictionary in 1972, Furnes book Die wichtigsten
konsonantischen Erscheinungen des Vorgriechischen, which was his dissertation written under the supervision of F.B.J. Kuiper, had just appeared. It was an
elaboration of Kuipers 1956 study on Greek substrate words, which opened a
new chapter in the research of the field. Furne rejected the Pelasgian theory,
too (see especially 1972: 4055).
Furnes book met with fierce criticism and was largely neglected. In my
view, this was a major mistake in Greek scholarship. True, some of his identifications are improbable, and his repeated claim that certain forms were expressive leads nowhere. What remains, however, is that he studied a great number
of relevant forms and drew obvious conclusions from them. Pre-Greek words
often show a type of variation which is not found in inherited words. It is selfevident that this variation must be studied, and this is what Furne did. It has
turned out (as Kuiper had already shown) that this variation shows certain
recurrent patterns and can be used to recognize Pre-Greek elements.
Furnes book is not easy to use: every form is discussed at three or four
places, each time in a different context, so that it can be difficult to find out
what his point really is. On the other hand, his treatment is very careful, and
there are hardly any obvious mistakes. I found a number of cases which he had
not recognized (e.g. ), but this does not change the fact that his book

koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2014 | doi: 10.1163/9789004279445_002

chapter 1

was the best collection at the time. Furne worked on it for twenty years, and
even now it is the only handbook on the subject. The short overview which
follows below is based on Furnes material and on my own research of more
than thirty years.1
Furne went astray in two respects. First, he considered almost all variation
to be of an expressive character, which is certainly wrong: it is evident that the
variation found is due to the adaptation of words (or phonemes) of a foreign
language to Greek. We shall see below that many variants can be understood
in this way. Secondly, Furne was sometimes overzealous in his search for
inner-Greek correspondences. Many of Furnes discoveries are brilliant (see
s.v. in 6.3.4 for an example), but sometimes he went too far: not every
alternation necessarily points to Pre-Greek origin. The author can hardly be
blamed for his enthusiasm. He was exploring new ground, and it can only be
expected that he sometimes overplayed his hand.
Several scholars were baffled by Furnes proposals and hence rejected the
whole book altogether. His method, however, was sound, and I have only
filtered out the improbable suggestions. In many cases, of course, absolute
certainty cannot be attained, but this should not be an objection. Except for a
very small number of cases, Furnes material does consist of actual Pre-Greek
words. His index contains 4,400 words, and taking into account that many of
these words concern derivatives and variants, as well as a few Indo-European
words, I estimate that Furnes book discusses some 1000 Pre-Greek etyma.2
In general, I have given only a few personal names and toponyms, and no
material of this kind from outside Greece and Asia Minor. The comparison with
Basque or Caucasian languages has not been considered here, as it is beyond
my competence; it is likely that there are such connections, but I readily leave
those for other scholars to explore.
My suggested reconstructions are not essential. One may ignore them and
just consider the variation itself. These variants are often explained as incidental phenomena (assimilation, influence of other words, etc.), and such
explanations may sometimes be correct. However, if the variation occurs frequently, a Pre-Greek origin must be considered. The etymological dictionaries
by Chantraine and Frisk often seem to avoid the conclusion that a word is a substrate element. It is remarkable that Chantraine was quite aware of the problem

1 Since Kuiper was my supervisor as well, I was acquainted with the book from the very
beginning (see my review in Lingua 36, 1975).
2 Note that Furne often adduces new material that is not mentioned in the current etymological dictionaries, mostly glosses from Hesychius.

introduction

in his Formation, but in his dictionary he often withdrew his earlier evaluation
(which in my view was the correct one). It looks as if substrate elements were
not welcome.
The relationship with Anatolian languages is a separate problem. A Greek
word is often called a loan from an Anatolian language, while it may just as well
have been borrowed from the Pre-Greek substrate. It is generally accepted, on
the basis of toponyms, that there once was a language which was spoken both
in Greece and in western Asia Minor.3 In most cases, however, it is impossible
to distinguish between substrate words and loans from Asia Minor (the latter
are from a later date). A word may have been adopted through commerce,
which must have been a regular phenomenon, or may have resulted from local
borrowing in Asia Minor, from the time when Greeks settled there, probably
as early as the 15th century. From a methodological point of view, I think it is
better to consider such words to be Pre-Greek, and to define them as loanwords
from an Anatolian language only when there is reason to do so. Still, it is
clear that we may often make mistakes here. A case in point is clew,
ball of wool ready for spinning. This word is clearly related to Luwian and
Hitt. taluppa/i- lump, clod. The Greek word is typical of Pre-Greek words:
the structure CaC-up- (with a appearing as o before u) and the absence of
an Indo-European etymology (Melchert 1998 is not convincing) imply that
the word is Pre-Greek or Pre-Anatolian. On the other hand, a word meaning
clew is perhaps not easily brought from overseas; it is an everyday word
that the speakers of Greek and Anatolian must have picked up not far from
home. I completely agree with Furnes interpretation (1972: 3533) that the
word was brought to Greece by settlers from Anatolia who spoke the language
which, from another perspective, we call Pre-Greek. In other words,
is a loan from an Anatolian language, but this (probably non-Indo-European)
language was also spoken in large parts of Greece before the Greeks (speaking
an Indo-European language) arrived there.
It is essential to realize that substrate words are a frequent if not mundane
phenomenon. Regret over this fact (from an Indo-Europeanist point of view, or
otherwise) is irrelevant, and should not keep one from accepting the evident
existence of Pre-Greek words. To me, it is fascinating that they allow us to
catch a glimpse of the oldest known language of Europe (including Anatolia),
of which we otherwise have no evidence.
3 A point for further study is to establish how far to the east such related names can be found.
It is my impression that these names can be found as far to the southeast as Cilicia.

chapter 2

Phonology
1

The Phonemic System of Pre-Greek

Voiceless, voiced and aspirated stops may interchange in Pre-Greek words,


without any apparent conditioning factors. This fact shows that voice and
aspiration were not distinctive features in Pre-Greek.1 On the other hand,
the Linear B signs (graphemes) for rjo, rja and tja show that palatalization
probably was distinctive. This is confirmed by the sign pte (e.g. in ra-pte-re
/hraptres/ with the agent suffix -tr-), which must go back to an earlier pye.
In the Pre-Greek material, such a phoneme may underlie examples like .
One may wonder whether points to py > pt which was realized
with aspiration. Further, the signs two, twe, dwo, dwe, nwa, swa, swi, point to
labialization as a distinctive feature, i.e. two, twe, dwo, dwe, nwa, swa, swi. Note that
palatal and labial forms of graphemes are found with both resonants and stops,
which is a phenomenon alien to Indo-European languages. The existence of
labiovelars is confirmed by qa-si-re-u = , etc. (see further Beekes 1995/6:
12f.). We may thus posit the following system:2
p
t
k
s
r
l
m
n

py
ty
ky
sy
ry
ly
my
ny

pw
tw
kw
sw
rw
lw
mw
nw

Of course, it is possible that one or more of the posited phonemes did not occur
in Pre-Greek (e.g., my is a rare sound in the languages of the world).

1 Of course, it could be due to the fact that a different distinction was present in Pre-Greek (like
fortis / lenis, found in most Anatolian languages), but no obvious distribution pointing in this
direction can be discerned in the material.
2 Note that I distinguish between palatals of Pre-Greek origin, which are indicated by a superscript y (e.g. ky), and palatovelars of Indo-European origin.

koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2014 | doi: 10.1163/9789004279445_003

phonology

We can now use this insight in explaining the surfacing Greek forms. Thus,
/ ()- can be explained from a Pre-Greek form *dakwn-.3 In the
former form, the labiovelar yields a labial stop . In the latter, it is rendered
by --, with anticipation of the labial feature, while the labiovelar turns up as
a velar, possibly by dissimilation from ukw. Again, note that aspiration is not
phonemic in Pre-Greek. It is very important to note that we cannot predict
how a Pre-Greek form will surface in Greek: sometimes a stop turns up as an
aspirate, sometimes as a voiced or voiceless stop (e.g. / , see 2.5.1
below). As a consequence, it may happen that there are a large number of
variants, but it may also be that there are no variants at all.
As a second example, we may understand / Lesb. from a preform *ankwn. The latter form is directly understandable, with from the
labiovelar. The first form went through *anwkn or *awnkn, giving with
loss of the nasal (a development known from Armenian). Perhaps, a scenario
*akwn > is also possible, with a prenasalized form *ankwn (> )
besides *akwn.4 Such interpretations may be wrong in individual cases, but
this is no reason not to apply the principle as an analytical tool. Variation that
is strange from an Indo-European point of view often becomes understandable
in this way, starting as we do from a limited set of assumptions.
The existence of palatalized phonemes in Pre-Greek may explain a number
of other developments. Thus, I assume that a geminate may continue PreGreek *ly. We know that ie *ly gave in Greek, but if a variant with single
coexists, we should be warned. For example, the name has a variant with single . And although the latter only occurs in Homer, the
variation points to Pre-Greek origin. The variant was preserved because it was
metrically convenient, it was not created for metrical purposes. Of course, the
fact that there was more variation at an earlier date is what we expect. As far
as the other palatalized resonants are concerned, *any may have given , *ary
may have given (or , with coloring of the vowel, see section 3.2 below on
the suffixes), etc. We have --, -- but no *-- in words of Pre-Greek origin.
This view is corroborated by the fact that geminate is very frequent (Furne
1972: 387), whereas geminate , and are much less frequent, or even rare.
3 Although I assume that voice was not distinctive in Pre-Greek, I do write d- in this case,
because only - surfaces in Greek. We must avoid losing information present in the Greek
forms. Thus, my notation of Pre-Greek forms is heuristic to a certain degree, and not always
consistent with the phonemic system I tentatively reconstruct here.
4 On prenasalization, see 2.5.2 below. As an alternative, an Indo-European etymology starting
with the root *h2emgh- to tie, betroth, can be offered; see edg s.v. (although I prefer the
analysis given here).

chapter 2

In a similar fashion, *asy may have yielded either -- or --, cf. , which has a v.l. . In rendering such a foreign word, the palatalization may have been represented at one time, and may have been neglected at
another. This phenomenon was the main cause of variation in Pre-Greek forms.
The interpretation is further confirmed by the parallel development of labialized consonants. Thus, I suppose that *arw resulted in -()- (see 3.2.3.32). In
this way, we may understand / from a pre-form *kalarw-op-.
Another form which shows the remarkable interchange / is /
. Here one might assume a pre-form *arwask-at-. Note that the labial
element would at the same time explain the o as a variant of a in both cases.
A similar mechanism must be at the basis of the etymon , , ,
, which is hopeless from an Indo-European point of view. I assume that
all forms go back to Pre-Greek *alw-ak-. It gives - through anticipation,
- through coloring. In this way, the first two forms, which are best attested,
are directly clear. Further, / / interchange frequently, which explains
and ; - is not problematic either, as both /a/s were colored to
[o] by the labialized resonant. Only the Homeric accusative is problematic: it is the only form that has no vowel between and , and therefore may
be due to some accident of the tradition.
I do not know whether a diphthong is allowed in suffixes of the structure
vc, cf. the forms in -. Structurally, one could think of *-ayw-, or even
*-awy-, but such sounds are rather rare in the languages of the world. An
example of -- due to a palatalized consonant is / /
(a brilliant grouping by Furne 1972: 158, etc.), which must contain *-apy- (the
palatalization was ignored in the last form). Comparable to the development
in is / , from *kyn- with representing palatalization,
cf. Beekes (2008). Likewise, I assume that / points to *pynut-.
Perhaps, we must interpret as *syp- because of . An interesting
case is , for which I assume *lym- besides *alym- with prothetic
a (see 2.3 below on the prothetic vowel).
A palatalized consonant could color a to e. A good example is ,
, but also , , where we have all possible variants due
to the palatalized consonant. Compare further / . Likewise,
we have parallel to , where the interchange occurs after from
earlier palatalized ty. / may have had *-pty-; () parallel to
() goes back to *alyap-, with the common variation a / o before a labial.
A clear example is besides and , . It may be
interpreted as representing pg *lasyt-.
Kuiper (1968) already pointed out that the substrate language had labiovelars. He especially drew attention to vs. , . I added a few

phonology

remarks in Beekes (1995/6: 12). From Mycenaean, we have a-to-ro-qo () and qe-to (), Mo-qo-so (), qi-si-pe-e (the dual of ). Further
there is A-i-ti-jo-qo (gen. ), with the variants and
(), which cannot be explained from Indo-European. Instead of ,
we would perhaps expect **. So the developments are largely as those of
inherited Greek, but not completely.
Pre-Greek probably had a /y/ and a /w/. Initial ya- presumably often lost its
y-, but it may sometimes be represented by - as in , . The ending
- may have been *-uy-a (a Pre-Greek y may have had a different development
from y in inherited words). In the same way, - may derive from pg *-ay-a with
a variant -, cf. . Perhaps, the y disappeared in some cases, giving
besides (see 3.2.3.7 on the suffix -- / -()-).
Initial w- was often lost (), but wa- may also have been rendered by
-, as in besides Cret. . The same holds for , which has
been considered to be identical with the root of . We find - (which
became -) in , Cret. . Furne (1972: 377) assumes a prothetic
- in the latter word, but this seems improbable to me. Another example may
be /. The differences are probably due to the date at which the word
was borrowed and depend on whether the Greek dialect concerned still had
a at that time. Another treatment can be found in the word for truffle,
for which we find , (also --), (also --), or . These are
probably all renderings of *wit-. Furne (1972: 184) again assumes a prothetic
vowel, - / -, which does not seem to be the right solution. He further
assumes a variation *wit- / wut-, which also seems improbable to me, though
the variation / is attested. Rather, - is a form of -, with the -o- changed
under influence of the -- (cf. Lejeune 1972: 174, and note that Greek did not
allow -- before consonants; of course, became in Boeotian in the 3rd c.
bc; variation / is found in more Pre-Greek words). This case nicely shows
that variation in Pre-Greek words is due to different rendering of the sounds of
a foreign language, and therefore has to be taken seriously.
(H.) probably attests a development *wrak- > - (as Furne 1972: 147 remarks
on : Die langlufige Etymologie connecting ist wohl ohne
weiteres aufzugeben.). sorb-apple (H.) continues *sorw(cf. Lat. sorbus, Fr. sorbier, Furne 1972: 230).
It seems that there was no initial aspiration in Pre-Greek. Furne has a few
words with -, - (one or two with -; none with -, -, -). Several of these are
doubtful; the best is (). One might conclude that the language
had no h. This would agree with the fact that aspiration is not a distinctive
feature in the stops. However, this conclusion is remarkable for ,
and , which we expect to be Pre-Greek words (but note that Myc.

chapter 2

a-pa-i-ti-jo does not have a2-). Of course, aspiration may have been added
secondarily in Greek in individual cases, cf. the variation in / and
/ , which is a variant of . However, Ruijgh pointed
out to me that Mycenaean had toponyms (a2-ra-tu-wa) and personal names
(a2-ku-mi-jo) with initial h-; it also occurs in inlaut (pi-a2-la, ko-ri-a2-da-na); cf.
further e-ma-a2 (/Hermhs/ Hermes).
Originally, I thought that Pre-Greek had only three vowels: a, i, u. The Greek
words concerned often have and , but this would not be surprising, as the
three vowels have a wide phonetic range, and the phoneme /a/ may have
sounded like [e] or [o] in many environments. The main reason for me to
assume this simple three-vowel system was the fact that the system of suffixes
has a, i, u, but not e, o. We have --, --, --; prenasalized --, --, --;
likewise --, --, --; and prenasalized --, --, --, but no forms with
-()-, -()-, etc. The only cases I noticed are and (but
as a variant of ), and with a variant ().
Recently, I have become more inclined to assume a system with the usual
five vowels, because there seems to be a distinction between the two variations
/ and / , on the one hand, and a stable, not interchanging , on the other.
This would point to a system with a, e and o. On the other hand, it is difficult
to explain why the suffixes do not show the same variation that we find in the
root vowels.
It is essential that the palatalized and labialized consonants colored an
adjacent to and , respectively. On the effects of palatalized consonants
see Beekes (2008: 4655). Furne (1972: 340) has a rule > before , , (e.g.
/ ); this can now be understood as the o-like realization of /a/
before high rounded vowels in the following syllable (see 2.5.13.2).
So, e and o originally were variants of the phoneme /a/. It is difficult to
establish whether they had already become full phonemes in Pre-Greek. A good
illustration of the case is the name of Apollo. In Hittite, Appaliunas renders
Apollon- (see Beekes 2003c). We know that Greek originally had -, with -arising from -a- before the palatalized ly. The -o- developed only later in Greek,
but I assume that the Hittite form still shows the -a-. The Pre-Greek form was
*Apalyun-.
I have long doubted (and still doubt) whether there was phonemic vowel
length in Pre-Greek. Greek substrate words quite often only have a form with
a long vowel. Vacillation is sometimes found, as in / (see 2.6.2),
and note / , . Quite a different argument is the following:
and both mean chaff; it is therefore probable that they contain
the same suffix --; but in the first word the u is short, while it is long in the
second.

phonology

Note that often represents ( / -), and as our knowledge of


the relevant dialects is rather limited, we often simply do not know whether
represents an older a or e. If we had not had Dor. , we would not
have known that it contains an old . Also, represents . There
are well-known Pre-Greek words with < *, like .
I assume two diphthongs, ai and au. If there were no e and o, we do not expect
other diphthongs. A diphthong is rare (Furne 1972: 3535; I found some 12
instances in the whole of Furnes material); it interchanges with . Furne
(1972: 3392) calls (in mehreren Fllen) nur eine Nebenform von . Also
is rather rare, and we may find more often, but mostly interchanging with
other vowels (see the remark on the suffix --). See further section 2.6.1 on
vowel variation.
Regarding the accentuation, I noted vacillation in: / -; /
-; / -; / ; / ; / ; / ; / ; / . Also note the almost identical
forms such as / . This does not imply that the language had
no clear stress: the Greeks who adopted a word could simply have been uncertain about it. The phenomenon may, however, be important heuristically: such
variation is very rare in inherited words.

2a

Characteristic Phonemes and Phoneme Clusters

In Pre-Greek words, we find some sounds or clusters that are rare in pie words.
I give the variants between brackets.
1

does occur in pie words, but only when it derives from *h2eu (mostly in initial position) or *eh2u. pg examples: , , , ,
, ; .
2

As is well known, *b was rare in pie. In Pre-Greek words, it seems to occur


relatively often. Examples: , , , , ,
, . It is frequently found word-initially. Of course, may also
go back to a Pre-Greek labiovelar (i.e. labialized velar), e.g. , Myc.
qa-si-re-u.

10

chapter 2

The cluster is possible in pie words, but it is rare (see on sub 2 above).
Examples: , , , , -, , ;
.
4

Cf. Furne (1972: 3185). There is nothing against pie *gd, but it is infrequent. Of
course, the group is reminiscent of . Examples: , , (cf.
), , , .
5

Example: (). On , , see 3.2.


6

The sequence is rare in ie words. Examples: , , , (-), ; .


7

The group is regular in pie, but in Pre-Greek it is found with variants; see 2.5.5.
Examples: , , .
8

The group can hardly be of ie origin; it is not frequent. I noted , ,


, ; , , . The group -- is the geminate of .
Cf. below on , .
9

The group is certainly possible in pie words, but it is also frequent in Pre-Greek.
Examples: -, , , , , , , , , , ; .
10

The diphthong is perfectly ie, but it is found several times in Pre-Greek. I do


not think that Pre-Greek had a diphthong -ou-, but it may have arisen from
e.g. -arw-, which often surfaces as --. Examples: , , ,
, , , , .

phonology

11

11

The group can hardly be of pie origin, but it is rare in Pre-Greek words, too.
Like in the case of , it is the geminate of . Examples: (?);
().
12

On a morpheme boundary, the group is possible in pie. Examples from PreGreek: , , .


13

A rare group, perhaps there is even no reason to speak of a group. Examples:


, .
14

(variants , ): Examples: (--), (-), . See 3.2.3.104.


15

A occurs both word-initially and between vowels, where it has disappeared in


most inherited words. Initial: , , , , ,
, , . Intervocalic: , (-), (),
, , , . After resonant: , , , , (-).
16

The group is hardly known from inherited words ( is problematic).


Examples: , ; . -- may continue Pre-Greek -sgw-: Myc.
ti-qa-jo may stand for /thisgwaios/ .
17

Again, this group is hardly known from ie words. It may sometimes continue
-tyg-, as in , (see 2.5.5). Examples: , , , , .
18
,
These groups are well known from ie, but mostly in word-initial position. See
section 2.5.5. Examples: , , , .

12

chapter 2

19

Though the cluster contains nothing that could not be ie, it occurs more often
in substrate words. Examples: , .
20

The group can hardly be of pie origin. In Pre-Greek, it is a variant of and


(see 2.5.5). Sometimes, it is clearly the geminate of : / . Further
examples: , , .
21

The cluster is possible in inherited words. pg example: .


22
,
Rather rare in ie; Furne (1972: 110) assumes that the nasal caused the aspiration. Examples: , -, .
23

Frisk gives some seventy lemmas with -. Many of these words are clearly PreGreek. Originally, I thought that all words with - were Pre-Greek, but this
thesis cannot be maintained. flea may be of ie origin, though ie did not
have *ps-. The ie word has *plus-: Indian plui-, Armenian lu; Balto-Slavic has
*blus- (with problematic b-); for Albanian plesht Demiraj (1997) reconstructs
*plous-ti. The Greek word underwent metathesis. For I refer to the etymology in edg.
24

Of course, is perfectly ie, but it also occurs in Pre-Greek words. Examples:


, , , , , , , , , , .
25
Geminates
(See also 2.5.8 on single / geminated consonants.) Indo-European had no geminates. Geminates did arise in Greek, but they are not very frequent. I doubt
whether Pre-Greek had geminates, but several occur in Pre-Greek words
(Brixhe 1976: 95 states that there were no geminates in this language). As PreGreek had palatalized phonemes, I suspect that ly was (often) represented by
in Greek. In a similar vein, perhaps ny might be represented as , and ry as
, but this requires further investigation. For and see 2.5.5.9a. Unclear
are , , , and (palatalized my is a rare sound). Some further examples:

13

phonology

Stops:5

:
:
:
:
Liquids: :
:
:
:
Sibilants :

2b

,
, , (?)
,
, , , , , ; .
, , , , , ,

, , , ;
, , ,
(), , .

How to Recognize Words as Pre-Greek?

This appears to be relatively easy. A first indication is that a given word has
no Indo-European etymology. Often, there is variation which is impossible to
explain in Indo-European terms. Therefore, the discussion of these variants is
essential. Then, there are numerous suffixes that are typical for Pre-Greek (see
the list below, 3.2.3). The meaning may also provide an indication. The words
concerned are often names of plants or animals, of equipment and utensils, or
part of viniculture (see chapter 6).
If we have some of the above features, it is quite clear that we are dealing
with a Pre-Greek word. The origin of the word is then indicated pg in edg.
In many cases, we do not have enough data and can only suspect that the word
might be Pre-Greek (the origin is then indicated as pg? ).

Prothetic Vowel

Pre-Greek had a prothetic vowel, e.g. / . In most cases, the


vowel is -. The numbers (Furne 1972: 368ff.) are as follows: 90, 10, 5,
3, o, 6, 2. Note that, generally speaking, may interchange with , , and
. Indeed, we have cases where prothetic interchanges with , and the same
holds for (e.g. - / -, / ). Although not all other cases can be
explained away, it seems that the phenomenon originally only concerned .
Examples: / ; / ; / ; /
; / ; / (); / .
Furne (1972: 378, 339) thinks that in the proth. vowel was lengthened.

5 We also have to recall the occurrences of , , (see above).

14
4

chapter 2

s-mobile

A large number of words show an initial - before a consonant, which is absent


in practically identical variants. It occurs before a stop or m (so not before
r, l, n); the stop is mostly voiceless, sometimes aspirated; see Furne (1972:
390f.). Examples: / ; (); / ; ();
/ -; / -; / -; () / ; /
; (); (). A prothetic vowel may appear before an
s-mobile (Furne 1972: 3908): / / ; /
/ ; / .

Consonant Variation

5.1
Voiceless / Voiced / Aspirated Stop
Furnes conclusion was that Pre-Greek was a non-Indo-European language,
with no recognizable cognates. This implies that the phonemic system may
have been different from that of Indo-European. Thus, he found that the stops
show variation between voiced, voiceless and aspirated, so that there presumably was no phonemic distinction between voice and aspiration in the language. As there is no reason to assume that this is a recent phenomenon, it
strongly suggests that the language was non-Indo-European. For example, belongs to a root ptk- / ptk- also seen in , -. Since such a variation
is hardly understandable in Indo-European terms, the word must be Pre-Greek.
Furnes discussion of this variation takes 86 pages (1972: 115200). Even if we
allow for some mistakes, it is clear that there is abundant evidence for this phenomenon.
5.2
Prenasalization
Before a stop, a nasal may be present or not in Pre-Greek words. Examples:
/ ; / ; / , etc. The phenomenon
is extremely frequent, but its precise origin is not known (prenasalized consonants?).
5.3
Nasalization
A consonant is replaced by a homorganic nasal: / ; / . Furne did not discuss this phenomenon. Cf. the following
section.

phonology

15

5.4
Labial Stops / / u
There are three interchanges: labial stop / ; labial stop / ; / .
Labial stop / (Furne 1972: 203227). Examples: / ; /
; / ; / ; / ; /
; / ; / .
Furne points to assimilational and dissimilational tendencies, but immediately concludes that this would only work for einige wenige Beispiele, and
[l]eider kommt man auf diesem Weg nicht weiter (1972: 207). This way of
interpretation then is probably not the correct way. My impression is that the
phenomenon is quite general, and we must rather assume nasalization (discussed above). According to this assumption, a consonant can be replaced by
a nasal of the series to which it belongs. Thus, in the example / , we find a dental nasal. In the case of labial stops, we would expect a
(bi)labial nasal, and that is . Furne (1972: 210218) finds the process notably
for / . This is in contradiction with the fact that Pre-Greek had no (separate
phoneme) . So we must accept that the nasalisation occurred with the labial
stops in general (or even with labials in general, in view of the inclusion of ;
see below). It is of course a strong confirmation of the theory that this variation
can be explained in the same way.
Labial stop / (Furne 1972: 228242). Examples: , / ; / ; / ; / .
I have no explanation, despite the remarks of Furne and Kuiper (1956: 215 f.).
Furne (1972: 229) assumes that the variation is expressive.
/ (Furne 1972: 242247). A difficulty here is that Greek did not preserve a in
most cases, so that we often just find zero, and the can only be reconstructed.
This gives rise to a certain degree of uncertainty. The evidence includes 8 or
9 words in -. Examples: / ; / ; /
; / (also ).

16

chapter 2

5.5
Stops Interchanging with (), with Stop + / or with + Stop
This kind of variation is quite complicated. I distinguished no less than 11 (or
even 16) different types. They may be represented as follows:

a. Labials b. Velars
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

C / Ct
C / Cs
C / sC
Ct / Cs
Ct / sC
Cs / sC
Cs / ss
sC / ss

/
/
( / )
/
( / )

/
( / )
/
/
/
( / )
/
/

Dentals
9. t / ss
10. t / st
11. ss / st

/
/
/

The analysis of these variants is not easy, and I mainly present the data here.
A question that needs to be explained is why exactly s or t are involved in the
given variation.
The most complicated instance is 5b, where we find / . This type also
yields most information, and can be solved best. Expected is a cluster with k,
i.e. a consonant before or after the k. One of the two expected clusters must
have undergone metathesis. As Greek did undergo a metathesis > (and
no metathesis of or ), we may assume that precisely this phenomenon was
operative here. Thus, for an earlier stage we may reconstruct an interchange
/ . This interchange can be easily explained by assuming a consonant,
probably unknown to Greek, which resulted either in or in . In my interpretation, this must have been a palatalized dental, i.e. /ty/. For instance, / was probably *amutygala, represented first as *amusgala or
*amudgala, the latter yielding *amugdala. A less clear example is Asclepios,
who was called () or (). It could be that the name was
*Atyklap-, giving *A(i)sklap- or *A(i)dglap-. In the latter form, metathesis did
not operate because **Agdlap- was not tolerated in Greek; the dental was then

phonology

17

simply lost. Needless to say, it often happens that only one variant is attested.
The strange feature or phoneme may also be dismissed altogether, as in
besides and .
One might suppose that all variants in the above group are due to a palatalized dental, but this is not evident, as consonant clusters are rather rare, and as
there are very few suffixes beginning with an obstruent. We may be unable to
determine what exactly happened in each case.
Type 4 is treated by Furne (1972: 2633). Since Pre-Greek did not distinguish
voice and aspiration in stops, these often vary; so if we speak of kt or , this
also includes realization as , such as in . If we consider the variation
with labials, as in pt / ps, it is clear that we are dealing with a labial followed
by a dental. The dental could also appear as s, so it is clear that the phoneme
concerned was a palatalized dental, which I note /ty/. This means that we are
dealing with a group pty. In the same way, with a velar we have kty.
The example / is well-known and clear. Furne further gives
(H.) besides (H.) and compares
with Dor. . His example cooked besides is less evident.
Among the forms with a velar, there is no problem with / .
The best known example is (also ) besides on Attic
vases. I have no opinion on ; it may be a Graecisized form, and, if
so, it is unimportant for Pre-Greek. See further the ethnonyms -,
-, -, - and -. Other forms are less clear.
There may have been series with three forms, with kt / ks, pt / ps and also k or
p. I can only mention / besides , and perhaps, parallel
to / , the verb (together with -); for both cf. Furne (1972:
263).
Above, we assumed that a labial or a velar could be followed by a palatalized
dental /ty/. If this is right, we can also postulate that this consonant (labial
or velar) was followed by a normal dental. This logically yielded pt and kt. I
assume that the second consonant of this group (the dental) could have been
dropped, which yielded single p or k. This explains the type () (Furne
1972: 50) and (with prenasalization) besides (Furne 1972:
51).
I will briefly review the 11 (16) types (I call the labials 1a, etc., the velars 1b,
etc.).
1.

a. may represent a single phoneme py, as we saw in 2.1. Examples


(Furne 1972: 315ff.): - / - (-); / ;
/ ; / ; without variants: , .

18

chapter 2

1.

b. is most probably explained like 5b, discussed above. Examples


(Furne 1972: 319ff.): / ; / ; / ; / .
a. / , b. / . Furne has a whole chapter about the variation /
(1972: 323329). I have doubts about this chapter, although some instances
remain difficult to explain otherwise. In these cases may result from *pty,
or have a morphological background. There is only little evidence for / .
Examples: / (Furne 1972: 326); / (Furne 1972:
327); / .
a. / , b. / : Both may represent *typ, *tyk. Examples: /
(Furne 1972: 2922); / ; / ; /
(); / ; / (Furne 1972: 295 ff.).
a. / , b. / were discussed above and may continue *pty, *kty; they
may belong to type 2. Examples: / (Furne 1972: 2633);
/ (Furne 1972: 318, 324); / (Furne
1972: 2633).
b. / was discussed above. Examples: / (Furne
1972: 3012); / () (Furne 1972: 279, 319).
a. / , b. / . Furne (1972: 393) simply considered the interchange to
be due to metathesis, which, of course, is possible. *sp, *sk may represent
*typ, *tyk. Examples (Furne 1972: 393): / ; / ;
/ ; / .
b. / . If represents *kty, the k may have disappeared in other cases
(which did not give ) after which *ty became . Examples: /
(Furne 1972: 13059); / (Furne 1972: 317); ,
/ (Furne 1972: 28672); / (, );
for / see 9a.
b. / can be explained parallel to 7b: *tyk > or, with loss of the k,
*ty > . Example (Furne 1972: 300): / .
b. / . This is the well-known element that yielded / . The situation
is different here, as we are able to discern a distribution among the Greek
dialects, and attribute the different renderings of these loanwords to
dialectal developments. Still, the fact remains that a foreign element was
rendered in different ways, as with all other phenomena discussed here.
Furne (1972: 253) has the heading , , / (), . I think this should be
reformulated as (, ), () / (), , i.e. with its usual variants , ;
or the geminated (with its expected variant , which is the Greek form
of geminated ), interchanging with or . If the was [sd], it does not
fit in well. As to the elements interpretation, it could represent single *ty,
which was rendered or , or single , (the variant would then fit in,

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

7.

8.
9.

phonology

19

but one would also expect a variant 6). Examples (Furne 1972: 253 ff.):
/ ; / ; / ; / ;
/ ; / ; / .
I think that the phoneme rendered by , Att. (called the foreign
phoneme or Fremdphonem) was a palatalized velar, which I write as ky,
cf. Beekes (2009: 191197). This would be parallel to the development of
inherited velar + yod, which gave , Att. , as in , . This
interpretation is confirmed by , , where we have a variant
(H.). Here we see that after the nasal (prenasalization
is well known in Pre-Greek), the palatal feature of the consonant was
dropped. This resulted in a velar (here realized as an aspirate). The variant
shows that we may be dealing with a velar in cases of / . We can
also compare / , which had py; again we see that
the palatal feature was lost after the inserted nasal.
There may be a third representation. We know that the name of Odysseus
was -, -. This means that it probably had a palatalized
velar, *ky. But we also find (Ibyc. apud Diom. Gr. p. 321 K, Hdn. Gr.,
Plut.), a form which was at the basis of Latin Ulixes. This form was taken
from a Western Greek dialect, probably Doric. A third representation of
the foreign phoneme may therefore be --, although this may also reflect
*kty, with / resulting from a simplification of this cluster (see 7b).
10. a. / may be from *tyt (cf. type 3). Examples (Furne 1972: 301 ff.):
/ ; / ; / ; /
.
11. a. / may also represent *tyt giving or, with loss of the t, *ty > (cf.
type 8b). Examples: / / .
As we saw, it is very difficult to determine what exactly happened in each case;
on the other hand, it is clear that almost all variation can be understood if we
start from just a few assumptions regarding Pre-Greek.
5.6
Velar / Labial / Dental Stops; Labiovelars
There is limited evidence for variation between velar and labial, between velar
and dental, and between labial and dental, and between all three classes
(Furne 1972: 388ff.). We find:

6 [sn]: The absence of would be expected if the variants (), entered Greek as more
accurate renderings of pg *ty, with the usual variation in voice and aspiration, which later
developed parallel to inherited dental stop + yod (cf. Beekes 2009: 193).

20

chapter 2

/ ,
/
/

/ ,
/

/
/
/

//
//
//

It is remarkable that the variants mostly agree in voice / aspiration. Since


examples of this phenomenon are not particularly numerous, this may be an
indication that the words concerned are not of Pre-Greek origin, but perhaps
due to borrowing from a different substrate. Examples:
/ : / ; /
/ : /
/ : /
/ : /
/ : /
/ : /
/ : /
/ : /
/ / : / /
/ / : / / .
It is tempting to assume labiovelars to explain these cases, but some cases may
have a different origin (thus, / could be due to dissimilation
in the first variant). On the existence of labiovelars in Pre-Greek, see above on
the phonemic system.
5.7
Dentals / Liquids
There are some instances of variation between dentals (including n) and liquids
(l, r). This variation is incidental. Examples (Furne 1972: 387 f.):
a. / : / (Furne 1972: 33027); / ; / . Cf. Myc. gen. da-pu2-ri-to-jo (/daphurinthoio/) / ; /
Myc. ka-da-mi-ta. The interchange / and the fact that Linear B has signs
for da, de, di, etc. (which Lejeune explained by assuming a specific, unusual
sound ) might point to a dental fricative.
/ : /
/ : /
b. / : /
/ : /

phonology

21

c. / : / ; / ; / .
5.8
Simple / Geminate
Except for a few isolated cases, we find this interchange in / , but more
notably in / . On / and / see 2.5.5.9a above. Cf. Furne (1972: 386f.).
Examples:
/ : (also ) / (also ); / . In this context, note
the suffix --.
/ : (); / ; / dat.pl.; /
(this probably derives from pg *-alya-).
Note (), / , and the case of / / .
5.9
/ Zero
We discussed / zero before consonant under s-mobile above, section 2.4.
An s from Pre-Greek is normally maintained. The only instances that I know
of where it may have disappeared, are (cf. Furne 1972: 241): , /
(also -, -, -); / ; / Cypr. ;
/ . Perhaps / belongs here, too. Another instance could
be , which is cognate with Lat. pirum, which points to *-pis-.
5.10
Velar or Dental Stop / Zero
There are instances where a velar or a dental stop may be absent in initial
position (Furne 1972: 391 and 13159). Dentals may also be absent in inlaut.
Examples:
/ zero: / ; / ; / ; /
.
/ zero: / , but this form may be a late development. As an
explanation, one could think of a uvular q.
/ zero: / ; / ; / (with in lsj);
/ zero: / (also -).
Loss of a dental in inlaut: / ; / ; / .

22

chapter 2

5.11
-, - / Zero
- and - can also be absent (Furne 1972: 391f.): / (also -); / ; / ; / . Perhaps it originally concerned palatalized ny-, ly-, varying with y-.
5.12
Metathesis, Shift of Aspiration
There are instances of metathesis. It mostly concerns , sometimes . The consonant jumps to the other side of the vowel or the consonant: / ,
; / . Cf. / ; / ; / ; / . In most cases, it cannot be determined what the original
configuration was. In a case like / , where may stand for (or continue) , I would think that the was anticipated. It may concern an original rw.
The cases of / and / are discussed in 2.5.5 above.
Shift of aspiration is found in some cases: / ; / . In the case of / the metathesis seems to have occurred in the
later history of Greek (Beekes 2003b).
5.13
Secondary Phonetic Developments
1. We may assume secondary phonetic developments, either in Greek or perhaps already in the original language. One might consider:
- > -: / . For this case, cf. 2.5.7a / .
> : / (Furne 1972: 308)
- > -: /
- > -: /
- > -: /
- > -: - / ? See 2.5.5.6a above.
- > -: / ; / ; cf. , .
2. > before in the following syllable. The a was probably pronounced a
little higher before the u, and was realized as [], which resulted in . Examples: > , > , *- () > ,
for *()-.
5.14
Other Variation
There are a few instances of isolated and puzzling variation. I mention just one,
the word for night, where we have , , , . I think that in
some of these cases, the solution may be found in a cluster. Carian, for example,
allows an initial cluster kbd-. Such clusters would have been simplified in Greek.
In an inherited word, we have the parallel of Lat. pecten, Gr. , which is

phonology

23

supposed to continue *pkt-. If we assume a cluster *kdn- in our example, it


may have been reduced to kn- or, with loss of the first consonant, to dn-. Thus,
the process is the same as the reduction - > -, see 2.5.13 above. Such variant
simplifications are typical for loanwords. In this way, we could connect two of
the words; but I see no way to connect the other two.

Vowel Variation

6.1
Single Vowels (Timbre)
The vowels show many variants. I will discuss them in the order a, e, o; within
each of these first the short vowel, then the diphthongs, then the long vowel
(and the long diphthongs, but these hardly occur) are treated. Note that a
variation x / y is not repeated under y.
1. the vowel .
1a. / has 80 occurrences in Furnes material (1972: 347). Examples:
/ ; / ; / ; / ;
/ ; / ; / ; / .
1b. / . This interchange also occurs frequently. Furne (1972: 339) mentions that he found 80 instances. Examples: / ; /
; / ; / ; / ; /
; / .
1c. / (Furne 1972: 336ff.). Examples: / ; /
; / . The here is due to the following palatalized
consonant.
1d. / (Furne 1972: 30237). Examples: / ; /
; / . In the last example, the is probably due to the
following labialized phoneme lw.
1e. / : / .
1f. / (Furne 1972: 3524, 3392). Examples: / ; /
; / . Both and are due to the following palatalized
consonant.
1g. / (Furne 1972: 3535). Examples: / ; /
; / .
1h. / , (Furne 1972: 30132). Examples: () / ; / ;
/ ; / ; / / .
1i. / (Furne 1972: 338). Examples: / ; / ;
/ .
1j. / . Example: () / ().

24

chapter 2

2. the vowel .
2a. / : see under .
2b. / (Furne 1972: 355ff.). Examples: / ; / ;
/ Myc. di-pa; / ; / ; / ;
/ ; / (). The e was not phonologically distinguished from i, and they were phonetically close.
2c. / / (Furne 1972: 35455). Example: / () /
.
2d. / (Furne 1972: 115). Example: / .
2e. / : see .
2f. / (Furne 1972: 3392). Examples: () / ; /
.
2g. / : see / .
2h. / : see .
2i. / (Furne 1972: 35842). Examples: / ; / ; / ; / (); / .
2j. / (Furne 1972: 171114). Examples: / ; / ;
/ .
3. the vowel .
3a. / : see .
3b. / (Furne 1972: 19137). Examples: / ; / ;
/ .
3c. / (Furne 1972: 358ff.). Examples: / ; / ; / -; / ; / ; /
; / . and were phonetically very close, and
not distinguished phonologically (cf. on / ).
3d. / (Furne 1972: 359). Examples: / ; /
(also --, --).
3e. / (Furne 1972: 279). Examples: / ; / ; / (also -); / , -; / .
3f. / (Furne 1972: 127). Example: / ().
3g. / (Furne 1972: 358). Examples: / (); /
?
3h. / (Furne 1972: 12029). Examples: / ; / .
3i. / (Furne 1972: 133). Examples: / ; /
(Furne 1972: 148).
3j. / . Example: / .
3k. / (Furne 1972: 30235). Examples: / ; / ;
/ .

phonology

25

3l.

/ . Example: / .

4.

/ . There is some variation between and , but I do not know how to


interpret it. Perhaps it is due to some assimilatory and/or dissimilatory
process. Examples (Furne 1972: 364ff.): / ; /
; / ; / ; / ; /
; / ; / .

5.

/ . Example: / .

The behavior of the diphthongs may be summarized as follows:


/
and (vice versa) /
/ ,
/
/ ,
/ , ,
All this variation is understandable in terms of adaptation from a three-vowel
system.
6.2
Long / Short
One may doubt whether Pre-Greek had a distinction between long and short
vowels (see 2.1). We do find and , but not very often, and the second of
these has several variants. On the other hand, the variations / and /
are not very frequent (although in this case the difference in timbre may
also have been important, depending on the Greek dialect). Variation between
long and short and is frequent, especially in suffixes. Examples: /
; / ; / ; / ; / ; /
; / . Cf. / (cf. ); /
; (-) / (-); / .
There is some evidence for short vowel + CC alternating with long vowel +
C: e.g. / ; / .
6.3
Single Vowel / Diphthong
There are several instances where a diphthong alternates with a single vowel.
They can be found above (2.6.1). Most frequent is / , but this is due to the
effect of a following palatalized consonant. We further find / , / , /
and / . In two cases we find a diphthong alternating with a long vowel: /
, / . Examples were given above.

26

chapter 2

6.4
Rising Diphthongs?
Relatively frequent in Pre-Greek words are sequences of a more closed vowel
followed by a more open one, sequences that are not found in ie. They would
be rising diphthongs if they formed one syllable, but in fact we may have to do
with two syllables. Examples are:
--: (-, -)
--: ; ; ; ; ; . Note (-, -)
--: ; (-); ; ; ;
--: (); (-)
Remarkable, too, are the sequences -- in , and -- in (), .
6.5
Secondary Vowels (or Elision)
Sometimes, words show a vowel that is absent in nearly identical forms. It
mostly concerns vowels between a stop and a resonant. It is often not clear
whether the presence or the absence of a vowel is secondary. See Furne
(1972: 378385). Examples: / ; for *- in -;
/ ; / (); / ; / ;
/ ; / .

chapter 3

Morphology
1

Reduplication

Some forms seem to have reduplication, though we often cannot demonstrate


this. Most frequent is partial reduplication, where only the first consonant and
a vowel are repeated. The vowel is mostly or .
Examples: ; (); ; ; ; /
(cf. ); (also -); ; (); (also -); (?); perhaps ; (also -, -, -); . Also the names
; ; ; . With prenasalization we find , (cf. ; ).
Other reduplication vowels are found in: ; ; ; (cf. ); ; perhaps also .
Intensive reduplication in: ; ; .
More difficult to judge are / (perhaps from *--, --, but cf.
s.vv. in 6.3.2) and / (if from *--, --). Also besides
(cf. ); = , also .
A completely different type is perhaps found in (cf. ), and
perhaps also .

Suffixes

2.1
Introduction
It appears that most suffixes have the same structure. They contain a consonant; if this is a stop, it can be prenasalized, i.e. -- or --, -- or --, etc. The
stop has its usual variants, like / / , etc., although mostly one of these is
predominant. The suffix usually starts with one of the vowels of the language,
mostly , , (only rarely do we find or , e.g. / ). Thus, we may
find e.g. ; , etc.
A different structure is present in suffixes containing -- (mostly followed by
a vowel) directly after the root-final consonant, e.g. ; ; ;
; . The groups --, --, --, -- in Pre-Greek words probably
originated in this way. In the case of --, we often find a vowel again: --, --,
--. The groups -- and -- are especially frequent. They are very important,
as they are found in Etruscan, which for the rest shows little agreement with

koninklijke brill nv, leiden, 2014 | doi: 10.1163/9789004279445_004

28

chapter 3

Pre-Greek; -- is found as far as in Cappadocian (see Beekes 2003a: 51). Perhaps


the groups --, --, -- arose in this way, too.
Other consonants are found in suffix-initial position, too, e.g. --, --, --,
rarely --. Examples: ; ; ; ; ; ;
.
It is often possible to determine to which series the Pre-Greek consonant
belonged. Thus, -- could render -any-, while -aly- seems to have resulted in
-- (or -- with coloring of the vowel). Likewise, -- could represent -ary-.
This thesis would be nicely supported by the segment --, if this represents
-arw- (e.g. / , if this form had *-arw-). Cf. 2.1 above.
Another type of suffix has followed by a dental (-); or another stop; ; . These forms may
have been partly adapted to Greek suffixes (-). See below on the suffix --.
A form such as -- is deviating; we do not often find a diphthong before
the consonant. Does it stand for *-aut- from *-atw-? Cf. -aiu - in , where
we may suspect ayw or awy (but it may be part of the root). See further section
2.1.
Not seldom do we find an alternation of a long and a short vowel with a suffix
(= consonant), e.g. , . In the case of , one might again think of ury
> uir, although ry is a rare phoneme (like my).
2.2
Survey of the Suffixes
In principle, we find one of the three vowels of the language followed by a
(prenasalized) consonant: a, i, u + (m)P, (n)T, (n)K. The nasal groups actually
found are (forms in brackets are rare or less frequent):

1.
aNC
iNC
uNC

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

()

() ()

7.

8.

9.

The missing groups, then, are: 1. VN and 3. VN; 7. VN and 9. VN (except for
).
In the same way, we find vowel + C. The consonant may have the normal variation: plain, voiced, aspirated. A palatalized consonant could color a preceding
and/or a following /a/ to [], which may also appear as . This phenomenon is

morphology

29

often seen in languages with palatalized consonants, such as Russian and Irish.
Thus, we find -ary- represented as -- (-- is also possible). A palatalized -lymay be rendered as a geminate --.
If a labialized consonant followed or preceded an , this vowel may have
been perceived as (an allophone of) /o/. For example, -arw- may be represented
as --, with anticipation of the labial element, but also as --, in which case
the was colored.
The suffixal consonant may be geminated; as there is frequent variation
between single and geminated consonants in the language, there possibly was
no opposition.
Vowels could be either short or long; in suffixes, a long vowel was quite
frequent. A long was sometimes represented as .
2.3
The Suffixes
The examples are mostly taken from Furne, to whom I refer for details. Words
can also be checked in edg. Variants are given in brackets. I added geographical
names (tn) from Fick (1905), and some more material, with references.
1
--(-)
(Furne 1972: 107): ; (); ; /; ;
; (); ; . tn (Rhodes, Fick 1905: 47);
(Caria).
2
-- (cf. Chantraine 1933: 397ff.); ; .
3
--.
4
-.
5
-; ; -; ().
6
--; ; ; ; ; ; , tn
(Epidauros).

30

chapter 3

7
--/-()- before a Vowel
There are words in - / -(), such as / (also ) /
(note the hesitation in the accentuation). I suggest that the suffix was *-ay-(a),
which was pronounced as [-ya] or [-eya] (we saw that often varies with
). The speakers of Greek identified the suffix with Gr. -- or --, but the -ycould also be lost. In this way the three variant forms can be explained. Further
examples are / (); ( in H. is probably an
error); / (note the short ), besides / (these are not
entirely clear to me, but cf. / ).
Furthermore, *-ay-a is likely to be the same suffix as - which makes feminine names, e.g. ; ; (note that in Myc. I-pe-me-deja, the -j- is preserved, cf. Ruijgh 1957: 1553). Of course, many place names end
in -: ; ; ; ; ; , etc.
The final was often adapted to - after the dominant type, which is derived
from the adjectives in - (see Chantraine 1933: 91): type ; cf. ;
; .
We also find - used in nouns: ; ; .
Nouns with -- are very rare; we find: ; ; ; ; (?); . It may further be found in < *-kay-an- (note the byforms , -).
Parallel to -, -, we may expect thematic ---; we find it for example
in ; ; ; ; * (reconstructed by Furne
1972: 169).
8
-()-(Furne 1972: 23322, 25532): partly from --; it is often impossible to establish
whether a form had a -- or not. See also 7 above. Examples: ; ;
; ; ; (Myc. e-ra/ra3-wo); ; ; ;
. tn (Fick 1905: 58).
9
--tn (Thess.).
10
-tn (Thess.); (Arc. deme); (Thess. deme);
(Arc. deme).
11
-(Furne 1972: 171117): , -; ; ; (also --);
; ; ; .

morphology

31

12
--(-)
represents -ary-: (also -, -, -); .
13
-(Furne 1972: 15864): ; ; ; / / ;
(); (also -, -); ; ; ; , . tn
, - (Lac.). Cf. --: , .
14
-
.
15
-()-(Furne 1972: 25428, Beekes 2008): ; (); () (also
-); . tn (Phoc. source); ; (Arc.).
16
--(Furne 1972: 184): ; ; ; ; .
17
--; ; . tn (Crete).
18
--. tn () (Cos); ; (Lydia); (Kydon.);
(Kydon.).
19
--tn (hn Crete, Elis); (hn Thess.); (hn);
(Fick 1905: 18).
20
-.
21
-.
22
-. tn (Fick 1905: 51); () (Pamph.); () (Fick
1905: 53); .

32

chapter 3

23
-/(Furne 1972: 19135, 21671; -- unless otherwise stated): ; (); (but -); ; /; (Fick 1905: 69, etc.);
/-; /-; ; . tn (Chios).
24
--.
25
-(cf. --, --): ; ; (also --); tn (Crete).
26
--(Furne 1972: 23531): ; ; . tn (Crete, Fick
1905: 24).
27
-
(Furne 1972: 13475), mostly neuters: ; ; ; ; ; adj.
; anim. ; (gen. -; cf. Myc. da-ma / du-ma).
28
-(Furne 1972: 25736): ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Also ? tn (Crete, Lycia); (Lycia);
(Fick 1905: 75); (Crete).
29
--/(Furne 1972: 15757): ; (); . tn (Crete);
(Mess.); (Thess.).
30
--tn (Crete); (Crete); ; (Fick 1905: 32).
31
-; . tn (Crete); (Crete, Fick 1905: 27).
32
--/(this may continue -arw-): (); ; (); ; ;
(-); ; (). tn .
33
-.

morphology

33

34
-; ; .
35
-; .
36
-perhaps .
37
-(cf. on --): ; .
38
-(cf. on -, -): ; ; .
39
-tn ; ; perhaps in .
40
--
see below on --.
41
--; ; (); . The suffix --- may continue
-ery-, -ary-.
42
--/; ; ; ; (); ; ; perhaps
. Cf. the next.
43
--/; ; ; ; . Cf. --/- above.
44
--; ; () (if not ie); . Cf. Furne (1972: 15142).
45
--(-)
-; . tn (Fick 1905: 95). Cf. Furne (1972: 15144).

34

chapter 3

46
--
. Cf. . Cf. Lat. (from Etruscan) (doss-)ennus; Porsenna. It is conceivable that ny gave .
47
-.
48
--/; (also -); . tn (Crete).
49
--; ; ; ; ? tn (Att.); . Cf.
Furne (1972: 1154).
50
-- as in nom. -
; several pns like (); .
51
- (-). See --/-.
52
-; . Cf. Furne (1972: 173, 1817).
53
--/. tn ; ; (all in Lydia).
54
--(-)
tn ; (Fick 1905: 67); (Pagas.); , -- (Att.).
Cf. --.
55
--, -; ; ; ; ; ; / . Cf. Furne (1972:
199, 24570).
56
--; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
. Cf. Furne (1972: 1155).

morphology

35

57
-
; ; (); (); ; ; (-); ;
; ; ; ; perhaps . tn (Crete, Fick 1905: 25); ;
(Crete). Cf. Furne (1972: 172118).
58
-.
59
-
; ?
60
-; ; ; ; (-); ; ; . tn
(Crete); . Cf. Furne (1972: 20410).
61
-()-/tn (m Paros); (Boeotian, Fick 1905: 80); (Att.);
(Att.). Cf. ---.
62
--(-)
(); ; ; ; (Myc. te-pa). Perhaps also ()
(also -, -)? tn M (Fick 1905: 71). Cf. Furne (1972: 172118).
63
-See -()-/-.
64
--tn (Euboea); (Thracia).
65
--; ; ; . See Chantraine (1933: 368); cf. --, --, --.
66
--/; ; hn . On - see Furne (1972: 30339): ();
. Cf. on --.
67
.

--

36

chapter 3

68
--; -.
69
-//; ; ; (also --, --); , -; .
70
-(cf. --, Furne 1972: 3247): ; ; ; ; .
71
--
(probably a combination of two suffixes, cf. on --): (cf. , --);
. Cf. on --.
72
--, -(cf. --): , --; ; ; ; ; .
73
-(cf. --, Furne 1972: 226102): ; ; (); (later ); ; ; -; .
74
-; .
75
--, -; ; ; ; ; () (--) = ; .
tn (Cos).
76
--/; ; ; ; .
77
--/(Furne 1972: 24671): (also --); ; .
78
--/; ; (); ; ; . tn (Lemnos);
(Cyclades).
79
--(-)
; ; ; ; ; . tn -.

morphology

37

80
-(cf. -- and --, --): ; . tn (r); (Caria).
81
--(-)
(cf. --): ; ; ; . tn (Euboea);
(Fick 1905: 74).
82
-; ; .
83
--tn .
84
--/ (-); . tn ; ; (- = -, Fick 1905: 25,
61).
85
--; ; ; (and variants).
86
-(cf. --): .
87
--/(cf. --, --, Furne 1972: 163): ; (); . tn (Crete).
88
-(cf. --): ; ; ; ; .
89
-(probably a combination of -- with a preceding consonant; see on --): ;
; ; .
90
-tn (Caria); .
91
-(Furne 1972: 13265), where a preceding velar may become aspirated: ;
-; ; ; ; ; ; / ; ;
. tn (Cyclades).

38

chapter 3

92
-(cf. --, --, --): (also --).
93
-(Furne 1972: 107), often there is a variant with --: (); , -
(-); ; ; . tn (Thess.); (Corc.).
94
-(see also 3.3.2b): (-); .
95
--, --
tn (Chios); (Lydia).
96
- (-)?
97
-(may continue -arw-): ; ; (also -, -); ;
; ; . tn (Arc., the oldest town of all; Fick
1905: 93).
98
-()(Furne 1972: 19755): (also -); () (also ); . tn
; (m ); .
99
-(this may rather be a suffix -- after a root in -): ; .
100
-(this suffix probably consisted of one phoneme py): ; ();
.
101
-(Furne 1972: 12437, 21562): ; ; ; (= Lyc. idkre?).
See also the suffixes --, -- and --.
102
- (also --, --).

morphology

39

103
-tn (Caria).
104
-(Furne 1972: 48126, 21562): (); ; (also -);
. We also find variants without --: / ; / ; / ; / . Therefore, the cluster probably arose by addition of the suffix --. Note that -rn- is found in Etruscan and
already in Cappadocian (Furne 1972: 48126). See also the suffix --. tn (Crete); ; (At.).
105
-
There are several words in -: ; ; (); (); perhaps
.
106
- (--, --).
107
-(Furne 1972: 25427; in several cases this does not seem to be a suffix, but rather
the end of a root; cf. on --, --, --): ; (also --); ; ;
. tn (Crete).
108
-; ; .
109
-(cf. --): ; - (cf. Myc. te-mi-ti-ja / ti-mi-ti-ja); ; . tn ; .
110
-(cf. --): ; (also -); (also -); ; (); .
111
-; ; .
112
-(see 2.5.5.9a on / ): ; ; .

40

chapter 3

113
-; ; (also --); ; (also --);
(--); cf. .
114
-; ; - (-). Cf. --: .
115
-, -; ; ; ; .
116
-
tn (Cos).
117
--, -
; .
118
--
; ; . tn (Crete, also , Fick 1905: 18, 24).
119
-; ; ; -. tn (Locris).
120
-; , -; (); .
121
-(Furne 1972: 20514): ; ; ; ; (also -);
(also -).
122
-(); (also -). tn (Mess.).
123
.

--

124
-; ; -. tn (Crete).

morphology

41

125
-; .
126
-(cf. Furne 1972: 24366 on -umn- in Etruscan and Cappadocian): ;
. tn / (Crete); (Locr.).
127
-(see also --): ; (cf. --); ; . tn (Crete).
128
-; . Cf. on --.
129
-(cf. -/-): . tn (Rhodes).
130
-/; ; /. tn (Fick 1905: 88); .
131
-tn (Athos).
132
- (older ); ; ; .
133
-; (also -); ; ; ; ; . tn
(Crete); (Boeotia); (Cos).
134
-; (also -); ; ; ; .
135
-(on - see -): .
136
-; . tn (Crete); (Crete).
137
-
.

42

chapter 3

138
-.
139
-(). tn (Lemnos).
140
-; ; ; (); .
141
-(on --- see Chantraine 1933: 263): (also --); (also -);
; .
142
-tn (Att., Fick 1905: 70).
143
- (?); ; . tn (Cyclades).
144
-.
145
-(Furne 1972: 30339): ; ; ; ; .
146
-(a variant is --): ; -; (). tn / -
(Crete); (Epirus).
147
-(Furne 1972: 21150): ; ; ; ; . tn (Chalc., Fick
1905: 22).
148
-(see -()-): tn (Euboea); (Caria, Fick 1905: 26).
149
-(Furne 1972: 28383, 384132): ; -; ; ; . tn .

morphology

43

Word End

Word end provides an interesting situation, as some original finals of the


Pre-Greek language may have been preserved. Of course, in order to arrive at
the Pre-Greek form, Greek endings must be removed, notably -, -. Thus, -,
- may often continue original -, -: cf. Myc. du-ni-jo / du-ni. The words in -
have replaced almost all of those in -- (as in -).
3.1
Words Ending in a Vowel
a. -. A short - can only come from *-ya < *-ih2 in inherited Greek words. In all
other cases, we may be dealing with a Pre-Greek ending -a that was originally
short. It is often difficult to see whether - is short or long; the material requires
further study. Examples: ; ; ; (?); ; ;
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
; ; ; ; ; ; (also -); ; ; ;
; , etc. Note forms in -, like , and in -. Note, further,
; .
For words ending in -, see 3.2.3.105 above.
b. -. ie words (neuters) in - are very rare in Greek. Examples of Pre-Greek
words in -: ; ; ; (); . We may assume that
many words ending in -, - originally ended in -, -. Final - is frequent,
too.
c. -. ; ; . For -, see the foregoing. Final - is also found several
times: ; ; ; ; ; -; ; ; ;
.
d. -. Though the ending may also be inherited from ie, in many words
it is clearly of Pre-Greek origin, e.g. (Myc. qa-si-re-u); (). I
withdraw my considerations in FS Kortlandt (2008: 53 f.) on this point.
e. -. ; ; ; ; . The suffix also makes feminine names in -:
; . It is usually assumed that the original inflection of all words in -
derives from stems in *-oi-; I assume that Pre-Greek words secondarily joined
this inflection. Words in - are masculine: (); ; ; .

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3.2
Words Ending in -
a. -. ()?; ; ; ; ; ; ; .
b. -. Examples: ; ; ; (also --); .
c. -. Examples: (Dor.); .
d. -. Examples: ; ; ; .
3.3
Words with a Nom. in - or -
a. - (stem in --) is found quite often:
-: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . has
a stem in --.
-: ; ; .
-: ; .
-: ; ; ; ; .
-: ; .
-: .
-: ; ; ; .
Note acc. ; acc. .
b. -: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Monosyllabic: .
3.4
Words in -
; ; ; ; ; .
3.5
Words Ending in - (-stems)
; ; (?); ; ; ; (); ; ;
; ; ; ; .
With a stem in --: (--); (--) etc.; see 3.2.3.23.
With a stem in --: ; ; ; see 3.2.3.5.

chapter 4

The Unity of Pre-Greek


The material itself shows that we are largely dealing with one language, or a
group of closely related dialects or languages. Of course, we cannot demonstrate in each and every case that the words that are non-Greek belong to this
same language. The bulk of the known non-Greek words, however, seem to fit
the general picture of the Pre-Greek substrate. For example, / does not only show the element / , well-known from geographical
names, but also the suffix -- with prenasalization. The pair / also shows the element / , but has a suffix added that is
also typical for this language. The word / (-) again has the
suffix / , but also prenasalization. / has both the typical
(prenasalized) suffix -- and variation / . In / we have the
s-mobile and the well-known suffix, while , - has the variant without
prenasalization, and has a different Pre-Greek suffix. In () /
() we have a combination of a prothetic vowel and prenasalization.
Other languages may well have existed in the area. Thus, it is not certain
that Hieroglyphic Minoan reproduces the same language as Linear A. Further,
Eteocretan has not yet been connected with other elements and seems isolated.
Another matter is that (non-Indo-European) loanwords from old Europe
may have entered Greece, cf. Beekes (2000). Moreover, these may have already
been adopted in Pre-Greek, as is suggested by , which has a Pre-Greek
suffix, but a root which is attested (with some variation), as a substrate word,
in other European languages. Cf. also / , which shows typically
Pre-Greek features, but may ultimately be a loan from Akkadian (Kroonen
2012).
However, I think that it is methodologically more sound to start from the
assumption that non-Greek words are Pre-Greek. Only when there is reason to
do so should we assume that they have a different origin.

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chapter 5

Pre-Greek is Non-Indo-European
Our knowledge of Indo-European has expanded so much, especially in the
last thirty years (notably because of the laryngeal theory) that in some cases
we can say almost with certainty that an Indo-European reconstruction is
impossible. A good example is the word . In order to explain the -aof this word, we need to introduce a h2. However, a preform *gnh2dh- would
have given Gr. *-. One might think that assuming *h2e would remedy
the problem, but *gnh2edh- would yield *-. The conclusion is that no
Indo-European proto-form can be reconstructed, and that the word cannot be
of Indo-European origin. Another example is the word overhanging
bank, for which a connection with to hang (up) used to be evident.
However, we now know that most long vowels go back to a short vowel plus
a laryngeal, and that long vowels cannot be postulated at random. In this
particular case, there are simply no conceivable formations that would contain
a long root vowel. This morphological objection is strengthened by the fact that
there is no trace of the expected root-final -- < *-h2- (as in < *kremh2-).
Positively, one can say that landscape terms are frequently borrowed from a
substrate language. The inevitable conclusion is that the word is Pre-Greek.

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chapter 6

The Pre-Greek Lexicon


In my edg, I marked with pg all words which, in my view, were of Pre-Greek
origin. I found 1106 words. On the criteria see 2.2b. I here present the whole
evidence, with a short indication why the words are considered Pre-Greek. For
a full discussion of their etymology, I refer the reader to edg. The material is
presented in a semantic classification.
The largest categories are Flora (178) and Fauna (180). This does not really
come as a surprise; together with the Landscape and Natural Phenomena (37)
and the Minerals (27), they form the previously unknown natural elements of
the new home where the Greeks arrived.
An important segment refers to Agriculture (38). Many terms in this section pertain to Viniculture (20), which is one of the few categories that seems
rather unexpected, but there is nothing against the assumption that the original inhabitants knew and widely practiced the technique of wine-making, perhaps with more advanced methods than the newcomers. Many words refer to
Human Physiology (81). To everyday-life belong the terms related to Attire and
Jewellery (21) and the many words referring to Equipment and Utensils (154).
Well represented is Construction (34). The category Culture (51) includes terms
referring to Musical Instruments and Performing Arts (18), Religious Festivals
and Feasting (8), and Divine and Numinous Beings, Priests and Temples (12).
To these we may add the Theonyms, Divine Epithets, Mythical Characters (26).
In the edg, I have introduced a special category pg? . This category comprises words without a good etymology, for which I nevertheless could not find
positive indications for Pre-Greek. I have not included these forms here, but
they can be easily found in the edg. It may be worthwhile to investigate these
words (more than 780) more closely, since the indications for Pre-Greek origin
may turn up at some point.

Landscape and Natural Phenomena

[m.] torrent (Mosch.); also a river name in Thessaly (Hes. Sc. 477) and
Acarnania. No doubt, the word is non-Greek, and probably non-ie; note the
suffix --- (see 3.2.3.32).
[f.] lightning (Il.). (Il.); (Hdt.); .
lightning (Paphian), (cod. -) id. and -

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(H.). This word must be Pre-Greek because of the vocalic interchanges. See Beekes (1987).
[n.] cleft, abyss. Variants are and , the latter probably
shortened from the former, and Arc. (representing -; cf. =
). The variations - / - and / point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.6
and 2.6.1.1a).
[m.] depth (of the sea) (A.). bottomless, further [m.]
depth of the sea. The variation / points to Pre-Greek *-ty- (see 2.5.5.9a).
[f.] earth (Il.). Dor. . Probably related to id.. Both may go back to
Pre-Greek *gaya- (cf. 3.2.3.7 on the suffix -ay-a-). Another variant * (with
/ , see 2.5.6) may be found in (Dor. -) and , but in
these cases the meaning earth cannot be ascertained.
[m.] hill (Il.), acc. to em and Orion = elevated place. The
variants and prove Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.3i).
[m.] darkness (Simon.). The group - seems to point to Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.2a.6). Cf. below.
[f.] dew, often of several fluids; pl. also young animals. The word is
probably of Pre-Greek origin; note the intervocalic -- (see 2.2a.15).
[f.] lowlands, humid pasture (Il.), also [pl.] id.. The word is
probably Pre-Greek, given the variation -- / --, which could not occur
in a participle. Cf. 3.2.3.17 on the suffix ---.
[m.] straits, narrows (X., Arist.); especially the straits between Euboea
and Boeotia (h. Ap. 222, Hdt.); later also canal in general (D. H.); ventilator,
fan (Gal. 10, 649) is probably a homonym, derived from in the sense
blow. The word may well be Pre-Greek, cf. Ruijgh (1967a: 172374). Note that
the long in this position is typical for Pre-Greek forms, cf. 3.2.3 s.v. --, --,
--, --, --.
[f.] sea (Il.). (H.). The word, with its prenasalized
variant, is typically Pre-Greek (see 2.5.2). The variation -- / -- / -- points
to Pre-Greek *-ky- (see 2.5.5.9a).
[f.] wood, wooded hill (Hdt., Theoc.). As a tn , wooded hill in western
Mysia (Il.) and on Crete (D. P., Paus.). A Pre-Greek word without further
etymology.
, - [f.] rainbow (Il.), also of the halo of the moon, etc. (Arist., Thphr.,
Gal.), as a plant name purple Iris, etc. (Arist., Thphr.), see Strmberg (1940:
49); also name of a stone (Plin.). As a pn, , -, - daughter of Thaumas
and Elektra, messenger of the gods (Il., Hes.). Furne (1972: 356) compares
(H.), and concludes to Pre-Greek origin, in view
of the variation / (see 2.6.1.2b).
[m.] pit or cavern at Sparta, into which people sentenced to death (or

the pre-greek lexicon

49

their bodies) were thrown (Th. 1, 134, Paus. 4, 18,4, D. Chr. 80, 9). Also ,
-, with the variations / (2.5.1), / (2.6.1.1a) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.31).
A pre-form *kawyat- would probably give */-, where the is from a
after a palatalized consonant. Cf. (directly below).
[adj.] epithet of (B 581, 1; verse-final), generally
taken as full of crevices, abysses, later said of the wooden horse (Q. S. 12,
314) and, by confusion with , , said of , (Nonn.). It
seems evident to connect , crevice in Sparta. Furne (1972:
1806) points to the gloss . (H.), which shows that a
crevice could be called . For the variation / , cf. above.
[?] only in the question , which according to some grammarians stands for , according to others for (Ar. Fr. 656, Pherecr.
165). Also , . The prenasalization clearly shows the Pre-Greek
character of the words (see 2.5.2).
[n.] evening twilight, dusk, morning twilight (Il., X.). Cf. (this
section, above). The word is no doubt Pre-Greek, but the variation is not
known from other examples. See 2.5.14.
, - [m.] summit, top, pinnacle, only metaph. (Pl., Com. Adesp.,
Str.), acc. to H. also = green woodpecker (i.e. , see section 4.3
below) and sea fish. Also a tn, town in Ionia. This Anatolian
toponym points to substrate origin. Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.145).
[m.] ice (Il.), also rock-crystal [f.] (Str., D. S.), with gender after
. (H.). As Kuiper (1956: 21516) remarked, the word
is Pre-Greek because of the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.15). See Beekes (2008).
[f.] island (Il.); also (flooded) land near a river, alluvial land (Tab. Heracl., pap.). Dor. (Rhod. ). is probably an Aegean loan.
Furne (1972: 387), who points to the variation between single and geminate (see 2.5.8), also assumes a Pre-Greek loan.
, - [f.] rock, rocky mountain range, cliff, ridge; rock cavern, cave (Il.),
boulder, stone (Hell.). No etymology. The word is probably Pre-Greek; see
Furne (1972: 272 etc.). Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.101).
[?] fissure in the soil, crevice (H.). See (this section,
below).
, - [f.], mostly [pl.] drop ( 536 = 501, Hes., Pi.); also dust particle ( . 502), spot (Opp.). [v.] to besprinkle. Variants are
to be besprinkled (H.); ,
is besprinkled, gets wet (H.); (H., Phot.). is
clearly Pre-Greek, if only because of the suffix (see 3.2.3.69).
[m.] roar (of waves, of oars), metaphorically noise in general (Hes., A.,
Opp.); path, trail (Nic.; Boeot. acc. to Plu. in Hes. 13). In view of the variation

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/ attested in the gloss = (sch. Nic. Th. 194, H.) and - =


-, we have to assume that is a Pre-Greek word (see 2.6.1.1b).
[m.] buzzing, whistling, hissing noise, of arrows, winds (S., Ar.). As the
-- in the suffix is certainly not of Indo-European origin (see 2.2a.3), the
word is probably Pre-Greek. Cf. also (below).
[m.] buzzing, rushing, humming, of arrows, wings, water, etc. (epic
361, Hell.). Similar to (above). If related to it, is certainly of
Pre-Greek origin, but even if it is unrelated, such an origin may still be
considered.
[m.] turbulent movement of the sea, flushing of the waves; anchorage,
roads (as opposed to a protected harbor) (S., E., Lys., Hell.), metaphorically
of an earthquake (E. it 46), turbulent emotion (lxx, Gal., Max. Tyr.). ,
- [m.] large sieve of mineworkers, also an Att. name of a potter;
metallic vessel or implement (H.); [v.] to shake,
id.. Already the velar suffixes, and especially the variation they
display, prove Pre-Greek origin for this word: --, --, -- (with /
and prenasalization, see 2.5.1 and 2.5.2); cf. (see section 11.3
below).
[f.] hill (Str. 8, 3, 19; 10, 2, 17); also the island names , . Without
a doubt Pre-Greek (for V-, see 2.2a.15), as argued by Fick (1905: 54 and
112). Likewise, but with a different interpretation (connected to ),
Alessio (1943: 121ff.).
[n.] cavern, cave (epic Il., also Cypr. inscr.). Cf. directly below.
The word is no doubt Pre-Greek (Furne 1972: 123).
[n.] cave, cavern (Pl., lxx, nt et al.). Also , - [f.] id..
Furne (1972: 123) reconstructs a Gr. form *, -, from Lat. *splca.
He further adduces = fissure (H., Phot.) and refers to Etr. pel(a)
cave, tomb. The word is no doubt Pre-Greek: note the s-mobile (see 2.4), the
prenasalization (see 2.5.2) and the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.114).
[f.] storm, squall (Plu.). Furne (1972: 373) connects
torrent (Maced.) (H.); the word is Pre-Greek in view of the
prothetic vowel (see 2.3).
, - [m.] peak of a rock, of a fang, of a claw, etc. (E. Cycl. 401, codd.
, A. R., Opp., ap),
which ends in a sharp point, and the tips of claws, horns
(H.). Pre-Greek, in view of the suffix (see 3.2.3.139).
, - [f.] squeezed out drop (Arist., Thphr., Men., ap et al.). -
(also --) flowing drop by drop. Probably Pre-Greek in view of the prenasalization (see 2.5.2).
, - [f.] gully, chasm, deep trench, abyss (Alcm.). Also (H.

the pre-greek lexicon

51

sine expl.); (Il.). Furne (1972: 227) compares overhanging places (H.). The word is of Pre-Greek origin because
of the alternations in the initial (see 2.3 on the prothetic vowel and 2.4 on
the s-mobile) and because of the (prenasalized) suffix (see 3.2.3.3). Cf. s.v.
(section 7.1 below).
[f.] hole, cleft, slit (epic poet. 495, also Arist. and late prose). ,
- [f.] scallop-shell, used as a measure of content (Xanth., Hp. [v.l. -],
Str.), hollow places, having cavities
(H.). Cf. (H.), [f.] kind of scallop,
, (H.), (Eust.), (em). We clearly
have a Pre-Greek form with several variants. The variations include /
(2.6.1.2f), / (2.5.7c), / (2.5.4). Further, -- is known as a Pre-Greek
suffix (see 3.2.3.115).
[f.] drop, especially of rain; collective drizzle (Hdt.). Also , -.
Further [n.], - [m.] new-born animal (Ar. Byz., H.). The variation
/ points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.1a). Beside , Furne (1972:
339) cites a form , new-born, cub (H.), with an
interchange -- / -- typical for Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.1c). Also note the suffixes
-- and -- (see 3.2.3.5 and 3.2.3.15).
[n.] gloom, darkness (Pi. Fr. 324, H.). Also (H.). Cf.
and . (H.). Furne takes as a shortened from of
*- (see 2.5.13). The variations / and / point to Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.6.1.1a and 2.6.2). See also 2.5.14.

Minerals

, - [m.] charcoal (Ar.), metaph. carbuncle (Arist.). Furne (1972:


197, 393) compares warming-pan, brazier (Eust.) (cf.
brazier), and further (1972: 391) (H.), with the interchange
/ zero (see 2.5.10). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13). Therefore, a
substrate origin is clear.
[f., m.] soot (Hippon.). A variant is soot (cf. s.v. below; for the
variation / , see 2.5.7a); this means that has a Pre-Greek prothetic
vowel (see 2.2).
[?] pebble (H.). The word contains a suffix --, which is very
rare (compare ); therefore, we opt for Pre-Greek origin (cf. 3.3.3a).
[sn]: Probably -- represents the frequent Pre-Greek suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13)
with > due to a neighboring *ly (> --).
, - [m.] probably piece of firewood, charcoal (com., Luc. Lex. 24).

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We are probably dealing with a Pre-Greek suffix - (cf. in section


7.2 below).
, - [f.] dust, ashes (Cyrene). Furne (1972: 118) compares smoke,
soot, but without referring to his p. 391 on the alternation / zero. The
variation (also / , see 2.5.1) proves a Pre-Greek word. The cluster /
(cf. 2.2a.5) probably contains the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.91).
[m.?] charcoal, coal (H.). Furne (1972: 391) connects with (with alternation - / zero), which is not evident. Still,
Pre-Greek origin seems certain. Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.28).
[m.] tin (Il.). Att. . The group / is typically Pre-Greek,
probably continuing *ky (see 2.5.5.9a).
, - [m.] small stones, gravel in a river-bed, also collective (Th., Str.,
J.). Also , - (lxx); (Suid.). The alternations - / zero
and / point to a Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.10 and 2.6.1.1b). Also note the
suffix --/-- (see 3.2.3.13, 3.2.3.55 and 3.3.3a).
[f.] pumice stone (Ar., Arist., Thphr.). The variant shows an
alternation / , which suggests Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.7c).
, - [m.] heap of stones, rock (Lyc. 653). By-forms id., precipitous (H.). The form with could show Pre-Greek
variation / as well (see 2.5.7c). Further note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
[f.] glowing ashes, opposed to glowing coals and , -
ashes (ia). Arist. also has a variant -, which suggests Pre-Greek origin (see
2.4).
[n.] mine, quarry (Hdt., Th., X., Att. inscr.), late also mineral, metal
(Nonn., ap). The word contains the Pre-Greek suffix --- (see 3.2.3.15).
[f.] ruddle, red earth, red color, cinnabar, vermillion, red lead (Hdt.),
also rust in plants = (Paus. Gr.), and a taboo for blood (PMag.). The
word is unmistakably Pre-Greek; cf. Schwyzer (1939: 503).
[m.] metal or iron mass roasted in fire, glowing stones (of a volcano),
etc. (Ion., A., S., Antiph., Arist.). Because of the variant
red-hot iron (H.), we have to assume Pre-Greek origin (see 2.4).
[f.] stone (H.). The noun could be identical to the Macedonian
town . Furne (1972: 161f.) further compares stony ground,
which shows a different anlauting consonant, and therefore points to PreGreek origin (see 2.5.1).
, - [f., m.] cave hollowed out by water, hollow rock (S., Pl., Arist.), also
used of cavities and pores of the body (medic.), metaph. = desire
(H.). A Pre-Greek word, in view of the suffix (see 3.2.3.3).
[m.] stone-chippings, rubble (Epid. iva, H.). Furne (1972: 366) takes the
word to be a variant of induration, callus, hard tumor (see section 7.2

the pre-greek lexicon

53

below) and concludes that it is Pre-Greek, in view of the variation / (see


2.6.1.4).
, -, - [f.] emery-powder for abrading and polishing (Dsc.). Also , [n.pl.] (spelled ). Furne (1972: 366) takes the variation
/ (2.6.1.4) as proof of Pre-Greek origin, which is the most likely option.
[f.] ash, ember, metal ashes, dust (Ion. 375, trag., etc.). Furne (1972:
154) convincingly connects soot, dust of coals and * in (according to Frisk s.v. , wrong for *). The word would
then be Pre-Greek, with a prothetic vowel (2.3) and the variations / (2.5.1)
and / (2.5.7a). Cf. further and below.
[n.] name of an ore, perhaps ferrous sulfate, melanterite (Dsc.). Also .
The variation / points to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.6.1.4).
[m.] gold (sch. Theoc.). Also (Besant.), (Cosmas).
The variation indicates that the word is Pre-Greek. For - / zero, see 2.5.10.
The suffix may have been *-arw-, see 3.2.3.97.
[n.] topaz, probably also of chrysolite and of other stones (lxx, Str., D.
S., Apoc.). The form , - (PHolm.) presents another variant. Furne
(1972: 155, 344) assumes that the variation - / - points to a PreGreek word. Note / before a labial (2.6.1.1b), / (2.5.1) and / (2.5.5.9a).
[f., m.] transparent stone, e.g. alabaster, crystal, amber (ia), glass (Pl.).
It may have had palatal ly, cf. the variant . A palatal ly would explain
both / (2.5.8) and / (2.6.1.1a). Also note the sequence - (see 2.6.4).
[n.] debris, gravel, rubble ( 319, Sapph. 145, Alc. Fr. 344 L.P., A. R. 1,
1123). Gen. also (Tab. Heracl. 1, 60). [f.] dry bed of a mountain river, torrent, ravine, etc.; also [m.] id.. Since the variation
between - and - cannot be explained in ie terms, the word is probably Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.1a). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.5).

[m.] white lead (Ar., Pl., X., Hell.; Delos [301a], ap). Often -, later
also - (pap.), rarely --; also [n.]. The variations / (2.6.1.2j),
/ (2.6.1.4) and / (2.5.8) point to Pre-Greek origin, as does the suffix
-- (3.2.3.117).
[m.] = ashes. See Furne (1972: 197), and compare (directly
below), which proves Pre-Greek origin.
[m.] soot, smoke, fume. Besides soot (for -?) (H.).
Furne (1972: 388) compares dirt (section 14 below) and also (p. 393)
, - (for both see this section, above). In view of the prothetic
vowel (2.3) and the variations / / (2.5.1, 2.5.5.6a), / (2.6.1.3l) and /
/ (2.5.7a), the word is most probably Pre-Greek.

54
3

chapter 6

Flora

3.1
Trees and Shrubs (and Their Products)
[m.] wood (H.). The variant (H.) points to PreGreek origin, in view of the prothetic vowel and the variation / (see 2.3
and 2.5.7a).
[m.] Laconian name for the wild olive (Zen.). The variant
proves Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.8).
[f.] black poplar (Il.). This word must be Pre-Greek because of the variation displayed by , and because of the suffix in which the variation
occurs (see 3.2.3.41 and cf. s.v. in section 3.4 below).
[?] , the branch of
the sweet bay; while grasping these, they praised the gods (H.). Cf. Plu. Mor.
615b. Acc. to em 38, 49, it indicates the bird . The initial -, intervocalic -- (2.2a.15), and the suffix -- (3.2.3.13) suggest Pre-Greek origin; see
also (section 4.3 below).
[f.] name of a tree or plant, acacia or Genista acanthoclada (Dsc.).
Probably a substrate word. Furne (1972: 321) compares , in which case
we would have a prothetic vowel (2.3) and the variation / (2.5.5.1b). Cf.
also (section 3.4 below).
[m.] maple (H.). Furne (1972: 371) compares
(H.). The prothetic vowel points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.3).
, - [m.] bough, branch. Furne (1972: 115) adduces ,
, pole, torch, shaft (H.), which shows that it is a substrate word
(see 2.5.1).
[adj.] rich in almonds, epithet of Lemnos ( 753). Doederlein
plausibly identified the form with almond, a connection that suggests Pre-Greek origin because of the vocalic and consonantal alternations:
/ (2.6.1.4) and / (2.5.1). See and (section 3.2 below).
[f.] kind of chestnut (H.). Furne (1972: 13159)
compares Arm. kask chestnut; for the alternation / zero, see 2.5.10.
[f.] = , plum tree (Nic.). No doubt a substrate word, in
view of the suffix - (see 3.2.3.126).
[f.] wild pear, Pyrus amygdaliformis (Od.). Probably Pre-Greek because of the variant (cod. -) , pear-tree, pear (H.), with
/ (see 2.5.1). Cf. below.
, - [f.] the wild pear and its fruit, Pyrus amygdaliformis (com., Arist.).
One connects (see directly above). Probably of Pre-Greek origin,
with -- beside -- with metathesis (2.5.12; cf. Furne 1972: 392) and
/ (2.6.1.1a).

the pre-greek lexicon

55

[f.] laurel (Od.). The variants , and leave


no doubt that this is in origin a Pre-Greek word (see e.g. 2.5.7a). The variants
-- / /-(/)- can be explained by assuming a proto-form *dakw-(n-),
see 2.1. See further (section 3.4 below).
[f.] the olive (tree) (Od.), rare [m.] (wild) olive (Pi. Fr. 46, S. Tr.
1197). Myc. e-ra-wa, -wo /elaiwa/, /-won/. The word is no doubt Pre-Greek;
note the suffix -()- (see 3.2.3.8).
[m.] wild fig-tree, Ficus caprificus (Il., Hes., Arist.), opposed to .
Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.79). Words with similar meanings also seem to
be of substrate origin, cf. e.g. wild fig and fig in 3.2 below,
further wild olive.
[m.] bush, shrub (Il.). With its -(), the word seems Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.17); also, its meaning fits Pre-Greek origin rather well.
[f.] holly, Ilex aquifolium (Thphr.). The suffix looks Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.110).
[m.] cistus, family of low shrubs, of which the separate types often
produce the resin-like substance (Dsc.). The word is probably PreGreek, in view of the variants and , [m.]. The suffix of
may be compared with , , and other plant names
(see 3.2.3.28).
[f.] tree that grew on the Liparian islands Cytisus aeolicus, also sallow, Salix cinerea (Thphr.). Because of the many vocalic variants certainly
Pre-Greek: , [f.] Colutea arborescens (Thphr.), in H. also
, , a tree.
[?] , bark, capsule (H.). The gloss must be identical
with , name of a plant (Gp.), with the well-known Pre-Greek
variation of / (see 2.5.1). Also note the suffixes -/- (3.2.3.125) and -(3.2.3.15).
[f., m.] strawberry tree, Arbutus unedo. Because of the variant
(H.), this etymon is probably Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.3c).
[f.pl.]? barren trees (H.). Furne (1972: 120) compares
faggot, firebrand and dry wood, torch, so the word is clearly
Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.3h).
[f.] cypress ( 64). Att. -. (inscr. Aegina); also
epithet of Apollo (Cos), of Artemis (Lacon., ig 5(1),
977), of Pan (Crete). Clearly a Pre-Greek word, because of the
foreign phoneme --/-- (see 2.5.5.9a), and notably the variant - in
the toponym and the epithets (see 2.5.1), as well as the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.108).
[m., f.] cytisus, Medicago arborea (ia). Myc. ku-te-so /kutesos/. The

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variation e / i (2.6.1.2b) shows that it is Pre-Greek. Also note the suffix -(3.2.3.84).
[m.] fruit of the pine cone, cone also pine [f.], top. Pre-Greek origin
is confirmed by the variants adduced in Furne (1972: 121), most notably
, the poisonous plant Aconitum, with a prothetic vowel (2.3) and
the variation / (2.6.1.3e). See also in section 3.3 below.
[f.] kind of plum-tree. Furne (1972: 12952, 393) compares id.,
which would prove Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.5.6b).
[f.] myrtle, twig or spray of myrtle (Pi., Simon.). [n.] myrtleberry,
also = myrtle (Archil. acc. to em 324, 14). The variation - / points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.5.9a).
[n.] a fig in Crete (Hermonax). The Mycenaean sign ni looks like a
fig-tree. Note the suffixes -- (3.2.3.121) and -- (3.2.3.6).
[m.] branch, twig (Thphr., Call., Nic., ap). Probably for Aeol. = (see s.v. below), with - as a graphic indication for .
[m.] sprig, twig, (shaft of a) spear ( 38, Hes. Op. 468). Also -; Dor. Aeol.
-, -. It must be a Pre-Greek word, given the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
, - [f.] name of a tree with hard, white wood, hop hornbeam, Ostrya
carpinifolia (Thphr., Plin.). Also , - (or -, -?), and , -.
Already Heubeck (1961: 37) and Neumann (1958: 110 f.) considered
to be Pre-Greek. Indeed, the enlargements -, -, - are typical for an
adapted foreign word.
[f.] elm tree (Il.). Ion. -, Epid. , Myc. pte-re-wa. Arm. tei elm
may have been borrowed from or both may have been borrowed
from a common source, like Lat. tilia linden, lime-tree. Furne (1972: 226)
assumes that it is a variant of ash; he concludes that the word is
Pre-Greek (cf. 2.5.4 on the variation labial stop / ). For - / -, see 2.5.5.1a.
[m.] branch, twig, shoot (lxx). Also (H.) and , stalk, shoot (conj. Nic. Al. 92). sprouts (H.).
Cf. also branch, twig above. In view of the alternation / (see
2.6.1.1b), the word is no doubt Pre-Greek. Also note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.17).
, - [m.] branch, twig (Nic.), palm leaf (D. S.). A formal match is Lat.
rdx root. Cf. also above. The pre-form *wrad-/wrd-, suggested
by these forms, is probably non-Indo-European. Als note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.74).
[f.] resin, fir resin (Hp., Arist., Thphr.). Lat. rsna gives proof of a
dialectal Greek by-form *; the variation attested by this form shows
that it is a Pre-Greek word (cf. Furne 1972: 261; see 2.5.5.9a above).
[f.] sandarac, red arsenic sulphide, realgar, red orpiment (Hp.,

the pre-greek lexicon

57

Arist., Thphr. etc.), bee-bread (Arist.). Also -. lsj mentions Assyr. indu
aru green paint, yellow sulphide of arsenic. The variation / (2.5.1) could
also point to Pre-Greek origin. Also note the suffixes -- (3.2.3.28) and -(3.2.3.13). Cf. also , designation of a bright red colorant, a bright red
mineral color, a red transparent fabric, etc.
, - [f.] old hollow oak (Call. Jov. 22 etc., H.), also with -- in the first
syllable: old silver fir (H.); cf. (Paus. 8,
23, 8). Because of the vowel alternation (see 2.6.1.1b), we have to assume
Pre-Greek origin for this word.

[f.] pomegranate (tree) (Emp.; Nic. also by metrical lengthening); also the
name of a Boeotian water-plant = (Thphr., Nic.). .
pomegranates (Aeolian) (H.). (Call., H.), pomegranate
peels (H.). Furne (1972: index) accepts all forms as real, including
(p. 286). Analyzing as < *-, he argues that the group is Pre-Greek.
The gloss . (H.) is unclear.
[f., m.] Taxus baccata, common yew tree, also the name of an ivy-like
weed and a leguminous plant (Att., Hell.), in Arcadia the name of an oak,
Quercus ilex (Thphr.). OAtt. , -; also (Cratin., Thphr.),
(Call., Nic., Dsc.) [m.] taxus. The variation - / - proves Pre-Greek origin
for this word (Furne 1972: 390; see 2.4 above). Also note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.13).
[m.] name of a bush, = , (Diocl. Fr., Dsc.). Furne
(1972: 124) compares sage-apple, salvia; tree-moss and salvia
(gloss.) and kind of moss. Given these variants, the word is PreGreek. See 2.4 (s-mobile), 2.5.1 ( / ), 2.5.5.5b ( / ) and 3.2.3.91 (--).
[f.] maple, Acer monspessulanum (Thphr., Dicaearch.). Note the
variant wood (H.), which suggests Pre-Greek origin (see
2.5.1), as does the suffix (see 3.2.3.17).
[f.] turpentine tree, Pistacia Terebinthus (Hp.). Also , . The word is Pre-Greek because of the alternations (see 2.5.2, 2.5.4, 2.5.12
and 2.6.5) and its suffix - (see 3.2.3.81).
[n.] sprout, twig (Max., ap, H.). Also . Cypr. te-re-ki-ni-ja fruit,
if this stands for . In = ptng. to burial (H.), we may
be dealing with a specialization of the meaning fruits, i.e. fruits as offerings.
Furne (1972: 351) compares (H.), and therefore suggests
a Pre-Greek word (see 2.6.1.1a). Cf. (section 15 below).
[n.pl.] dry wood, brushwood (Pherer.). Also , . The
variations / (2.6.1.1h) and / (2.5.5.7b) betray a Pre-Greek word (Furne
1972: 286).
[f.] name of a shrub, probably kermes oak, Quercus coccifera (Suid., also

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Paus. 10, 36, 1 [conj.]). In view of the variants (Edict. Diocl. 24, 912) and
(ibid. 19, 8), Pre-Greek origin can be considered (see 2.6.1.2b, 2.6.1.4 and
3.2.3.78).
, - [m.] wild fig (S. Fr. 781[?], Ar. Pax 1165). An evident Pre-Greek
word in - (cf. Furne 1972: 24570; see also 3.2.3.55).
3.2
Wild and Cultivated Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts
, - [f.] clove of garlic (Ar.), probably Pre-Greek because of the variant
garlic (H.), with interchange / (Furne 1972: 194; see also
2.5.1 above). Further note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.72). See also (this
section, below).
. ships made out of one piece of wood (Cypr.).
the poles in the plough.
apples. fruits grown on
upper branches of trees (Att.) (H.). Whereas the first two meanings allow
for an ie interpretation, the meanings apples and fruit may be compared
with plums, sloes. could represent *; for the variation
/ , see 2.5.4. See further below.
[m., f.] the edible acorn of the Quercus ilex ( 242). Also , with
the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.7). A substrate word (Furne 1972: 25532); -- is a
frequent Pre-Greek suffix (see 3.2.3.121).
[f.] almond (Hp.) with the variant , - (Cyrene). Note
--, which interchanges with --, which suggests Pre-Greek origin (see
2.2a.4 and 2.5.5.5b). Another variant is found in rich in almonds
(section 3.1 above). See further below.
[f.] plant name Portulaca oleracea, also Sedum stellatum (Thphr.).
Also (Thphr.), [f.] (Paus.). Furne (1972: 288) compares
, which is formally quite acceptable, i.e. *(a)ntrak(V )n/l-, with
metathesis of aspiration (1972: 1972, 393), variation n / l (1972: 388; cf. 2.5.7a
above), the common phenomenon of prenasalization (2.5.2), and anaptyxis
of (2.6.5). All of these phenomena clearly suggest substrate origin.
[m.] wild chickling, Lathyrus annuus (Ar.). Cf. ,
a pulse, the same as . (H.). Also a consonant stem
(pap.). Also (Gal.), (Thphr.). The interchange / (see 2.5.1)
and the suffixes -- and - (see 3.2.3.13 and 3.2.3.71) clearly prove substrate
origin.
2 [m.] asparagus, young shoots (Cratin.), Pre-Greek because of the
variant (see 2.5.1).
, - [f.] orach, Atriplex rosea (Hp.), Pre-Greek because of the variants (-) and (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.2).

the pre-greek lexicon

59

[n.] flower of the wild pomegranate (Dsc., Gal.) with the variant
. The variation / is typical of Pre-Greek words (see 2.6.1.1h).
[m.pl.] . chick-peas (H.). Because of the vocalic
alternation shown by the variant (H.), Pre-Greek origin
can be considered (see 2.6.1.1a). Also note the suffix --, and the variant -without prenasalization (see 2.5.2, 3.2.3.72, 3.2.3.81).
, -, - [f.] garlic, or its cloves (Thphr.), obviously related to the
synonym (this section, above), which suggests that is to be
analysed as a reduplicated *- (see 3.1). Furne (1972: 123, 127, etc.) also
adduces , - (Plu.; also Alex. Trall.) with the same meaning.
These variants point to a Pre-Greek origin (see especially 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5.1).
The suffix, too, with a long vowel , is typically Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.70 and
3.2.3.72). Kroonen (2012) argues that - and - reflect *gedl- and *a-gdl-,
respectively, showing a morphological alternation of a full stem and an
a-prefixed reduced stem, which has a number of parallels in Italic, Celtic
and Germanic (Schrijver 1997). He further considers pg *gedl- to be a loan
from Akkadian giddil / gidlu string (of onions or garlic).
, - [f.] name of an onion (Epich.). Because of the variants ,
, , and , Pre-Greek origin is almost certain (see 2.5.1
and 2.6.1.1i). See also (section 3.3 below). Note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.123).
[m.] chickpea (Il.). Related to id. (see s.v. below) with the
Pre-Greek suffix - (see 3.2.3.81).
[m./f.] Aeol. for turnips or gourds (Nic., apud
Ath. 9, 369a). The vocalic variant , (H.)
and the suffix variant (H.) prove Pre-Greek origin (see
2.6.1.1a and 3.2.3.130).
, - [f.] lettuce (Epich., Ion., Hell.). According to Nehring (1925: 181)
this word is Pre-Greek, which is further corroborated by the variants ,
, (H.), and (see 2.5.12, 2.6.1.3b, 2.6.1.4). Also note the
suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
[n.] nut (Epich., Ar., Thphr.). Beside , we find (H.), which points to a Pre-Greek word (interchange - / zero, see
2.5.10).
[?] kind of onion (H.). It has been connected with
, - chervil and its variant , -. The word is Pre-Greek,
in view of the a-vocalism and the suffixation (see 3.2.3.74 and 3.2.3.120).
[n.] husk or skin of fruit, skin of an onion, eggshell. The variant
, bark; husk, skin, etc. (H.) suggests Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.6.1.3l).

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[acc.pl.n.] name of a plant, according to H. (cod. ) similar to the


(Nic. Th. 841). No doubt Pre-Greek. Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.18).
purslane (H.). Cf. Lat. cicirbita, a plant. The prenasalization points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2).
[f.] round gourd, Lagenaria vulgaris (Hp., com., Arist., pap.). Att.
-, later -, -, late also - (-, -) [m.]. The suffix -,
-, frequent in plant names, points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.81 and
3.2.3.130).
[m.] bean (Il.), lot, in which those who drew white beans won (Att.),
metaph. swelling of the paps (Ruf., Poll.), woodlouse (Gal.), name of a
coin (Taurom. ia). Variants are (H.) and (H.). Furne
remarks that the variation between -- and -/- proves the PreGreek character of the word (see 2.5.4, 3.2.3.18, 3.2.3.55). Also note the
sequence -- (see 2.6.4). On the variation - / -, see Furne (1972: 388) and
2.5.6 above.
() [n.pl.] quinces (Stesich., Alcm., com.). Folk-etymologically
adapted from an older Anatolian word still retained in -. Cf. the
town on the Lydian border. H. has .
winter-figs; kind of Persian nut. Lat. cotneum
quince also belongs here, but probably as an independent loan.
[m.] a flower, properly the calyx of the pomegranate (Thphr., Dsc.,
Gal.) also Cytinus hypocisthis (Dsc. 1, 97), because of the similarity with
the flower of the granate. Furne (1972: 182) compares
spoon (H.), , - small ship, cell of a honeycomb, as well
as calyx of the Egyptian bean (Thphr.), calyx of an acorn (Thphr.),
receptacles, = honeycomb (H.). The variation
/ / etc. points to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.8).
[f.] kind of cabbage, Brassica arvensis (Dsc., Gal.; pap.). For the initial
syllable we also find -, -, and see further the variants
edible wild vegetable (H.) and .
turnip (H.). All this variation taken together makes substrate origin
very likely (see 2.5.2 and 2.6.1.1a). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.19).
[n.] monks rhubarb, Rumex acetosa (Epich., Thphr.). Because of the
formation (cf. ), foreign origin is suspected (for the suffix, see 3.2.3.6).
The gloss as purgative plant (sch. Theoc.), with [pl.]
faeces (sch. Gen. E 166), recalls to weaken, hollow out, empty, also
destroy, for which cf. (section 15 below).
[n.pl.] = , plums, sloes (Seleuc. apud Ath. 2, 50a). As
variants we find and , in
. (H.). Maybe also (but see Furne

the pre-greek lexicon

61

1972: 221). If the latter is reliable, we would also have variation / , to which
may be added in order to explain (see 2.5.4). See also s.v. above.
[f.] raspberry (Dsc. 4, 37). Furne (1972: 209, 272) states that
bramble, Rubus ulmifolius cannot be separated from this word, which, if
correct, proves substrate origin, in view of the variation / (2.5.4) and the
prenasalization (2.5.2).
[f.] garlic (H.). No doubt a Pre-Greek plant
name. For - (with short -, see 3.3.1a), cf. (section 3.4 below).
[n.] fruit of the (com.). Also (Gal.),
(H.). In view of the variations / (2.6.1.2b) and / (2.6.1.1c), the word will
be Pre-Greek. Also note the suffix -- (3.2.3.121).
[n.pl.] acorns (Dsc. 1, 106). Furne (1972: 304) compares
(a nut-bearing tree, Ath. 2, 52b) and further = chestnut. Thus, an interchange ()- / -- is found, which points
to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.3, 2.5.5.10a and 2.6.1.3e).
[m.] almond, kind of nut (Ath. 2, 52c and 53b, H.). Variants are Lacon.
, , and further sweet. (H.)
and , id. (H.), see Furne (1972: 140). Further related to
(this section, above). The variants show that the word is Pre-Greek;
note - / zero (2.3), / (2.6.1.4), / / (2.5.1), / / (2.5.7a), etc.
[f.] name of a kind of garlic (Hp.). As the ending can hardly be explained
in ie terms, it must be Pre-Greek. It could represent /-dya/ or /-tya/ (cf. also
above and in section 3.4 below; further 3.3.1a on short -).
[m.]? chick-peas (H.). Clearly a Pre-Greek word in view of
the suffix (see 3.2.3.130); cf. (directly below).
[m.] wild, unripe fig (Hes. Fr. 160) with its variant is clearly
Pre-Greek; note the variation / and the suffix -- (see 2.6.1.3c and
3.2.3.130).
[m.] a plant with a bulb, perhaps Bunium ferulaceum (Thphr.). Furne
(1972: 240) compares an Egyptian truffle; (H.)
beside , a Thracian mushroom (Ath. 2, 62a v.l. ; iton Plin.), which
he analyses as pointing to (). He further connects and . The
variations point to a Pre-Greek word. See and in section 3.5 below.
[m.] chickpea, Vicia Ervilia, plur. chickpea seeds (Hp., D., Arist.,
Thphr.). Cf. id. (above). An old substrate word, as is shown by the
vocalic variation (2.6.1.3l) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.81).
[f.] cabbage, Brassica cretica (Att., etc.), radish, Raphanus sativus
(Arist., pap.). In view of the variation attested with , turnip
and , the word may originally be of Pre-Greek stock. Apart from the
variations / (2.5.1) and / (2.6.1.1a), note the suffix -- (3.2.3.19).

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[m.] a leguminous plant (Com. Adesp.). Furne (1972: 30132) is without


a doubt correct in connecting cooked beans (H.),
which shows that the word is Pre-Greek (interchange / , see 2.6.1.1h).
[f.] bottle-gourd, Lagenaria vulgaris (Hp., Arist., Thphr., etc.), metaph.
bleeding cup (Hp., com., Pl., etc.). In view of the large number of variants,
viz. Ion. -, , (H.), [f.] id., = (Edict. Diocl., cf.
Furne 1972: 367), tn (-), - [m., f.], (H.), and
sweet round gourd (H.), we seem to be dealing
with a substrate word, which may also be found in Lat. cucumis cucumber and ORu. tyky pumpkin, and in Semitic, e.g. Hebr. qiu cucumber.
[m.] fruit shell of the (Thphr.). Furne (1972: 373) adduces
, fruit of the artichoke, which would point to Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.3).
[m.] name of a kind of thistle with an edible flower base, Scolymus
hispanicus, artichoke, Cynara scolymus (Hes., Alc., Arist., etc.). A variant is
edible onion (H.). The interchange of / is a
well-known Pre-Greek phenomenon (see 2.5.4).
[?] rocket, Eruca sativa (H.). After Furne (1972: 360), this
word is Pre-Greek. Note the suffix -- and final - (see 3.2.3.82 and 3.3.1a).
[n.] fig, also metaphorically wart, swelling, vagina ( 121). Boeot. (Stratt.)
. Like Lat. fcus and Arm. tuz fig, a loanword from a Mediterranean or
Anatolian source. This source may well have been Pre-Greek: the variation in
initial consonantism probably reflects an original *tyuk-, with a palatalized
/ty/ (see 2.5.5.9a).
[n.] beet, Beta maritima (Hp., com., Thphr., pap.). The word is PreGreek because of the variant Ion. Hell. (see 2.5.5.9a).
[f.] a fig suitable for curing, also metaphorically of thin people (com.);
acc. to sch. Ar. Ach. 802, a place in Megaris or Attica. =
kind of fig, with the plur. = ; in em 793, 26
(acc. to Apolloph.) = , - = . This etymon must be
Pre-Greek because of the variation. Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.15).
(-) [n.pl.] leguminous fruits (Hp.), , (H.),
also [f.] id. (pap. ivvip). The variants (Erot., H.) and
(H.) show that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.12). Cf. (section
5.1 below).
3.3
Aromatic, Medicinal and Toxic Herbs
[f.] plant that produces (Dsc.), cf. (section 3.2
above), with a prothetic vowel (2.3) and the variation / (2.5.5.9a).

the pre-greek lexicon

63

[m.] wild basil, Calamintha graveolens (Dsc. 3, 43). Also . The


interchange of vowels, though rare, may point to a substrate word; see Furne (1972: 191) and 2.6.1.3b above. See also basil, Ocimum Basilicum
below.
[n.] dill, Anethum Graveolens (Aeol., Att.). Variants ; ,
. Furne (1972: 254) compares (this section, below). The variation / (2.5.8) and / / (2.5.5.9a) points to Pre-Greek origin.
[n.] chervil, Scandix australis (Sapph.); also . Further [m.] (Pollux 6, 106); , ,
garden herbs, such as dill (H.). Because of the variations / (2.6.1.1a) and
/ (2.6.1.4), a substrate origin seems certain. In view of its prickly fruits, it
may be further connected with awn (section 5.1 below).
[n.] anise, Pimpinella Anisum (Hp.); also (v.l. in codd.); ;
prob. identical with (above). At any rate, the variation between simple
and geminate and suggests substrate origin (see 2.5.8).
[n., m.] St. Johns wort, Hypericum perforatum. Also . The prothetic vowel points to a substrate word (see 2.3).
, - [f.] pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium (h. Cer.). Ion. , Dor.
. The variation - / - was explained as resulting from dissimilation
by Schwyzer (1939: 299). But since the word has no etymology, and since the
stem formation is strange, we are rather dealing with a Pre-Greek word. See
2.5.6 on the variation / and 3.2.3.145 on the suffix --.
[n.] plant name, Origanum Dictamnus (Arist.). Also . Formation like , , etc. (Schwyzer 1939: 524 and 494), and
therefore Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.1718).
[m.] hellebore, Helleborus, Veratrum album. The double -- may
represent the phoneme -ly-, which at the same time explains the two first
s: /a/ was pronounced [] in contact with the palatalized l, and [] is
represented by ; after the , it may have been realized as , which gives us a
pre-form /alyabar-/.
[f.] wick, also the plant name plantain, Plantago crassifolia (Thphr.,
Nic.), the leaves of which were used to make wicks (hence it was also called
, Strmberg 1940: 78 and 106). The suffix occurs mostly with plants or
birds, so the word is probably Pre-Greek (cf. 3.2.3.15). Cf. (section 3.4
below).
[f.] name of a sweet-scented plant, savory, Satureia Thymbra (com.,
Thphr., Dsc.). Also (Hp. apud Gal.), (Gp.). Clearly a non-ie
plant name, probably Pre-Greek. Note the metathesis and the suffix - (see
2.5.12 and 3.2.3.7). Niedermann (1931: 14) recalls Anatolian tns like ,
, and on the other hand (southern spur of the Pindos,

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named after ?). These could stem from a language related to PreGreek.
[n.] kind of lavender, Lavandula Spica (Ar.). Furne (1972: 391) connects
[n.] with as a variant without -, for which there are only few
parallels (see 2.5.10). Nevertheless, a Pre-Greek word is probable a priori.
[f.] . mint (H.). Also (). The variation /
(2.6.1.1a) points to Pre-Greek origin.
[f.] name of an odoriferous plant (Hp., Ar., Arist.). A Pre-Greek word
is most probable because of the suffix (see 3.2.3.81) and the meaning.
[n.] name of a plant with poisonous sap: white hellebore, Veratrum
album (med., Orph.). Myc. womens names Ka-pa-si-ja, Ka-pa-ti-ja. A form
with a dental is also found in the name of the island , which was
named after the plant. The variation / is typical for Pre-Greek and points
to a palatalized phoneme -ty- (see 2.5.5.9a).
[f.] scil. , black swallowwort, Vincetoxicum nigrum (Dsc., Apollod.)
= . Note the variation / and the suffix - (see 2.5.6 and 3.2.3.7).
[f.] a kind of aromatic plant, Origanum, marjoram. Furne (1972: 361)
assumes a Greek variant * on the basis of Lat. cunla, which would
show the variation / (see 2.6.1.3c). He further compares
(H.) (1972: 120), and perhaps , (H.) (1972: 121), with
variation / (see 2.5.1). On -- as a Pre-Greek suffix, see 3.2.3.75.
[n.] coriander, Coriandrum sativum (Anacr., com., Thphr.). Also (gloss.), dissimilated (Gp., sch.); (H.); shortened
Myc. ko-ri-ja-do-no, ko-ri-a2-da-na /korihadnon, -na/. The cluster -dnand the variation / point to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.2a.6 and 2.5.6). It
is possible that pg *koriandro- dissimilated to *koriandno-, with subsequent
(post-Mycenaean) assimilation -ndn- > -nn- in the classical form.
[m.] plant name, blue pimpernel, , Anagallis caerulea. Var. (Ar.). The variation / (2.5.1) shows that it is a Pre-Greek
formation, apparently with reduplication (3.1).
[n.] hemlock, Conium maculatum, hemlock drink, poisonous drink
(ia). Furne (1972: 121) connects not only fruit of the pine cone, cone
(section 3.1 above), but also murder and , the poisonous plant
Aconitum. The prothetic vowel (2.3) and the variation / (2.6.1.3e) show
that it is a Pre-Greek word. Further note the suffixes --- (3.2.3.7) and --(3.2.3.87).
[f.] mint (ia, Thphr., Plu.), also . It is undoubtedly Pre-Greek, because of the variant ending - (see 3.3.1a).
[n.] sage, Salvia Horminum (Thphr.). The word is no doubt Pre-Greek,
just like the other words with a suffix -- (see 3.2.3.79).

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65

[n.] cuckoo-pint, name of a plant used as a remedy against jaundice


(Archig. apud Gal.). Furne (1972: 345) refers to Gams (dkp 1: 602f.), who
connects it with Natterwurz, a kind of shore-weed, with the variation
/ (see 2.6.1.1b).
[n.] rue, Ruta graveolens (Diocl. Fr., com., Thphr.).
id. (H.). The variations / (2.5.1) and / (2.6.1.1i) point to Pre-Greek
origin.
[n.] a plant known especially from Cyrene, silphium.
(H.). The variants , , together with Lat. sirpe id., point to a
loanword of unknown origin (see 2.5.1, 2.5.7c, 2.6.1.2b).
[n.] mustard, mustard plaster. A variant is . The words can be best
explained from a Pre-Greek form *synpi. Pre-consonantal palatalized consonants yielded both C and C (e.g. : < *kyn-, :
< *lasyt-, see s.vv. in section 4.4 and 11.3, respectively); cf. Beekes (2008). In
this case, *synpV yielded both - and *-. In initial position, *regularly yielded Gr. -.
() [f.] kind of scammony, Convulvulus scammonia (Eub., Arist.).
Also (Gp.), (Nic.). The variants point to a Pre-Greek origin,
with a prothetic vowel (2.3), an s-mobile (2.4) and / (2.5.8).
[n.] = St. Johns wort (Nic. Th. 74). See (this section,
above).
[n.] name of several plants, e.g. nightshade, Withania somnifera
(Thphr., Dsc. et al.). Also . The s-mobile points to Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.4). Furne (1972: 135) compares (Dsc., Plu.), a plant which
may be similar to the . See s.v. (section 3.4 below) for further comments.
[m.] sage (com., Thphr.). See (section 3.1 above).
[m.] milkweed, Euphorbia Peplus (com., Thphr., Dsc.). All words
in - are Pre-Greek (see Beekes 2008: 49 ff.; for examples see 3.2.3.15
above).
[n.] name of an umbelliferous plant, hartwort, Tordylium officinale
(Ruf. apud Orib., Gal., Plin.). Variants are - (Dsc.), - (Nic. [--], Dsc.),
- (Dsc. v.l.), with / (see 2.6.1.4). Furne (1972: 367) compares ,
which is perhaps better taken as a mistake for - rather than as an old variant
without -, pace Furne (1972: 391).
[n.] = rue, Ruta graveolens (H.). The word is probably PreGreek, see above.
[n.] healing or harmful medicine, healing or poisonous herb, drug,
poisonous potion, magic (potion), dye, raw material for physical or chemical processing (Il.). , Att. - to treat with ., to heal, poison,

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enchant ( 393). Furne (1972: 220) compares (H.),


, (H.). Note the variations / and / , wellknown from Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.1b and 2.5.4). Also note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.13). Foreign origin is already pleaded for by Chantraine (1933: 384) and
Schwyzer (1939: 497).
[m.] mullein, Verbascum sinuatum (Cratin. [lyr.], Eup. [anap.]). Also
(Ps.-Dsc.). The variation - / - shows that the word is Pre-Greek (see
2.5.1).
[n.] basil, Ocimum Basilicum (com., Thphr.). , [m.] wild
basil, Calamintha graveolens (Dsc.). The variants suggest a Pre-Greek origin,
with / (2.6.1.1e) and / (2.6.1.3b).
3.4
Other (Useful) Plants and Flowers
[f.] a plant, Anchusa tinctoria (Thphr.), with the variant .
Apart from the variation / (2.6.1.1a), note the suffix - (3.2.3.98).
[f.] a plant, Clematis vitalba (Thphr.), with the variant ,
which shows prenasalization (see 2.5.2).
, - [f.] name of several plants (Dsc.), also and . A
further variant is = (). The prothetic vowel and prenasalization prove a Pre-Greek origin (see 2.3 and 2.5.2).
[f.] fish thistle, Cnicus Acarna (Thphr.) with the variants butchers broom, Ruscus aculeatus and ,
myrtle (H.). The variation - / - / zero, the cluster -- and the short
- all point to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.2a.14, 2.3, 2.4 and 3.3.1a).
[n.] probably a herb, in (PMag. Lond. 1, 121,
209 [iiip]). Furne (1972: 344) compares , a kind of grass, which
suggests that the words are Pre-Greek, in view of the variations - / zero (2.3),
/ (2.6.1.1b) and / (2.5.8).
[f.]? kind of thorny plant (H.). id. (em), also [adj.]
fast, tight; cf. [adv.] fast, tight. The variation with - and the form
itself suggest pg origin (see 3.2.1, 3.3.1a and 3.3.3a). Cf. (section 10.2
below).
[m.] asphodel, Asphodelus ramosus (Hes.) with the variants (H.), (Ar.), and (see 2.3 and 2.5.1).
[f.] vetch, Vicia angustifolia (Pherecr.). Also . Furne (1972: 373)
takes - as a prothetic vowel and considers the word to be a substrate word
(note the change of inflection - : -). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
[f.] a plant = (Apul. Herb. 15). Furne (1972: 330) connects
lesser celandine, Ranunculus ficaria; the suffix -- suggests a PreGreek word anyhow (see 3.2.3.108).

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67

[n.] wormwood, Artemisia Absinthium (Hp.). The suffix -- proves


Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.81).
[n.] male fern, Aspidium Filix-mas. Also (Dsc.), (H.),
(Phan. Hist.), (H.). The alternation / does not derive from
an r/n-stem, but points to Pre-Greek origin (see Furne 1972: 388, and 2.5.7b
above).
[m.]/[n.]? , a plant called clover (H.).
Furne (1972: 318) thinks that the word is Pre-Greek because of the group
, which is quite possible. Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.78).
[?] , asphodelus, narcissus (H.). Furne (1972: 138)
compares (H.). If correct, this comparison would
prove an alternation - / -, which would be a strong indication of
Pre-Greek origin (see 2.4, 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.2b).
[f.] Cretan plant name (unknown poet iiip). Probably a local name,
i.e. Pre-Greek. Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.58).
[m.] name of several Umbellates (Athamanta Cretensis, Peucedanum
Cervaria, Daucus Carota). Also , Cretensis (Nic.). Cf.
well-burning wood of the laurel (H.). Under
(section 3.1 above), it is argued that these forms represent one and the same
word, viz. pg *dakw-(n-); in addition, and are actually identical, too: ,
(sch. Nic.). The variation / seems to be due to the suffix -- (see 2.5.1 and
3.2.3.91).
, . (H.). MoGr. (Cret.) Quercus ilex, with
a prothetic vowel (see 2.3).
[m.] pole-reed, what is made of it, shaft of an arrow, pipe (Il.). Also ,
, gen. -. The variation / / (2.6.1.3d, 2.6.1.3i) and the suffix -
(3.2.3.13) suggest Pre-Greek origin.
[n.] plant name, Convolvulus oleifolius, etc. (Dsc.). Furne (1972: 183)
compares , (section 3.3 above); he assumes that this word
stands for *(?). The s-mobile (2.4) and the variations / (2.5.1)
and / zero (2.6.5) show that the word is Pre-Greek. Also note the suffix -(see 3.2.3.89).
1 [f.] name of a thistle-like plant, Eryngium (Nic. et al.). Clearly a
Pre-Greek word in view of the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.114).
[n.] reed, rush (Il.). Furne (1972: 135) adduces the variants (em
456, 31) and (sch. 351), which point to a Pre-Greek word. See also
(section 3.3 above).
[m.] darnell, Lolium temulentum (Ps.-Dsc.). The suffix - points to a
Pre-Greek word (see 3.2.3.28; for the sequence --, cf. 2.6.4).
[m.] a kind of mallow, marsh mallow = . Also -. Furne (1972:

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355) thinks the word is of Pre-Greek origin, where / is frequent (see


2.6.1.2b). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.85).
[f.] reed, Arundo donax, reed-fence, -mat. Ion. . As a first member
in - [f.] female carrying a basket (Ar.), -, -, -. The
variation / and the short - point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.8 and 3.3.1a).
It is probable that , and are derivations of , see
s.vv. (sections 9.8, 9.9 and 12.2, respectively). Of these, further has the
variant Myc. ko-no-ni-pi /konni-phi/, with variation / , another sign of
Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.1b).
[m.] ivy, Hedera helix (ia). Att. . Furne (1972: 256) compares
in the sense of ivy (Ps.-Dsc.). We may reconstruct a form pg *kity(see 2.5.5.9a).
[f.] plant name = , bindweed, Convulvulus arvensis and Smilax
aspera (Nic., Dsc.). By-form [f.] (Nic.), perhaps for *?
See Furne (1972: 181). Cf. also [f.] a plant (Gp.) and ,
- = (Gal. 14, 18). The Pre-Greek origin is clear in view of the
prenasalization (2.5.2) and the formal variations / zero (2.6.5) and /
(2.5.1). Further note the suffixes -/- (3.2.3.5, 3.2.3.31) and - (3.2.3.7). The
inserted -- may derive from pg *a, i.e. a pre-form *k(a)lu(m)p-at-.
, - [m.] sprout (Att.). Cf. = (H.). Kuiper (1956: 221 f.)
connected the word with branch, with nasalization (replacement
of a stop by the nasal of that series, see 2.5.3) of the and variation /
(2.6.1.1e). Further note the suffix of (3.2.3.13).
[f.] name of a plant with a strong scent, fleabane, Inula (viscosa, graveolens, britannica). Also (Pherecr.) and (Theoc.). The s-mobile
(2.4), the variation / zero (2.6.5) and the short - (3.3.1a) all point to PreGreek origin. The formation is similar to that of other plant names, cf. e.g.
and in section 3.2 above.
[n.] name of a meadow-plant with an aromatic root, galingale, Cyperus longus, rotundus ( 351, 603, Thphr.), cf. Strmberg (1937: 79f.). Var.
[m.] (Ion.), (Alcm.), the cords plaited from the galingale (H.). The word probably reflects
*kupary-, which explains the variants ()- and ()-; the *a was
phonetically colored to before a palatal consonant, which also explains the
lack or presence of .
[f.] poppyhead, capsule of the grape hyacinth, etc. ( 499, Nic.), also
other plants and comparable objects. The variants , -, -, - point
to Pre-Greek origin. Cf. 3.2.3.7 on the suffix -()- and 3.3.1a on short -.
[n.] lily, Lilium candidum (h. Cer. 427, Hp., A. R., Thphr., Dsc.;
Pi.), also narciss (Thphr., Dsc.). Like Lat. llium, the word comes from

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69

an eastern Mediterranean language. A comparable word for lily is found in


Coptic: hrri, hlli (Eg. rr-t). We also find several similar words for flower,
Berb. ilili, alili, Alb. lule, Hitt. alil-, all.
[f.] mallow (Hes.). Also , (vase inscr. Naples),
[acc.] (Orac. apud Luc. Alex. 25), with variation / (2.6.1.1b) and / (2.5.1).
Also note the suffix -/- (3.2.3.13, 3.2.3.34). We may assume a Pre-Greek
form *malwak-.
[m.] bog-rush, Cladium mariscus (Plin. hn 21, 112). The suffix -
probably points to a Pre-Greek word (see 3.2.3.85).
[?] thorns which grow in the
fleece of cattle, i.e. bristles? (H.). Var. , grass,
also a kind of thorn (H.), , , braids, cords,
curls of hair (H.). The s-mobile (2.4) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.69) point to
Pre-Greek origin. Cf. cord, thread (section 9.9 below).
, - [m.] giant fennel, Ferula communis, also denoting its hollow
stalk, which was used as a thyrsos and splint, among other things (Hes.);
also capsule, cupboard (Str.). The variant (H.), as well as
the tn , point to original --, which is a Pre-Greek suffix (see
3.2.3.13). See Furne (1972: 199), who compares spikenard, Indian
narde, Nardostachys Jatamansi, which seems to be of Semitic (Phoenician)
origin; cf. Semitic forms like Hebr. nrd, Aram. nirda, and Babyl. lardu.
[m.(f.)] narcissus (h. Cer.). The suffix clearly points to a Pre-Greek
word (see 3.2.3.108).
[f.] plant name (PMag. Par.). Probably a Pre-Greek word; see Furne
(1972: 19755). Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.98).
[f.] Iris foetidissima (Thphr.). Variants or , , . The
variations / (2.6.1.4) and / (2.5.5.7b) point to Pre-Greek origin.
[f.] plantname, restharrow, Ononis antiquorum (Thphr.). Furne (1972:
340f.) compares (Dsc.), with variation / (2.6.1.1b), so it is probably
a Pre-Greek word.
, - [m.] bulrush, mat of bulrush (com. va). The suffix is Pre-Greek
(see 3.2.3.13).
, - [f.] wild chervil, Scandix pecten Veneris (Ar., And., Thphr., Dsc.).
Also . Clearly of Pre-Greek origin, in view of the suffix (3.2.3.74) and
the variation displayed by the suffix. Cf. also , a kind of onion,
which could well be a variant of it.
, [m.] sow thistle, Sonchus aspera (Antiph., Thphr., etc.). Considering the variation, clearly a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.1).
[m., f.] rush, reed, rope plaited of rush ( 463), also as an (Egyptian) land
measure (Hdt. 2, 6, Hero, pap.). Furne (1972: 391) compares

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fence (H.); because of the variations / zero and / , the word is Pre-Greek
(see 2.4 and 2.5.1).
[n.] Scilla autumnalis, squill (Thphr.). Cf. (section 3.3 above). The
variation in / points to Pre-Greek origin (Furne 1972: 391; see
2.5.10 above).
[m., f.] hyacinth ( 348, Sapph.); designation of a blue cloth or a
blue color (lxx, Ph., J., pap.); also of a precious stone (late). Cret. -, -.
An evidently Pre-Greek word, cf. Furne (1972: 242, 377; though not with a
prothetic u-, as he argues, but with pg *w-). Also note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.81).
3.5
Fungi

[f.] rust in plants (Pl., X., Arist.; long in Orph. L. 600). ,


, . The word is Pre-Greek because of the alternations of
dental stop (, ) with and / (see 2.5.5.9a and 2.5.4). The long is also
typical for Pre-Greek word formation (see the suffixes --, --, --, --, --,
-- in 3.2.3).
[f.pl.] fungus growing on oaks and walnut-trees. , uncertain reading.
If the variant is reliable, the variation / (2.6.1.4) would point to a Pre-Greek
word.
[n.] Thracian name for a kind of mushroom. (H.).
Probably (thus delg). Furne (1972: 110, 184) connects it with ,
truffle (below), also , --. The initial variation could go back to
pg *wit-. Further note / (2.5.1) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.91). See also
(section 3.2 above).
, - [m.] mushroom, also metaph., e.g. mushroom-like protuberance,
any knob or rounded body, cab or cap at the end of a scabbard, snuff of a
lamp-wick, membrum virile (ia). Gurma connects the word with
stalks of dried-up fig trees (H.), which implies
that the word is Pre-Greek (interchange / , see 2.5.5.3b).
[n.] name of a mushroom, truffle (Hell. and late). Under (above), I
have argued that we must assume a Pre-Greek word, in view of the variants
, , , adduced by Furne (1972: 110, 184), which point to pg
*wit-(n-). The - is probably a form of - (see 6.1.3f), with the -o- changed
under influence of the --, which was itself lost because Greek did not allow
-- before consonants.

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71

Fauna

4.1
Domesticated Animals and Their Attributes
[n.] cow dung (see Rohlfs 1937: 54f.). Also - [m.] (Thphr.), .
cow dung (H.) (i.e. ), followed by
. The alternations / and / are typical for Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1 and
2.6.1.4). The variation between and zero is perhaps best explained from a
labialized lateral, i.e. *balw-it-. For the suffix, see 3.2.3.87.
[f.] prepared skin, hide, leather, also of leather objects (ia).
, writing-tablet; piece of leather (H.). The variation /
and / point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.5.4a and 2.6.1.1a). Further note
the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.48). See also in section 15.
2 [m.] goats beard (Arist. ha 610b 29). Although the meaning goats
beard is unexplained beside those of 1 name of a thistle-like plant,
Eryngium (section 3.4 above), the word is clearly Pre-Greek; see 3.2.3.114 on
the suffix --.
[m.] (castrated) he-goat ( 105, ap; on the mg. see Maa 1925: 464f.).
Cf. skinned? (H.), and goatskins (H.); further [f.] goatskin (Hp. Fract. 29) with several
variants: (sch. Ar. Nu. 72), (Poll.), (Poll.), (Thgn.),
, , (H.), etc. I suggest that the Pre-Greek word was *iktyalwith a palatalized ty as its second consonant (see 2.5.5.7b).
[m.] boar without testicles (H.). The element -points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.133).
2 [?] cow with one twisted
horn (H.). Furne (1972: 356) connects it with .
twisted, athwart (H.), with variation / (2.6.1.2b). Further note the suffix
- (3.2.3.73).
[f.] smell of a (male) goat (Luc., Poll.). Perhaps related to
carcase of an animal, carrion (doubts in Schwyzer 1939: 350). At any rate,
the structure of the word points to Pre-Greek origin; note the suffixes -(3.2.3.1) and -- (3.2.3.101).
[f.pl.] , dogs, birds (H.). Also .
swine, others: bitches (H.), see Furne (1972: 372). The word is Pre-Greek
in view of the prothetic vowel (see 2.3). Perhaps further related to
. swine (Cret.) (H.).
[f.] woolen skin, fleece, especially of sheep and goats ( 530, Lyc., Paus.).
More common is [n.]. Cf. skin, hide (H.). A Pre-Greek
word, see Furne (1972: 294, 305). The suffixation of points in the
same direction (see 3.2.3.133).

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[f.] greasy dirt of unshorn sheeps wool, especially on the buttocks,


also sheep droppings (Cratin., Ar., D. C., Poll.). Also (v.l. Hdt. 4, 187,
Gal.), , sheep droppings, filth (H.), see
(directly below). The word is probably Pre-Greek; cf. the suffix -(3.2.3.149). See Furne (1972: 188, 384, and below).
[f.] the greasy extract of sheeps wool (Hdt. 4, 187, Hp.); cf. Dsc. 2, 74 with
an extensive description of the preparation; acc. to H. it is
sheeps ordure. There is clear evidence for the variant (see
above). The word is most probably Pre-Greek (the meaning also speaks for
this). One might think of a labialized s, thus *oiswp-.
[n.] fluff, down, insect wing, metaphorically leaf, etc. (ia). Dor.
(Paus. 3, 19, 6). Furne (1972: 263) takes the alternation / as
evidence for a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.5.4a).
[m.] fat pig, porker, also appositive to id. (Hom., Q. S., Thphr. apud
Porph.); metaph. fat, grease (Hp. Acut. [Sp.] 37). Myc. si-a2-ro. The word is
probably of Pre-Greek origin; cf. the initial - and the suffix -- (see 2.2a.15
and 3.2.3.15).
[m.] dung (Ar. Ec. 595). Also . Cf. ,
(H.). The s-mobile and the geminate -- in the variants may point
to Pre-Greek origin, in which case the root could reflect *(s)paly- (see 2.4 and
2.5.8). Further note the suffixes -- (3.2.3.65) and -- (3.2.3.55).
[adj.] tamed, domestic, cultivated, mild (A. Eu. 356 [lyr.]). Words in
- generally have Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.29).
[f.] a clew of wool or yarn, also metaphorically of onion bulbs, pumpkins, ball-shaped cakes (Ar. Lys. 586, Eub., S. Fr. 1102, lxx, ap, etc.). The structure CaC-up- is typical of Pre-Greek words, with a appearing as o before u
and the suffix -up- (see 2.5.13.2, 2.6.1.1b and 3.2.3.132). Furne (1972: 340) compares Luw. taluppi clump of dough. (A language cognate to) Pre-Greek must
have been spoken in large parts of Anatolia as well, which may explain why
a similar word is found in Anatolian.
[f.] a disease of horses (Hippiatr.). Clearly a Pre-Greek word in -
(see Furne 1972: 172117 and 3.2.3.11 above).
[f.] hard and rough skin, especially swines hide (Hp.). Variant
(H.). The variant shows that the word is Pre-Greek
(see 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.3c). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.79).

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73

4.2
Other Mammals (Also Aquatic)
, - [m.] mole, Sphalax typhus (Arist.). Also [m., f.],
[m.] and . The variations (prothetic vowel, / ) in combination with
the suffix -- virtually ascertain substrate origin (see 2.3, 2.5.1 and 3.2.3.13).
The synonym may be a variant, or a recent metathesis.
[m.] aurochs, the European bison, = (Arist.). Probably PreGreek; note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.81).
() [?] wild mouse (H.). Cf. . - shows typically
Pre-Greek prenasalization and reduplication (see 2.5.2 and 3.1). Likewise, a
suffix -()-, as seen in the variant , is well-known from Pre-Greek
(see 3.2.3.101).
[m.] mole (H.). Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.97).
[m.] monkey with a long tail (Arist., Str., Gal.). Also , and
* because of Lat. cephus. The variants point to a Pre-Greek word (see
2.5.1 and 2.6.1.2f).
[?] = fox (H.). Fem. ; also , (); further
[f.] (Ael.), (Arc. Gr.). Another variant is , which
is an extended form of (see directly below). The variations show the
Pre-Greek character of the word: s-mobile (2.4), prenasalization (2.5.2) and
/ (2.5.7b); further note the suffix -- (3.2.3.33).
[?] . fox (Lacon.) (H.). (H.). has
the Pre-Greek suffix -- (3.2.3.33); see further above.
[n.] wild or harmful animal ( 317). Cf. , -, plur. teeth
of a sword or a javelin, sing. sword, perhaps also , - pin, pivot,
also sockets for an axe. The glosses , jaws, gnaws (H.) belong here, too. Maybe further related to
jaw (see , section 7.1 below) and to scratch, itch. No doubt
Pre-Greek, since - cannot continue an ie pre-form. Further note the variation / (2.6.1.1e), the epenthetic of (2.6.5), and the suffix -(3.2.3.15).
2, - [f.] name of a quadruped that lives in the water, perhaps beaver
(Arist. ha). Probably Pre-Greek, in view of the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.2).
[m.] Paeonic word for , aurochs (Arist.). Also , , -. Furne (1972: 207, etc.) further derives (Antig. Mir.
53 cod.) from * < *; both and * may continue a Pre-Greek pre-form *monapy-. Other variants could be and
() (with / and / , see 2.5.4 and 2.5.7a).
[n.pl.] cubs of wild animals (E. Fr. 616); cf. young pigs
(H.). Further, , . Furne (1972: 19137) assumes Pre-Greek
origin with interchange - / - (see 2.6.1.3b). Although this is a rare inter-

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change, the variation in the suffixes -- and -- seems to confirm this (see
2.5.1).
[n.] a marine quadruped, not further defined (Arist. ha 594b). Also
(v.l.). Furne (1972: 190) supposes that the word denotes a beaver, and
compares , probably sorex moschatus (Arist. ha 32). The variation
points to Pre-Greek origin.
small and snub-noised wild swine
(H.). Pre-Greek, in view of the gloss . swine (Laconian) (H.),
which shows the variation / (2.5.1) and proves -- to be a suffix (3.2.3.101).
, - [m.] designation or epithet of the hare, (Nic.). Often compared with easily moved (H.) (see section 13 below), although this is semantically rather gratuitous (the meaning of is
unclear). If connected, the variation between - / - further confirms
a Pre-Greek origin, which is already suggested by the presence of the suffix
-- (see 2.4 and 3.2.3.13).
[m.] mouse (A. Fr. 227 = 380 M., Lyc., Str., ap);
domestic mouse (H.). A Mysian word, according to sch. A 39. Probably
Pre-Greek, as the suffix and the final - of suggest (see 3.2.3.81 and
3.3.1a). It may be somehow connected with Etr. isminians, an epithet of
Mars; cf. , an epithet of Apollo.
, - [f., m.] mole (Arist. etc.), also as a plant name meadow saffron, Colchicum parnassicum (Thphr.). Also , , . The
variation and the suffix betray a Pre-Greek word; see (this section,
above).
, - [m.] shrew-mouse (Nic. Al. 37). The suffix - is Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.13), like (probably) the word itself. The word is close in form to Lat.
srex, -icis [m.] id., which may come from the same source.
, - [m., f.] porcupine, hedgehog (Hdt., Arist., Ael.), plur. metaphorically swine-breasts (Pl. Com.). Gen.pl. -. To my mind, the prenasalization proves Pre-Greek origin; see 2.5.2. Further note the variation / and
the suffix (see 2.5.1, 3.2.3.69, 3.2.3.88).
[f.] whale (A. Fr. 464 M., Arist., Str., Nonn., etc.), of a monster (Ar. V.
35, 39, Lyc. 841); also moth (Nic. Th. 760; Rhodian acc. to sch.). Codd. often
, but the length of the syllable is metrically ascertained. The word
will be of Pre-Greek origin; note the variation between single and geminate
(see 2.5.8) and the suffix - (see Furne 1972: 171177 and 3.2.3.11 above).
[m.] scaly ant-eater (Ael.). Also (Sophr.), (Poll.).
The variants show that the word is Pre-Greek (Furne 1972: 164, 281), with
- / zero (2.4), / (2.5.1), / (2.5.8) and prenasalization (2.5.2). Also note
the suffix -()- (3.2.3.23).

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75

[m.] lair, hole of wild animals (Arist., Hell.+). The ending - looks
Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.7).
[m.pl.] striped or piebald horses, including zebras (Opp. K. 1, 317). The
prenasalized suffix -()- points to a Pre-Greek word (see 3.2.3.114).
4.3
Birds
[m.] titmouse (Parus) (Ar.). Also , (for *?), , -. A typical substrate word, discernible from its prenasalization
and the suffix -()- with variation / (see 2.5.2, 2.5.8 and 3.2.3.15).
[m.] vulture (Il.). eagle (Maced.) (em
28, 19). Variation between and is well-attested in substrate words (see
2.6.1.4), and -- is a Pre-Greek suffix (see 3.2.3.93). itself is no doubt a
substrate word as well (see s.v. below); it may be a variant of *(a)gyup-, which
also gives -, with prothetic vowel and palatalized /g/.
[m.] kind of falcon (Arist.); see Thompson (1895). Cf.
id. (H.), with variation / (see 2.5.7c).
[m.] hoopoe, Upupa epops (H.). The variation with
, - suggests a substrate word, with / (2.6.1.1a), / (2.6.1.1b) and
/ (2.5.1). Further note the suffix --/-- (3.2.3.33, 3.2.3.93).
[m.] name of an unknown bird, perhaps an owl (Arist.), see Thompson (1895 s.v.). Also . (H.). Clearly a subtrate
word, as appears from the prothetic vowel (2.3), the s-mobile (2.4), and the
suffix -- (3.2.3.33).
[m.] woodcock, Scolopax rusticola (Arist.). Probably identical with
, name of a bird. A substrate word with the typical variations - /
zero, / and / (see 2.3, 2.6.1.1b and 2.6.1.3e) and the typical suffix -
(see 3.2.3.13).
, - [m.] pelican (Hdn. Gr., H. ex Philet., Choerob.). (H.). A typical Pre-Greek word. Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.119).
[m.] kind of duck. Also , - and , -. The variations
/ and / clearly point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.1b). Further
note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.5).
[m.] vulture (Il.). The word is no doubt Pre-Greek. Perhaps it represents
*(a)gyup-; see above.
[acc.pl.] . jackdaw (Maced.) (H.). id.
(H.). Cf. , owl below (Furne 1972: 110). The variations - / zero and
/ point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.4 and 2.5.1).
, - [f.] name of a bird, Iynx torquilla (Arist., Ael.), which was bound
to a turning wheel during incantations to win back a lost love; thence the
meaning spell, charm (Pi., Ar., X., cf. Gow 1934: 1 ff.; and Theocr. 2, 41). The

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suffix -- points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.114). Probably related to


(folk-etymologically adapted after?) to cry aloud, howl (see section 15
below).
[m.] kind of lark (Dionys. Av. 3, 15). The suffix -- points to
Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.22).
(H.), name of a sea-bird, perhaps seamew, tern (see Thompson
1895 s.v.). Also , and and . The suffix - and the variants point
to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.13). Perhaps further related to the large
cicala (see section 4.7 below).
[m.] green woodpecker, Picus viridis (Arist.). The variae lectiones ,
, etc. are a sign of Pre-Greek origin.
[m.] name of an unknown water-bird, mostly identified with the stormy
petrel, Thalassidroma pelagica, but without sufficient reason (Arist., Thphr.,
Lyc., Nic.); also metaph. of a simple man who can easily be deceived (Ar.,
Call.). A by-form is , stupid person (H.). The
prenasalization shows that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.2). Also note the
variation / (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.8).
[m.] dabchick, acc. to H. a bird often
wagging its tail (com., Arist.); details in Thompson (1895 s.v.). Also as a
fish name . The variation (), , , etc. in the
tradition shows that the word is Pre-Greek, with the variations / (2.5.1),
/ (2.6.1.2b), / zero (2.6.5) and prenasalization (2.5.2).
[?] kind of bird (H.), also (Latte s.v.). Cf.
kind of bird (Suid.). The variation / (see 2.5.8) and the suffix
-- and its variants (see 2.2a.14 and 3.2.3.104) point to Pre-Greek origin.
[f.] thrush ( 468); also name of a fish, a kind of wrasse (Epich., Arist.),
because it changes its color with the seasons, like the thrush; see Strmberg (1943: 116). Dor. . Cf. (H.) (section 4.5 below) and
= (H.). Various variations, notably - / zero (2.5.10) and /
(2.5.5.3b).
[m.] jackdaw, Corvus monedula (Il., Pi., Ar., Arist.). to cry (like
a jackdaw). An explanation of the notation with -- (in B 212) has
not been found. Cf. also to make noise (H.). These variants
may be of Pre-Greek origin (cf. 2.6.1.3d, 2.6.1.3e).
[m.] little grebe, Podiceps minor (Ar.), see Thompson (1895: 158).
Denominative to dive, submerge, jump into the water, swim, also
. Apart from the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.125), the variant
proves that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1). The variation / is most
easily explained from *py, the palatal feature of which was lost after prenasalization, giving (see 2.5.2 and 2.5.5.1a).

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77

[f.] . shearwater, crow (Polyrrhenian) (H.). It has


been compared with loud noise, bragging, which would attest to a
variation / (2.5.1). brags, boasts (H.) further
contains the Pre-Greek element -- (3.2.3.13). If the bird name (in
, Emp. 20, 7) is related, it is yet another variant, with /
(2.6.1.3c).
[m., f.] (crested) lark, Alauda cristata (Ar., Pl., Arist.). Also (). With different vocalism (H.). Variation /
(2.6.1.1b). Further note the suffixes -- (3.2.3.115) and -()-, which is the
Pre-Greek suffix *-aly- (3.2.3.15).
, -, - [f., m.] name of an unknown bird ( 291, Ar. Av. 1181, Arist.).
Var. , v.l. (Procl.), with / and / (see 2.5.4 and 2.6.1.3c).
Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.80).
[m.] name of an unknown migratory bird, which accompanies the
quail (Arist.); see Thompson (1895 s.v.). Also -, - (v.ll.);
(H.). For the vocalic variation, see 2.6.1.2c. Pre-Greek origin is further confirmed by the variation / and the prenasalization (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.2).
, - [m.] vulture (Cyran. 28). = kite, Milvus regalis
(Hierocl.), milvus (gloss.). The variations / (2.6.1.3i) and / /
(2.5.1, 2.5.8), as well as the suffix - (3.2.3.55), suggest Pre-Greek origin.
Cf. further Lat. lupi to cry, of the kite (Suet. Fr. p. 251).
[m.] kind of falcon (Call., Ael.). Fauth (1968: 257) recalls the pns
(Paus.) and , and (epithet of eagle, meaning
unclear). The last connection could show that the word is Pre-Greek (alternation / , see 2.5.4).
, - [f.] Att. name of the bird (Arist.). The suffix is Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.2); the word has nothing to do with tail.
, - [m.] pelican (Anaxandr. Com., Arist.). Derived from
axe (see section 9.6 below) because of the functional and/or formal similarity with an axe. Furne (1972: 320) compares (H.), with
an s-mobile (see 2.4). Further note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.20).
, - [m., f.] partridge (Archil.). The suffix is Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.73
74).
, - [m.] duck or wild goose with colored neck (Alc.). Aeol., Dor.
-. Formation like other animal names in -. Because of this suffix, the
word may be Pre-Greek in origin (see 3.2.3.93). The bird may have served as
the base for the pn (for the suffix -, see 3.2.3.7). The stem is
also found in - [m.], name of a Boeotian leader (Il.).
[?] name of an unknown bird (Arist., Ant. Lib., em), acc. to H. = lark; also (after -?) (H.). Also -, -. The suffix -

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and its prenasalized variant - strongly point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2,
3.2.3.69 and 3.2.3.73). The other suffixes are Pre-Greek as well (see 3.2.3.15
and 3.2.3.55).
[f.] name of an unknown bird, cf. .
(H.); attempts at an identification in Thompson (1895 s.v. ). Also
(Arist.), , plur. - (Ant. Lib., em). The word must be Pre-Greek
in view of the variation / in the initial, the variation / in the suffix,
and the suffix -- itself (see 2.5.1, 2.5.2 and 3.2.3.114).
[n.] (hooked) bird beak (com.). Further ,
crooked or bent, distorted; ,
curved knees (H.). Next to and crooked knife, we find
, mouth or nose (H.). The variation between and points
to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.5.2a), as does the -vocalism. Moreover,
crooked, bent inward (section 13 below) is also clearly a variant (see Furne
1972: 286, 335, 338). This means that has prenasalization (2.5.2),
beside with the frequent variation / (2.6.1.1c), where is from a
following palatalized consonant.
[f.] a speckled water-bird, probably redshank, Scolopax calidris
(Arist. ha 593b). Also (v.l.). The variation - / - may point to a PreGreek origin (see 2.4).
, [m.] little horned owl ( 66, Epich., Arist., Theoc. et al.); metaph.
as a fish name (Nic. Fr. 18), probably after the colors (Strmberg 1943: 114);
name of a dance (Ael., Poll.), with in the same mg. also (A. Fr. 70 =
20 M.) and (Poll.); as a name of a dance also connected with
(Ath., H.). Also . Further . jackdaw (Maced.)
(H.). Given these variations, the word is probably Pre-Greek (see 2.4 and
2.5.1).
[n.] sparrow; lewd person; those who sell sparrows (H.). Furne (1972: 226) compares
= bird resembling a sparrow (H.) (see
below). If to keep company, have intercourse with
(H.) is related, as per Groelj (1957: 228), the interchange / would also
point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.1b).
[n.] bird resembling a sparrow (H.). If from
*-, may be compared with a widespread Germanic
name of the sparrow, e.g. Go. sparwa, ohg sparo, on sprr < PGm.
*sparu a(n)-. Furne (1972: 226) compares (H.) (directly
above), which would give us a typically Pre-Greek variation between and
(see 2.5.4).
() [f.] owl (Carm. Pop., Theognost.); cf.

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79

night-raven (vel sim.) (H.). Also , acc. . Its facultative nasal


points to substrate origin, as does the variation / (see 2.5.2 and 2.5.7c).
, - [f.] swallow (Od.), often metaph., e.g. of a flying fish (middle
com., Arist.), see Strmberg (1943: 117f.), Thompson (1947 s.v.). Contains the
Pre-Greek suffix -- (see 3.2.3.70). Furne (1972: 272, 355) assumes Mediterranean origin (also for Lat. hirund id.).
4.4
Reptiles and Amphibians
, - [f.] freshwater turtle, ; cf. var. . The variation /
and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.1a and 3.2.3.115).
[m.] lizard, gecko. Also , , .
(H.). The prothetic vowel, the s-mobile and the suffixes
-- and -- are typical for substrate words (see 2.3, 2.4, 3.2.3.1 and 3.2.3.149).
[m.] frog (Hdt.). Also name of a fish, Lophius piscatorius (Arist.), see
Strmberg (1943: 92f.). Ion. ; further , ;
(H.); (H.);
(H.); frogs having small tails (H.);
. (H.); (H.). A priori, a local
(i.e. Pre-Greek) form is to be expected for all of these forms; the variation
/ points to this (see 2.6.1.1b). This holds for as well (see 2.5.1), if
this is what must be read in H. for (Furne 1972: 1842; see
Latte). The form may in origin have been onomatopoeic -- (cf. Groelj
1956: 235), with which compare or even *brt-ak-, from which the
forms with -- may have originated (, ). The hopeless forms
, (is this form to be read for ?) contain a (misread)
prenasalized *(), which would also point to Pre-Greek origin (see
2.5.2).
, - [f.] a kind of lizard (Arist. ha 604b 24). V.ll. , , ;
may be a mistake for * or . The form with - may be a
(real, spoken) simplification of original *dyign- (see 2.5.5.9a). In view of the
variation, clearly a Pre-Greek word.
[n.] venomous animal, especially a snake (Call. Jov. 25, Nic. Th. 27
and 195). Probably related to venomous animal (thus Persson 1891:
177), cf. s.v. below. Cf. also , - [m.] id.. The vocalism points to
Pre-Greek origin. The initial variation probably represents Pre-Greek *kyn-;
cf. on (section 13 below).
, - [f.] turtle (Ant. Lib. 32, 2, H.). Furne (1972: 131) compares
a fish with a hard head and kind of gadus or cod
(H.); these variants confirm that the word is Pre-Greek. For / , see 2.5.1.
On geminates in substrate words, see Furne (1972: 387), and 2.5.8 above.

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, [m.] a wild animal, of snakes, etc. (Nic. Th.). .


bear (H.); also (for -?). bear
(Maced.) (H.). Further also poisonous animal, snake (Call., Nic.),
with anaptyctic vowel. The variant forms point to a Pre-Greek word. See
2.6.1.3i on / and above on - / -.
, - [f.] skin or slough of serpents (Hp., J.), acc. to H. also =
skin of a bean; proverbially of empty or thin objects (com.), cf.
H. beggar. The suffix - suggests
Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.60).
[f.] lizard (A. Fr. 92 M., Hdt., Arist., Theoc.), also = (Thphr.),
metaphorically as a plant name = (Nic.), penis of a boy (ap),
plaited case made of palm bark, used in setting dislocated fingers (medic.).
Also [m.] id. (Hdt. [v.l.], Hp., Epich., Arist., Nic.); metaphorically as a
fish name = (Alex., Arist., Gal.), after the color (cf. Strmberg 1943:
121). As the animal was not a part of the pie world, the word must be of local,
i.e. of Pre-Greek origin. For initial -, see 2.2a.15. [sn]: may be related to
, with the variations / (2.6.1.1d) and / (2.5.7c), which point
to pg lw / rw (cf. s.v. in section 11.3), and the suffixes -- (3.2.3.18)
and -- (3.2.3.22).
[m.] a lizard found in Asia Minor that is used as medicine (Dsc. 2, 66
Welm.). Also and = a land lizard (H.);
see Furne (1972: 277). The variations point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.4, 2.5.1
and 2.5.2).
[f.] toad, frog (Arist.). [m., f.], also (PMag. Osl.). The
variation between - and - points to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.6.1.3h).
2 [f.] land turtle (Nic. Al. 555, 558 v.l.). Aeol. [f.] lyre (Sapph.),
game of turtles. Also (Babr. 115, 5). Further
musical instrument (H.), perhaps Boeotian? With a different stem
[f.] tortoise (shell). Furne (1972: 247) points out that the form is
real, and that it yielded * > , (with interchange / ,
see 2.5.4), like in , . This strongly suggests Pre-Greek origin.
The explanation of from a long diphthong is an interpretation which
has long since been given up -- is a Pre-Greek suffix (see Furne 1972: 30339
and 3.2.3.145 above), as is --/-- (see 3.2.3.126127).
4.5
Fish
, - [m.] a sea fish, = , perhaps bass (Callias Com. 3). Also ;
. Comparable forms: kind of fish (H.),
(cod. -) id. (H.); (Ath.), bass (H.). The
variations / and / and the ending -() point to Pre-Greek origin (see

the pre-greek lexicon

81

2.5.1, 2.6.1.1a and 3.3.1e); the group -- is also frequent in Pre-Greek words
(see 2.2a.14 and 3.2.3.104).
[m.] a freshwater fish, kind of carp (Arist.). Also (), ,
(). The word is certainly Pre-Greek because of the variants.
For / , see 2.5.8.
[f.] skate, ray (Epich.); also a bird, stone chat? (Arist.); also samphire,
Crithmum maritimum (Plin.). If the word is identical with ,
a fish or plant (H.), the vowel interchange points to Pre-Greek origin (see
2.6.1.1b), which is to be expected for a fish name anyhow.
[m.] name of a fish, also called (Dorio apud Ath. 7, 315 f.).
(Diogenian) = (pap. viviip), MoGr. . Furne (1972:
3393, 254) adds a fish (H.), assuming Pre-Greek origin. The
variation / / may represent *dy (see 2.5.5.9a). Further note the suffix -(see 3.2.3.28). [sn]: There are various other names for the -fish: ,
, , , etc. (Strmberg 1943: 130f.); if these are related,
they add further evidence for Pre-Greek origin, with the variations / /
(2.5.1), / (2.6.1.1a) and / (2.5.8). The last two variations point to a *ly,
which may be a variant of *dy (cf. 2.5.7a on / ). See also and
below.
[f.] the fish , Ballota nigra (Ps.-Dsc. 3, 103). Also , with
/ (see 2.6.1.3e). Furne (1972: 370) further compares = ,
an edible sea-fish, a variant with a prothetic vowel (see 2.3).
, - [f.] eel (Il.). Recalls other words for eel, like Lat. anguilla, Lith.
ungurs, etc., but no ie pre-form can be reconstructed. Note Lesb.
. (H.), beside which there is skin of a snake. If
one assumes interchange initial - / zero (2.5.11), / (2.6.1.2b), as well as
prenasalization (2.5.2), the latter two could be identical. They may be related
to with the additional variation / , which points to a labiovelar (see
2.5.6; cf. Lat. anguilla). The elements -- and -- are Pre-Greek suffixes (see
3.2.3.42 and 3.2.3.60).
, - [m.] 1. poetical epithet of (Hes. Sc. 212), in this function also
(Emp. 117) and (S. Aj. 1297, Ath. 277d); also of (Theoc.
Syrinx 18); 2. poetical for fish in general (Lyc.); 3. name of a large, rare
and expensive fish, which is compared (and identified) with the sturgeon
(Arist.); in this mg. usually written (Epich., Archestr., Plu.), Lat. (h)elops;
4. name of a snake (Nic. Th. 490). The interchange / is frequent in
Pre-Greek (see 2.5.8); further, we find / and / in () Nile
fish, Labeo Niloticus (Str. 17, 2, 4; Ath. 7, 312b; PTeb.) and (Gp.) (see
2.6.1.1a and 2.5.1). An interchange of the suffix -- (3.2.3.1) / -- (3.2.3.93)
is well known in Pre-Greek; see Furne (1972: 107). , epithet of -

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(Numen. apud Ath. 7, 326a), can be understood in a similar way.


Therefore, we probably have a Pre-Greek word for a great fish, of the shape
*alya/op-.
[m.] name of a fish, Thymallus vulgaris, Salmo thymallus (Ael.). As
the suffix is Pre-Greek, so is the word (see 3.2.3.15).
[m.] tunnyfish (Orac. apud Hdt. 1, 62, A. Pers. 424, Arist.). Fem. ;
the fem. in short - could point to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.3.1a).
[m.] name of a small worthless fish (Call. Fr. 38, Eust.). Also
shortest fish of all (H.), . Given the variants, the
word is clearly Pre-Greek. Further note the suffix - (see 3.2.3.27).
[f.] name of a sea-fish. , (bch 60, 28 [Boeotia iia], H.); cf. =
. a prepared fish; thrush, and
(H.), also = thrushes (H.). Nasalized . The variants show
that the word is Pre-Greek; see and (section 4.3 above).
, - [m.] name of a small fish. Boeot. . No doubt a local word for small
useless fishes, i.e. a Pre-Greek word (cf. above). I think that it started
with *wy-, like e.g. (section 15 below). Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.146).
[m.] a kind of cod-fish (Archestr., Opp., H. s.v. ). ()
, cod-fish (H.), , (Dorion) and =
. The variants clearly point to a Pre-Greek word; the two variants with
s and the geminate -- suggest a pre-form *kalyar-. See also above
and below.
[f.] sea monster. Furne (1972: 119) mentions (<
*?) and , , tunnies
(H.); this would show that the word is Pre-Greek, with the variations /
and / (see 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.1a).
[m.] name of an unknown fish (Marc. Sid. 22). Probably Pre-Greek,
given the geminate -- (which is not a sign of expressiveness) and the suffix
-() (see 3.2.3.97).
. a sea fish (H.). The suffix -- (3.2.3.121)
and the meaning make Pre-Greek origin plausible.
() [m.] name of a worthless fish (Hdn., H.); also metaph. =
dull (H.), see Strmberg (1943: 952), and as a name of a coin (= )
in Hades (Pherecr. apud Poll. 9, 83). .
, vain or idle and weak; speaking
without foundation, or better: frivolously (H.). A formation in -() with
variation / ; therefore, clearly a Pre-Greek word in -aly- (see 2.5.8 and
3.2.3.15).
[m.] carp (Arist., Opp.). The suffix -- is well-known in Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.79).

the pre-greek lexicon

83

[m.] an unknown fish; perhaps a kind of barbel (Arist., H.), cf. Thompson (1947 s.v.). H. glosses it chest, a kind of flatfish,
seafish, an ordinary name. The suffix - is Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.79).
, - [f.] kind of sprat. - [f.] kind of anchovy (com.), cf. the
gloss (H.). Also , . Cf. kind
of smelt (H.). A Pre-Greek word, as is shown by the variations / (2.5.4)
and / (2.6.1.1a), the prenasalization (2.5.2), and the suffix -- (3.2.3.5). The
word also seems to have reduplication (3.1).
, - [m.] tuna (middle com., Arist.). Also . Probably Pre-Greek;
note the suffixes -- and -- (3.2.3.127 and 3.2.3.15) and the meaning.
, - [f.] (young) tuna (S. Fr. 503, Phryn. Com.). Also (Cyran.).
The word is no doubt Pre-Greek; note the variations / and / (see 2.6.2
and 2.6.1.4) and the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.115).
, - [m.] Alexandrian name of the fish , Sciaena nigra,
brown meagre (Ath. 7, 309a). Probably Pre-Greek, as the suffix - indicates
(see 3.2.3.13).
[f.] sea fish, Box salpa (Epich., Arist., etc.). Also , . The
variation / and the suffix - are typical for Pre-Greek (see 2.5.7c and
3.2.3.69).
, - [m.] name of a fish that is identified with the and
the , which is thought to originate from the Nile and the Black
Sea, but also from other waters (Hp., com., etc.). Furne (1972: 153) adduces
tub-fish (H.) as a variant, with variation / (see 2.5.1). Also
note the suffixes -- and -- (see 3.2.3.41 and 3.2.3.103).
[m.] a big river fish, probably catfish or sturgeon, Lat. silrus (mid.
com., Hell. pap., Str., etc.). The word is formed with the Pre-Greek suffix
- (see 3.2.3.97).
, - [f.] name of a small fish resembling the , Sparus smaris
(Epich.), see Thompson (1947 s.v.). Furne (1972: 226) convincingly compares a small sea-fish, a kind of bream (directly below), which
proves Pre-Greek origin for this word in view of the variation / (see
2.5.4).
[m.] lesser sea bream, Sargus annularis (Epich., Matro, Arist.). Furne
(1972: 226) compares a small worthless seafish; see s.v. above.
[f.] a fish with teeth(?) (Epich. 69, Arist., H.). Furne (1972: 123f.)
starts from , -, [n.] (Suid.); (gloss.) kind of flatfish.
The variation / points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1). Further note the
sequence -- and the suffix -()- (see 2.6.4 and 3.2.3.37).
[m.] name of a fish, perhaps sea bream, Pagrus vulgaris (Hp., com.,

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Arist., etc.). Variants ; (H.); (Str.), with


secondary r. Also crab (section 4.6 below)? The variants with - /
- (2.5.1) and - / - (3.2.3.101, 3.2.3.147) show that the word is Pre-Greek
(Furne 1972: 165).
[f.] kind of sea bass, Serranus (cabrilla) (Epich., Arist., Numen. apud Ath.,
pap. ip, etc.). Furne (1972: 351) compares , a kind of fish (H.), which
makes Pre-Greek origin probable ( / , see 2.6.1.1a). Also note the final short
- (3.3.1).
, - [m.] a kind of mullet, Mugil chelo (Arist., Hikes. and Diph.
apud Ath., H.); also as a pn (Ephesus iva), see Bechtel (1917a: 48). Also
--. Derivative = fishname (Dorio apud Ath.), with which
Furne (1972: 140) connects , (H.) and ,
(Dorio and Euthydem. apud Ath. 7, 315f.). The variation shows that these
words are Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1, 2.5.8 and 2.6.1.1a). See also and
above.
kind of gadus or cod (H.). Furne (1972: 131) connects
a fish with a hard head (Arist.), see on (section 4.4 above),
and considers the word to be Pre-Greek.
4.6
Molluscs, Crustaceans, and Other (Marine) Invertebrates
[m.] kind of sea urchin (H.). Also
(H.), (Ar.), (Arist.) (see s.v. below). The formal variation
(prothetic vowel, prenasalization, / / ) is typical of Pre-Greek substrate
words (see 2.3, 2.5.2, 2.5.5.9a).
[m.] 1. the smooth lobster, 2. hollow of the ear. (Attic acc.
to Ath.). We are dealing with a substrate word, with variation - / - (see
2.6.1.1b). See also (this section) and (section 7.1).
[?] snail (H.). Cf. , and
tortoises (H.). The variations - / zero, / and / are well known
in Pre-Greek words (see 2.3, 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.3f). The analysis will be *(a)kradam-ul-a, with well-known Pre-Greek suffixes (see 3.2.3.18 and 3.2.3.121). The
word closely resembles the town (Il.) on the Peloponnesus, also
on Chios; for the metathesis see 2.5.12.
[m.] a kind of sea urchin (Arist.). ,
; (H.). The
variation proves that this is a Pre-Greek word; see above.
[m.] = crab (Diph. Siph. apud Ath. 3, 106d). Cf.
(Epich.) (see s.v. below), Lat. scarabaeus, which presupposes *,
, and (for the latter two, see section 4.7 below). So we
have an s-mobile (2.4) and the variations / (2.6.1.1b), / / (2.5.1,

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85

2.5.5.2a). All of these point to Pre-Greek origin. See below for more
variants.
[f.] a kind of octopus. Cf. the fish Sciaena
umbra (H.), with the variation - / zero (see 2.5.10).
[m.] crab. The word is no doubt Pre-Greek; note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.97).
[acc.pl.] . oozes (of blood, purple, pitch, fat); oak galls
(Aeol.) (H.); cf. (H.) and .
oysters; purple-fishes (H.). The variations / , / and the suffix -- point
to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1, 2.6.1.1b and 3.2.3.121). Cf. also (section 7.1
below).
[m.] kind of crab. Cf. . shrimps
(Maced.) (H.). The variation / points to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.6.1.1b).
Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.28).
[m.] 1. a prickly crustacean (Epich., Ar., Arist.; cf. Thompson 1947 s.v.),
metaph. a light canoe (em); 2. a horned beetle (Arist.).
kind of beetle (H.). The form perhaps continues *--,
where both s turned to -- before the -- in the following syllable (see
2.5.13.2 and 2.6.1.1b). Furne (1972: index) further posits * on the
basis of Lat. scarabaeus, which seems unavoidable. He also connects the
synonyms , , (H.); further , a
kind of locust, longicorn beetle, beetle (H.),
which would add the interchange / and prenasalization (see 2.6.1.1a
and 2.5.2). All forms can easily be reduced to a structure *(s)kara(m)p-. The
various suffixes are also clearly Pre-Greek: -- (3.2.3.1), --/-()- (3.2.3.7),
-- (3.2.3.28), -- (3.2.3.56), -- (3.2.3.119), -- (3.2.3.121). See also
above and in section 4.7 below.
[m.] crab (Epich., ia), metaph. ulcer, pair of pincers, kind of shoe, etc.,
also name of a constellation (Scherer 1953: 167f.). On the mg. also Thompson
(1947 s.v.). Furne (1972: 129) connects it with , .
crabs, snails (H.). The interchange / proves Pre-Greek origin (see
2.5.1). The suffix -- can also be Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.79).
[m.] a kind of shell-fish (Epich. 42); reading uncertain. Cf. species of dark mollusk (H.). The variants
point to *kikVbalw-it-.
() [n.pl.] small crustacaeans (Arist. ha 528a 9). Also -. The variations / , / and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.8,
2.6.1.3e and 3.2.3.15). Other variants are sea-snail, land-snail (see s.v.
below) and mussel, cockle, which add the variation / and prenasalization (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.2).

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[f.] kind of crab (Epich. 57). Cf. id.. A typically PreGreek word, with prenasalization and interchange / (see 2.5.2 and
2.5.5.1a).
[m., f.] shell-fish with a spiral-shaped shell, sea-snail, land-snail, also
purple-snail, kohl (E., Arist., Theoc.). Variants , . Clearly cognate with mussel, cockle, which suggests that the forms are Pre-Greek
(prenasalization, see 2.5.2); this is confirmed by the variants , v.ll. -and (Arist. ha), see s.v. above.
[n.] hard shell of snails, mussels, turtles, etc. (h. Merc., A., Hp., Arist.),
earthen potsherd (for writing on, e.g. at a vote), earthen vessel (Hp., Att.).
The suffix -- (3.2.3.13) is also seen in smooth lobster; hollow of
the ear (this section, above), which may be related as a Pre-Greek word,
displaying typical variations (notably / , see 2.6.1.1b). The same holds for
(section 7.1 below).
, - [n.] oyster, mussel, sea-snail; purple dye (A., Epich., Att.). I assume that -()- continues a Pre-Greek suffix -ay- (3.2.3.7). For a word with
this meaning, substrate origin is most likely in any case.
[m.] (edible) crab, Cancer pagurus (Ar., Arist.). Furne (1972: 165 and
331) connects , kind of fish (H.) (see s.v. in section 4.5 above),
so that is likely to be a Pre-Greek word. For the suffix --, see
3.2.3.97.
[f.] pen shell, late also pearl shell, pearl (com., Arist., pap.). Younger
(codd. predominantly have --). Probably Pre-Greek in view of the variation
/ (see 2.5.8).
(-) [m.] sea polyp, cuttlefish, metaphorically nose polyp (Hp.,
Thphr., etc.). Also , -. The suffix points to Pre-Greek origin (see
3.2.3.132).
, - [m.] kind of sea urchin (Sophr. 102). Also [acc.pl.] id..
Note also pangolin (Ael.). Pre-Greek in view of the s-mobile and
the variation / (see 2.4 and 2.5.1). Further note the suffix -- (3.2.3.3).
[f.] name of a testacean, (Hp., Dsc.). Also [acc.] (Epich.
43; uncertain 114). Clearly a Pre-Greek formation, with palatal ly and the
suffix - (see 3.2.3.78).
[n.pl.] designation of a sea-animal, probably a sea-squirt, ascidia (P 747).
Also . Starting from the form , Kaln (1918: 20 ff., 98 ff.) assumes
earlier *- and connects the word with to suck and * bag
(whence id.). This explanation is nonsensical and typical of older
Greek etymologies. Probably a Pre-Greek word, with variation / (see
2.6.1.5).
[f.] a kind of mussel (Archil. Fr. 285 W, Sophr.). Also , see -

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87

(section 1 above). Furne (1972: 221, 287) assumes a Pre-Greek pre-form


*, with variation / (see 2.5.4), in order to explain the prenasalized form. The prenasalization and the suffixes --, -- and -- point to
Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2, 3.2.3.16, 3.2.3.18, 3.2.3.115).
4.7
Insects and Arthropods
, - [f.] grasshopper (Il.). Var. (H.). Perhaps to be analysed
as -- / -- < *-- (see 3.1). Cf. , (section 3.2).
, - [f.] hornet (D. S.). Cf. [f.], [f.] kind of
wasp; further . drone (Lacon.) (H.). There are several
forms which lack the first nasal: , , and forms without
reduplication or initial -, e.g. and . We have a root /with a prothetic vowel (2.3) or reduplication (3.1) (cf. above), and
prenasalization (2.5.2); see Kuiper (1956: 221f.). For the interchange / ,
see 2.5.3. could show that the word had a labiovelar (see Beekes
1995/6: 12f., and 2.5.6 above).
[m.] an edible locust (Hdt.). Also . Variation / (2.6.1.1a)
and the suffix -- (3.2.3.1).
[pl.] leeches (H.). * (ms. ) (H.); the
correction by Latte seems evident, but is not mentioned by delg. Variation
/ (2.6.1.2b) and suffix -- (3.2.3.119). For - beside -, cf. Furne (1972:
218) on .
, - [m.] silkworm (Arist.). We may compare several words for cotton (cf. coton), of which Osman. pambuk cotton is the best
match. The word may derive from an original *p/bamb-k- (with suffix -uk-,
see 3.2.3.120; the quantity of the is unknown, but it was probably long).
[m.] locust (Thphr.). (lxx, Ph.), (Cypr., H.);
(Cret.), (ab, H.), , small locust
(Cret.) (H.), (H.), , locusts (H.). No doubt a
Pre-Greek word, as is confirmed by the consonantal and vocalic variation.
[f.] , fly (Cretan) (H.). Furne (1972: 388, etc.) compares
< * (glossed as by H.), with variation / (see 2.5.7a).
[m.] kind of (dung-)beetle, Scarabaeus pilularius, also metaph. of a
drinking cup, canoe, fish (Strmberg 1943: 123f.), and a womens ornament
(ia). delg s.v. points out that there are anthroponyms (Bechtel 1917b: 582 and
589) as well as toponyms like , a port of Piraeus, and concludes from
this that the term may be from Pre-Greek, which is likely. Note the suffix -(see 3.2.3.28).
[n.] big locust (H.). Also . Furne (1972: 341) compares = (H.), and further (see s.v. below). In view of

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the variations - / zero (2.3), / (2.5.6) and / (2.6.1.1b), the word is clearly
Pre-Greek. Also note the suffix -- (3.2.3.91).
, - [m.] longicorn beetle (Nic. Fr. 39, H.); on the mg. see Goossens
(1948: 263ff.). Cf. , glossed as beetle by H. and others. If
the word has prenasalization, which seems probable, it is of Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.5.2). Moreover, -()- and -- are Pre-Greek suffixes (see 3.2.3.56
and 3.2.3.119). Furne (1972: passim) further compares , (),
and , as well as * (all names of beetles); see s.v.
(section 4.6 above).
, - [m.] drone, often metaph. lazy vagabond (Hes.), also used for
Asiatic peoples by the Anatolian Greeks, e.g. for the Persians (Hdt. 7, 61); cf.
Slavic nmec German, originally mute, dumb. Also (H.). The chances
are high that the word is Pre-Greek; note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.20).
[?] the young cicala; cicala (H.). The variation
/ points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.5.2b).
[m.] probably water-newt, Triton palustris (Arist.). Also .
Probably Pre-Greek, in view of the variation / (2.6.1.3d) and the suffix
-- (3.2.3.121).
[m.] the large cicada (H.). According to Gil (1957: 321 f.), it
belongs to , etc. (section 4.3 above) with for (see 2.5.4). In any case,
it is a Pre-Greek word. Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
, - [m.] gnat, mosquito (A., Hdt., Arist.). Since there is no good
etymology, and since the suffix -- is frequent in Pre-Greek words (see
3.2.3.146), substrate origin is the only plausible option.
, - [m.] kind of cicada (Ael.). According to Gil (1957: 322f.), the
word is Pre-Greek, which must be correct in view of the suffix (see 3.2.3.13)
and the meaning.
() [m.] the cocoon of the silkworm (Arist., Ath., Clem. Al.). The word
is clearly Pre-Greek (on -(), see Beekes 2008 and 3.2.3.15 above).
[m.] grasshopper (Ar.). Aeol. Boeot. (Str. 13, 1, 64) , also
(Str. l.c.), gen. -. We also find the variants kind of
grasshopper (see below), and big grasshopper (see s.v.
above). -- is a Pre-Greek suffix (see 3.2.3.93). Probably the word had
an initial labiovelar stop in Pre-Greek (see 2.5.6), the labial element of which
could be lost before . The itself may reflect after a labiovelar.
[?] kind of locust (H.). Gil Fernndez (1959) adduces
(directly above). This means that the word is Pre-Greek; see Furne
(1972: 344, 392).
[f.] spider (Byzant.). The suffix - is clearly Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.81).

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89

[m.] small winged insect, gnat, winged ant (Ar. et al.). Also
, small animal, a kind of gnat (H.), [m.],
- [f.] a kind of locust (Zen.). The variation in forms points to a Pre-Greek
origin (Furne 1972: 384). The variation / could reflect pg *ry. For the
suffix --, see 3.2.3.141. See also below.
[?] a kind of beetle (H.). Strmberg (1944: 23) considered this to be Laconian for spider. In view of the connection
with the word could be of Pre-Greek origin; note the variations /
(2.5.1), / zero (2.5.2) and the suffix --/-- (3.2.3.16, 3.2.3.33).
[f.] an insect, cockroach, carrion beetle (Arist.). The variant in
Luc. could be an artificial Atticism or show a Pre-Greek alternation - / (2.5.5.9a). Furne (1972: 167, etc.) also connects Lat. delpa (an insect), which
would confirm the variation. The form further formally and semantically
resembles , a small winged insect, gnat, winged ant (cf. s.v. above).
[f.] millipede, sowbug; also name of an animal of the sea (Arist.,
etc.). Probably a Pre-Greek word. Note the short - (3.3.1a) and the suffix -(3.2.3.93); for -- cf. -- (3.2.3.22).
[m.] dung-beetle (H.). Clearly connected with (see s.v. in section 4.6 above). The word therefore seems to continue
*()-- (with the suffix --, see 3.2.3.121), with from before in
the next syllable (see 2.5.13.2).
[m.] scorpion (A. Fr. 169 = 368 M.); often metaph. as epithet of a fish
(com., Arist. et al.), after the poisonous stings, see Strmberg (1943: 124 f.),
Thompson (1947 s.v.); also -, -; of a plant (Thphr.), see Strmberg
(1937: 50f.); of a constellation (Cleostrat., Hell.), see Scherer (1953: 170); a war
machine for firing arrows (Hero et al.), whence to scatter; of a
stone (Orph.), also , -. The Indo-Europeans, whose homeland
was probably located to the North of the Black Sea, did not have a word for
the scorpion, and the Greeks must therefore have adopted it from a different
language when they arrived in the Mediterranean. The word seems to be
related to the group of ; see s.v. in section 4.6 above.
[f.] kind of beetle which lives on the roots of plants and emits a strong
smell when attacked (Ar., Arist. [v.l. -], Thphr.). The word contains the
Pre-Greek suffix -- (see 3.2.3.122).
, - [f.] wasp, forest-bee (Arist.). Also . A prenasalized and
reduplicated Pre-Greek formation (see 2.5.2 and 3.1); see above.
[f.] locust (Alex., Dsc., Plin. et al.). Also and . In
Beekes (2008), I demonstrated that all words in -- are of Pre-Greek origin
(with from palatalized l, i.e. ly; see 3.2.3.15); thus the word is Pre-Greek.
Also note the vocalic variations / (2.6.1.3e), / (2.6.1.3b) and / (2.6.1.1a).

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4.8
Worms (Also Parasites)
[f.] intestinal worm, parasitic worm. Also . Gen. , ;
further acc. (Epid.). Cf. . (H.) (below). The
suffixes -()- and -- and the prenasalization they display are typical of
Pre-Greek (see 2.5.2, 3.2.3.69, 3.2.3.72 and 3.2.3.81). The variant also
suggests Pre-Greek origin. Was it *lymi(n)t-, with prothetic vowel a- which
became e- before the palatal l (see Beekes 2008)? Note that the MoGr. forms
, - confirm the vowel after the l.
, [m.] name of a worm that eats horn and wood, notably vines ( 395,
Thphr., Str.). Most probably, and reflect one and the same Pre-Greek
word *ikw-, which was adapted in two different ways (see 2.5.6).
[?] . intestinal worms (H.). A variant of ; see
s.v. above for the idea that - goes back to a Pre-Greek sequence
*lym-.

Agriculture

See also 3.2 above.


5.1
Cereal Culture
, - [m.] awn, plur. chaff, barb of a weapon, spine or prickle of a fish,
also edge of a weapon (Hes.). Also , , with prenasalization
and the interchange / (see 2.5.2 and 2.5.5.3b).
[f.] corn (Il.), often or , for which reason it cannot
mean flour, as delg rightly points out. Cf. nourishment (H.).
Furne (1972: 127) compares -, perhaps rich, luxuriant, fruitful (see
s.v. in section 13 below). The variations / and / point to Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.6.1.1b and 2.5.1).
, - [f.] furrow (trag., com.). Also (Hes.), [acc.sg.], - [acc.pl.]
(Hom.), Dor. (em 625, 37), also in - (A. R. 2, 396). Further
plough, with Lacon. [inf.fut.] (Orac. apud Th. 5, 16);
plowshare (H.) and * (cod. ) furrows (H.). The
variants are strongly reminiscent of substrate words. Variation of prothetic
/ / / / , and also that of and (), are what one often
finds in substrate words, so Pre-Greek origin is most probable. The Homeric form is the only one without a vowel between and , and therefore it
is suspect. A reconstruction *alw-ak- can explain all the different variants:
(by anticipation of the labial feature), which gives by contraction
(for / , see 2.6.1.1h); (coloring of the second vowel by the labial-

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91

ized liquid), - (influence on both vowels; I see no reason not to take the
gloss seriously). The interchange of initial / (which gave -) is difficult to understand phonetically, but it may be related to plain / (cf.
2.6.1.1a and 2.6.1.1g). Apart from the vocalic variation, note the suffix -
(3.2.3.13).
[m.] ear of corn (Il.), bandage (Gal.). Also (Il.+), - (E.) (see
below). Undoubtedly a substrate word in view of the prothetic vowel (see
2.3).
[f.] foam, froth; chaff (Il., poet., Hp.). The variant chaff (directly
below) shows that it is a Pre-Greek word; note the suffixes -- and -(3.2.3.91 and 3.2.3.133). Cf. also scurf, dandruff in section 7.2 below.
[n.pl.] chaff (com.). Note . chaff, skull;
head (H.), with variation / (2.6.1.3c). See further above and in
section 7.2 below.
[m.] oats (Thphr.). Also . Probably Pre-Greek on account of the
variation (see 2.5.12).
[f.] parched barley (ia), winter-bud (Thphr.). Furne (1972: 277) points
to the variant (also -, -) found in the mss. This would
point to *kankru- (with prenasalization, see 2.5.2). May be further related
to arid, barren (section 13 below), with the variation / (see
2.5.1).
, - [f.] bundle, truss of hay (Cratin., Theoc.), also = ,
laurel, which is put in front of the gate (H.), place where
the reed is closely grown with the roots (Thphr.). The formation with the
suffix -- clearly points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.117).
[m.] gruel or pulse of cereals (Hp., Gal., com.), fem. yolk (Hp., Arist.).
delg recalls the tn . Because of the suffix and the meaning, the word
is clearly of Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.72).
[m.] corn measure (ia), a bushel = 48 , which was about 52
1/2 liters in Athens. Also -. Also (Gortyn), with / (see 2.5.4).
Pre-Greek origin is further suggested by the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.77).
[f.pl.] kind of grain like , usually translated as (corn) of spelt, also as
durra (Egypt) (Il.). The suffix points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.134).
[f.] food, corn, plur. cake of flour and honey, honeycombs (Call.). Also
, which shows that -- is a suffix (see 3.2.3.91). According to Furne (1972:
161), , , to strengthen, respect,
honor (H.) further attests to a variant -.
[f.pl.] (unground) barley corns, roasted and sprinkled between the horns
of the sacrificial animal (Ion. since 441); Lat. mola salsa. Also (Att.),
(Arc. iia). Cf. . cooking of groats, a

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dish. wealth, blessed state (H.). Also - [n.] basket for the
, . id., with - / -. The second in Arc.
may also stand for . Thus, we obtain a basic form . Furne (1972:
155 and 240) further connects the gloss with (section 14 below),
assuming an original meaning Nhrung, Getreide. The variation / /
points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.4).
[m.] pit for keeping corn, silo (Att. inscr. va,), also (metaph.) pitfall
(Longus) and = prison (H.). The quantity of -- is unstable:
usually short. Also . The variation -, -, - is hard to explain from
an ie point of view, and points to Pre-Greek origin.
, - [m.] ear (of corn) ( 598), metaphorically offshoot (poet.), as a
plant name (Dsc. et al.), surgical bandage (medic.). The variant (see
s.v. above) shows that the Greek word is of substrate origin (see also Furne
1972: 373).
[n.] dish of fresh barley-corns or other crops (Alcm.). Also (v.l.
Ph. 1, 180); (codd.; ) (H.). Cf. also
[n.pl.] leguminous fruits (section 3.2 above). The various variations,
notably / (2.5.1) and / (2.6.1.2b), show that the word is Pre-Greek (cf.
Furne 1972: 135f.).
, - [f.] corn-measure = 4 (since 28), metaph. a kind of fetter
(Ar., D.), also of the socket of a door-hinge (Hell. pap.). The fact that no
origin can be proposed for this technical expression, means that it is almost
certainly Pre-Greek; note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.73).
5.2
Viniculture
[m.] bunch of grapes (H.). Variants: , (both H.). Note the element -- (see 3.2.3.1). The -- is a prop vowel
(see 2.6.5); variation / and / are also well-known in Pre-Greek (see
2.5.4 and 2.5.5.1b); the may represent a prenasalized consonant, one of
the clearest characteristics of Pre-Greek words (see 2.5.2).
, - [f.] vine trained on two poles. Furne (1972: 212) compares
(H.), which must be correct. It is a
typical substrate word, showing reduplication and the suffix -- (see 3.1 and
3.2.3.25).
[m./f.pl.] last years vinetwigs (H.). Cf. , vinetwigs, bunches of grapes (H.),
twig with bunches of grapes taken off (H.) (cf. s.v.
below), , name of a vine, also = (Eratosth. 37),
pedicle of the pomegranate (Nic. Th. 870). I reconstruct *arw-askat-, which explains the interchanges - / - / - and -- / --.

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93

, - [f.] dried grapes, raisins (Hdt., ia, inscr. Tegea [va]);


stavesacre, Delphinium Staphisagria (Hp.). Also (Cratin.),
(Hp.). A typical substrate word, with prothetic vowel and variation / (see
2.3 and 2.6.1.1b). See also below.
[f.] grape-vine, growing in Bithynia. The suffix -- is Pre-Greek
(3.2.3.58). Furne (1972: 219) compares , a Lydian name for wine, with
variation / (2.5.4) and the Pre-Greek suffix -- (3.2.3.13).
[m., f.] tendril, vine (Hell.). twigs of
vines (H.). The interchange / points to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.6.1.2b).
Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.78).
[f.] a kind of vine (H.). The word is most probably
Pre-Greek (Furne 1972: 17555). Note the suffix -- (3.2.3.98).
, - [f., m.] pole to support the vine, bar, shaft of a spear. Furne (1972:
221) compares (H.), with alternation / zero (see 2.5.10). The
suffix -- is highly frequent in Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.13).
[f.] foam, e.g. on the surface of wine, phlegm, mucus; metaph. filth,
decay, of the underworld (A.). Also . Furne (1972: 316) adduces
thick foam (H.). () (also --) covered with foam, id.. Forms with and without a nasal, which points
to prenasalization (see 2.5.2). See also mucous discharge from the
nostrils (section 7.2 below).
1, - [f.] drop of wine, dregs of wine (also in the game of kottabos)
(Alc.). The word is probably Pre-Greek, in view of the suffix -- (3.2.3.2) and
the semantic field.
, - [f.] unripe grape ( 125), also of olives (Poll.); metaph. of a young
girl, an undeveloped nipple, etc. (poet.). Furne (1972: 341) connects a
bad Sicilian wine and wine blossom. red
wine (H.). The variation / would point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.1b);
note that the suffix - is also typically Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.13).
, - [f.] vine with grapes, = , - (Harp., H.). The word is evidently
related to (see s.v. above), and as variants, both are of Pre-Greek
origin (Furne 1972: 348).
[m.] row of vines or fruit trees ( 127, 341). The connection of the
tns (also -; cf. Schwyzer 1939: 255) and Illyrian is
commonly accepted. It seems probable that the word is Pre-Greek; note the
agricultural meaning and the variations / and / in the tn (see 2.5.1 and
2.6.1.3l).
[f.] in branches full of bunches of grapes
(H., similar Harp.; unclear Nic. Al. 109). Also vine-branch
(em, Suid., H.); msc. plur. young

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branches, with the bunches themselves (H.). The variation of the initial
vowel shows that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.3e).
, [f.] winegrape, -berry, secondarily also berry in general, metaph.
kind of spider, plur. fingertips (Att.). lxx also [m.]. Also , (Archil.,
lxx, Nic.). It is most probable that is of Pre-Greek origin (Furne 1972:
126); would then be a Pre-Greek variant with / (see 2.6.1.1e).
[f.] grape (Il.), metaphorically swollen uvula, uvula inflammation
(Hp., Arist., etc.), also (accent after , ?) lead in the
balance, plummet of a level (B 765). Clearly connected with [n.pl.]
(rarely sg.) squeezed olives or grapes, mass of olives or grapes and
dried grapes, raisins (and its variants; see s.v. above), which points to PreGreek origin; note the prothetic vowel (2.3), the variation / (2.6.1.1a), the
prenasalization (2.5.2) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.121).
[n.] sick wine, vinegar (Phoen. [iiia]). The structure of the word is
Pre-Greek; note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.19).
[f.] wine-jar (A., D., Thphr.). Late (Thasos va); Dor.
(H.). The group of suffixes --- is typical for Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.13 and
3.2.3.91). For the shift of aspiration, compare (section 9.4 below). See
Furne (1972: 197, 393). Cf. (section 9.2 below).
, - [m.] unblended wine (Hippon. 73 = 67 Masson, epigr. Cyrene ip).
Furne (1972: 389) compares unmixed (H.; see s.v. in section 13 below), which would point to a Pre-Greek labiovelar (see 2.5.6). The
gloss also shows a form in - (see 3.2.3.101), like in compar.
unmixed.
[adj.] epithet of , , (com. iva, Cyrene iva, Nic., Dsc.),
so a kind of grape. Lat. psithia (vitis, uva), psythium, scil. vinum (Verg., Plin.,
etc.). Also , with / (see 2.6.1.4).

Prepared Food

[n.] evening meal at Sparta. Cf. (H.),


nourishment (H.) and . feeder (Rhod.) (H.). May be
reconstructed as pg *(a)wikl/n-, with a prothetic vowel (2.3) which shows
the variation / (2.6.1.1a).
[f.] , kind of meat, condiment (H.);
for Anacr. see 467 Page. Cf.
(Photius 86 R.). The variant with reduplication is
typical of substrate words (see 3.1). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.72).
, - [m.] a kind of cake (Epil.). (Ath.; H. also ); (Test.

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95

Epict.); dough kneaded in advance for


a cake. it also designates the
ball-shaped cake (H.). Typically Pre-Greek: variation / , suffix -- (see
2.5.1 and 3.2.3.13).
[m.] kind of sacrificial cake, from the island Hecate near Delos (Semos
3). Furne (1972: 245) addudes the variant baker of ., which
proves Pre-Greek origin; note the suffix -- / -- (see 3.2.3.124 and 3.2.3.126)
and the variation it displays (see 2.5.4).
[f.] small sausage (H.). Furne (1972: index) connects the word
with , name of an onion (see s.v. in section 3.2 above), , a
mixture of sesame-seeds, roasted and pounded with honey. The prothetic
vowel and the variation in vowel length point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.3
and 2.6.2).
[m.] a cake (Sol. 38, 3). Cf. kind of cake (H.),
with a prothetic vowel and prenasalization (see 2.3 and 2.5.2).
[n.]? , , olive oil, rendered fat, abundance;
. butter (Cypr.) (H.), with / (see 2.5.1).
[f.] name of a Lydian soup of blood and spices. Also -. The variation points to a Pre-Greek (= Pre-Anatolian) word (see 2.5.8). The structure
-- fits the picture of Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.120).
[m.] a kind of bread or cake (Ar., Philyll.); also = (Luc., Iamb.,
H.). Certainly Pre-Greek in view of the suffix -- (3.2.3.1). See also
(section 12.3 below).
, - [m.] round, coarse bread (Hippon., com.), tablet (medic.). The
word is no doubt Pre-Greek, because of the suffix -- (3.2.3.74).
mg. uncertain, probably cake, tablet (Ar., Thphr., lxx, pap.), cf.
and above. Also . Like other words in -, probably PreGreek (see 3.2.3.134). If the variation / is old, this also points to Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.6.1.3d).
[n.pl.] , , cakes, others: seeds,
holy firstlings (H.); (Theognost. Can. 9). Cf. (Cyr.,
Phot.), sacrifice (H.). The variation - / - points to a PreGreek word (see 2.6.1.1c).
[f.] name of a sweet dish, which is made of all kinds of ingredients,
like minced meat, poultry, aromatic spices; it is ascribed to the Thessalians
and the Macedonians (middle and new com.). Furne (1972: 386) compares
id. (Poll. 6, 70). The a-vocalism in the root and the alternation ()
point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.8).
, - [f.] hare-soup, jugged hare, from the intestines with their blood
(com.). The reduplication is clearly Pre-Greek (see 3.1).

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[f.] piece of bread, scooped out as a spoon (com., Ath., Aret., Poll.). A
Pre-Greek word because of its suffix -- (see 3.2.3.75).
[m.] dish, kind of paste, made of cheese, honey, garlic, etc. (Hippon.).
Also --, --. In view of the variation -- / -- / --, the word is Pre-Greek
(see 2.5.5.9a). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.149).
[f.] cake made of preserved fruits (Hdt. 4, 23). Furne (1972: 259) cites
. harvested figs, also
with -- (H.). The variation / points to Pre-Greek origin (see
2.5.5.9a). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.6).
[n.] cake mold or form (Theoc., Nic.). Related to to knead,
form, mold, shape (a soft mass); to think up, imagine, pretend. The root
- is anomalous from an ie point of view; -- is a Pre-Greek suffix (see
3.2.3.19).
[f.] salted and corned fish (Diph. Siph. apud Ath. 3, 120 f.). Probably
originally the Sardian fish, derived from = Sardinia, named after the
place of origin. Note the initial - and the final - (see 2.2a.15 and 3.3.1a).
[n.] waste, offal, refuse, muck (Hell. and late). Also * as in
? Furne (1972: 148) compares
whatever dough and bread is left over on
the table (Philet. apud Ath. 11, 483a); if correct, the s-mobile (2.4) and the
variations / (2.5.1), / (2.6.1.1a) and / (2.5.8) point to Pre-Greek
origin. At any rate, the suffix -()- is Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.15). See delg
Supp.
tripe fit for cookery (H.). Reminiscent of Lat. fids
cords of a lyre; they were probably borrowed from the same Mediterranean
language (cf. e-m s.v.).
[f.] mg. instable, rib of beef, thigh-bone, side of bacon vel sim. Acc. to H.
= the part from the spine down to the
lower belly, also = longish or oblong cut of meat.
Also , with variation / (see 2.5.1).
[f.] rennet (Hp.). Pre-Greek because of the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.84).
[m.] and [n.] fish or meat conserved by salting, smoking or drying (ia,
etc.), also mummy (Hdt. 9, 120, S. Fr. 646). The word is probably Pre-Greek,
in view of the meaning, the --, and the suffix (see 3.2.3.88).

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97

Human Physiology

7.1
The Human Body
, - [m.] corpse, dead person (Pl. Resp. 387c, H.), also of the Styx (S.
Fr. 790) and metaph. of wine-vinegar (Hippon.). The deviant shape of the
word, as well as the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.23), clearly point to a substrate
origin.
[m.] one of the neck vertebrae; anklebone; knuckle-bones (used
as dice); dice (Il.). Also . The prothetic vowel and the suffix -point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.3 and 3.2.3.15). See also and
(section 4.6 above).
1 [m.] throat, gullet (X 328, Plu.). ( Latte) , , , windpipe, neck, throat, noise (H.);
= throat (Apion apud Phot.). Furne (1972: 227) connects ,
- gorge (see s.v. in section 1 above) and compares (codd. -)
sine expl. (H.). [sn]: We may further connect (below; cf. Furne 1972:
281) and = (Psell.). The prothetic vowel (2.3), the s-mobile
(2.4), the prenasalization (2.5.2) and the suffix --/-- (3.2.3.23) prove
substrate origin.
[m.] ([n.]?) breast (H.). Furne (1972: 172, 178) compares
the solid circle of the breast (H.). The
variation between - and - points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and
3.2.3.90).
the lot of a man, commonly (Hdn. i, 158). Furne (1972: 325) compares (H.). The
prothetic vowel may point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.3), which is expected
anyway. For , if this is a nom., cf. the Pre-Greek words in - (see 3.3.4).
[f.] mucous discharge, (Hp.). Cf. (H.). .
(H.).
(Hp.). The variations / , / prove Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.8).
Further note the final short - (see 3.3.1a).
[m.] windpipe, throat (Hp.). Connected with to gulp down,
swallow (again) (section 15 below) and throat, gullet (Hp.). The
nasal infix can be easily understood as Pre-Greek prenasalization (2.5.2). It
is conceivable that - is not a suffixal derivation from this word, but
just another form of the root, with variation / (2.5.5.1b). Further cf.
hoarseness, angina (section 7.2 below), with the typical variation
/ (2.6.1.1b).
[m.] moustache (Antiph. 44.4 apud Ath. 4, 143a). Evidently cognate
with upper lip, moustache (see s.v. below), the words being of PreGreek origin because of the alternation / (see 2.5.4).

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[m.]? female genitals (H.). Cf.


id. (H.). The variation / shows that the word is Pre-Greek (see
2.5.4).
[f.] eyeball (Hom.; also in a reviling sense 164), also pupil of the
eye (Ruf. Onom., H.), metaph. socket of a joint (Gal.), honeycomb (ab,
H.). If , ornaments of
headbands, like stars (H.) is related, the variation / points to Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.6.1.1i).
[m.] jaw (Hom.). Also . The Lithuanian word ndas id., with
its entirely different structure, cannot be cognate. Actually, -- cannot be
derived from any other pie form either, and the word must therefore be
non-ie, i.e. Pre-Greek. A variant may be , jaws (see
s.v. , section 4.2 above), with the variations / , / , / zero (see
2.5.1 and 2.6.5).
[m.] finger (also as a measure, etc.), toe (ia). It is perhaps from
*. A form *-- looks perfectly Pre-Greek: cluster -- (< --,
see 2.5.5) and a suffix -- (see 3.2.3.121).

, - [f.] waist, loins ( 231 = 544, Hp., Hell. poetry). Furne (1972: 393)
proposed to connect hip (see directly below); if correct, the word is
Pre-Greek because of the variation (see 2.5.5.6b).
[n.] hip-joint, haunches (Il.). Furne (1972: 393) connects it with
(above), which seems quite possible if one assumes consonant metathesis in
. One might assume a Pre-Greek pre-form *ikty-; cf. on (section
4.1 above). Pre-Greek had several words ending in - (see 3.3.1b), which is very
rare in inherited Greek.
[?] embryos (H.). The structure of the word (--) is
typically Pre-Greek (see 3.2.2, 3.2.3.114).
[m.] corner of the eye (Arist., Nic., Gal.); poet. eye (Hell.); acc. to H.
also opening in the roof for the smoke, funnel, and pot, kettle,
(Sicilian). Since there is no ie etymology, and since an ie pre-form
is impossible (*kh2ndh- would have given *-), the conclusion must be that
the word is Pre-Greek.
, - [f.] anything gushing forth, ooze, of blood, purple, pitch, fat (A., S.),
dye from oak gall, oak gall (Hp., D., Thphr.). Dor. .
begin to sweat (Lac.) (H.). . (section 4.6 above).
The prenasalization and the suffix -- show that the word is Pre-Greek (see
2.5.2 and 3.2.3.70).
[m.] curly hair, lock of hair (com., Theoc., ap). Furne (1972: 278) is
probably right in assuming a prenasalized form * as a source for the
Latin word cincinnus. Pre-Greek origin must be assumed (see 2.5.2).

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99

[m.] knuckle, joint, bony knob, clenched fist, swelling of the gum,
etc. (ia). The word is probably Pre-Greek because of its structure, -- <
*kant-ul-; note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.121). Moreover, the gloss
. (Fr. 220) swellings (H.), may show variation
/ (2.6.1.1b) and / (2.5.1) (Van Beek p.c.).
[f.] top, skull, also metaph. (Il.). Cf. (section 9.8 below). Long
recognized as Pre-Greek, due to the alternation of - with prenasalized -. Apart from the prenasalization (2.5.2) and the variation /
(2.5.1) displayed by the suffix, the suffix itself also points to Pre-Greek
origin (see 3.2.3.125 and 3.2.3.138). See also helmet (section 9.6 below).
[n.pl.] the parts under the eyes (Hp., Sor.), cf.
. . the cavities
under the eyelids; the swellings under the eyes; the parts of the face under
the eyes (H.). Var. lectio -. Also black eyes (H.).
parts of the face under the eyes (H.). The variants with
- show that the word is from Pre-Greek *kuly- (see 2.5.8). Further note
the Pre-Greek suffix -- in (see 3.2.3.1).
2 [f.] = (only em 545, 27). The prenasalization in the pair
/ proves Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2). Of course, head
first (section 13 below) belongs here, too.
[m.] pudenda muliebra (Eup., Ar.). .
buttocks; pudenda muliebra (H.). The alternation of - with - suggests a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.5.11a).
[n.pl.] hollows of the ears (Lyc.), clouds of mist (Lyc., Call.). Probably
the same Pre-Greek word as (see section 9.3 below); variation /
(2.5.1), suffix -- (3.2.3.43).
[m.] throat, gullet (Il.). Furne (1972: 225) compares gefrssig
with impudent and to swallow, gulp down (section 15
below), with variation / (2.5.4), which proves Pre-Greek origin.
, - [m.] upper part of the windpipe (Hp.).
talking idle (H.). The suffix -- points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.114).
This is confirmed by the variant [gen.] (em 788, 37).
[f.] throat (Il.). Later usually -. tongue, language
(H.). The variations / and / point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and
2.6.1.1g).
[m.] nipple, motherbreast, breast, metaph. hill, height, also name of a
cup (Apollod. Cyren. apud Ath. 11, 487b, Oropos, Delos). Epic Ion. poet. ,
Dor. (Theoc.) , Hell. also . The variation / [zd] / points
to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1).

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[f.] armpit (h. Merc.), metaph. axil, branch (Thphr.), bay (Str.), etc.
No doubt a Pre-Greek word; note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.15).
[n.pl.] male genitals, of (Od., Androm. apud Gal., Call., also Ant.
Lib.), (Hes. Op. 512, Lyc.); (Archil. 138); metaph. urine in Opp.
(Cyn. 4, 441); private parts (H.). The variation between ,
and clearly points to a Pre-Greek word: interchange / (2.6.1.2i),
/ (2.5.5.9a).
, - [f.] skin, cuticle, especially cerebral membrane (Hp., Arist., Gal.),
also cuticle in the eye (Emp., Arist.), drum of the ear (Arist.). The suffix -clearly points to a Pre-Greek word (see 3.2.3.69).
, - [m.] upper lip, moustache (Stratt., Eub., Theoc., lxx), a Doric and
Laconian word (cf. Arist. Fr. 539). Var. (cod. ) .
(leg. -) beard (H.), moustache (see above). Both
the variation - / - and the variant point to Pre-Greek origin (see
2.5.4 and 2.5.5.10a). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
[?] female genitals (H.). Furne (1972: 218) compares
id. (H.) (see above), which proves Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.5.4).
, - [f.] lock of hair, tendril, vine, curling flames, tentacle of an
octopus (Thphr., Call., A. R., Nic., Hdn. Gr.). Also - (Hdn. Gr., H.),
- (H., em), - (em). The word is Pre-Greek, as is shown by
the varying anlaut and the suffix -()- (see 2.5.2, 2.5.7c, 2.6.1.1b and
3.2.3.69).
, - [f.] hips, loin(s) (ia). Furne (1972: 375) adduces = (ab
1096), with Doric loss of initial - before , pointing to a Pre-Greek prothetic
vowel (see 2.3), with - instead of - before in the following syllable (see
2.5.13.2). Furne (1972: 393) also accepts the connection with loinmuscles and (see s.v. below), which is too obvious to be discarded (see
2.5.5.6a).
[m.] corpse (H.). The suffix seems to point to a Pre-Greek word
(see 3.2.3.33).
[m.] eye (Il.). Boeot. , Epid. Lacon. (). Not only is
it impossible to explain the variation from Indo-European; the rise of a
suffix -()- would be incomprehensible as well. The suffix is Pre-Greek
(see 3.2.3.15, and 3.2.3.90 on --). The word can be reconstructed as pg
*okwt-aly-(m-). Here the labiovelar could become a labial, but the labial
element could also be ignored, which yielded - (see 2.5.6). Aspiration was
not phonemic in Pre-Greek, hence the variant - is unproblematic on this
account (see 2.5.1). In (), *a apparently became i by influence of the
following palatalized consonant. The fact that pg *okwt- strongly resembles

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101

ie *h3ekw- is a mere coincidence, and such accidents may be expected to


occur every now and then.
[f.] surface of the hand, breadth of four fingers (ia). - (Hp.).
()- measuring a handbreadth. The word must be Pre-Greek
because of the variation / (which probably points to a palatal *sy); cf.
Furne (1972: 296) and 2.6.1.1c above.
[f.] penis (Ar. Nu. 1014), also foreskin (medic.). -- [f.] (Hp.,
Arist.) foreskin, also [f.] id., coll. the uncircumcized people =
heathendom (lxx, nt). The variations suggest Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1
and 2.6.1.3c). This explanation is increasingly attractive in view of the semantic field.
[adj.] utmost, hindmost, undermost, of the part of a body part that
is closest to the torso, vel sim.; also of the undermost part of a tree, a rock,
etc. (epic poet. Il.). The most promising etymology consists of a connection
with tree-stump, trunk, stub, also bole, metaph. of a column, etc.
The interchange / points to a Pre-Greek origin (cf. Furne 1972: 65270 and
2.6.1.2c above).
, - [f., m.] spine, back, often metaphorically ridge, etc. (I 208). Cf.
(also ), Ion. [f.] briar, thorn hedge, (thorny) sprig;
wall (H.). The forms point to *-/-, which cannot be derived
from an ie form. Rather, the variation is Pre-Greek (see 2.6.2).
[f.] jawbone, jaw, cheek (Hp.). Since ie origin is formally hardly possible, the word could well be of Pre-Greek origin, possibly reflecting *syg- (cf.
Beekes 2008: 52).
[f.] head; . neck, throat (Sicilian)
(H.), see further lsj s.v. about the attestations. Furne (1972: 359, 362) compares (), ()- head, with s-mobile, / and / (see 2.4,
2.6.1.3c and 2.5.8), and assumes Pre-Greek origin.
[m.] middle finger (sch. Pl. Ti. 84 ). Also and -. Pre-Greek
in view of the variations - / zero, / and / (see 2.4, 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.3i).
Also note the suffix -/- (see 3.2.3.42 and 3.2.3.56).
, - [m., f.] cusp, tine (of an antler), fang, cape, etc. (S., Com. Adesp.,
Lyc., ap et al.). , the sharp [point] of
a spear, tip of a lance or spear (H.). The suffix points to Pre-Greek origin (see
3.2.3.114).
[m.] (cervical) vertebra, metaph. a tambour in a column, spindlewhorl (Ar., Pl., Arist., inscr., etc.). Also (non-Att.) . The variation
- / - and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and 3.2.3.121).
[?] (H., Furne 1972: 172 reads ). Also ,
(H.). Furne (1972: 172) connects (H.), and further ,

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helmet ornament or part of the helmet. The variation / would point to


Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1).
[adj.] bald-headed, also , having a patch of white,
id., id., etc. Derived with various Pre-Greek suffixes (see
3.2.3.14, 3.2.3.23, 3.2.3.28 and 3.2.3.60) from white (see s.v. in section
13 below).
[m.] membrum virile (Hdt.). Also , - (Sophr.) and
(Herod. 6, 69). The variations / (2.5.1) and / (2.5.8) clearly point to
Pre-Greek origin, see Furne (1972: 172). Further note the suffix -- (3.2.3.62).
[f., m.] throat, gorge, larynx, windpipe (Od.), also throat disease (Hp.).
Also -, gen. -, -, acc. -. The prenasalized suffix -()- shows
that the word is of Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2 and 3.2.3.114). Cf.
above.
1 [f.] lip (Ar. V. 1083, Poll. 2, 89, H.), jaw (Ael.). The variants
talks nonsense, (H.) point to a Pre-Greek
origin, as does the structure of the word; note the s-mobile and the suffix
-- (see 2.4 and 3.2.3.127).
[f.pl.] psoas muscle, muscles of the loins (Hp.). Also , , .
lumbar part of the spinal chord (Gal.), suffering
from lumbago (Orib.). Cf. (foxes,) psoas muscles (H.),
(H.); (H.), (H.). The variations
cannot be understood in ie terms. The connection with (see s.v. above)
is quite possible. The word is clearly Pre-Greek.
[f.] wrinkle, small furrow, crows-feet in the corner of the eye (Poll., em,
ab), also short nap, short moment, instant. Also ? (H.).
few (em, ab). The word is clearly of Pre-Greek origin in view of the
prenasalized suffix -()- (see 3.2.3.69).
7.2
Affections and Diseases
[f.] swelling which obstructs the lacrymal duct (Gal. 19, 438). Also
. The synonym points to a Pre-Greek origin, in view of the variations
/ (2.6.1.1c) and / (2.5.1) and prenasalization (2.5.2). Note that before
NC is not tolerated in Greek; perhaps the first i derives from a palatalized
/g/. The analysis in terms of Pre-Greek is *a(n)gy-ilp-. Note the suffixes -(3.2.3.75) and -- (3.2.3.146).
[m.] itch (H.). Also . The vocalic variation points to
pg origin (see 2.6.1.1b). Cf. (section 17 below).
, - [m.] scurf, dandruff. Cf .
the scurf of the head (H.) and . chaff, skull; head (H.). The vocalic interchange points to Pre-Greek

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103

origin (see 2.6.1.3e). Further related to chaff (see s.v. in section 5.1
above).
[m.] hoarseness, angina (Hp.). Also (Hippon.),
(Xenocr.). Variation -- / zero (see 2.6.5). Furne (1972: 128, 276) further connects the word with rough, harsh (H.),
rough places (H.), and . thorns, palisade (H.). Thus, we arrive at a set of variants - / - / -, which
are typical of Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.2). Further cf. windpipe,
throat (section 7.1 above).
, - [f.] thirst (Il.). [f.] thirsty, dry (Thphr.), also name of a snake,
whose bite caused a strong thirst (cf. Chantraine 1933: 354 f.). Cf. a
kind of snake (Artemid. 2, 13), serpent (Cret.) (H. cod.;
Salm.), . (H.). Under an analysis -, the
final element can hardly be ie. Therefore, it is probably a Pre-Greek word
with the suffix - (see 3.2.3.105), which is further confirmed by the variants
with and (see 2.5.1).
, - [m.] small abscess (Hp.). Furne (1972: 172118) points out that - is
frequent in Pre-Greek words (see 3.2.3.57), and plausibly compares
(H.), as a variant deriving from *- (see 2.5.7a).
, - [n.] name of a skin disease, Erysipelas. Likely to be of PreGreek origin. The first element may be compared with rust in plants
(cf. s.v. in section 3.5 above). Further note the suffixes -- (3.2.3.42) and -(3.2.3.31).
[m.] ague, ague from fever (Thgn., Ar., Hp., etc.; on the meaning
Strmberg 1944: 82ff.); nightmare. Cf. moth. In folklore, butterflies,
etc. bring fever (Frisk). Given the variation / and the suffix --, it is
probably a Pre-Greek word (see 2.6.1.1b and 3.2.3.15).
[f.] swelling, tumor, only in . (Fr. 220) swellings (H., at an alphabetically incorrect place). Also
(H.). The variation / is clearly Pre-Greek, as is the
suffixation (see 2.6.1.1b and 3.2.3.122). Cf. (section 7.1 above).
[m.] varicocele (Hp., Philostr.). Also (Hippiatr., H.), . The
variation () / shows that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.5.7b). Also note
the metathesis (see 2.5.12).
[f.] tumor, swelling (Semon. 35, em); name of a hairdo = Att.
(Creon apud sch. Ar. Nu. 10, em); club, , (H.). Frisk notes that
the mg. is the same as that of . Also (Arist.) and
(Numen. apud Ath.). The prothetic - (2.4), the suffix -- (3.2.3.122), and the
anaptyctic (2.6.5) point to Pre-Greek origin. The form - might be from
*kard- with < *a before *u (see 2.5.13.2).

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[m., n.] mucous discharge from the nostrils, , (Lib., Moer.,


H., Tz.); plur. also putrescent carcasses (Phot., Eust.), metonymic simple
man (Men.). Furne (1972: 160) recognized that it is the same word as
foam, phlegm, mucus, with the variations / and / (see 2.5.1 and
2.6.1.1a); see also s.v. in section 5.2 above.
[m., f.] lethargy, lethargic fever (Hp.), as an adjective also forgetful
(Men., ap). Cf. guileful, treacherous (section 13 below). The variation / shows that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.1i).
[f.] numbness from cold in hands and feet, plur. chilblain (Nic.); . chopping-block (H.). (H.). Denominative [v.] to become numb with cold, freeze, often written
. A form - can hardly be explained in ie terms. The variant
spelling may indicate that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.6.5).
, - [m.] stripe, wale, weal, bruise (Hyp., Arist., lxx, medic.). Words
of this structure contain a suffix - (see 3.2.3.146) and are certainly of
Pre-Greek origin.
, - [m., f.] seeing in the night = day-blind, as a msc. substantive
day-blindness, secondary night-blind, night-blindness (Hp., Arist., Gal.).
On the Pre-Greek suffix --, see 3.2.3.146. The connection with must
be folk-etymological.
, - [n.] lethargy, coma (Nic., Hdn.); the latter explains it as
absence of the soul; it is also translated as slumbering.
Furne (1972: 133) convincingly connects with slow, dull,
sluggish (section 13 below), with the variation / (see 2.5.1). For Pre-Greek
words in -, see Furne (1972: 13475) and 3.2.3.27 and 3.3.2a above.
[?] . spots bloodshot by
hitting; bruises (H.). Also . The variation / and the suffix -point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and 3.2.3.69).
[m.] induration, callus, hard tumor (medic.), hard, scrubby ground,
scrub (Tab. Heracl.). Also --, -. Also . [m.] gypsumworker. Furne (1972: 387) suggests that the word is Pre-Greek. This seems
quite probable in view of the variations / and / (see 2.5.8 and 2.6.1.4).
[f.] bloodshot bruise, bloody weal (B 267, 716, Opp. H. 2, 428). Plur.
-. Also , blood vessel, boil (H.). A Pre-Greek word;
note initial - / zero and the prenasalized suffix -()- (see 2.4, 2.5.2 and
3.2.3.69).
[f.] blister from burns, blister (Ar. Fr. 883, H.). Also , plur.
-. The word is clearly Pre-Greek in view of the prenasalized suffix
(3.2.3.69), the intervocalic -- (2.2a.15), and the alternation / (see
2.5.5.11a).

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[f.] blister, pustule (Hp.). Also , - and . Formation in - (see 3.2.3.11) from a stem -, with the typical Pre-Greek
cluster velar + t (see Furne 1972: 319ff.; cf. 2.2a.7 above). Further cf. [f.] bladder, pustule with blood and water (Hp.) and its variants -
(H.), (Theoc. 9, 30) and - (H.), with the variation / /
and prenasalization (see 2.5.1, 2.5.2 and 2.5.5.1b).
[f.] drop of blood (P 459), plur. . drop,
, , and (H.). - beside -- points
to a Pre-Greek palatalized phoneme *sy.
, - [f.] throes of birth, that which is born (out of pains), metaph. strain
( 271). The word is likely to be Pre-Greek because of the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.79).
7.3
Sex
[f.] , sexual intercourse, emitting
the same smell from the private parts (H.). Cf.
, sweat flowing from the inside of the thighs; name
for a cast of the dice (H.), with the Pre-Greek suffix -- (see 3.2.3.29). Note
the geminate -- (see 2.2a.25).
[m.] penis coriaceus, = of leather (com., Herod.). Obscene word with
a suffix --. As the suffix shows, the word is Pre-Greek. Note the cluster -(see 2.2a.16).
[v.] = sexual arousal at night
(Phot.) and movement towards (i.e. a woman); sexual arousal at night. In H.
1. , , to play mischievous tricks; to be pointed at with the finger; to hold up the middle finger;
2. id.; 3. () a dance;
4. (leg. -, cf. Photius s.v. ); 5. arousal at night for sex. Both
formally and semantically most probably Pre-Greek. Denominative of *, a doublet with s-mobile (see 2.4) of easily moved (H.)
(see section 13 below). Further note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13). Cf.
below.
[m.] an obscene gesture (H., Phot.). Also make obscene
gestures (H.). The variation is typical of Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1). Further note
the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.28). Cf. above.

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Attire and Jewellery

[f.] kind of dress. Adjective epithet of and other garments, cf. , kind of color, after
the island of Amorgos (Suid.). The name of the island may have been used
to designate clothes, cf. MoE jersey, jeans, etc. Note the suffix -()- (see
3.2.3.101102).
, - [f., m.] womens diadem; horses bit; rim of a wheel (Il.). If we
analyze the word as *amp-uk-, it contains a typical substrate suffix (Beekes
2003b: 112115; for the suffix see 3.2.3.119 above).
[f.] shoe that covers the whole foot up to the ankle (Hp.). Cf.
kinds of coarse, non-Greek sandals
(H.). And . sandals (Cypr.) (H.). Clearly a substrate word, as evidenced by the suffix -- (3.2.3.121) and the variations /
(2.5.4), / (2.6.5), and -/- (2.1).
[f.] slipper (com.). , , slippers, boots,
sandals (H.). The variation / points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1).
[n.] bracelet. Cf. (Delos) and legbands (H.). The variation / points to Pre-Greek origin (see
2.5.1).
[n.pl.] flowers, as a decoration in woven tissues and embroidery (Il.),
as a medicine and charm (Hell. poets). Acc. to the sch. on Theoc. 2, 59, the
Thessalians used for colorful embroidered figures ( ),
and the Cypriots for variegated clothes ( ); H. glosses both
as flowers and as colorful embroideries ( ,
); cf. Bechtel (1921, 1: 448). Furne (1972: 189) compares
, statues, colorful stitchings (H.), which proves
Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1).
[m.] tassels, fringe (Il.). Cf. . The variation / points to
Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.8). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.19).
[m.] hair-net of a woman, envelopped by the (Il.), also
part of the head-stall of a bridle, pouch of the belly of a hunting-net; the
second stomach of a ruminant, reticulum (Strmberg 1944: 63f.). Technical
word of Pre-Greek origin; note the reduplication (3.1) and the suffix -(3.2.3.15).
[n.] bracelet (pap. imperial period). Cf. garment
(Furne 1972: 131 objects that this word rather belongs to upper garment) and maidens necklaces (H.). The variation between voiceless and aspirate shows the Pre-Greek origin of the word
(see 2.5.1). Furne (1972: 388) further compares

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107

golden headband of the bride (H.), which would point to an initial


labiovelar (see 2.5.6).
[f.] name of a cloak which acc. to D. Chr. 72, 1 was used by herders and
countrymen; by em 311, 5, H. and others it is explained with kind
of apron, by em 349, 15 it is called an mantle; the mg. hair
knot in Poll. 2, 30 (different readings) must be due to confusion with (for which see section 9.8). Also (H.). Cf. , a piece of
military equipment, perhaps . Cf. also sacrificer, which
confirms the form without nasal (Furne 1972: 283). Further Lat. gossypion,
-inum cotton-plant, which point to *. Pre-Greek origin is likely,
given the prenasalization (2.5.2), the variation -- / -- / -- (2.5.5.9a) and
the suffix -()- (3.2.3.113 and 3.2.3.125).
[n.] a light cloth = (kind of garment) or cheap
garment (H.). Also (Att. inscr. iva), -, , -; Dor.
(Alcm.); , - (H.). The variation between forms with and without
shows that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.1j).
[f.] , (garment names) (H.). Furne (1972: 344) compares
a garment. Given the interchange / , the word is probably PreGreek (see 2.6.1.1b). Also note the geminate -- (see 2.2a.25).
[m.] purple stripe or edge of a chiton (Ar., Pherecr.); tuft neckband
(Att. inscr.); cf. Kretschmer (1928: 169). No doubt a Pre-Greek word (cf.
Furne 1972: 321); note the Pre-Greek structure. For the suffix cf. e.g. -and -- (see 3.2.3.9 and 3.2.3.113).
[?] kind of shoe. Cf. , - kind of shoe, = mans high boot
(em 148, 36). The variation / (2.5.12) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.70) point
to Pre-Greek origin.
[n.] sandal(s) (h. Merc.); name of a flat fish (Matro), see Strmberg
(1943: 37). Also . The initial - (2.2a.15), the variation / (2.5.6)
and the suffix -- (3.2.3.15) point to Pre-Greek origin. Furne (1972: 153, 389)
also mentions (H.), perhaps to be read *? This
would add the variations / (2.6.1.1a) and / (2.5.1).
[f.] thick, villous cloak (made of goat fur), fleece cloak (Ar.). Also
. According to Furne (1972: 215), it is of Pre-Greek origin. Note initial
and internal (2.2a.15), final short - (3.3.1a) and the suffixes -- (3.2.3.133)
and -- (3.2.3.91).
[f.] , leather garments, the small
halyards (H.). Further [n.pl.] frock made of
hide (Poll. 7, 70), small hide (Hdn. Gr. 1, 378)
and , , tassels, leather straps, fringes (Phot.,
Eust.). Cf. = , , tassels, leather straps, fringes

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(Phot., Eust.). The variation / (2.5.5.9a) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.113) show
that the word is Pre-Greek, reflecting *sityub-. See also (section 9.2
below).
, - [f.] designation of a garment of a distinguished person, Lat. toga
(Hell. and late). Also . Furne (1972: 220, 387) showed that the word is
Pre-Greek (variation / and / , see 2.5.4 and 2.5.8).
, [m.] a device (, ) on sandals used to fasten the
straps (Phryn. ps). (H.). The variation / (2.5.1)
and the variation in initial aspiration (2.1) point to Pre-Greek origin.
[f.] upper-garment, mantle, originally worn only by men (Il.). Also
. Cf. , - light upper-garment, , -, accus. -
(Sapph.) upper-garment for men. This group is no doubt Pre-Greek, given
the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.115; for - see 3.3.4), and the interchanges / (see
2.5.1) and / (see Furne 1972: 388).
[n.] bracelet, ring, arm jewel, anklet (Hdt., X., Hell. and late inscr.
and pap.). Also and (), Aeol. (gramm.) (). Here also
belongs , which has several meanings, including ring or the like for
supporting or strengthening (see s.v. in section 10.2 below). The word is no
doubt Pre-Greek, in view of the variations / (2.5.5.6a), / (2.6.1.1a), /
(2.6.1.2b) and / (2.5.8).

Equipment and Utensils

9.1
Furniture
[f.] bathtub (Il.). A clear substrate word because of the suffix in -(see 3.2.3.81).
[m.] seat, chair (Att.). Epic Ion. Dor. (since Il.). From
(H.), it appears that was contracted from *();
would then come from *(). The word must be Pre-Greek, as
was observed by Furne (1972: 342). A suffix -- is frequent in Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.13); the variation *-- / -- is normal in substrate words (see 2.6.1.1b).
[f.] girth of a bedstead, bandage (for wounds, dead), tapeworms (Ar. Av.
816, lxx, pap., medic., Ev. Jo. 11, 44). Often plur. Also , , . The
variation is probably Pre-Greek: before a palatalized consonant is realized
as , which becomes (see 2.6.1.1f and 2.6.1.1i).
, - [f.] carpet, rug (Hom.). Also , - (X., Delos iviiia),
id., . The variation / and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.5.1 and 3.2.3.62).
[f.] table or board with an elevated edge, of the table of a baker, the stage

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109

on which game-cocks fight, a gaming table (com., Aeschin., Arist., pap.), also
of a sieve (Ar. Pl. 1037, sch. ); unclear Ar. V. 147 (of a flue?). Uncertain
[] sieve (seg i, 414, Crete viva). On the mg. Chantry (1994). Note .
The variation / is typical of Pre-Greek words (see 2.5.5.9a).
[n.] low bed, mattress (pap. iip). Also -, -. As a variant,
(H.) also belongs here: the -- is the typical Pre-Greek
prenasalization (see 2.5.2). Further note the variations / and / , and the
suffix -()- (see 2.5.1, 2.6.1.1a and 3.2.3.22).
[f., m.] rush mat (Att. inscr. [va], Ar., Arist., Thphr.), also used as a screen
(Apollod. Poliorc.) and as a means of transport (pap. iiia, Sor.). Also .
Pre-Greek, as is shown by the variation / (see 2.6.1.1a).
9.2
Containers
[n.] vessel (Il.). Cf. (H.). Prenasalization and variation / (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.5.1b).
[f.] bowl, pan (Ath. 11, 502b: ). Also
. The variation / proves substrate origin (see 2.5.5.1b). Furne
(1972: 308, 319) further compares = , with > , for which
he gives parallels, and / (see 2.6.1.1b).
[m.] vase used as a measure (pap. iiia, Callix.). The suffix -- points
to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.149). The -- probably goes back to -au- (for the
variation see 2.6.1.1h), which makes comparison with of an artisan;
artisan (section 13 below) attractive.
() [f.] vase in the form of a frustum of a cone (Hero). The word is
evidently Pre-Greek because of the alternation / (see 2.5.8).
[f.] . flask or chamber-pot (Tarantian) (H.).
Cf. Att. flask covered with plated osier. The interchange / proves
Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1). The suffix -- is also frequent in Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.79).
[f.] box (H.). Cf. (H.). Because of the prenasalized variant, the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.2).
[m.] fishing basket, creel (ap, Artem.). Also , with / (see
2.5.1).
[f.] bag or chest for old clothes (com., Phld.). Also , ,
. Cf. [f.] trash, trumpery, womans dressing-case, vanity-bag,
frippery. The formation of is rare; together with the variants -, -,
it points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.7).
[m.] wisker-basket, creel (Ar.). Also . Variation / and the
suffix -- (see 2.6.1.2c and 3.2.3.6).
[f.] , basket (H.). Cf. large wicker basket (cf. s.v.

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below), . boxes; wooden dwellings


(Bith.) (H.). The variation / / proves Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and
2.5.5.9a). Note that the word is also attested in Anatolia (Bithynia).
[m.] sack, bag, mostly made of leather (ia). Also (com.). Cf. (H.), (H.). The suffix -- points to Pre-Greek
origin (see 3.2.3.13).
[m.] basket with pointed bottom. Rarely -. The variant with
single -- points to a Pre-Greek word, as does the suffix itself (see 2.5.8
and 3.2.3.15), which is not surprising given the meaning. Furne (1972: 352)
suggests to connect small basket and basket, which
add the variation / and the suffixes -- and -- (see 2.6.1.1a, 3.2.3.18 and
3.2.3.123).
[f.]? , basket, chest (Suid., cf. Phot.). Var. , chest, casket (H.). The prenasalization and the suffix - (with short
-) point to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.2, 3.2.3.105 and 3.3.1a).
[n.] earthen vase with nipples all around, used in mystery cult (sch. Nic.
Al. 217; Ammon. and Polem. apud Ath. 11, 476f and 478c; H.). The by-forms
, , show that the word was Pre-Greek. Also note the suffix -(see 3.2.3.91).
, - [f.] ballot box, dicebox (Poll. 7, 203; not quite certain). , -,
-; with metathesis of aspiration beside (Eust. 1259, 36); also
. The interchanges / and / point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1
and 2.6.1.2f).
[f.] sack, pack (Hes.). Acc. to H. Cypr. for leather pouch. Also
(Suid., Orion), , (H., see Furne 1972: 365). Further
leather pouch (H.; below). Given the variants, most probably of
Pre-Greek origin. Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.84). Cf. directly
below.
[f.] wooden chest, box, cupboard (Hecat., Simon., Att.), also of Noahs
ark and of the alliance (lxx). Perhaps cognate with sack above, thus
probably Pre-Greek. Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.149).
1 [?] jar (H.). Furne (1972: 132) connects it with id.; the
interchanges / and / and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see
2.5.8, 2.6.1.4 and 3.2.3.73).
[f.]? (cod. ), . leather pouch (Aetolian) (H.).
Probably Pre-Greek; see Furne (1972: 305). Cf. above.
[m.] a vessel (PLond.). Furne (1972: 346) compares beehive
(H.) and vessel, scoop (see s.v. in section 9.3 below). If correct, the
word is Pre-Greek in view of the variations / zero, / and / (see 2.5.4,
2.6.1.1a and 2.6.1.3c). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.6).

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111

[n.] mg. not certain, probably name of a vessel to preserve things


(inscr. Delos 1429 b ii 25 [iia]). The formal similarity with vulgar ,
(Latte gives ) male private parts (H.) cannot
be denied. The variation / in the suffix points to a Pre-Greek word (see
2.5.8), as does the suffix itself (see 3.2.3.7576).
[m.] big basket (Att., Hell.), also as a measure of capacity = 9 Att.
(Boeot. inscr.). Furne compares , probably basket-load, as
well as earthen pot and water bucket, urn (H.);
note the suffixes -- and - (see 3.2.3.78 and 3.2.3.105).
[m.] water pail, pitcher, salve bottle, cinerary urn (trag., Theoc.). The
element --, as well as the technical meaning, points to a Pre-Greek word
(see 2.5.5.9a).
[f.] chest, box, beehive (Hdt., Ar., Plu.), earwax (com.), hollow of the
ear (Poll., H.). Also - (pap.). Clearly a Pre-Greek word, given the variation
/ and the suffix (see 2.6.1.1a, 3.2.3.15 and 3.2.3.42); cf. also hollow,
with / (see 2.5.5.2b).
[m.] leather sack (Od.). The word is no doubt Pre-Greek, with the
suffix -- (see 3.2.3.119).
[m., f.] flask with a small neck, also as measure (Arist. Fr. 499, Hell.).
Also --. Many names for vessels are loans. This one is probably Pre-Greek,
because of the interchange / (see 2.6.2). The suffix in which the variation occurs also points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.127). See also
below.
, - [f.] chest, box, coffer, coffin (Il.). Note the gloss
id. (H.), with variation / (see 2.5.7a). The suffix is typically Pre-Greek
(see 3.2.3.13).
, - [m.] kettle, cauldron (Il.), also a monetary unit (Crete). Diminutive
. The suffix -- points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.62).
[f.] casket for oil or perfume (Od.), also metaph. rhetorical bombast
(Cic., Plin.), = Lat. ampulla. Epid. (iva). Evidently a Pre-Greek word;
note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.117). Furne (1972: 121) connects (above)
and cup, vase, with the variations / (2.5.1) and / (2.6.2) and the
suffix -- (3.2.3.127), which seems convincing.
[m.] bag, pouch (for money), purse (X., lxx, Hell. pap.). Diminutive
, -, -(). Most probably Pre-Greek because of the variations / and / (see 2.5.8 and 2.6.1.4).
[acc.sg.f.] basket on a cart ( 131, 190). Like many words in -- (for
-- see 3.2.3.81), the word is probably Pre-Greek.
[m.] large, mostly earthen vessel for storing wine, which is open at the
top (Il.). Myc. qe-to. (Thasos va), also in Att. mss., beside (A.,

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D., Thphr., Moer.), Dor. . The word displays vowel variation e / i and
consonant variation in - vs. - (see 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.2b). Thus, probably
Pre-Greek. For the initial labiovelar, see 2.5.6.
[n.] pot, measure. Also -, -, -. In view of the suffix
variants, the word is probably Pre-Greek. For the suffix --, see 3.2.3.98.
[?] box, chest (H.). Also . The formation of the word
is Pre-Greek; note the initial - (2.2a.15) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.120). PreGreek origin is further confirmed by the variations / (2.6.1.1a) and /
(2.6.1.3h).
[f.] plaited basket (since iva). Acc. to em 753, 54, the Attic form
is . Cf. also , , twinings, bindings,
shackles (H.). The variation - / - is Pre-Greek (see Furne 1972: 124 and
2.5.5.9a above). Further note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.19).
(-) [f.] box for keeping flour and bread (com., ap, Poll.). Also ;
. Note h (inscr. Selinous). The variations / and / may
be explained by Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.2b and 2.6.1.4).
[m.] a -like cauldron (Antiph. 182, 7). Probably the same word
as skin, leather, which has a variant (see in section
8 above); the meaning kettle, pan may have developed from leather bag.
At any rate, the word is clearly Pre-Greek, reflecting *sityub- (see 2.5.5.9a and
3.2.3.113).
[f.] basket (ia, etc.). Cf. (Hp.). The variation - / - shows
that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1). Furne (1972: 241) further compares
(Alex.), (Poll.), (H.), (Ar.), (Phryn.),
(H.), (H.), all twined basket, which may reflect *-, with
the variation / / (see 2.5.4). See also below.
[m.] basket (Alex.). Also , a woven basket into which figs were thrown. (H.). Here
also . Also basket (Zonar.); cf. (for , -?) , id. (H.); (cod. -) id. (Theognost.),
(H.). With different anlaut: and big basket
(H.). There are many alternating forms, so Pre-Greek origin is very likely
(Furne 1972: 135, 241, 392, 300). See 2.5.9 for the variation - / zero and
3.2.3.88 for the suffix --. See also above.
[f.] big basket (Att. inscr. iva). Also , with variation / (see
2.6.1.1a). Furne (1972: 183, etc.) compares , (H.), with
variation / (see 2.5.1); see also s.v. above.
[f.] earthen vessel used for salting fish, etc. (Ar.). A technical word, Aeolic
acc. to Poll. and others. Lat. orca large-bellied vessel, tun, whence urceus
pot, pitcher, may have been borrowed from Greek. Alternatively, both lan-

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113

guages may have independently borrowed them from a Mediterranean language (thus also Furne 1972: 361, etc.).
[m.] leather bag, bag for clothing, for metal objects, etc. (Ar. Fr. 319).
Pre-Greek origin seems probable (Furne 1972: passim); note the suffix -(see 3.2.3.143).
[f.] chest, trunk, e.g. for keeping clothes and laundry ( 228, 104,
A. R. 3, 802), the gender is only visible in the latter attestation. Furne (1972:
389) compares (H.), which seems to prove Pre-Greek origin.
Apart from the variation / (2.5.6), note the suffix -- (3.2.3.18).
9.3
Dishware
, - [n.] goblet. Myc. di-pa. The variation e / i points to Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.6.1.2b).
, - [f.] cup, calyx of a flower, husk, shell, pod, rosebud, also metaph.
for the ornament of a woman ( 401). Both root and suffix look Pre-Greek
(--); for the suffix, see 3.2.3.119.
[n.] name of a wooden drinking-cup (Od., Theoc., Call.), on the matter
see Brommer (1942: 358 and 365f.). Also . The word is Pre-Greek
because of the variation / (see 2.5.1).
[f.] bowl, dish, small cup (Il.), on the mg. Brommer (1942: 358 and 366),
also as a measure for liquids and dry materials, = 6 or = 0,5
(ia), metaph. socket, especially of the hip-joint (Il., Hp.), cymbals [pl.] (A.).
Furne (1972: 101, 181) adduces a cup, as well as , which would
show variation / (2.5.1) and prenasalization (2.5.2); he notes (1972: 20514)
that - is a well-known suffix in Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.121).
[m.] ladle for drawing wine (ia). The word is clearly Pre-Greek: Furne
(1972: 237) compares the variants a vessel (see s.v. in section 9.2
above) and beehive, with the variations / zero (2.5.4), /
(2.6.1.3c) and / (2.6.1.1a). The sequence -- is also typical of Pre-Greek
words (see 2.6.4). Further note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.6).
, - [f., m.] (drinking) cup (post-Hom.). See Furne (1972: 110, 13265),
who points to -- and -, with aspiration before the nasal (see
3.2.3.91). As this feature is non-ie, the word may be Pre-Greek; note that -- is
a typical Pre-Greek suffix (see 3.2.3.73), and that -- is a typical Pre-Greek
structure (see 3.2.2).
1 [f.] cup, bowl (Nic., Ath.), boat (S. Fr. 127). Also =
drinking-cup, with / (see 2.6.1.3c). Furne (1972: 284) compares
ship, etc. (H.) and considers the word to be Pre-Greek in view of the variation / and the prenasalization (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.2). See also
below.

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[n.] bulbous drinking vessel, beaker, goblet (Il.). Note hollows of the ears, with the variation / (see 2.5.1). Furne compares not
only (H.) in various meanings (1972: 121), but also cup
(H.) and , id. (1972: 176 and 284). See s.v. above. Further
note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.43).
[f.] basin, dish (Ar., inscr., pap.). Also (Hell.), - (H.). Variation
/ (see 2.6.1.1a). Further note the suffixes -- and -- (see 3.2.3.19 and
3.2.3.85).
[n.] kind of drinking vessel of unknown shape and varying size
(Ar., lxx, Ev. Matt.), also a measure of capacity (medic. etc.). Furne (1972:
367) compares , designation of a measure of content, =
(H.), and considers the word to be Pre-Greek. For the variation / , see
2.6.1.4.
[n.] drinking cup (Rhinth. 3 = Ath. 500 f.). .
(H.). (ms. ) . (H.). In view of the variant
with -- (see 2.5.8), the word may be Pre-Greek (Furne 1972: 150). Note the
suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
[f.] flat vessel, dish, flat bowl for drinking or sacrificing, etc. (post-Hom.),
also for cooking and to preserve ashes (). Also (Hell. acc. to Moer.).
Myc. pi-a2-ra /phihal-/, also pi-je-ra3 /phielai/. The word is probably PreGreek on account of the interchange of suffixes that is already attested in
Mycenaean (Furne 1972: 346). See 2.6.1.1a on the variation / and 3.2.3.15
and 3.2.3.42 on the suffix -/-.
9.4
Domestic and Craft Tools
[m., f.] whip (Hippon.) (H.); Cf.
(H.), with the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.86). The word is Pre-Greek because of
the cluster (see 2.2a.3), with -- perhaps representing earlier -- (see
2.5.7b).
, - [f.] weaving stones (Plu.). The suffix -- is Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.117).
[m.] semicircular knife, used by cobblers (Nic. Th. 423).
, (H.). The suffix -- is Pre-Greek
(see 3.2.3.56).
[f.] yoke for carrying baskets, etc. (Simon.). Most probably, is a
substrate word in view of the suffix - (see 3.2.3.76).
[m., f.] spindle, also arrow; Laconian acc. to Th. 4, 40. Also
(H., gloss.). Variation / (2.5.1). Perhaps also / (2.5.51b) if -- in , a
kind of thistle (cf. () spindle-thistle, Carthamus lanatus), is not
due to simplification.
[m.] hinge, joint, pivot, gudgeon (X., Epid.). Also -, .

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115

Probably Pre-Greek; note the prenasalization and interchange / (see 2.5.2


and 2.6.1.4).
[f.] a two-pronged fork (trag., Delos iiia). The suffix - points to
Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.43).
, - [m.] pestle (Ar.). The suffix -- is typical of Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.120).
, - [f.] three-pronged fork, trident (Ar., Tab. Heracl. 1, 5, Nic.). Furne
(1972: 189) compares an instrument in agriculture, with / (see 2.5.1);
also note the suffix --, frequent in substrate words (see 3.2.3.13).
[n.pl.] panniers on both sides of the pack-saddle (Ar., Artem.), also
curved pieces of wood at the back of a ship, which were used when a tent
was drawn up (H.). Furne (1972: 130) connects it with id. (Charax),
with alternation - / zero (see 2.5.10), and assumes Pre-Greek origin; he
further connects it with basket and with id.
(H.) (Furne 1972: 290), which would point to prenasalization (see 2.5.2).
Further note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.56).
[f.] kneading-trough; for the fem. gender, cf. the instances in Schwyzer (1950: 342); on (Ar. Nu. 678) see ibid. (281). No doubt a Pre-Greek
word; note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.93).
[n.] sickle, scythe (Pherecyd. 154 J.). Also (cod. also and -). Given the variation, the word must be Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1 and
2.6.1.3e). Furne (1972: 148) refers to Hurr. hurubbi sword.
[m.]? whip made of ox-hide (H.). Pre-Greek, on account of the suffix - (see 3.2.3.29).
[f.] mattock (Hes. Op. 470, Theoc., A. R.), also a destructive instrument
of Zeus (A., S., Ar.). Also [f.] ( 259, Luc. Hes. 7). Further,
, and (Lacon. for ) ,
agricultural tool like a . (H.). The variation -/- is best
explained by a Pre-Greek ending *-alya. Therefore, , are PreGreek. See 2.5.8 on / and 3.2.3.4243 on the suffix -()-. Further note
the variations / (2.5.4) and / (2.5.5.3b).
, - [f.] whip, scourge, metaph. plague (Il.). The word is Pre-Greek, on
account of the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.68).
[f.] large knife, butchery knife (Il.); post-Hom. also short sword, dagger. I compare cook, and conclude that it is a Pre-Greek word, in
view of the interchange / (see 2.5.1). Further note the suffix -/- < *-ary(see 3.2.3.12 and 3.2.3.41).
[n.] strap, fixing the pole to the middle of the yoke. Var. [pl.].
If we take into consideration the forms strap in
a strap bound around the yoke and

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the plough (H.), with the variations / (2.6.1.1b) and / (2.5.1), Pre-Greek
origin becomes evident. Further note the Pre-Greek suffix (see 3.2.3.1 and
3.2.3.93).
[n.] weavers beam (lxx 1 Ci. 17, 7). V.ll. -, -; - (H.), -
(Suid.); further rod of the loom, others:
(part of) the loom, (H.); ,
the middle rod of the loom (Suid.). Almost certainly
a technical loanword from Pre-Greek because of the many different variants.
[m.] kind of pipe-clay, used to bleach clothes (Gal., At.). Also
(Dsc.). The variation / (like in : ) is typical of Pre-Greek.
The interchange / may reflect a phoneme *ty (see 2.5.5.4b).
[n.] hen-roost, acrobats bar or framework, high platform, public
noticeboard (Ar. Fr. 839, inscr. iva, Hell.). Also -, . Technical
expression with vacillation between and (see 2.6.1.1g), and between
- and - (see 2.5.2). Further note the suffix -/- (see 3.2.3.32 and
3.2.3.51).
[n.] sieve (H.). Cf. mg. uncertain (connected with
winnowing); sieving, winnowing area. The alternation - /
- / - points to a Pre-Greek origin (Furne 1972: 357).
[m.] axe for working wood, chip-axe (Od., S. Fr. 797, Hell. and late),
surgical bandage (metaph.) (Hp.). The suffix -- is awkward from an
ie point of view. Both formally and semantically (instrument names), the
word is much more likely to stem from Pre-Greek, in which the suffixes -(3.2.3.28) and -- (3.2.3.91) are common, as is the combination of the two (see
2.2a.14 and 3.2.3.104).
[n.] (Poll.) = oven rake (Poll.). Also (Phot.,
also H. [cod. ]). Myc. qa-ra-to-ro /skwalathron/. The variation /
points to a Pre-Greek labiovelar, which is confirmed by Mycenaean (see
2.5.6).
[f.] name of an instrument of the , probably pair of tongs
(Eleusis iva, H.). [n.pl.] (small) pincers, nippers (Hero), also (trad. ap 11.203). In H. also - caught between tongs. The
s-mobile (2.4) and the variation / (2.5.1) point to Pre-Greek origin. Also
note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.122).
[m.] tool for processing stones, blacksmiths hammer, pickaxe, also battle axe (Hdt. 7, 89: codd. and ; Poll. 7, 118 and 125). Also . Pre-Greek
in view of the variation / (see 2.5.1).
, -, - [f.] ploughshare (Hell.). Rare variants (sch. Hes. Op. 425, H.),
(H.), acc.pl. . Furne (1972: 387) regards the word as Pre-Greek on
account of the incidental gemination (see 2.5.8).

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117

[f.] crib, manger (Il.), depression, coffer in a coffered ceiling, coffer


(Hell. inscr.), tooth socket (Poll.), name of a star in the constellation Cancer, beside the (Thphr.). Late also . Yet, Beekes (2003b: 109112)
stresses that is the oldest form (Hom.), whereas is only Hellenistic. There are parallels for a progressive shift of aspiration (
> ). The word is most probably Pre-Greek; note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.91).
9.5
Hunting and Fishing Equipment
[n.] net, strick (Od.). Myc. de-ku-tu-wo-ko /dektuworgos/. The variation
e / i points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.2b). Probably further related to
to throw (see s.v. in section 15 below) and discus (see 2.5.5.5b).
, - [f.] name of a herdsmans staff, which was thrown to drive
back the cattle to the herd. Also . It is a typical Pre-Greek word,
containing a labialized phoneme rw, from a pre-form *kalarw-ap-, where the
labial element was anticipated in -. For the suffix -- (with < in
a labial environment), see 3.2.3.93.
[m.] weel, lobster pot (Sapph., Pl., Arist., pap.), also bird-cage (ap).
Cf. , honeycomb, beehives (H.),
pointing to *, with variation / (2.5.5.9a) and the suffix -(3.2.3.48).
[m.] pitfall for wild animals (Democr. 122, pl.). The suffix -- points
to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.6).
[f.] large fishing net, trawl (lxx). Cypr. (H.). Because of the Cypr.
by-form with - / zero (see 2.5.9) and the attractive connection with
with a different suffix (3.2.3.97; on -- see 3.2.3.58), the etymon is without a
doubt Pre-Greek.
() [m.] hunting spear, javelin (Hdt. 5, 9, Opp.). - (Lyc.). Furne
(1972: 247) assumes that - reflects *-, which is a variant of -,
with the typical Pre-Greek alternation / (see 2.5.4). For --, -- and
--, see 3.2.3.126128.
9.6
Armor and Weaponry
. .
(H.), cf. em 57, 53. Cf.
(H.), with the variation / , which points
to substrate origin (see 2.6.1.1a).
[m.] cuirass (Il.), trunk, chest (Hp.). Most probably a Pre-Greek word;
Furne (1972: 30235) points to a v.l. , which would prove Pre-Greek origin. Furne gives more examples of / (see also 2.6.1.3k above); Pre-Greek

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*u was often rendered by Greek . The suffix -- is very frequent in PreGreek (see 3.2.3.13).
, - [f.] helmet (Il.). Chantraine (1932: 165 ff.) considered Mediterranean origin for ; we now know that this must be correct, since the suffix -- (3.2.3.117) and the alternating suffixes in top, skull (3.2.3.138),
uppermost point, top (3.2.3.125), (crested) lark (3.2.3.115),
- id. (3.2.3.145), -() id. (3.2.3.15), club, mace, knobby
bud or shoot, penis (3.2.3.127) all point to a Pre-Greek word (cf. Furne 1972:
195); cf. s.vv. (section 4.3), (section 7.1), (section
9.8).
[n.pl.] a kind of shield, made of raw skins (E 453 = M 426
, Hdt. 7, 91 ), used by the Cilicians. Furne
(1972: 182) compares shield (H.),
shield made of a hide (Theognost., Zonar.). The variation / / points
to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.5.9a).
[?] (H.); cf. , (H.). Given the variant, the gloss is
clearly Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1).
[n.] sword with a straight, double-edged blade (Il.); see Trmpy (1950:
60ff.); metaph. of the -like bone of the cuttle-fish (Arist.); as a plant
name = (Thphr.). Also . Myc. qi-si-pe-e /kwsiphehe/ [du.]. The
variation kw- / k- points to a Pre-Greek labiovelar (see 2.5.6). For the variation
/ , see 2.5.5.6b.
[m.] axe, double axe, hatchet (Il.). Furne (1972: 150 f.) points to pulse resembling a .
with the size of a chick-pea (H.), with / and / (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.8).
Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13). axe (H.) and id. (lxx,
pap.) may also be Pre-Greek formations.
, - [f.] helmet (Il.). Note the suffix - < -, which often occurs in
Pre-Greek words (see 3.2.3.13 and 3.2.3.55).
, - [f.] scales (Att.), also disk of the kottabos-standard (Critias,
Hermipp.), metaph. oyster shell (Opp.), horse-collar, which hangs from the
wood of the yoke, like the scales from the weigh-bridge (E. Rh. 303), also
(plur.) surgical splints (Hippiatr.). [pl.] id.. The suffix -- points
to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.69).
, - [f.] leather harness, jerkin (S.). Here perhaps
skin, hide (H.), with a prothetic vowel (2.3) and / (2.6.1.1b). Further note
the suffix -- (3.2.3.5).
[n.] bow, plur. shooting device(s), (bows and) arrows (Il.). Replaces
inherited ; in Homer, is already the more usual word for bow. The
Mycenaean attestations (to-ko-so-ta = , to-ko-so-wo-ko) disprove the

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119

possibility of an old loan from Scythian. Thus, could be of Pre-Greek


origin.
[n.] sword (Il., epic poet., Cyprian acc. to ab 1095), sword lily, gladiolus, iris (Thphr., Dsc. etc.), sword of the swordfish (Opp.). The word is no
doubt Pre-Greek; note the a-vocalism and the suffix -- (3.2.3.19).
9.7
Horse Tack
[f.] comfortable saddle for an ass or a mule (Lys.), see re 4, 1792.
Also acc. (- trad.) (Anon. in Rh. 8, 668), with / (see 2.5.1),
and note Lat. astrama = , , where the -m- for -b- may point to
substrate origin (see 2.5.4).
bits or bridles (H.). Also bits or
bridles for the mouth (H.). Clearly Pre-Greek, in view of the structure C-,
which cannot be ie (cf. in 7.1), and the variations / (see 2.5.5.4a)
and / (see 2.5.7a).
[n.pl.] reins ( 481, Q. S.). Dor. . Given the variation / (see
2.6.1.1g), the words are probably Pre-Greek. Further note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.60).
[m.] muzzle, plaited lid of the balloting urn, fyke for fishing, cover for
nose and mouth, etc. (A., S., Ar., X.); on the mg. Schenkl (1913: 172ff.). Cf.
muzzle (below), with the interchanges / (see 2.5.1) and / (see 2.5.4).
[n.] broad leather strap, fastening the yoke to the neck and the girth
(Il.). Mostly plur. -; also (Apollon. Lex.), with > . The sequence
-- points to Pre-greek origin (see 2.2a.6 and 3.2.3.38).
[m.] muzzle (sch. Ar. Eq. 1147). Besides , ,
also (H.). The word is Pre-Greek in view of the variation /
(see 2.5.4). See also above.
[m.] bridle, rein, bit (Il.), also metaph. marine ropes (Pi., E.). Aeol.
. A suffix -- is frequent in Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.79).
[n.] kind of bit or bridle (H.), in fact ring of a muzzle(?)
(delg). Here belong all words with -, - (also with and -).
; open ring worn by the Persians (Hdt., X.), open collar of
the Gauls (Plb.); also (Delos iiia), (inscr. iiia), . Further
(ap 7, 234). , - with . Pre-Greek in view of the variations / (2.5.5.6a), / (2.6.1.1a), / (2.6.1.2b) and / (2.5.8). See also
(section 8 above) and (section 10.2 below).

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9.8
Means of Transport
[f.] chassis, wagon (H.). Cf. id. (see s.v. below) (Kuiper
1956: 213, Furne 1972: 224). A variation / is well-known in substrate words
(see 2.5.4). See also id. below.
[f.] framework, chassis of a four-wheeled wagon; wagon (Il.). Furne
(1972: 221) compares (Cyr.), with the interchange - /
-, from which we must conclude that the etymon is Pre-Greek (see
2.5.4).
[f.] four-wheeled wagon (Il.), synonymous with , see Delebecque
(1951: 174f.). Perhaps to (H.), with a prothetic vowel (see 2.3), but
rather to id. (see s.v. below), with the variation - / zero (see 2.5.10).
See also above, with the variation / (see 2.5.4).
[f.] A: (1) part of a long ship; (2) a
whip, (3) force of an ox. (4) ,
part of the ship to which the rudder is tied. (5)
a battle. (6) nausea. Cf. B: ,
cowshed. (2) whip, (3) blow. Gloss A2 is identical
to B2. The words show the typical Pre-Greek variation / (see 2.5.5.10a).
Further note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.19).
[n.] cane or wicker carriage. Also , with the variation /
(see 2.5.8). Derived from reed (see s.v. in section 3.4).
[f.] Thessalian word for wagon = (Xenarch. 11, H.). Kuiper (1956:
2139) compared (see s.v. above) in the light of the alternation - / zero,
which points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.10). Further note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.20). See also id. above.
[m.] uppermost point of a ship (I 241), top of a mountain (Hdt., A.),
cluster of the ivy fruit (Mosch., Corn., Plu.), hair knot; = (Heraclid.
Pont.). Also womens ornament
worn round the neck (H.). Related to top, skull (section 7.1 above),
with a prenasalized variant of the suffix (see 2.5.2 and 3.2.3.125) and the
variation / (see 2.5.1). See also helmet (section 9.6 above).
[f.] a covered wagon (S. Fr. 441, Hell., com., lxx; acc. to Polem. Hist.
a Tegeatan word, acc. to others Thessalian). Also , (Porphyr. in
Ptol. 49). Also wagon (Suid.), probably itacistic for *
(Furne 1972: 285). The word is evidently Pre-Greek, because of the prenasalization and the suffix - (see 2.5.2 and 3.2.3.58).
(-) [m.] topsail, topgallant sail (Arr.), curtain in the theatre (Ephesus). Also . The variations - : - : - clearly point to a non-ie
origin (cf. Furne 1972: 163). Further note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.28).
, -, - [f.] according to sch. Lyc. (Lyc.). V.l. -

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121

. The variation / points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1). Furne (1972:


165) further connects bar, beam, board, handle (section 10.1 below),
which would add prenasalization (see 2.5.2).
9.9
Other Technical Terms
pallet, bier (Ar.). (codd. ) .
couch (Laconian) (H.); id. (H.). The variations are due
to substrate origin. For the prothetic vowel, see 2.3.
[m.] noose, slip-knot (Od.). (H.). The prenasalization
and the variation / point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2 and 2.6.1.3c).
[f.] torch from reed, reed bundle (Hell.). Var. , torch,
reed (H.). Pre-Greek in view of the variation / and the suffix -- (see
2.6.1.1a and 3.2.3.19).
, - [f.] cord, string; bow-string (Hdt., trag., etc.). Formation in --,
which proves Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.69).
, - [m.] straight rod, bar, stave or grip to handle the shield, directive,
rule, model, etc. (Il.). Myc. ko-no-ni-pi /konni-phi/. The variation / shows
that it is a Pre-Greek word (see 2.6.1.1b). Derived from reed (section
3.4 above).
, - [m.] three-legged stand, frame (Ar. Ach. 1121, Poll.). Also (pap.). The variation / points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.2b). The
suffix may be Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.23); connection with is probably
folk-etymological.
[m.] small change (Ar., Eup., Call.), small gold weight (Thphr.); rate
of exchange (Hell., inscr., pap., Cic.). The element -- (which cannot be
explained from Hebrew lap, with which it is usually compared) points to
a Pre-Greek word (see 3.2.3.113).
[m.] band, belt (Anon. apud Suid.). The forms , , clearly show that there was a variant with --, which
points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1).
[m.] wooden nail (Poll., H.). The structure *CuNC-aR- is typically
Pre-Greek. Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.15).
[n.] philtre, charm (Heracl. All., H.), block of a pulley (Hero Bel., pap.
iiip), iron peg, bolt (sch.), . catapult, ballista, tormentum (gloss.,
H.), fishing-net (H.). As Van Beek (p.c.) suggests to me,
recalls (below) both semantically and formally. [sn]: This connection
is confirmed by the H. glosses and .
The words show typically Pre-Greek variations: / , (2.6.2), / (2.5.1)
and prenasalization (2.5.2). Further note the suffix -- (3.2.3.19).
[f.] mix of wax and pitch, used to caulk ships, and on writing tablets

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(Cratin. 204); acc. to H. also = [adj.] delicate, tender; is this correct?


Also name of a large aquatic animal (Ael., Opp.), perhaps after its tender or
wax-like meat, Strmberg (1943: 32). Also . The word is Pre-Greek, as
the sequence - cannot be explained from ie (*mldh- > -). This also
explains the nom. in - (see 3.3.1a).
, - [f.] band, string ( 23, D. S. 3, 21). is a v.l. in D. S. The
word must be Pre-Greek because of the alternating suffix --/-- (see 2.5.2,
3.2.3.72 and 3.2.3.81). Furne (1972: 289) compares , string,
thread (below), and further hair, , , coils, strings; cords; curls of hair (H.) (for both see in section 3.4
above).
[f.] cord, thread (Il.). Also . Because of its suffix and the
s-mobile, is probably Pre-Greek (see 2.4 and 3.2.3.81). Cf. also , , coils, strings; cords; curls of hair (H.) s.v.
(section 3.4 above) and to draw up, furl, wind (up) (section
15 below).
[f.] expedient, contrivance, cunning; means, tool, machine, device (ia,
Dor.). Dor. . The connection with (see s.v. above) proves that
is Pre-Greek.
[m.] handle, lever, long or strong rod, often used to bar doors, crossbeam, -bar (Od.). Also , with the variation / (see 2.5.1).
[m.] broach (Il.), obelisk, bar of metal used as a coin or weight, obol
(= the sixth part of a drachme), obelus, horizontal line used as a diacritic.
Att. , Dor. Arc. (also Nic.), Thess. . The word is clearly
Pre-Greek (see Furne 1972: 389) in view of the variations / (2.5.6), /
(2.6.1.3l) and / (2.5.8).
[m.] plug, pin, peg (Il.). Att. . is probably PreGreek *paky-al-. See 2.5.5.9a on the variation / and 3.2.3.15 on the suffix
--.
, - [m.] wooden plank, dish, writing table, public statement, chart,
painting (Il.). The word is probably Pre-Greek; note the Pre-Greek suffix -(3.2.3.13).
[n.] measure of length of 100 feet, square measure of 10,000 square
feet (ia); later (Plu.) = Lat. iugerum; also race-track (Syrac.). Also
(Hom.). Furne (1972: 152) adduces (inscr. Thespiae, lsj 1414). The
variations / (2.5.1) and / zero (2.6.5) point to Pre-Greek origin.
[f.] clasp (Il.). Furne (1972: 163) connects buckle (H.),
and concludes that the word is Pre-Greek on account of the variation /
(see 2.5.1).
[f.] twig, rod, staff, magic wand; line, stripe, groove (Il.). Cf.

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123

(H., Phot.), briar, rhamnus. In view of the variation / / , we can


be certain that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.4).
, [m.] splinter, hair-splitting, etc. (Dsc., Alciphr.), also
(Ar., Luc. et al.), , etc. (v.l. Hp. Mul. 2, 133).
Cf. [n.] shingle. The root variations, - / - / - / (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.2), as well as the presence of the suffixes -- (cf. e.g.
in 7.1) and -- point to a Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.15, 3.2.3.90 and
3.2.3.121). The second in is a secondary prop vowel, which is
frequent in Pre-Greek (see 2.6.5).
[n.] stick, shaft, stalk (A. R., Nic., Plb.); cf. H.: ,
stump, trunk. , (cod. ) the whole
of the eye, vessel or jar. the sound of thunder. The
by-form , (H.) shows variation / , which could
indicate Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.4).
[f.] sling, from wool, hair, animal sinews, etc., often metaph. of slinglike objects, e.g. bandage, headband, case on a ring, white of the eye (Il.);
also throw, missile (Ar., X.), referring to to use the sling. Compared with Lat. funda leather strap, sling, which would point to a common
loan from a Mediterranean or Anatolian source (e-m s.v. funda). This source
is likely to have been Pre-Greek. This is confirmed by the structure of the
word; for the suffix --, cf. 3.2.3.145.
, , - [f.] seal, seal of a state, impression of a seal, signet,
seal-ring, cut stone (ia), sealed field-plot (pap.). For extensive discussion on
the mg. of , see Diehl (1938; with lit.); also Kenna (1961: 99 ff.), Kranz
(1961). , the name of a cave () of prophesying nymphs on
the Cithairon (Paus. 9, 3, 5), where the live (Plu. Arist. 11).
Furne (1972: 3247) takes the word to be Pre-Greek because of the suffix -(see 3.2.3.70).
[m.] only (em 785, 7, Phot.); gen.pl. - cunnus
(Ar. Lys. 1001); also (H.), = (Theognost. Can. 24),
penis made of horn (H.). Pre-Greek; note the
suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
[m.] bundle (Hdt.). Also (Arist.). The variant in -- proves
that this word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.8). Further note the suffix itself (see
3.2.3.4243).
, - [f.] round and longish piece of wood, log, roller, beam (Hdt.,
Delos iiia, A. R., Orph.), balance beam (Arist.), joint of the fingers (Arist.,
medic.), row of eyelashes (Paul. Aeg.), spider (com., X.), after the long joints
of its legs; traditionally a technical term in the military: (close or dense)
battle-array, line of battle (Il.), in later times of the so-called Dorian and

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especially of the Macedonian phalanx, with heavy-armed infantry (X., Plb.


etc.). The suffix proves Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.3).

10

Construction

10.1
Architecture and Constructional Elements
[f.] (cod. ) the walls of the court or hall
(H.). Furne (1972: 197) considers it to be a substrate word, taking ()
(directly below) as a variant form, with the variations / (2.5.1), /
(2.6.1.3i) and / (2.5.8). For the suffix --, see 3.2.3.148.
[f.] portico (Il.); also a plant. Var. (Hdn. Gr. 2, 919). The
variation / (2.5.8) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.98) point to Pre-Greek origin.
See also above.
[f.]? , Macedonian
dwelling-place, where [men] bathe while warming up (Suid.). Also ,
subterranean house. The interchanges / (2.6.1.2b) and / (2.5.8)
in the suffix clearly point to a substrate word, as does the suffix itself (see
3.2.3.43 and 3.2.3.7576).
[n.] warm bath, bathroom (Ar.). The structure of the word is frequent
in Pre-Greek: -- (with -, --, --). For the suffix --, see 3.2.3.19.
[f.] hearth, fireplace, altar, metaph. house, family, etc.. Var. Ion. ,
Aeol. Boeot. Locr. Dor. Arc. . No ie etymology. The most probable conclusion is that the word is of Pre-Greek origin. An interchange / is frequent
in Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.2b).
[f.] hearth, house, sacrificing hearth (Il.), metaph. platform, stand
(Ph. Bel., etc.), in medical language scab, eschar on a wound by burning
(Hp., Arist.). As there are no cognates and as an ie proto-form can hardly
be posited, the word is most probably Pre-Greek. Note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.28).
[m.] inside room at the back of a house (as opposed to ,
); room for women and bedroom, also a room for provisions (Il.; on the
meaning Wace 1951: 203ff.), in mariners language the lowest deck of a ship
(Timae., Poll.). Its structure (CC-C-) is typical for Pre-Greek words. For the
suffix --, see 3.2.3.18.
[m.] treasury, warehouse, receptacle, treasure (Hes.). No etymology;
probably a technical loanword, without a doubt from Pre-Greek. The appearance of the word suggests a pre-form in *-arw- (see 3.2.3.32).
[f.] round building with conical roof, rotunda, round bath (Od.). The
connection with inside room at the back of a house (e.g. Maa 1928:

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125

1ff.) makes sense; the variation / is typical of Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.1b). Cf.
(- < -) , .
something plaited, like a basket, which Laconian women wear on
the head; others: . (H.).
[m.] topmost course of stones in a wall, cornice, frieze, also metaph.
(Od.), fence (E., Ar.). Late also , , . The forms
and can be old variants (see 2.5.1) or result from more recent developments. Cf. also , , little wall,
crown of a building (H.), with s-mobile (see 2.4).
[f.] hut, cabin (Hdt.); bridal bower (A. R.); sleeping-tent (PFlor. 335,
2). Also ; farmstead (H.). The variation / (before
) shows that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.1b). See also (section
15 below).
, - [f.] latticed gate, especially those through which knights or counselors entered the court of justice or the meeting hall (Ar., Luc., Plu.), also
- (Attica). It seems to be a reduplicated form with prenasalization ---, which points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2 and 3.1).
[m.pl.] stone or metal blocks on both sides of the altar, on which the
spits rested (I 214, Eup., Att. inscr.); also supporting stone of the pavement
(Lebadea). Var. , with variation / (see 2.5.1). Further note the
suffix -- (see 3.2.3.52).
[m.] labyrinth, a great building with many corridors and turns, in
Egypt (Hdt.), Crete (Call.), Anatolia (inscr. Miletus), etc.; metaph. of complicated thoughts (Pl.). Myc. da-pu2-ri-to-jo /daphurinthoio/. See Furne (1972:
397f.). Pre-Greek in view of the variations / and / , and the suffixes -and -- (see 2.5.1, 2.5.7a, 3.2.3.81 and 3.2.3.133).
[n.] hall, room, the inner space of a temple, plur. house, palace (epic
Ion., Il.). Cf. the tn . Undoubtedly a technical loan from the substrate.
Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.28).
[n.] vault of the roof, roof-beams, roof, also (often plur.) dwelling,
house (Il., also inscr. Delos iiia, lxx, pap.). Connection with beam
has been tentatively considered because of the remarkable formal and
semantic similarity. In my view, this proves that the word is Pre-Greek; is a by-form showing variation / (see 2.6.1.1a) and an initial cluster
(on - / - see 2.5.13).
[f.] . door (H.). Furne (1972: 15757) identifies the word
with the town in Thessaly. The suffix -- (3.2.3.29) and the final
short - (3.3.1a) suggest Pre-Greek origin.
[f.] brick, air-brick, metaph. square building-stone, metal ingot, abacus (ia). The semantic field, as well as the presence of the notoriously

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foreign element -- (3.2.3.81), suggest that the word is a loan from PreGreek.
[m.] tower, wall-tower, also the fortification wall itself (Il.), metaph.
closed division of warriors, column (Il.), siege tower (X.), farm-building
(lxx, pap., nt). The glosses wall and
stronghold (H.) attest a variant form with different stops. In conclusion, the
word is clearly Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1).
, - [m.] pointed pole, palisade, prickle (epic Ion. poet. since Il., Hell.
and late prose), for Att. , , -. Also bench
(H.). The variation / and the suffixes -- and -- point to Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.5.1, 3.2.3.93 and 3.2.3.101); cf. Furne (1972: 107).
[n.pl.] house, residence (E., almost only lyr., also Artem.). Also .
Here also , , covered, shadowy place, tents
and vessel, chest, box (H.). The variation / and the suffix
-/- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.1a, 3.2.3.17 and 3.2.3.45). Probably
also related to , which occurs both in the meaning servant, maid and
as house, residence (see , section 11.1 below), with the variations /
and / (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.4).
[f.] chalk, plaster, crayon, marble-scrapings (Hes. Sc. 141). H.:
and , , dust, plaster, unslaked lime. Given the
variation / , the word is probably Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.2b). Also note the
suffix -- (see 3.2.3.19).
, - [m.] meaning uncertain. According to H. (similar em, sch. Lyc.
etc.), it means , . , ; acc. to em
also = . Rare in literary language: Bito (beam,
pole?), Lycophr. 641 (beam, plank?), 1001 (spear?), Att. inscr. iva (board
of a ship?). In H. also: . Also with o-vocalism: (cod.
-) , (cod. ); . The
variations / and / and the suffix -- are frequent in Pre-Greek words
(see 2.5.1, 2.6.1.1b and 3.2.3.55). Furne (1972: 165) also compares ,
foreign ship, in which case we have prenasalized variants as well
(see 2.5.2). Thus, it is clearly a Pre-Greek word.
[m.] mound, burial mound, grave (Il.). Beside , we find Corcyr.
(via; the length is metrically ensured) with the same meaning. The
variation shows that the word is Pre-Greek (not recognized by Furne 1972).
, -, - [f.] tower, keep, turret; palace, castle, fortified town (Pi., Hp.,
X., Hell. poet. etc.); in H. also , , and
. Probably a loanword from a Mediterranean language,
see Kretschmer (1934: 110ff.) with many details.
[m.] debris, filth, rubbish vel sim. (A. Fr. 16 = 264 M.), =

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127

heap of stones (H.). Furne (1972: 136 and 12336) mentions variants
(H.), fencings, partitions (H.) and also (inscr.
Tegea [iva]). These ensure Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1, 2.5.10 and 2.6.1.2i).
10.2
Infrastructure
[f.] street, road (Il.). Probably a substrate word in - (3.2.3.118), see
Szemernyi (1964: 203ff.) and Beekes (1998: 25 f.).
[f.] hedge (Nic.), cf. .
. places that are hedged in; walls and
enclosures; terraced places (H.). Also [f.] id.. Further . walls; ditches and kind of thorny plant
(H.; cf. s.v. in section 3.4 above). The variation -/- (in ) is typical for substrate words (see 2.5.5.9a and 2.6.1.2b for the variations / , /
and 3.2.3.40 and 3.2.3.84 for the suffixes). Also
cattle folds (H.), with the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.19).
[f.] bridge. Boeot. , Cret. , Lacon. . The variation /
/ points to a Pre-Greek labiovelar (see 2.5.6). The Lacon. form with -- and
-- points to non-Greek origin as well (see 2.6.1.2b and 2.6.1.3d). Also note
the final short - (see 3.3.1a). Finally, the suffix is Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.134).
[f.] underground drain, sometimes used as a prison (Hdt. 3, 145, em,
H.); cf. , the
base of roof-tiles, which some call (H.) which lsj translates as
water-pot, trough. Cf. also water-course (H.), perhaps
to be read as * (). Also (Alcm. 132), (Corc.
iia, cf. s.v. below). , with all its variants, is definitely of Pre-Greek
origin: variations / / (see 2.5.1) and / (see 2.6.1.3l); ending - (see
Chantraine 1933: 91f. and 3.2.3.7 above); suffix -- (see 3.2.3.134).
[f.] subterranean drain (ig 9(1), 692: 8 [Corcyra iia]: []). The variants , , id. (Hdt. 3, 145, H.) and
( Lobeck) point to a Pre-Greek word; see above.
[f.] narrow street, narrow passage, alley, quarter (Il.). Cf. (-,
-) [n.], a mount in Attica with famous silvermines. The word is no doubt
Pre-Greek; note the name of the mountain and its suffix (see 3.2.3.7).
[m.] digging (Megara). Also . Most probably Pre-Greek; note
the s-mobile (2.4) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.49).
, - [f.] 1. subterranean (arched) passage, canal, (subterranean) vault,
flying buttress (S. Fr. 367, Pl. Lg. 947d, Arist., Ph. Bel., Hero, Hell. and late
inscr.); 2. scissors (S. Fr. 413, Ar. Fr. 320, 1, ap, pap. iip, Poll.); 3. ring or the like
for supporting or strengthening (lxx, Ph. Bel.); also [] (bgu 1028, 9
[iip])? The latter would show variation / (see 2.5.8). In the third meaning,

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might be connected with bracelet, ring, arm jewel, anklet (see


s.v. in section 8 above). See also (section 10.2 above).

11

Society

11.1
Social Hierarchy and Administration
, - [m.] lord, ruler (Il.). Plur. also (), name of the Dioskouroi
(Hom.), from which (), , . It is probable that the
forms without -t- are younger, but see e.g. Ruijgh (1957: 112) and Ruijgh (1970:
309ff.). The suffix - points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.13 and 3.3.3a).
[m.] man (Il.). Myc. a-to-ro-qo /anthrkwos/. The occurrence of -oq- in
Mycenaean does not prove Indo-European origin, as the substrate language
also had labiovelars (see 2.5.6). -- is a Pre-Greek suffix (see 3.2.3.146). See
further below.
, - [m.] servant, slave (Call.). Fem. plur. also (em). The
variation / points to a substrate word (see 2.5.1). Furne (1972: 95, 179)
further adduces (H.; cf. s.v. below), with - / zero (see
2.5.11).
[m.] king (especially the Persian king), prince (Il.). Myc. qa-si-re-u
/gwasileus/. The word is no doubt of Pre-Greek origin; labiovelars are wellknown in this language (see 2.5.6). -- is a Pre-Greek suffix (see 3.2.3.75). For
-, see 3.3.1d.
[m.] , , a lewd man, hermaphrodite, catamite; lascivious (H.); = anus (Eup. 82 apud Harp.).
Also ; , and wanton, lascivious (see
below). The s-mobile (2.4), the interchanges / and / / (2.5.1, 2.5.8)
and the suffix -- (3.2.3.15) point to Pre-Greek origin.
[m.] man (H.). Kuiper (1956: 224f.) accepts the gloss as PreGreek, explaining as a variant with prothetic vowel (2.3), prenasalization (2.5.2), and the variation / (2.5.1). Cf. s.v. above.
[m., f.] day-laborer, of reapers, sheaf-binders ( 550, 560), spinner (S.,
D. with folk-etymological connection with ), servant, etc.. The suffix -points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.72).
[f., n.] justice, law, custom, also goddess of justice (Il.). Different oblique
forms, e.g. gen. (Hom.), (Pi.), (A.), rarely (Hdt.),
(inscr. Metropolis). C.J. Ruijgh suggested (pers. comm.) that interchange between i-stem forms and forms in -()- seems to point to PreGreek origin. -- and -- are Pre-Greek suffixes (see 3.2.3.87 and 3.2.3.109).
For the variation / , see 2.5.5.10a.

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129

, - [m.] attendant, servant; companion (Il.). Also -.


also occurs in the meaning dwelling, habitation ( ,
H.); one might assume a meaning house, whence a collective servants. We
can hardly separate the Laconian tn , - from house. Cf.
also (section 10.1 above) with the same meaning. The variations /
, / , / and the suffixes -- and -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1,
2.5.4, 2.6.1.1a, 3.2.3.26 and 3.2.3.91).
, [m.] serf, bondsman; hired laborer (Od.). Also (
sacrificers cod.), . slaves (Cypr.) (H.). The original
form was *tht-, thus it was probably Pre-Greek.
[f.] slavery (H.). Cf. id., with - / zero (see 2.5.11). Cf.
above.
[m., f.] procurer, procuress (Ar., X., etc.). Also , .
The variant with -- and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1
and 3.2.3.93). Furne (1972: 160) further compares , - procurer,
, brothel, with the variation / and the suffix
-()- (see 2.5.5.10a, 3.2.3.121 and 3.2.3.123).
, - [m.] young boy (inscr. Alexandria, PMag. Par.),
the younger ones (H.). As the word is no doubt identical with (see s.v.
below), it is Pre-Greek; note the variations / and / (see 2.6.1.2b and
2.5.8). Further note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
, -, - [pl.] epithet of (Hom.), (B 285), after these of
(A. Supp. 90 [lyr.]) and, as a substantive, = (trag., Hell. and later
poets); also = senseless (Eub.) (Gloss. Oxy. 1802, 48).
Further as an en (Pi.) and of a bird (Arist., Plu.). The suffix - (-) points
to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.93). See Beekes (1995/6: 2127).
[?] age-group . (Fr.
33) , some
have , among them Artemidorus on Hermippuss Gods (Fr. 33), but
wrongfully, as is found there, and it means a kind person (H.). delg
adds that the gloss may be partly corrupt, referring to in H., i.e.
[] the younger ones (corrected to - by Salm.). The
word is Pre-Greek in view of the variant (see s.v. above) and the suffix
-- (see 3.2.3.13).
, - [m.] title of a leading official, in Athens member of the governing committee of the council, foreman, chief of affairs, prytan (Dor., ia); also
name of a Lycian (E 678). The variation of Aeol. (Att. inscr. incidentally have -, -) and Phoc. and Cret. , - is suggestive
of borrowing from a Pre-Greek source (see 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.3c). Further note
the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.19).

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[f.] lavish, lascivious way of life, debauchery, luxury, also of luxurious


objects, adornment, bracelet, anklet (lxx). Furne (1972: 154, 179) convincingly connects lascivious man (see s.v. above); the variations - /
zero (2.4), / (2.5.1) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.15) show that the word is PreGreek.
[f.] 1. third of a phyle (Att.); - [m.] principal of a ., whence
- (Pl., inscr., Poll. et al.), also (Delos iii and iia). 2. sacrifice
of three animals (Call., sch.). 3. triad, of a threefold victory (Philostr.);
number three, triad (H.). (Ceos), (Delos). The variation
/ / points to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.6).
[m.] absolute ruler, monarch, tyrant, rarely fem. lady, princess, also
adj. dictatorial, imperious, ruling (h. Mart., Pi., ia, etc.). The structure of the
word, with the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.24), points to Pre-Greek origin.
11.2
Military Expressions
[m.] din of battle (Il.), see Schwyzer (1939: 492) and Trmpy (1950:
158f.). Given the unusual formation, the word is without a doubt Pre-Greek.
[n.pl.] booty (ia). The word has the suffix --, which is Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.134).
[m.] throng, band of warriors, crowd, turmoil of battle (Il.). Aeol.
(em) could be hyperdialectal. Suffixes with V C were frequent in Pre-Greek;
the interchange --- / --- may represent a suffix -ily-o- (see 2.5.8 and
3.2.3.7576).
[m.] battle, war (Il.). Epic also . Myc. e-u-ru-po-to-re-mo-jo
/Euru-ptolemoio/. Prob. Pre-Greek in view of the variation - / - and the
suffix -- (see 2.5.5.1a and 3.2.3.44).
, - [m.pl.] heavily armed foot-soldiers (Il., Hes. Sc. 193, Gortyn),
metaph. of birds (Opp.); hoplites on foot (H.). In
view of the formal variant , the word is probably of Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.6.1.3h).
[n.] crowd packed closely together, troop of warriors, ships, etc. (Hdt.).
Semantically close to to tread (on something), densify by treading,
trod, trample. The variation / is probably best understood in terms of
substrate origin (see 2.5.1).
, - [f.] battle (Il., epic). Pre-Greek word in view of the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.93).

the pre-greek lexicon

131

11.3
Professions and Other Societal Appellatives
[m.] cheat, deceiver ( 364, A. R. 3, 617, ap 9, 524, 8). A loan from
Pre-Greek is quite possible (thus also delg), especially in view of suffixal
-- (see 3.2.3.93). Cf. (section 14 below).
[m.] gluttonous fellow (Cratin. 103), also pn (ig 5(2), 271: 9 [Mantinea iva]). Also . The meaning and structure of the word point to
Pre-Greek origin; note the suffix -()- (see 3.2.3.29). The variation -- /
-- points to Pre-Greek *-asy- (see 2.6.1.1c).
, - [f.] strumpet (Ar.). (em). ,
strumpet, prostitute (H.). For / , see 2.5.8. The form -- continues
-- (a well-known development in Pre-Greek; see Furne 1972: 30132
and 2.6.1.1h above). In turn, the form - may continue -, with
varying with , (see 2.5.4). The relation between - and - is
unclear. I suggest that - originates from *kasalw-, with a labialized
phoneme lw that may also easily have become w > b. [sn]: -- may also
represent *-arw- (see 3.2.3.32), which would result in a variation lw / rw (cf. /
in 2.5.7c).
[m.] herald, messenger, also trumpet-shell (Il.). Accented in Hdn.
(cf. Schwyzer 1939: 391). Myc. ka-ru-ke /krkes/, Dor. Aeol. , -.
. (H.). The suffix -- points to Pre-Greek origin (see
3.2.3.120), as do the variation / (see 2.5.1) and Pre-Greek *a interchanging
with *o before a following *u (see 2.5.13.2, 2.6.1.1b). The *a that we must
assume for the gloss was short, so we also have variation in vowel length
(see 2.6.2).
, - [m.] niggard, skinflint (Xenoph., Arist., Plu.). Cf. ,
dim-sighted, penurious (H.), and (H.) as an explanation
of stinginess. The s-mobile, the prenasalization, the interchange of
stops and the suffix -- point to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.4, 2.5.2, 2.5.1 and
3.2.3.73).
[n.pl.] (H., see also Phot. ). to fabricate by ruse (H.). Variation / (see 2.5.1). Cf.
(section 12.2 below).
, - [m.] highway robber, pirate, thief (Democr. 260, sig 38, 19 [Teos
va], H.); Jo. Gramm. (in Hoffmann 1898: 208) has = (on the
phonetics see Schwyzer 1939: 318). Cf. thieves on
the road (Phot.). It is a clear example of a Pre-Greek word: alternations
/ (2.5.8), / (2.5.5.9a), suffix -()- (3.2.3.15). We could reconstruct
Pre-Greek *kikyaly-. See Furne (1972: 286).
[m.] blockhead (Ar., Plu.), also name of a demon of stupidity (Ar.
Eq. 221). Cf. rogue, mischievous knave, speaking

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like an idiot, both in section 13, and foreigners (H.) below.


The word is clearly Pre-Greek because of the variants, with the variations
/ / zero (2.5.4), / (2.6.1.1b) and the suffixes -- (3.2.3.15) and -(3.2.3.44).
[m.pl.] barbarians (H.). Probably related to and
. See above and , in section 13 below.
[adj.] , , jester, scoffer (H.). Hemberg
(1950: 326) refers to the grotesque pictures of the Kabeiroi in Thebes. Since
may vary with in Pre-Greek words (see 2.6.1.1b), our word must be identical
in origin with (section 18 below). Also note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.41).
, - [m.] flatterer, fawner (Att., Hell.). As the suffix -- originates from
Pre-Greek (3.2.3.13), the same probably holds for this word.
[f.] whores (H.). Further , catamite. Furne
(1972: 383) connects and (H.). The element
- / - / - is clearly Pre-Greek, and probably represents *lasy-. Also
note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.32).
[f.] , whore (H.), in an alphabetically wrong position.
Furne (1972: 316) compares id., also id., with the variations /
and / (see 2.5.5.1a and 2.6.1.3h); he also connects to desire, with
/ (see 2.6.1.4). For the ending, see 3.3.1a.
[m., f.] witness (Il.) martyr, blood-witness in Christian litt. Aeol. (Hdn.
Gr.) and Dor. , Cret. Epid. (-), -. I assume that it is a loan
from Pre-Greek (see Furne 1972: 296), which is confirmed by the suffix --,
which is not ie (see 3.2.3.133).
[m.] shoemaker (Sapph., Alex. Aet., Herod., com. apud Poll.). Besides
shoemakers workshop and
female shoemaker (H.). Cf. [n.pl.] small pieces of leather (Moer.).
A Pre-Greek word (Furne 1972: 357), as revealed by the interchanges / /
and / (see 2.5.5.9a and 2.6.1.2b) and the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.114).
, - [m.] gold refiner, gold washer (Agatharch.). May be related to
metallic vessel or implement (H.) (see s.v.
in section 1 above), in which case it would show the variation / (see 2.6.2).
At any rate, the suffix -- shows that the word is Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.3).
[m.] glutton, gourmand (com.). We should envisage to connect
with to gnaw at, in which case the variation / (2.5.1) points to
Pre-Greek origin (Furne 1972: 196, 88).
, - [m.] impostor, trickster (Ar., rare and late). Cf. wig (Luc.),
with the variations / and / (see 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.2i). Further note the
characteristic suffix - (see 3.2.3.13).

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133

, - [m., f.] babbler (A. Ag. 1195, Timo). We find -- in and


stilted words, and -- in to babble (see 2.6.1.1a and
2.6.1.2i). The variation -/- shows nasalization (i.e. replacement of
a consonant by the nasal of its series, see 2.5.3), which points to Pre-Greek
origin; see already Kuiper (1956: 216).
, - [m.] buffoonery (ap), buffoon (Poll., St. Byz., Eust.). Prob. PreGreek; note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
, - [m., f.] watcher, guardian, protector (Il.). As the suffix - indicates, the word may well be Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.13).

12

Culture

12.1
Contest
[f.] contest (Pi.). The suffix -- points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.76).
, - [f.] rope indicating start and finish of the race-course, turning post
(Att.). is a technical term borrowed from Pre-Greek; note the suffix -(see 3.2.3.70).
[f.] joy, play (S. Fr. 3, Nic. Th. 880). Also (em 406, 8), .
festivals (Lacon.) (H.). Without anlauting vowel: =
(Ar. Lys. 1302 [lyr.], H.), , , joy, laughter, plaything
(H.). Note the variations - / - / - / zero and the varying accentuation, which
indicate that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.1, 2.3 and 2.6.1.1a). See also
below.
[f.] trot (Paus., Plu., Hippiatr.). Furne (1972: 379) compares
to walk around at random (H.), id.
(H.), with prothetic - and / zero (see 2.4 and 2.6.5), which suggest that the
word is Pre-Greek.
[f.] name of an agon for youths in Sparta (Lacon. inscr., imperial period),
cf. Bechtel (1921, 2: 376). Also ntr.pl.? Also -, -, -; , -. The
variation suggests a Pre-Greek word.
[?] a cast of dice, also
name of a cast of dice (H.); cf. s.v. below. The word must be Pre-Greek
because of the prenasalization and the suffix (see 2.5.2 and 3.2.3.29).
[m.] name for an obol (Phot.).
sweat flowing from the inside of the
thighs; name for a cast of the dice (H.). delg doubts the first gloss, and for
the second, compares (cf. s.v. above). [sn]: The gloss
(Hdn. Gr.) confirms the connection of these words,
as well as the assumption that in Phot. is a mistake for . The

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prenasalization proves Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2). Also note the suffix -(see 3.2.3.29).
[m.] punch, buffet (Epich. 1 as a name of a , H., em).
The word is no doubt Pre-Greek; note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.33). See also
(section 15 below).
, - [m.] name of a gambling game, played with a blunt dart (ap 5, 60
[sens. obsc.], Cod. Just. 3, 43, 1, 4). Cf. horns (H.),
with short horns. The word must be Pre-Greek, in view of the suffix
-- (see 3.2.3.13); the structure (prenasalized consonant, see 2.5.2) fits this
assumption.
[m.] name of a game (Anacr., Pi., trag., com., Hell.) from Sicily, in which
the player throws the rest of the wine from a cup against a target, either
against a slice that is in balance on top of a stick, which falls (soc.
), or against an empty saucer, which floats in a basin with water, and
sinks when hit (. or ). However, indicated not
only the game itself, but also several objects and movements used in it. Ion.
--. The variation / points to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.5.9a). Further
note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.1).
[v.] to play, only in Lac. 3pl. (Ar. Lys. 1302 [lyr.]),
id. (H.). Cf. , , joy, laughter, game (H.); see s.v.
above. The variants , and id. (H.),
with the variation / (see 2.6.1.1a), may indicate that the Pre-Greek form
had psy-, cf. - beside -- s.v. (section 7.2 above).
12.2
Sculpture
, - [f.] puppet of wax (Theoc. 2, 110). Technical word of foreign origin.
Probably a Pre-Greek word in view of the suffix -- (cf. 3.2.3.115).
[m.] wooden framework around which artists molded wax or clay;
block-figure; mannikin; lean person (Stratt., Arist., Poll., H.). Also ,
. crimes (see s.v. in section 11.3). The
variation / and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.8 and
3.2.3.1). Probably a derivation of reed (section 3.4).
[m.] gigantic statue, colossus (Hdt. [only about Egypt], Hell.), also
statue in general (A., Hell.), figure, puppet representing someone absent
(Cyrene, seg ix, 72, 117 and 122), cf. Buck (1955: 112). Also -- (D. S.), -(Cyrene). The element -- (/ -- / --) typically points to Pre-Greek origin,
as does the suffix -- (see 2.5.5.9a and 3.2.3.95).

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135

12.3
Musical Instruments, Performing Arts
[f.] or [m.] musical instrument with many strings (Pi.). Also ,
and . The word is most probably Pre-Greek, in view of the
variation / and the suffix -- (see 2.5.4 and 3.2.3.87).
, , .
(H.). Also , . (H.). Also
. Pre-Greek in view of the variations / and / (see 2.5.1 and
2.6.1.4).
[m.] name of a Phoenician flute (Men.). Also (Poll.),
(ab). Variation / (2.5.7c), suffix -- (3.2.3.28). Further appears to display
prenasalization and reduplication (see 2.5.2 and 3.1).
[m.] name of a metrical foot and a verse, iambus, mocking verse
(Archil., Hdt., Att.). Like and (both in section 12.4 below),
is doubtless of Pre-Greek origin. Note the sequence -- and the suffix
-- (see 2.6.4 and 3.2.3.16).
[f.] name of a mimetic dance in arms of the Thessalians. Also
kind of dance and Macedonian
dance (H.). The variation - / - / - points to substrate origin (see
3.2.3.7).
[f.] lyre (ia). Pre-Greek in view of the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.28).
[m.] name of a song which accompanied the dance
(Ath.), = little pig (H. [cod. ], Suid.), also (v.l.
codd. Ath. 14, 629d). Cf. little pig. Variation / and the suffixes
-- and -- (see 2.6.1.1b, 3.2.3.1 and 3.2.3.101).
, - [m.] peg or screw by which the strings of the lyre were tightened
( 407, Ar., Pl., Luc.); thick skin on the upper part of the neck of oxen or
pigs (Ar. Fr. 646 and 506, 3); bar by which a windlass was turned (Arist.
Mech. 852b 12); metaph. , cinaedus (Hell. com., ap). The word is
clearly Pre-Greek because of its suffix (see 3.2.3.93); this conclusion is further
strengthened if (section 6 above) is a variant; -- / -- / -- is a
Pre-Greek suffix variation, with the alternations / and / (see 2.5.1 and
2.6.1.1b).
, - [m.] name of a dance in old comedy (Ar., Thphr.), also in the cult
of Apollo (Amorgos) and Artemis. The ending - is typical of Pre-Greek (see
3.2.3.13).
, - [m., f.] bell, (sound of a) trumpet (ia). The word has been shown
to be Pre-Greek by Furne (1972: 198f.); note the suffix -- (3.2.3.145). Probably related to (section 3.4 above).
[f.] lyre, four-stringed (or seven-stringed) instrument like the cithara (h.
Merc. 423). Technical loan from the Mediterranean area.

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, - [f.] three-stringed lute (Euph. apud Ath. 183f., Poll.). Var.


. Variation / and the suffix -- (see 2.5.1 and 3.2.3.97).
, - [m.] trumpet ( 219). A word of Mediterranean culture; the
suffix is Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.69).
[m.] name of a four-stringed musical instrument with thorn-like
appendices (middle com. etc.), also designation for a senseless word (Artem.,
S. E. etc.); name of an ivy-like plant (Clitarch.; cf. Dawkins 1936: 9 f.). Without
initial -: . The s-mobile and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.4 and 3.2.3.35).
, - [f.] quill, flute, syrinx (Il.); also of pipe-like objects, e.g. windpipe,
blood-vessel, fistula (medic., etc.), spear case (T 387), hole in the nave of a
wheel (trag., etc.), subterranean passage (Plb., etc.). Pre-Greek in view of
the suffix (see 3.2.3.69).
[n.] kettledrum, hand drum (ia h. Hom. 14, 3), also metaphorically
as a technical expression, instrument of torture (Ar. etc.), water wheel
(Plb., pap.), drum in a machine (Hero; also - [m.]), etc. Also . The
prenasalization and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2 and
3.2.3.19).
, - [f.] cither, especially as an instrument of Apollo (Il.). Clearly
a Pre-Greek word, on account of the suffix (see 3.2.3.69). Furne (1972: 173,
342) adds (Phyllis apud Ath. 14, 636c), (Euph. Fr. Hist. 8, Ath.
4, 182f), (em 188, 21), and (Pi., Anacr.), with the variations
/ (2.5.1), / (2.6.1.1b) and / (2.5.4); cf. s.v. above.
, - [f., m.] Alexandrian designation of a kind of flute, the German
flute (Plu.). The suffix is Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.69).
12.4
Religious Festivals and Feasting
[m.] name of a song at the festival for Dionysus (Archil.), also said of
the god (E. Ba. 526 [lyr.]). Also on a vase (seg xvi (1959) no. 40).
The variation / (2.5.1) and the suffixes -- (3.2.3.133) and -- (3.2.3.16)
point to Pre-Greek origin.
[f.] drinking-bout, festive eating (Il.). Aeol. () (Hoffmann
1893: 487). The suffixes -- and -- are Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.26 and 3.2.3.78
79). The variation - / - / - points in the same direction (see
2.5.8).
[n.pl.] Ionic-Attic festival before the harvest, connected with the cult
of Apollo (Hippon., Archil.), also (Milete), which proves Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.5.1).
[m.] Bacchic revel; religious guild (ia). An expression of the Dionysiac
religion, and as such suspected of foreign origin: probably Anatolian. The

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137

source can be further identified as Pre-Greek in view of the sequence -and the suffix -- (see 2.6.4 and 3.2.3.29).
[m.] name of hymns sung at festivals for Dionysus (Cratin. 36), also
said of the god (Trag. Adesp. 140 et al.); also a Hell. rendering of Lat. triumphus (Plb., D. S.). Formation like (above), (section 12.3)
and, like these, probably Pre-Greek, as is suggested by the sequence -- and
the suffix -- (see 2.6.4 and 3.2.3.16).
[n.pl.] the sacred implements of Bacchic orgies (Z 134), secondarily
sacrifice (Lyc.; influence of ). Not derived from ; such a derivation
would presuppose a much more general meaning than the very specific one
of the present entry. It is rather a loan from Pre-Greek.
[m.] name of a bacchic song with dance; one who performs this
dance. Formation like (section 12.3), (above), etc., and,
like these, probably a loanword from the substrate; note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.125).
[f.] a game at the Dionysia, during which two young men sitting
with their backs to each other try to lift up the other using a cord running
through a pole (Poll. 9, 116, H.); also:
, all that is hard to manage is called ., and he who
suffers it is called .. The suffix -- and the final - point to Pre-Greek
origin (see 3.2.3.103 and 3.3.1a). Cf. further (Hippon. 3, 3), acc.
to H. = to rebuke, acc. to Tz. An. Ox. 3, 351 = to help,
assist, to draw divinations (H.),
to separate, decide (H.), which, if cognate, further add variation in
the place of the (cf. 2.5.12) and the alternations - / zero (2.3) and /
(2.6.1.1a).
12.5
Divine and Numinous Beings, Priests and Temples
, - [f.] bogey (Plu. 2, 1040b), acc. to others (Zen. 1, 53) vain woman.
Note the geminate -- and final - (see 2.2a.25 and 3.3.1e).
[f.] usually plur. the Harpies, demons (Il.). Old dual . The
variation / zero and the suffix - point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.5 and
3.2.3.118).
, - [m.] name of the priests of Artemis in Ephesus, also prince, king;
acc. to Hdn. Gr. 2, 923, 8 = , acc. to em 383, 30 properly king-bee.
Nouns in - are discussed by Furne (1972: 172118); see also 3.2.3.57 above.
[m.] lord, hero (Il.). Myc. ti-ri-se-ro-e /tris-rhes/. Not from -, as
previously assumed, because of the Mycenaean form. Probably a Pre-Greek
word; see 3.3.1e on the ending -().
, [f.] death, doom, goddess or demon of death (Il.), plur. types of

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death, accidents. Also - (Alc., Alcm., H.). The most likely analysis is that
the long is original, and that the ia development spread over a large area.
Since there was no ie root *kr-, the most likely conclusion is that the word
is Pre-Greek. See Beekes (2003d: 710).
[m.pl.] Corybantes, priests of the Phrygian Cybele (E., Ar., Str.),
sg. (H.); also , sg. - (Pherecyd., S.). The
variations / (2.6.1.3c) and / zero (2.6.5) and the suffix -- (3.2.3.23)
show that the word was originally Pre-Greek.
, - [m.] priest (post-class. Att. inscr.). Cf. (H.). The
prothetic vowel seems to point to Pre-Greek (see 2.3). Further note the
variation / and the suffix - (see 2.6.1.2f and 3.2.3.147).
[f.] bride, young lady, also appellation of a goddess of lower rank,
nymph (Il.); also metaph., e.g. pupa. Dor. -. Voc. - ( 130; ap 14, 43). No
assured ie etymology. Therefore, is rather a Pre-Greek word, perhaps
containing a prenasalized stop (see 2.5.2). The voc. in - may be the old
nominative (cf. 3.3.1a).
. altar; others: . (H.). Clearly a Pre-Greek word in
view of the variation. For -- and --, see 3.2.3.124125.
[m.] Satyr, mostly plur. as a designation of mythical beings, which
belong to the company of Dionysus and are often represented as (male) goats
(since Hes. Fr. 198, 2); metaphorically of apes with a tail (Paus., Ael.). For such
a mythical word, Pre-Greek origin is a priori likely, and this is corroborated
by the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.133).
, - [f.] sphinx (Hdt., A., E., etc.), also name of a monkey (Agatharch.
et al.). Further acc. [f.] (Hes. Th. 326, v.ll. , , ), ,
- (Choerob.; also Thess. inscr. viia?); (H.). The s-mobile
(2.4), variations / , / (2.5.1), prenasalization (2.5.2) and final --/-(3.2.3.69, 3.2.3.74) point to Pre-Greek origin.
[f.] aspiration, breath, life, vitality, soul (of the deceased), spirit, also as a
representation of the dead, seen as a winged creature ( ) (Il.).
All attempts to find an ie etymology are unconvincing; therefore, the word
is rather of Pre-Greek origin. For -, see 2.2a.23.

13

Adjectives Marking a Certain Quality

[adj.] low, abased (H.). Hes. has , which may be a


variant, with the variation / (see 2.5.5.1a). Further note the suffix -(see 3.2.3.43).
[adj.] , , , , , much, heavy or

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139

burdensome, great, empty, rash (H.) Also . The variation / and


the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.2c and 3.2.3.56).
[adj.] . short-sighted (Locrian) (H.). Cf.
blind (H.). These forms show typical Pre-Greek variations: / and prenasalization (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.2).
[adj.] steep, sheer (Il., mostly epic and poet.). Furne (1972: 158) connects
it with and , as well as , and (all in section
16 below), which is very convincing. Alternations () / and / (see 2.5.1
and 2.6.1.1c), which point to Pre-Greek *apy-.
, - [adj.] unmixed, pure, sheer; untouched, inviolate. Furne (1972:
159) compares (em 531, 56 = Et. Gud. 338, 15), with the variations /
, / (see 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.1c).
[adj.] . bad (Sicilian) (H.). Given the plausible connection with (see s.v. below), the initial displays the variations - / zero
(2.3) and - / zero (2.4), which are typical for Pre-Greek (Furne 1972:
368).
[adj.] immaculate, pure (Parth.). Also (S. apud Phot., Suid.),
, , (Suid.); . clean or
pure (Lacon.) (H.). , to cleanse (H.). The variation
/ / / (2.5.1, 2.5.5.3b) points to Pre-Greek origin. Also note the suffixes
--, -- (3.2.3.91, 3.2.3.101).
[adj.] improvised, extempore (Arist.); also subst. plur. buffoons,
improvisers (Eup.). Furne (1972: 316) compares (below),
with interchange / / (see 2.5.4 and 2.5.5.1a); the group -- is almost certainly of substrate origin (see 2.2a.3).
[adj.] weak (Il.). Furne (1972: 330) compares light
(H.), indifferent, bad (with inserted ?) and insignificant,
with a prothetic vowel (2.3) and / (2.5.7c). I would suggest that /
hardly seen, dim, faint is also cognate, with interchange / labial
stop (see 2.5.4).
[adj.] big or great man (H.). Furne (1972: 115) compares
(H.), with / (see 2.5.1). The suffix -- is well known in
Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.56).
, - [adj., m.] of an artisan; artisan; metaph. vulgar (ia). The structure of the word is Pre-Greek. On -, see 3.2.3.107. See also vase
used as a measure (section 9.2 above).
[adj.] disgusting, loathsome (Ar.). Pre-Greek in view of the cluster
and the suffix -- (see 2.2a.3 and 3.2.3.133). A suffix -- is found in
etc. (see 3.2.3.119).
[adj.] stupid (Hippon. 40 Masson); , cold/stupid,

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stupid (H.). Also , stupid, relaxed (H.). The


prenasalized form indicates Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2).
[adj.] bent, distorted (Hp.). Also (Phot.). The variation /
points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1).
[adj.] . sweet (Cret.) (H.). A variant - is found in , a variant of , epithet of Artemis on Crete, which means
dulcis virgo = sweet maiden acc. to Solin. 11, 8 (see s.v. in section 18 below).
The variation / points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.4).
[adj.] hook-nosed, curved (Pl.). Cf. , - griffin, lammergeier, with
(H.), which may prove a Pre-Greek alternation of stops (see
2.5.1). The nasal in , bend together (H.)
could be a Pre-Greek prenasalization (see 2.5.2).
[adj.] epithet of (B. Fr. 18, 4), (E. Ion 1169), (Hom. Epigr.
7, 2), perhaps rich, luxuriant, fruitful. Furne (1972: 127) connects with
corn (section 5.1 above), which is quite acceptable; the variations /
and / are frequent in Pre-Greek words (see 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.1b).
[adj.] distraught, crazed (Il.). (-- cod.) , .
foolish (H.). idle, vain, foolish. The variants , point to a
noun with the pg suffix *-ay-(os), with *ay > *ey > *e (see 3.2.3.7). Moreover,
the suffix -- is Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.72).
[adj.] warm, glowing (Call. Fr. anon. 69, ap 5, 219), in H. = , , , , rash, splendid, hairy, shameless, knavish,
with they are deceived (H.). Cf. (section 15
below). Both - and - can be explained as from Pre-Greek *tal-ukw-;
in we have retention of k after u. See 2.5.6 for the labiovelar and
3.2.3.119 for the suffix --.
- [adj.] in -, epithet of (I 541), of (K 15), of
(N 130); post-Hom. of various objects (, ). Krahe (1939: 181)
thinks the word is Pre-Greek. This is without a doubt correct, because of the
suffix - (see 3.2.3.126).
[adj.] meaning uncertain (only in Alexandrian poets); epithet of
(Call. Fr. 267), of (Euph. 81), of (Nic. Al. 555), and of
snake-poison (Nic. Th. 35). Also (Nic. Th. 35 v.l.), with
prenasalization, which points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.2).
[adj.] powerful, strong, vigilant (Hom., Theoc., D. P.). The word is
non-ie and therefore probably Pre-Greek, just as Furne (1972: 318) assumes
(following Ruijgh 1957: 1553). This is confirmed by the structure of the word,
which includes a suffix consisting of a long vowel and a consonant (see 3.2.2).
[adj.] arid, barren (Il.). Because of the root structure (nasal and
a-vocalism), the word is suspect of Pre-Greek origin. Also note the suffix

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141

-- (see 3.2.3.19). The words usually compared mean hunger, pain, and not
primarily arid, dry.
[adj.] . blind (Salamis) (H.). One gets the impression
of a Pre-Greek word (a-vocalism), and it is preferable to abandon attempts
at an inner-Greek or Indo-European etymology. Note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.18).
[adj.] clean, spotless, pure, unmixed, white (of bread, linen) (Il.). Dor.
, Aeol. . Pre-Greek in view of the variation / and the suffix
-- (see 2.6.1.1b and 3.2.3.28).
[adj.] swift, eager (Il., h. Merc. 225, Ar. Th. 957 [lyr.], A. R.), epithet of
, of (Pi. P. 12, 20). A first syllable - can hardly be of ie origin.
The structure of the word is Pre-Greek (see 3.2.2).
[adj.] biting, sharp, raw (Alcm. 140, Lyc., Opp.).
coarse, rough (H.). The variation / and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.5.1 and 3.2.3.28).
speaking foolishly (H.). Cf. rogue, mischievous
knave (below), foreigners (H.), blockhead (both
in section 11.3 above). Pre-Greek in view of the variations / / zero (2.5.4),
/ (2.6.1.1b) and the suffixes -- (3.2.3.15) and -- (3.2.3.44).
[adj.] easily moved (H.). Furne (1972: 291) compares
(section 4.2 above), implying that the word is Pre-Greek, with the variations
- / zero (see 2.3) and / (cf. Kuiper 1956: 216). Also note the suffix -(see 3.2.3.13). This nicely illustrates that some forms of substrate words may
closely resemble inherited material.
[adj.] invalid, infirm, of (Plb. 6, 25, 5; beside ), of
(ap 9, 322 beside ; v.l. ), of (in palmistry,
Cat. Cod. Astr. 7, 241). May be related to branch, twig, sprout,
to swing, brandish, branches (H.). The interchange /
then suggests that these words are Pre-Greek (see 2.5.7c). Also note the suffix
-- (see 3.2.3.28).
[adj.] cocked, cropped (of , Hippiatr.). The word has a typically
Pre-Greek appearance; cf. , (both below).
[subst., adj.] rogue, mischievous knave, also (parodic) of mischievous
genies (Ar., Arist., D. C.). The word is Pre-Greek in view of the suffix (3.2.3.15)
and the variants , (both in section 11.3) and (above).
[adj.] curtailed, maimed, short (Pl., X., Arist., Hell.). Since the suffix
-- cannot be explained in ie terms, the word is probably Pre-Greek; see
3.2.2 on the structure of Pre-Greek suffixes. See also below and
in section 15.
[adj.] = , loud or clear, dry, of sounds (Ar. Eq. 539,

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H., Suid.). . very dry, swollen


(H.), with the variation / (2.6.1.1b). Furne (1972: 238) further compares
dry, frail, fragile (below), assuming it is a form without prenasalization and with u for (see 2.5.2 and 2.5.4). In view of these variations, the
word is without a doubt Pre-Greek.
[adj.] dry, brittle, fragile (Pl., Arist., Thphr.). A Pre-Greek variant of
(above), with interchange / (2.5.4) and prenasalization (2.5.2).
[]. short horns (Fr.
122); curtailed (H.). The words () - display the
typical Pre-Greek variations / (2.5.8) and / (2.6.1.3c). Also note the
suffix -- (3.2.3.56). Cf. s.v. above.
[adj., subst.] 1. adjectival, falling head-first (E 586; imitated by Call.,
Lyc.); 2. substantival, probably crest of a helmet (O 536). Kuiper (1956: 213f.)
started from , head (section 7.1 above), to tumble
head-first (section 15 below): these forms in - without prenasalization
show that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.2). Further note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.34).
[adj.] guileful, treacherous, of dogs which bite unexpectedly (S.
Fr. 885, Orac. apud Ar. Eq. 1068); also (Trag. Adesp. 227),
explained by H. as . dogs that bite
unexpectedly (H.). Cf. forgetful, lethargic (section 7.2 above). The
variation / , points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.1i).
[adj.] voracious, avaricious, eager, coquettish (X., com., Hell.). PreGreek in view of the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.133) and the variant to
swallow with interchange / (see 2.5.1); see Furne (1972: 225). Cf.
throat (section 7.1 above).
[adj.] gluttonous, lascivious (H.). Cf.
voluptuousness with blushing (H.). The forms with /are clearly Pre-Greek, because of the interchange (see 2.5.1) and the suffix
(see 3.2.3.1 and 3.2.3.26).
[adj.] slanting, crosswise (S., E., X.). Variants crosswise sideways; the branches of the antlers of deer
(H.), with a variant ; () sideways, athwart, etc. (H.). The
forms / , and () display typical Pre-Greek alternations: / (2.6.1.2b), / (2.5.1) and prenasalization (2.5.2).
, - [adj.] mg. uncertain, perhaps poor, deserted, orphaned (Archil.
50 [], bch 11, 161 [Caria], gloss.). poor, needy
(Suid.), which has a variant (J. aj 2, 5, 5). The variation / and
the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and 3.2.3.104).
[adj.] probably smooth, polished, flat (Ar. Ra. 826, of );

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143

as a word for the halfs of a dice, used by two friends as a tally (Pl. Smp. 193a),
also (Suid.). Also , , with the variations / (2.6.1.2b)
and / (2.5.1).
[adj.] epithet of gods and men, happy, blissful (Il.). Also . Probably
Pre-Greek, because its formation is isolated within Greek, and because of the
interchange -/- (see 2.6.2). The suffix in which the variation occurs also
points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.27).
[adj.] tall, slim, of trees, etc. ( 106, Nic., Lyc.); also name of a people
related to the Dorians (Hdt.). The variants , ,
Macedonian(s), with the variations / (2.5.1) and / (2.6.1.2i), suggest
Pre-Greek origin, as do the suffixes -- (3.2.3.39) and -- (3.2.3.91).
[adj.] weak, tender, soft, mild (P 588, also Hp., Pl.). Aeol.
(Alc.). - cannot be explained from ie *mldh-, as this would give **-.
The variation / rather points to substrate origin (see 2.6.1.1b). The same
goes for the suffix -- and, if is old, its variant *-- (see 2.5.1, 3.2.3.2
and 3.2.3.13).
[adj.] mad, furious, greedy (Od.). Also greedy (H.);
hunger, famine (H.), which points to *.
, (H.). eat at once! (H.). The many
variations are typical for Pre-Greek words: prothetic vowel (2.3), / (2.5.1),
/ (2.5.4), / (2.6.1.1a), / (2.6.1.1b).
[adj.] conventional epithet of unclear mg. (acc. to H. = ,
, difficult, awesome, worthy of thought); apparently a
reduplicated intensive formation. If related to care, concern (with
the Pre-Greek suffix --, see 3.2.3.77), we may assume an original mg. raising concern, whence distressful, dreadful vel sim. (?), beside pondering,
caring, of persons. [f.pl.] cares, concerns, to care, meditate, invent, consider, linger. The variation / points to Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.6.1.2i).
[adj.] small, short, little (E 801, 296, trag., Att.). Also ,
(Dor. Boeot.), . The group of words has a familiar and colloquial aspect,
as is shown by the variants. The variations - / - (2.4) and / (2.5.8)
point to Pre-Greek origin.
() [adj.] , slow, loose, spongy; frivolous (H.), cf.
, and slowness (- cod.) (H.),
, , useless; ineffective (H.). The variation / points
to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.8).
[subst., adj.] scornful or ignominious qualification, referring to Odysseus, who has not yet been identified, by the goat-herd Melanthos and the
beggar Iros ( 219, 26; after this Lyc. 775); also of the head () of a

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plant in unknown mg. (Nic. Th. 662). Myc. mo-ro-qo-ro /mologwros/. The formation of the word is Pre-Greek; cf. e.g. (s.v. in section
12.3 above).
[adj.] (H.). Also , with prenasalization (see 2.5.2).
[adj.] lascivious, lewd (Archil. 183 as a pn, Lyc. 771, H.), as epithet of the
pack mule (Lyc. 816), also name of the ass itself? (PTeb. 409, 7, ip; written
-, reading very uncertain). Acc. to H., or are black stripes
at the neck and feet of the ass; acc. to em 594, 18 and sch. Lyc. 771,
is a fold on the asss neck. , a Phocaean name of a stallion ass acc.
to H., but also = , , , , twisted, someone
lewd, lecherous, adulterer, not in control; cf. also (H.). The
variation / / is typical for Pre-Greek words (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.5.3b).
[adj.] slow, dull, sluggish (Hp., S., E., Hell. epic). Also (cod.) id. (H.), to make slow, delay (H.). Furne
(1972: 133) compares lethargy (section 7.2 above). The variations /
(2.5.1), / (2.6.1.1a) and the suffixes -/- (3.2.3.15, 3.2.3.42) and - (3.2.3.27)
point to Pre-Greek origin.
[adj.] strong, mighty (Il.). Also . , huge,
hard (H.). The variation - / - points to Pre-Greek origin (Furne 1972:
246, etc.), as does the prenasalization (see 2.3 and 2.5.2).
[adj.] wet, damp (Archil., Semon., Ar. Pax 1148); (- cod.)
. wetting (?) (H.). V.ll. -, -. The variations / and
/ and the suffix -- show that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1, 2.6.1.1b and
3.2.3.13).
[adj.] intelligent, sensible, reasonable, prudent, rational (Od.). Variant
forms are , sensible, reasonable (H.), frequent in
Cypr. pns, e.g. -. The variation - / - must reflect the
varying rendering of a palatalized cluster, viz. *pynut- (cf. Beekes 2008: 51).
[adj.] taper, bendable, slender (epic since 583). (Sapph.);
epithet of ( 576; v.ll. , ); ,
bursts, shakes (H.). The variation *u rad- / *u rod- shows that
is a Pre-Greek word (see 2.6.1.1b).
[adj.] crooked, bent inward, especially of legs (Arist.). A variant of
(see s.v. in section 4.3 above). Prenasalization (2.5.2) and variation
/ (2.6.1.1c).
[adj.] damaged, rotten, of inner organs (Hp.), effeminate, womanish
(ap), = . unsound (Chios) (H.). , scattering through, shaking through (H.); fem.
earthen figures (H.). Furne (1972: 241) connects . dry; lean (H.), cf. s.v. below. The variation / very strongly sug-

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145

gests Pre-Greek origin for this word (see 2.5.4). Also note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.13).
[adj.] unsound, broken, broke; unhealthy, weak (ia). Furne (1972: 196)
connects brittle (see s.v. below) and with thin
hair (H.), and concludes that the word is Pre-Greek in view of the variations
- / - (2.5.13), / (2.6.1.1c) and / (2.5.1). Cf. also (section 15
below).
[adj.] foolish (H. s.v. , sch. Ar. Nu. 397). Also (Cyr.) and
*; the latter is seen in the derivative (H.). The variation in the
initial (- / - / -) proves Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.5.9a). The root can be
reconstructed as *tyal-.
[adj.] . dry (Syracusian) (H.). Furne (1972: 110, 134,
229, 241) convincingly compares , , , (H.),
weak, moldered, smashed, and , ,
(H.) with , (H.). From the variation - /
- it follows that the word is Pre-Greek (see 2.5.4). Cf. s.vv. above
and , below.
[adj.] , , delicate, light, highest; delicate-footed (H.). In H. also , , , tender, porous, unsound, feeble; with -: , ,
, dandy, swift, light, thin; light, light-footed. The combination of with and
(cf. s.v. above) shows that the word is Pre-Greek; note the
variations / and - / - (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.13) and the suffixes -- and -(see 3.2.3.90 and 3.2.3.101).
[adj.] poetical adjective of unclear and varying meaning, referring to
walking and movement (Treu 1955: 253 and 295): h. Merc. 28
(of a tortoise), Anacr. 168 (Bacchantes), Semon. 18 (horse),
(Anacr. 55), explained by H. with , , light, quiet, dainty
and with , , , delicate, light, highest, dainty; acc.
to sch. Ar. V. 1169 = , so light, dainty, delicate, prancing vel sim.? The word presumably belongs to the Pre-Greek group
-/- (see , and above).
[adj.] tender, mellow, of (Gal.). Also , MGr. and MoGr.
thin, id.. The variations - / - (2.5.13) and -- / -- (2.5.1) point to
Pre-Greek origin. Also note (H.), which presents a variation
/ (2.6.1.1d); cf. s.vv. , above.
[adj.] describing physical and psychological defects, crippled, lame vel
sim. ( A. R.), blinded, foolish (, Eleg. Alex. Adesp. 1, 2; of
fishes Opp.); also porous, hollow (, Eust.). We also find

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empty, void, bereft (H.), empties (H.). More importantly, we


find blinded(?), maimed(?) (Call. Fr. anon. 106, H., Eust.), with the
variation / (2.5.1).
[adj.] crooked, bandy-legged (lxx, Hell. pap., Gal.). , pointed object, stake (H.), ,
crooked, twisted (H.). This word cannot be separated from lame
(see s.v. below), and the variation - / - as well as the derivatives
with the non-ie suffixes -- (3.2.3.119) and -- (3.2.3.15) point to a Pre-Greek
origin of this word.
[adj.] thin (H.). Furne (1972: 368) connects -, which
has - instead of -. This looks like a Pre-Greek variation (see 2.3 and 2.4).
Also note the suffixes -- and -- (see 3.2.3.28 and 3.2.3.91).
[adj.] = , lame, crooked (H., sch. Ar. Nu. 254). A variant
of (see s.v. above). May be further related to .
to squat (Achaean) (H.), which points to prenasalization (2.5.2);
(- cod.) to loiter (H.), with the variation - / zero (2.4);
(- cod.) to wear away, loiter (H.,
Phot.), with a prothetic vowel (2.3).
[adj.] meaning doubtful; see below (Hdn. Gr., H., Theognost.). Also ,
(H.) = , , , difficult, fearful, hated,
sad- or angry-looking. It is probably related to (cf. s.v. above), which
adds yet another variant for the initial: - / - / -. This variation points to
Pre-Greek origin (see 2.3 and 2.4).
[adj.] grey (pap.). Furne (1972: 339) connects ; see s.v. in section
14 below.
[adj.] turned, twisted, crooked, cunning (ia). Var. [m.] top,
whirlwind, whirlpool, fir-cone. Cf. [v.] to turn around in circles,
move violently, distract; [m.] top ( 413), whirlwind;
squinting; ;
whirl, rotation (H.) (cod. ). The variant with prenasalization
and the occurence with the suffixes -- and -- point to Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.5.2, 3.2.3.15 and 3.2.3.75). The group is reminiscent of to twist,
turn (section 15 below), which adds the variation / (see 2.5.1).
[adj.] round, spherical, compact (ia). Pre-Greek in view of the
suffix -- (see 3.2.3.121).
[adj.] unmixed, pure (H.). Furne (1972: 389) compares
unblended wine (see s.v. in section 5.2 above). The connection points to a
labiovelar (see 2.5.6). The Pre-Greek element -- (see 3.2.3.73 and 3.2.3.101)
is also found in the compar. .
[adj.] (H.). Various derivatives, e.g. bright, white-spotted,

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147

, - white-spotted, bald-headed (with bare


hill, tn (), -), bald-headed. Apart from Pre-Greek
suffixes (see 3.2.3.14, 3.2.3.23 and 3.2.3.28), the derivatives present various
variants, notably spotted, dappled, tn , - and (e.g. bare spot), with the interchanges / , / , / (see 2.5.1).
This clearly indicates that the whole group is of Pre-Greek origin (cf. Furne
1972: 192 and s.v. in section 7.1 above).
[adj.] bad, unfit, ill, mean, poor, etc. (ia). The word is reminiscent of
weak, powerless; see s.v. above.
, - [subst., adj.] (the color) purple (Hom. etc.); as an appellative or
adjective (fem. also -) sorrel or red-colored, of a horse ( 454), purple,
dark-red, tawny, of cattle, fire, clothes, etc. (Pi., Simon., E., Theoc.). Cf.
red and the en . The suffix -- points to Pre-Greek origin (see
3.2.3.74).
red ones, having a black
mouth (H.); Gennadius (1926: 42f.) connects the word with scale of a
reptile, spots on an animal skin and proposes to read for :
dogs of a yellow-red coat spotted with black. Furne (1972: 228) connects
stains, defiles, which would mean that the word is Pre-Greek
(see 2.5.4).
[adj.] sharp, pointed (B 219 of the head of Thersites, Arist., ap etc.).
Furne (1972: 393) connects (H.), with the variations /
and / and (see 2.5.5.6b and 2.6.1.3d).
[adj.] , , white, grey, wrinkled (H.). Cf. the pns
= , with a variant (see 2.5.1). May also be related to
wrinkle (see 2.6.1.1b). At any rate, definitely Pre-Greek (cf. Furne
1972: 157).
[adj.] , warm, hot; verdant (H.).
The word seems Pre-Greek; note the suffix -- (3.2.3.48).
[adj.] loose, brittle, friable (medic., Arist., Thphr.). Also , , , , easily bruised, weak, dry, weak, loose and
, , weak, wet, loose (H.). Pre-Greek in view
of the variation / (2.5.1) and the suffixes -- (3.2.3.133) and -- (3.2.3.28).
See also above and in section 15 below.

148
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Abstract Expressions

[f.] fraud, deceit (Il.). Note the Pre-Greek suffix -- (3.2.3.31). Furne
(1972: 234f.) connected bewilderment, blindness, delusion < *,
with the substrate variation / (see 2.5.4), which is possible but not compelling. His comparison with to deceive (whose substrate origin is
shown by the variant and the suffix --, see 2.6.1.1b and 3.2.3.33)
is attractive, as this has the same meaning. If -- cheat, deceive
(section 11.3 above) is cognate, note the suffix --, which is also a substrate
element (Beekes 1995/6: 1825 and 3.2.3.93 above).
[f.] damage. Cretan (H.), = . The
interchanges / (2.6.1.1b) and / (2.5.1) are typical for Pre-Greek.
[m.] . a villain who knows
much; some authors have (H.). Cf. .
(H.). Prenasalization and variation / (see 2.5.2 and 2.5.5.9a).
[n.] amazement, fright (Il.). Also , . Cf. perf. I am
perplexed, aor. . The variation - / - / - (with Pre-Greek
prenasalization), to which *- in (below), etc. also belong, cannot
be ie, but is rather Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1, 2.5.2 and 2.5.4).
[n.] wonder, astonishment (Il.). Also , with / (see 2.6.1.1h).
The word belongs to the group of , , etc. with Pre-Greek
labial / (see 2.5.4). See above.
[f.] sight, aspect, spectacle (ia). From *. No ie cognates; the word is
Pre-Greek, as is proven by the variations (see and above).
[m.] noise, crying, tumult, confusion (Pi., ia). Cf. the reduplicated form
-- to speak inarticulately, mumble (see Tichy 1983: 215 f.; cf. s.v.
in section 15 below), voice (H.). Perhaps - to make a
confused noise, babble, - murmur also belong here. The variation
- (from *tarup-?), --, ()- suggests a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.2
and 2.6.5). Also note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.113).
[m.] lament, dirge (trag. [lyr.], Theoc.), tedious, dull person, also
adjectival slow (Hell.). (on the distribution Bjrck 1950: 16). For the
formation cf. (section 11.3 above); the suffixes -- and -- point to
Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.15 and 3.2.3.44).
[m.] danger, risk (Thgn., Pi., ia; on the mg. Mette 1952: 409 ff.). On
= bench in the prow of a ship (H.), whence MoGr.
(Naxos) bed, see Andriotis (1936: 19f.). The Pre-Greek character is clear in
view of the ending -- (3.2.3.127) in (Alc., Sapph.), with its long , as
seen by Kuiper (1956: 217).
[n.pl.] , pieces of flattery, knavery (H.).

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149

crafty, knavish (H.). The element /-- is clearly PreGreek (see 2.6.1.1b and 3.2.3.13).
[n.] payment, hire (A. Supp. 1011), = (Suid., em). There is no
convincing ie connection. Pre-Greek origin is likely. Note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.101).
, - [m.] attested since 306 = 161, A. R. 1. 198, Bion Fr. 15: 15;
grave-epigrams (imperial period) from Arcadia and Ionia. Time-indication
of uncertain mg., usually explained as year and used in this sense by later
authors, who seem all to be based on 306; acc. to Leumann (1950: 2124)
rather new moon (against this Ruijgh 1957: 147). The supposed Arcadian
origin (ab) probably refers to the late Arcadian inscriptions, see Leumann
(1950: 273). Also acc. -, further (inscr. Amorgos). The variant with
and the suffixes -- and -- clearly point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.4,
3.2.3.1 and 3.2.3.23).
[m.] exertion, difficulty, distress, misery (Hes. Sc., Pi., trag., mostly
poet.). When compared with synonymous , (see s.v. in section
15 below), the words show a variation / , which must be Pre-Greek (see
2.5.1 and 2.5.5.1b). Furne (1972: 319f., 388) connects
by which one turns the of the reins (H.) as Cretan
for *.
[m.pl.] gossip. (H.). Also . Clearly a
Pre-Greek word in view of the variation / (see 2.6.1.1c).
[m.] prosperity, blessed state, wealth, happiness (Il.). Furne (1972: 155)
connects . cooking of groats, kind of food.
(H.); if the gloss is cognate, it must be Pre-Greek (see 2.5.1), which is
certainly a good possibility. See also in section 5.1 above.
, - [f.] rarity, scarcity (ia). Furne (1972: 378) may be right in connecting , - , , is without resource (H.); he
assumes a prothetic - and a prothetic - (see 2.3 and 2.4), which was lengthened to - (see 2.6.2). If so, the word is Pre-Greek.
[n.] small thing (Eup. 3). Furne (1972: 261) compares
piece of bread (H.), and thinks the word is Pre-Greek. Apart from
the variation / , note the suffix -- (see 2.5.5.9a and 3.2.3.133).
[f.] confusion, noise, tumult (Hp., Isoc., X., Plb. etc.). Also (Suid.,
Eust.). The variation / points to Pre-Greek *ty (see 2.5.5.9a).
[m.] = , , (A. Fr. 82 = 21 M., Ar. Fr. 829, Phryn. Com.,
H., Phot., Suid.); (- cod.) , (H.); also
, (H.), cf. Wackernagel (1943: 191); (Hdn. Gr.), (Theognost.). Furne (1972: 197) connects
= ashes and (p. 39321) soot, smoke, soot (see

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s.vv. in section 2), with the variations / (2.5.1), / (2.5.5.6a), / /


(2.5.7a).

15

Verbs

[v.] to milk (H., em), () (Hp.), explained as , lets go, releases by Galen. Also
is suckled, compressed (H.), cf. , is suckled, drawn after one; is squeezed
(out), crowded (Erot. 20, 1; see Hp. De med. off. 11). Cf. is
strained through (ab); draws (H.) and to
strain through (H.); further id. (Diocl. Com. Fr. 7 Kock,
An. Bekk. 350). These verbs, meaning to press, draw away, filter, show a variation / / , which points to a Pre-Greek labiovelar (see 2.5.6).
[v.] to be ruler (Hom.). Meg. . ( 347) has a variant (), now preferred by West (2001: 119f.). Also pns , (Hom.). Chantraine (1933: 216) and Von Blumenthal (1930: 33) assume
a Pre-Greek origin, which must be correct: it explains the interchanges /
and / (see 2.5.4 and 2.6.1.4).
[v.] to drain, plunder, destroy. Cf. ,
to empty out, whence also digging (H.). A. Eu. 562 has (cod.
-) = exhausted, feeble. The interchange of the prothetic vowel
points to a substrate word (see 2.3).
[v.] to sink, submerge into the sea; to hide (Lyc.). Also . The
strange structure of the word and the group -- (see 2.2a.3) make substrate
origin almost certain.
[v.] to sparkle, twinkle (of the eye) (h. Merc., Hes.). twinkling (h. Merc.); id. (Hes.), - (Sapph.), id. (Hdn.);
( 630); curly things (H.).
eyes (H.); taken as a Cret. dual = the twinkling
ones. Cf. to flash, sparkle, gleam (cf. s.v. below). - interchanging
with reduplication (see 2.3 and 3.1) and the suffix - / -, which is typical
of the substrate language and shows prenasalization (see 2.5.2 and 3.2.3.114);
also note the variant with -- (see 2.5.1 and 3.2.3.139). See Kuiper (1956: 221).
[v.] to miss, fail; to be bereft of; to transgress (Archil.). Compared
with to cause to miscarry, which delg rejects for both formal
and semantic reasons. Blanc (1994: 7985) connects it with . As Van
Beek suggests to me (p.c.), this is quite attractive, provided that to
become devious, go astray, wander about (which has no convincing etymol-

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151

ogy) is a substrate word. The group would then display a prothetic vowel
(which is otherwise rare in verbal forms!), prenasalization, and interchange
/ (if we include ), and we could reconstruct a Pre-Greek verbal
root *(a)mplank- (see 2.3, 2.5.1 and 2.5.2).
[v.] to scratch, tear, lacerate (Il.). .
the laceration of the flesh with claws (H.); rent, wound. The
form - shows a typical Pre-Greek variation (insertion of -- before
stop). See 2.5.5.3b for the variation / and 3.2.3.139 for the suffix --.
[v.] to snarl, growl, of dogs (D. H.). Also ; . The prothetic vowel
points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.3).
[v.] to milk (cows) (Pl.). Also . Cf. leech. The meaning
leech, the group - (2.2a.3) and the variation / (2.6.1.1b) indicate that it
is a Pre-Greek word, as does the geminate -- (perhaps *bdaly- or *byaly-).
[v.] to gulp down, swallow (again) ( 222, 240; H. as a simplex =
, ap). Cf. windpipe, throat (section 7.1); hoarseness,
angina (section 7.2); throat, gullet (Hp.); , neck, throat (H.). The prenasalization (2.5.2) and the variations /
(2.5.5.1b), / (2.6.1.1b) and / (2.6.1.3d) reflect Pre-Greek origin.
[v.] to bend (Il.). An Indo-European etymology seems excluded because - cannot have a pie preform (see under in section 7.1
above).
- [v.] to be depressed (Men.). Furne (1972: 315) has correctly observed
(following Latte; see now lsj Supp. s.v. ) that this is a separate verb
with the variants - and -, as well as a variant - with anaptyxis
(see 2.6.5); the variation / is well known in Pre-Greek (Furne 1972:
307ff.; see further 2.5.5.1a).
[v.] to soften (with the hand), masturbate (Ar., Eub.). Also . The
variation / points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.5.2a). Cf. further skin
(Suid.) with prepared skin, hide, leather (section 4.1 above), which
would add the variations / / and / (see 2.5.5.1a, 2.5.5.4a and 2.6.1.2b).
[v.] to throw (Pi.) also to aim (on high) (E. hf 498) with
throw!, throw, cast,
the sprung holding bar of a mousetrap (Call.; H.). Furne (1972: 297)
compares , . throw (Cret.) (H.), which points to
a Pre-Greek word in view of the variations / (2.5.7a) and / (2.5.1). See
further net, strick (section 9.5 above).
[v.] to search after ( 747). serpent (Cret.) (H. cod.;
Salm.); Latte comments ad loc.: scil. a rimas scrutando
appellatus. Also . (H.). The variation / points to PreGreek origin (see 2.5.1).

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[v.] to scratch, especially as a sign of mourning (Il.). Root -, cf. e.g.


opt. - ( 187 = 21), - scratched on both sides (cheeks)
(Il.). Also -, e.g. shavings. Cf. to tear up, crush, with the
suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13). The variants -, -, and - clearly point to
a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.4 and 2.5.5.2a).
[v.] to rend, break ( 317, 83, h. Ap. 358). Cf. , Att. vases , with the variation / (see 2.5.5.4b). See (section 18 below).
[v.] to boil, seethe (ia). Arm. epem cook. A pre-form ie *seph- has been
posited, which would have had an s-enlargement in Greek (Schwyzer 1939:
706). Yet pie did not have a phoneme *ph. This means that the word is from
a substrate, probably Pre-Greek (cf. Furne 1972: 327, who compares /
soften, see s.v. above).
[v.] to warm, rarely intr. to be warm (Od.). The root is also found in
(see s.v. in section 13). Both forms can be explained as continuing
Pre-Greek *tal-ukw- (for the labiovelar, see 2.5.6); the syncopated form, without -u-, yielded . Thus Kuiper (1968: 270275).
[v.] to cry aloud, howl (Il.). The forms (cod. -) (cf. Latte ad loc.) and (H.)
point to * (cf. Furne 1972: 277). Also . With its prenasalization,
the word is typically Pre-Greek (see 2.5.2); note the vocalism of - (see
2.6.1.3h).
[v.] to roll about, wallow (ia). Cf. and ; delg
thinks it is a cross of these two. Furne (1972: 391) reminds of the alternation
- / zero in Pre-Greek words (see 2.5.10). Also note the suffix -- (see
3.2.3.80).
[v.] to cover, hide (Il., ia). hut, cabin (section 10.1 above),
submerged land. //- is clearly Pre-Greek in view of the
variation and the suffix (see 2.5.1 and 3.2.3.113, 3.2.3.132, 3.2.3.138).
[v.] to stitch, sew together like a shoemaker. Att. . The foreign
phoneme / , in combination with the a-vocalism, shows Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.5.5.9a).
[v.] to splash, bubble, of water (Pi., A.). (H. s.v. ,
). Variation / is typical of Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.1b).
[v.] to taunt, insult, mock, ridicule (almost only poetic, Il.). Furne
(1972: 349) refers to mocker (H.). The varying vocalism points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.1a). Probably related to ,
-, to insult, mock, slander (cf. s.v. below), which in turn
is connected with (), .
[v.] only T 149 together with ; the mg. was uncertain already
in antiquity, cf. , , , -

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153

to misreckon, deceive, seek illicit love, loiter (H.), who further cites
, vagrant, charlatan. Kuiper (1933: 287ff.)
thought that the word was Pre-Greek in view of the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.93).
[v.] to card, comb, full (cloth) as a technical term, also metaph. to
mangle, tear to pieces (ia). Myc. ka-na-pe-u /knapheus/. Late Att. has - for
- in most derivatives, e.g. fulling, cushion of wool (pap.
and ostr.); also cushion (com., E.; v.ll. -, -) and
(Alc. Z 14, 8). The variation / , / , / / points to Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.5.1, 2.5.8 and 2.6.1.1ab).
[v.] to peck (of birds), strike, carve, engrave (ia, Aeol.). Appears to be
derived from (section 12.1 above) and, therefore, of Pre-Greek origin.
[v.] to steer, head for, metaph. to govern, rule ( 283). Cypr. inf.
. The variation / and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.5.4 and 3.2.3.104).
[v.] to tumble head-first (Il., Pl., X.). Cf. = (em). =
properly to throw on the head (em), further
head (em) and head first, to tumble (see
Kuiper 1956: 213f.), which are prenasalized forms clearly containing the same
word (see 2.5.2). Cf. s.vv. (section 7.1), (section 13).
[v.] to roll, turn over (Il.). Suffix -- (see 3.2.3.80), which is also found
in the synonyms , - and (cf. s.v. above).
[v.] to bend forward, stoop, to run with the head down (ia). Besides
bent forwards, hunchbacked ( 16), with several derivatives. With
factitive mg. to overthrow. The variation - / - points to a
Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.1).
[v.] to be slandered (Phot.). A prenasalized form
beside id.. Therefore, clearly a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.2).
[v.] to wench (com.). Resembles to have intercourse, of which
is probably only a variant. The variation / is typical for Pre-Greek
(see 2.6.1.1i).
[v.] to swallow, gulp down (Nic. Th. 477);
groping (H.). Cf. id. (below) and to be voracious. The
variation / is well-known in Pre-Greek words (see 2.5.4), as is the variation
/ (see 2.6.1.1c). Cf. throat, gullet (section 7.1).
[v.] to swallow, gulp down (Il.). gluttonous, devoured
(Lyc.), cf. . Cf. to swallow, gulp down (above), throat, gullet (section 7.1), voracious (section 13). The variations / and / point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.4 and 2.6.1.1c).
[v.] to peel (off) (Il.). peeled, thin, to make thin, etc.,
, , -. Note the forms dub. sens., -

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weak, fine, pod, skin, shell, pod, skin


of an onion, rind of fruit, leprosy, mantle, cloak (H.),
pod, coat, etc., with suffixes and/or alternations of Pre-Greek appearance.
[v.] to linger, hesitate, abide (A. Fr. 112, Ar. Fr. 811). It cannot be
separated from the synonym ; the variation / points to Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.6.1.1b).
[v.] to flash, sparkle, gleam (Il., late also prose). flashing,
sparkling. Pre-Greek origin is a strong possibility, and in fact, it is almost
ascertained by to sparkle, twinkle (cf. s.v. above), with a prothetic
vowel (see 2.3). The suffix -- also speaks for this (see 3.2.3.114).
[v.] to catch, seize, lay hold off, overtake (Il.). With a different auslauting velar, we find to understand, i.e. to grasp, and
, , to gather, bite, drink (H.). The variation /
cannot be explained in ie terms. Rather, the variants point to Pre-Greek
*mr(a)kw-, which became either - or -, with a reflex different from
that of the ie labiovelar, or - (see 2.5.6).
[v.] to draw up, furl, wind (up) ( 170). Dor. -. Cf.
(supposed to stand for ), to wind (H.), with the
variation / (see 2.5.4). Cf. cord, thread (section 9.9 above).
[v.] to hate, abhor (Pi., ia). A suffix - does not exist in inherited words,
but it does in words of Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.107). Therefore, Furne
(1972: 254) assumes a Pre-Greek word, with an assibilated dental *ty (see
2.5.5.9a).
[v.] to toil, be distressed, suffer (Il.). A by-form with initial - is found
in , , harsh, treacherous, sorrowful (H.),
with the variant painful, toilsome, miserable. Cf. further
exertion, difficulty, distress, misery (section 14 above), with to exert
oneself, subsist with difficulty. The variations - / -, / and / point
to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.4, 2.5.5.1b and 2.6.1.3c).
[v.] to mock, ridicule, insult (lxx). Furne (1972: 133) compares
envies, begrudges, refuses (H.) with a different velar, and
concludes to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.1).
[v.] , , to peel, pluck, peck (H.). A Pre-Greek
variant of (directly below).
[v.] = (Phot.), to pluck hair, to mock (H.). Evidently a variant of , with variations / (2.6.1.3d) and / (2.6.1.1a) that point to a Pre-Greek word.
[v.] to slosh the water with ones wings; to splash, also metaphorically of idle noise (A., Eub.). The structure -- points to Pre-Greek

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155

origin (see 3.2.2, 3.2.3.114). Perhaps related to to rattle, crash, clap


(ones hands), which has a different Pre-Greek suffix (see 3.2.3.2).
[v.] to click with the tongue, as a calling signal, etc. (com., Thphr.,
Theoc.). The geminate and the suffix -C- point to Pre-Greek origin (see
2.2a.25 and 3.2.2); ultimately onomatopoeic.
[v.] [
] , to walk upwards and downwards; to beat and
make noise with [and to be about to indicate with] the feet, and to strike
(H.). to drive away, run, strike the
earth vigorously with the feet (Phot.). Has been compared with
dancer, after ., which means
to dance (H.). The prothetic vowel and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek
origin (see 2.3 and 3.2.3.13). Furne (1972: 142) further connects rattle,
ring (section 17 below) and . to tread (Cret.) (H.).
[v.] to kick someones buttocks (Ar. Eq. 796). Also . The
variation / points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.1b).
[v.] to besprinkle, spray, strew (Il.). Perf. med. 3pl. ( 354),
plpf. () (M 431). None of the etymological attempts accounts for
the variation and (in the perfect), which is a well-known Pre-Greek
phenomenon (Kuiper 1956: 216; see also 2.5.3 above). This proves that the
verb is Pre-Greek.
[v.] to go about, wander, roam around, act at random (Hell. and
late). [m.] circular movement, top, hummingtop, magic wheel, tambourine, also . Cf. (em, Hdn. Gr.). The forms with
-, - point to a Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.2 and 2.6.1.3c).
[v.] to be silent, keep secret, also to silence (Hom.). Also in
, (Pi.), which points to Pre-Greek origin, reflecting
*syp- or *syup- (cf. Beekes 2008).
[v.] roams, rolls about (H.),
to wander about roamingly (H.). The alternation - / - points
to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.5). Cf. trot (section 12.1 above), with
to trot, which shows that the - is prothetic (see 2.4).
[v.] to blink, twinkle (Hp., E., X., Arist.). Att. -; ,
- (H.). The variants point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.4). Also note the
suffixes -- and -- (see 3.2.3.18 and 3.2.3.119).
[v.] to vilify, slander (Ar. Eq. 821, H.; ipv.). Also (cod.
-) , , abusing, speaking profanely,
deceiving (H.). Cf. (-) , ; , mockery, abuse (H.). Sometimes dice-box; trickery, cheating is interpreted as cognate as well. The variants -, -, -,

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and possibly - point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.4, 2.5.1 and 2.6.1.2b). Cf.
above.
[v.] to jeer, flout (Ar. Ach. 444, Pax 549, D. L. 7, 17); acc. to gramm.
(Moer., Phryn., H.) = ; acc. to sch. Ar. Pax ad loc. to hold up the
middle finger (sens. obsc.). (PLond. = Aegyptus 6, 194), probably
designation of a finger. Since all words in -- seem to be of Pre-Greek origin
(Beekes 2008; see also 3.2.3.15 above), these words are likely to be Pre-Greek,
too. Note the variation / (see 2.5.8).
[v.] , to pluck out, cut short; ,
to cut short, shorten; having stripped
(H.). The variation between - and - in curtailed, cut
short (cf. s.v. in section 13 above) points to a Pre-Greek origin, with - / zero
(2.4) and / (2.6.1.3c).
[v.] to drone, roar, thunder, of the sea, thunder, etc. (epic Il., also Hp.
Mul. 2, 154). (em), (Erot.). The variation - / - points
to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.4). Furne (1972: 227) further considers
= sound (H.) to be a variant, with interchange / (see 2.5.4). Also
note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.2).
[v.] to scorch, roast, fry (Ar.). Furne (1972: 191) compares
(Arist., Alex. Aphr. in Mete. 186) = , which indicates Pre-Greek origin
(see 2.5.1).
, - [v.] to twist, turn, intr. and med. also to run (Il.). The root has
no Indo-European cognates. As Van Beek suggests (p.c.), a comparison with
turned, twisted, crooked, cunning (section 13 above) and cognates
strongly favors the conclusion that we are dealing with a Pre-Greek root,
with variation / (see 2.5.1).
[v.] to bind, embrace, jam in (since Emp., A. Pr. 58); the nasal-less
forms , and point to Pre-Greek prenasalization
(see 2.5.2).
[v.] to quiver. ; ; (H.). (below) may be identical. The variations / (2.5.7c) and
/ before (2.5.13.2, 2.6.1.1b) point to Pre-Greek origin.
[v.] to be startled, shy, shun (epic poet. since Il.). Furne (1972: 219)
compares to startle, with the variation / (see 2.5.4). Moreover,
it is difficult to explain the element - from an ie zero grade *trgw-, as this
would give *-.
[v.] to inter (A. R. 3, 208). ; .
funeral feast (Elean) (H.). The variations - / zero and / point
to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.4 and 2.6.1.1a). Cf. (section 3.1 above).
[v.] to wound, harm, damage (ia). Ion. Dor. , Att.

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157

wound, damage. We have to start from a root - / -, which cannot


be explained in ie terms. In Pre-Greek, however, a variation / is found
(see 2.6.1.1h).
[v.] to murmur, speak inarticulately, gurgle (A. Fr. 298 = 630 M.). Pres.
also and . The formation is clearly Pre-Greek (Furne 1972:
382), with prenasalization (2.5.2) and the variations -- / zero (2.6.5) and /
(2.6.1.4). Cf. above.
[v.] to make fat, feed, bring up, care for, also to cause to curdle, of
milk ( 246) and of cheese (Theoc. 25, 106, cf. fresh
cheese). The cheese name must be Pre-Greek: in FS Kortlandt
I demonstrated, following Kuiper, that all words in --() are Pre-Greek
(Beekes 2008; cf. 3.2.3.15). The root has no ie cognates. A connection with
clump, clot, curd is quite possible, if we assume that as a
whole is Pre-Greek. Prenasalization is well-known in Pre-Greek (see 2.5.2);
the is not problematic, as Pre-Greek did not distinguish between aspirated,
voiced and unvoiced stops (see 2.5.1). Thus, proves that the verb is of
Pre-Greek origin.
[v.] to gnaw, browse, eat, mostly of raw fruits (ia since 90), later to eat
in general. No ie etymology. Formally comparable with dry wood
(section 3.1) and locust (section 4.7), which are clearly Pre-Greek
(see s.vv.). Although these words are probably not derived from , the
formal resemblance suggests Pre-Greek rather than ie origin for the verb.
[v.] to babble (Ar., Alex., et al.). Cf. babbler (section 11.3
above). The variation - / - is a typical case of Pre-Greek nasalization
(see 2.5.3). Without -- (see 3.2.3.33), we find to brag (Hp. apud
Gal.), , talks nonsense (H.), to bubble up
(E. Fr. 470).
[v.] to snort with lust for life, behave unruly, of horses, goats etc.
(Hdt.). Furne (1972: 173, following Kuiper 1956: 215), assumes that
to snort with anger (etc.) is a Pre-Greek variant, which seems evident. Cf.
Furne (1972: 247): , (H.) from *, with an s-mobile
and variation / (see 2.4 and 2.5.4).
[v.] to make pointed, sharpen; to carve, engrave, strike, stamp (Hes.).
Denominative from , - pointed stake, vine-prop, fortifying pale,
stockade, palisade. In view of the suffix, the word is most probably Pre-Greek
(see 3.2.3.13).
[v.] to grind, scratch (Hermipp., Pl. Com.);
scratched (H.). Furne (1972: 196) compared loose, brittle, friable,
, , weak, wet, loose (H.), weak, thin-haired (H.), with the variations / (2.5.13), /

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(2.6.1.1c), / (2.5.1); cf. s.vv. , (section 13 above). A suffix -is also found in Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.15).
[v.] to touch, infringe, pluck (S., Ar., Lyc., Ael.), med.
to be instructed to do research;
, was touched lightly, was moved (H.). Derived from
to pluck, twitch a string (also a bowstring) with the fingers, instead of
with the plectrum. The word is most probably Pre-Greek, because of its
a-vocalism and the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.13).
[v.] to lie, be wrong, break (an oath) (Il.), in Att. also to lie to,
deceive, cheat, be false, etc., often regardless of intention. Also in , plur.
lie, for which mostly , - is found. The variation / points to
Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1). Furne (1972: 197) further adduces (inscr.
Pholegandros) and lie (H.).
[v.] to weep, in (H.). (H.). PreGreek in view of the prenasalization (see 2.5.2).
[v.] to whisper, murmer, slander, metaph. of trees and birds, to rustle,
chirp (Pl., Ar., Hell.). slanderer, whisperer; slandering, whispering;
also and (also -). Pre-Greek in view of the variations /
(2.6.1.2b), / (2.5.1) and the suffix (3.2.3.133), with the nom. - (3.3.2c).

16

Adverbs

[adv.] suddenly. See , , , below.


[adv.] quickly, suddenly (Il., poet.). See , , , (all
this section).
[adv.] forthwith, immediately (Il.). Furne (1972: index) brilliantly connected and , and further , - and (cf. s.vv. in this
section), assuming a substrate element with the variations / (2.6.1.1c), /
(2.5.1), which point to Pre-Greek *apy-. See also (section 13 above).
[adv.] suddenly (A.). See above.
[adv.] suddenly (Il.). Also . The variation -- / -- shows that
the i is part of the consonant, so we may assume a Pre-Greek phoneme *py
for these forms. See , , , above and in section 13.
[adv.] with the teeth, clenching ones teeth ( 381 =
410 = 268; also com., e.g. Ar. V. 164 ); perhaps in different mgs. at three places in the Il. (e.g. 749 ; cf.
X 17, B 418). to bite, gnaw; to itch (H.); ,
to scratch (oneself), to itch, be scratchy, gnaw; scratches,
itches (Ar. Fr. 410), , , scratches the head,

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159

touches (H.). Cf. itch (section 7.2 above). Bechtel (1914) rendered
in the oldest attestations with itching, scratching; the later meaning
with the teeth would have arisen from a folk-etymological connection with
and . The variation / points to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.6.1.1b),
as do the aspiration in -, - and the interchange between -- and -in the verbal forms (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.5.4b).
[adv.] steep, downwards (H.). M. Schmidt (the editor of
Hesychius) connects curved, bent (H.); if this is correct, the
word is Pre-Greek (see 2.6.1.1b). See also Furne (1972: 389), who compares
, , athwart, slanting, bent (H.), with the
variation / (see 2.5.6).

17

Sounds and Interjections

[m.] rattle, ring, of armor or teeth (Il.). Furne (1972: 142) compares
. to tread (Cret.) (H.), which points to substrate
origin in view of the interchange / (see 2.6.1.1b). Cf. (section 15
above).
[m.] noise with a low tone (ia). interj., as ironic imitation of
a swollen style (Ar. Th. 45), with intensive reduplication
(ibid. 48). humming insect, also vase with a small neck (from the
sound when emptied), waterbubbles (H.). ,
- [m.] low sounding flute, the lowest tone of a flute (Ar.); kind
of bee (Arist.). Cf. whipping-top; insect, , bubble.
The variation / / (2.5.1) and the suffixes, notably -- (3.2.3.13), -(3.2.3.74), -- (3.2.3.120), -- (3.2.3.121), are typical Pre-Greek characteristics.
Ultimately onomatopoeic.
[m.] dull, heavy sound (Il.). -, also - thundering
loud (Il.); anlaut - also in ( 45) and
with heavy sound, (H.), and also in -, -, -.
The initial *gd- is not known from pie. Therefore, the word is probably
Pre-Greek (see 2.2a.4). For - > -, see 2.5.13. See also below.
natural sound of the screech-owl (Ar. Av. 261). Cf.
lantern. little owl, Athene noctua (H.), with
the Pre-Greek interchange / (see 2.5.4).
[m.] strong noise, cracking, stamping (Il.). Reminiscent of dull,
heavy sound (above). No doubt of Pre-Greek origin, with variation between
voiced and unvoiced stop (2.5.1) and between and (2.6.1.3h); see Furne
(1972: 120).

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interjection of surprise, disagreement, etc. (Il., epic). Also , with the


suffix -- (3.2.3.13).
[interj.] cry of herdsmen (Theoc.). Also (sch.); similar , .
Variation / (2.6.1.4), / (2.5.13), / (2.5.5.2a).

18

Theonyms, Divine Epithets, Mythical Characters

[f.] the goddess (Il.), a common Greek goddess dating from Minoan
times, protecting the palace, and depicted with a snake. Dor. (etc.) .
The town (Dor. ) contains the same onomastic element. Like
the goddess itself, the name is Pre-Greek. Note the Pre-Greek suffix -(see 3.2.3.20). See also , in section 19 below, which display the
variation / / (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.8).
, - [m.] theonym (Il.). (Dor.), (Cypr.),
(Thess.). Perhaps in Myc. ]pe-rjo[ /A]peljo[n-/, see Ruijgh (1967a: 56). Cypr.
points to a pre-form * for Dor. ; Thess.
perhaps derives from *Apelyn with syncope and - from *-n (Ruijgh apud
Beekes 2003c; cf. 2.6.5 above). Hitt. [DINGIR] Appaliuna may well reflect the
Pre-Greek proto-form Apalyun. The Hittite rendering shows that the oldest
Pre-Greek form had *a. This became e before the palatal *ly. The e was then
assimilated (in Pre-Greek) to o by the following -n. For the suffix --, see
3.2.3.145.
, [m.] the god of war; also god of vengeance and oaths (Arcadia,
Athens, etc.). No etymology; ie origin of such a name is not to be expected.
[f.] daughter of Minos, abducted by Theseus (Il.). The group --, which
contains the suffix -- (cf. the variant ), points to Pre-Greek origin (see
2.2a.6, 3.2.3.38, 3.2.3.91).
, - [f.] name of the goddess (Il.). Myc. a-te-mi-to /Artemitos/ [gen.];
a-ti-mi-te /Artimitei/ [dat.]. Dor. , -; Boeot. , -; Delphi
, - (sig 671, etc.). The variation t / d is due to a replacement of
the suffix: Myc. has -t-, and forms with -- (e.g. temple of .)
presuppose a -t- too. For the suffix --, see 3.2.3.87. The forms further show
the interchanges e / i (2.6.1.2b) and e / a (2.6.1.1a), which is rather an old
phenomenon than a recent assimilation.
[m.] epithet of on Anaphe. Also
(Anaphe, Thera). The variation in these epithets is typical of Pre-Greek
words, as can clearly be seen in the name (see s.v. below): aC/ aiC- and asC- / aisC-. In the present case, we only have aiC- and asC-, but
the principle remains the same (Furne 1972: 293, 295).

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161

[m.] hero, later god of medicine (Il.). (Epid., Troez.),


(Boeot.), , (Thess.), (Gort.),
(on a bronze figure from Bologna with Corinthian letters; see
Kretschmer 1943: 116), (Lac.), (Cos). The name is typical
for Pre-Greek words: apart from minor variations ( / , () / , / /
, see 2.5.1 and 2.6.5), we find / (a well-known variation, see 2.6.1.1c) followed by -- or -- / -/-. In view of the variation / , the -was probably palatalized and we must reconstruct *(a-)syklap-. As the group
-- is rare in Greek, especially before another consonant, the loss of -- can
be understood. The palatal character of the was sometimes expressed as a
preceding or following (cf. beside in section 16 and
beside in section 13).
, - [m.] Atlas (Od.), name of the god who carries the pillars of
heaven. Pre-Greek words often end in -ant- (see 3.2.3.23).
[m.] the son of Peleus and Thetis (Il.). The variation / (like /
in ()) is typical of Pre-Greek words, and probably points to a
palatalized phoneme /ly/ (see 2.5.8).
[f.] epithet of Artemis on Crete (inscr., Str.), also a goddess or nymph
on Crete, Dreros. Also , - (Crete); . Acc. to
Solin. 11, 8, it means dulcis virgo = sweet maiden, which seems confirmed
by the gloss . sweet (Cret.) (cf. s.v. in section 13 above).
The variations / and / point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.6 and 2.6.1.4).
[f.] name of a chthonic goddess in Attica, to whom a pregnant sheep
was sacrificed (Pherecyd. 45, Lyc. 710, inscr.); also (A. Fr. 277, inscr.).
The suffix - points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.41).
[m.] name of a god (Il.). Dialectal (epic, lyr.),
(Thess., Cret.), (Aeol.), (Amorgos), (Anacr.). Furne (1972: 250) recalls the pn (beside - on a coin from Teos; see
Meyer 1896: 381) and stresses that the variation / points to a non-ie =
Pre-Greek word (see 2.5.5.9a).
[f.] name of the goddess(es) of birth, often in plur. (ia). Also
(Pi., inscr.), (Call., Paus.), (Cret.), (Paros), , with assibilation (Lacon.), and other variants. Myc. E-re-u-ti-ja.
Short form (ap) and (quite different) (Plu. 2, 277b). On the
forms see Kaln (1918: 8). Beekes (1998: 24f.) shows that the suffix - is PreGreek (cf. 3.2.3.118).
[f.] popular goddess originating from Anatolia, more specifically from
Caria, and identified with Artemis. Most probably of Pre-Greek origin. Note
the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.31).
, - [f.] name of an avenging goddess; as an appellative revenge, curse

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(Il.), name of Demeter in Arcadia. Also (rejected by lsj). There is no


good ie etymology and the word is probably Pre-Greek. The variation /
may represent a palatalized phoneme ny (see 2.5.8).
[m.] name of a hero and king of Athens, son of Ge, father of Pandion
(A., E.); also name of a Trojan, son of Dardanos, father of Tros ( 219, 230).
Cf. (B 547, 80), which is also an epithet of Poseidon (inscr.); on
Attic vases . / is clearly a Pre-Greek name; more
forms are given by Furne (1972: 263). It continues a pre-form *Erektyeu- (see
2.5.5.4b).
, - [m.] Hermes, son of Zeus and Maia; also herm, head of a herm (Il.).
From epic < ; cf. . Myc. e-ma-a2 /Hermhs/ presents
the original form and shows that this is an unanalysable Pre-Greek name.
See Ruijgh (1967b: 12).
[f.] Hera, the wife of Zeus (Il.). As with most theonyms, Pre-Greek origin
is most probable.
[m.] the divine smith, god of fire, also meton. for fire (Il.). Dor. Aeol.
-, -, Att. vases . A Pre-Greek theonym; the form without -shows a typical Pre-Greek variation (see 2.6.1.1c) and points to original sy.
[m.] Iapetos (Il.). It seems obvious that the name, of a pre-Olympian
god, is Pre-Greek. A suffix - is found in Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.49).
[m.pl.] name of chthonic gods, especially on Samothrace and Lemnos,
as well as in Boeotia (Pi., Hdt., inscr.). The root of the name is clearly the same
as that in , name of the priests of Demeter on Paros. This root must
have been Pre-Greek *kabary-. The palatalized consonant explains both *a
> and the ; before the , the palatal character was neglected. See Beekes
(2004). For -- and --, see 3.2.3.41 and 3.2.3.91, respectively.
[m.], one of the , son of Kabeiro and Hephaistos; he is the
younger man, beside an older one and the Mother Goddess. Also ,
. Variation / (see 2.5.8) in the suffix -()- (see 3.2.3.7576). It is
probably a derivation of (below).
[m.] name of a hero, the founder of Thebes (Od.). (vase Rhegium). The name is found for a river in Thesprotia and for a mountain and
a river in Caria. Therefore, the word is without a doubt Pre-Greek. This is
confirmed by the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.90) and by the name (above)
which has a suffix -- (see 3.2.3.75), which is well known in Anatolia.
[m.pl.] name of two mischievous dwarfs, which were fettered by
Heracles (Hdt.), metaph. [sg.] teaser, rogue (Aeschin.); name of a long-tailed
ape (Manil.). female cicala producing no
sound (H.). The suffix -- points to Pre-Greek origin (see 3.2.3.146).
[m.] son of Laertes and Anticleia, king of the island Ithaca (Il.).

the pre-greek lexicon

163

Several by-forms with : (), (), , etc. (vase-inscr.),


(Hdn. Gr.), Lat. Ulixs. The form with -- is only ascertained by epic
literature. Several variations which are typical of Pre-Greek: / (2.6.1.3d),
/ (2.5.7a), / (2.6.1.4), () / () / (2.5.5.9a). See also Beekes (2008).
[m.] son of Laomedon, abducted by Eos (Il., Hes., et al.). The suffix -is Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.145). Furne (1972: 191) compares = (sch.
Lyc. 941), also = , (H.), with the variation / (see 2.5.1).

19

Toponyms and Ethnonyms

[m.pl.] ethnonym, Ethiopians(?). Myc. pn a-i-ti-jo-qo /Aithiokws/ (or


/--/). Of Pre-Greek origin in view of the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.93).
[m.] hn in Mysia (Il.); also pn (Il.). No doubt a Pre-Greek name; the
structure of the word, with the suffix --, is Pre-Greek (cf. 3.2.3.5364).
, [adj.] Attic. Derived from the same source as the name of Athens
(see in section 18 above), displaying , geminated , and unaspirated
, which are typical Pre-Greek variants (see 2.5.1 and 2.5.8).
[m.pl.] Danaans, a Greek tribe (Argos), used by Homer as a general
name for the Greeks. According to an ancient tradition, they took their name
from king Danaos, who came from Egypt. The name is certainly Pre-Greek;
cf. 3.2.3.7 for the suffix. A country Danaja (Tnjw), with a city Mukana, is
mentioned in inscriptions from Egypt, from Amenophis iii (13901352bc)
and earlier from Tuthmosis iii (1437bc); see dnp s.v. Danaos and Latacz
(2001: 150165).
[adj.] epithet of ( 563, A. R. 4, 811, Str., Plu.), also without a head
substantive (ig 14, 1750); rarely , (Luc., late inscr.), the
abode of the Blessed after death. A derivative in -- from a geographical
name *Alut- or *Elut-, with a long initial vowel which may be metrically
conditioned. Note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.135).
[f.] Thessaly (Hdt.). Att. -; Thess. -, Boeot. -. No
doubt a Pre-Greek name, probably from *Kwettyal- (see 2.5.5.9a and 2.5.6).
, - [f.] one of the Cyclades (inscr., Str.). Fick (1905: 59) compares
with and and Cret. , and notes
as older forms .
[m.] a promontory in Cilicia (h. Ap.). The structure of the word looks
Pre-Greek; note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.119).
[f.] a Greek island. Myc. ra-mi-ni-jo /lmnios/ man from Lemnos, Dor.
. No doubt a Pre-Greek name, note the suffix -- (cf. 3.2.3.17).
, - [f.] high chain of mountains in Thessaly (Hdt., Str.), also

164

chapter 6

mountain (Cret.) (H.). The name is no doubt Pre-Greek.


Furne (1972: 198) compares the Myc. tn o-du-ru-we, -wo (cf. Ruijgh 1967a:
185439), which points to *, with variation / (see 2.5.1).
[m.] name of several mountain ranges in Greece and the Near East,
especially at the borders of Thessaly and Macedonia; seat of Zeus and of the
gods (Il.). Ruijgh (1967a: 173) points to a variant -, Myc. u-ru-p-, with
/ (see 2.6.1.3d). Also note the suffix --, a prenasalized variant of -(see 2.5.2 and 3.2.3.132).
() [m.] mountain chain in Phocis (Pi., Od., Hdt.). It clearly contains
a Pre-Greek suffix (see 3.2.3.2930); note the interchange / (see 2.5.8).
Beekes (2009) explains the phoneme / from Pre-Greek *ky (see also
2.5.5.9a).
[?] town in Crete, in the Peloponnese, in Thessaly (Plu.). A Pre-Greek
name (delg); note the suffix -- (see 3.2.3.86). Strangely enough the name
is not mentioned in Fick (1905), except on p. 15, where no interpretation is
given.
[m.pl.] people on the west coast of Syria, also the inhabitants of
Carthage as Phoenician colonists. Older name of Caria. The suffix -- is
Pre-Greek (see 3.2.3.74).
[m.] name of a river that surrounds the world, ocean (since Il.). Also
, - (H.), (Lyc., St. Byz.), (Pherecyd. Syr. Fr. 2 D). The
variation / and the suffix -- point to Pre-Greek origin (see 2.5.1 and
3.2.3.19), as does the vocalic variation. In the framework of Pre-Greek, the
alternation / (see 2.6.1.2i) may be due to *a or * influenced by a preceding
palatalized consonant. This is confirmed by the following: as the influence
of the palatal must have been strongest in the immediately adjacent part
of the vowel, and less in the more remote part, this resulted in a sequence
[a] which was rendered as -- in . In other forms, the vowel was
changed as a whole, which resulted in . Therefore, I reconstruct a
Pre-Greek form *kyan (with - from *-, cf. 2.6.1.3k).

Bibliography
1

Book Abbreviations

delg

delg Supp.

dkp

dnp

edg
e-m

Frisk
ig
Latte
lsj

lsj Supp.
re

seg

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des mots (termin par O. Masson, J.-L. Perpillou, J. Taillardat, avec le
concours de F. Bader, J. Irigoin, D. Lecco, P. Monteil, sous la dir. de
M. Lejeune). Paris, 19681980.
Idem. Nouvelle dition avec, en supplment, les Chroniques dtymologie grecque (110), rassembles par Alain Blanc, Charles de Lamberterie
et Jean-Louis Perpillou. Paris, 2009.
Der kleine Pauly. Lexikon der Antike. Auf der Grundlage von Paulys Realencyclopdie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Unter Mitwirkung
zahlreicher Fachgelehrter bearb. und hrsg. von Konrat Ziegler und Walther Sontheimer. 5 vols. Stuttgart, 19641975.
H. Cancik and H. Schneider (eds.), Der neue Pauly. Enzyklopdie der
Antike. Das klassische Altertum und seine Rezeptionsgeschichte. Stuttgart, 2003.
R.S.P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek. With the assistance of
L. van Beek. 2 vols. Leiden, 2010.
A. Ernout and A. Meillet, Dictionnaire tymologique de la langue latine:
histoire des mots. 4me d., 4me tirage augment d additions et de corrections nouvelles par Jacques Andr. Paris, 1985.
Hj. Frisk, Griechisches etymologisches Worterbuch. 3 vols. Heidelberg,
19541972.
Inscriptiones Graecae, consilio et auctoritate Academiae Litterarum
Regiae Borussicae editae. Berlin, 1873.
Latte, K. (ed.), Hesychii Alexandrini Lexicon. Copenhagen, 1953.
A Greek-English lexicon, compiled by Henry George Liddell and Robert
Scott; revised and augmented throughout by Henry Stuart Jones with the
assistance of Roderick McKenzie, and with the co-operation of many scholars. Oxford, 19779.
A Greek-English lexicon: revised supplement, edited by P.G.W. Glare, with
the assistance of A.A. Thompson. Oxford, 1996.
Paulys Realencyclopdie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Neue
Bearbeitung. Unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher Fachgenossen herausgegeben
von G. Wissowa. 84 vols. Stuttgart, 18901980.
Supplementum epigraphicum graecum. Leiden/Amsterdam, 1923.

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Index
Index to the lemmas in chapter 6. The numbers refer to the subsections.
13
9.4
13
3.1
4.6
3.3
9.2
5.2
3.2
9.4
3.1
10.2
7.2
3.4
13
7.2
3.2
15
18
5.1
3.4
3.1
4.3
4.3
10
19
10
6
13
3.1
4.3
19
15
16
16
3.4
3.1
3.1
3.3
12.5
3.4
13
3.1
4.7

5.1
3.2
15
9.6
7.1
15
5.1
5.2
9.8
9.8
15
6
12.1
3.1
13
8
15
8
3.2
4.4
15
13
11.1
1
3.2
3.3
2
4.7
3.3
11.1
3.3
14
4.3
9.8
3.4
18
17
15
9.2
3.2
5.2
9.4
8
10

171

index
18
18
10.2
3.4
12.5
18
9.1
2
18
9.4
4.4
4.3
4.3
9.9
3.1
18
3.3
4.2
4.6
5.2
5.1
1
9.7
7.1
1 7.1
2 3.2
3.4
3.1
18
11.1
9.4
3.2
4.7
, 19
13
3.4
16
13
16
3.4
4.5
3.1
18
5.1
4.6
3.1
5.1
7.2
3.4

4.3
13
4.5
10
3.2
12.1
2
7.1
13
9.2
1
6
12.3
11.1
4.3
6
11.1
4.5
4.4
15
13
13
12.3
7.1
14
13
8
7.1
4.7
3.4
3.3
4.1
4.2
17
4.7
8
3.4
() 9.2
9.8
7.2
18
13
7.1
5.1
15
4.7
9.9
4.6
1

172
7.1
9.2
7.1
5.2
9.2
4.5
6
3.2
14
3.2
3.4
10.2
1
() 4.2
3.2
9.4
12.3
3.4
7.1
7.1
9.7
15
4.5
- 15
10.2
1
6
4.6
9.2
9.2
13
9.2
4.3
4.3
12.2
18
7.1
19
9.2
3.4
3.1
9.3
15
12.4
15
9.4
3.3
9.5
3.4

index
18
15
4.1
7.2
1
7.2
9.4
3.4
3.4
17
1
15
11.1
4.5
1
12.4
18
18
3.1
9.9
4.6
5.2
3.3
4.5
4.8
6
16
3.2
15
11.1
3.1
18
18
18
3.5
7.2
12.5
10
10
9.7
13
1
12.1
15
3.2
4.4
13
19
11.3

173

index
7.2
18
1 3.4
2 4.1
12.5
18
9.1
10
1
15
13
14
3.1
4.7
12.4
14
14
- 13
11.1
11.1
19
11.1
10
12.4
13
10
14
12.4
10
3.2
9.4
8
3.3
3.4
3.4
9.2
4.5
2
3.3
4.5
8
12.4
9.9
9.6
14
12.3
18
3.4
1

12.4
2
4.5
4.2
4.1
7.1
1
3.5
7.1
3.5
4.3
15
13
3.3
4.5
4.8
4.5
11.3
18
4.6
13
4.6
13
18
18
5.2
4.1
13
1
3.3
3.3
4.3
9.5
15
4.5
12.1
10
7.1
9.3
15
5.2
4.6
4.5
12.2
2
4.7
9.4
7.1
7.2

174
3.4
9.8
9.9
9.8
4.6
9.4
4.6
4.7
12.3
13
3.3
9.2
6
3.2
13
11.3
3.2
2
15
13
4.3
15
2
5.1
9.2
9.1
8
12.1
4.3
3.2
4.3
4.7
18
9.2
15
19
4.2
9.2
7.1
3.1
9.7
12.5
11.3
1
4.7
1
9.2
9.2
12.1

index
10
4.3
4.2
12.3
3.2
4.6
7.1
17
9.9
7.3
4.7
3.2
9.9
1 9.2
2 4.1
11.3
11.3
4.1
13
14
4.4
11.3
4.2
9.2
3.3
7.2
2
3.1
4.3
3.4
9.3
4.3
13
13
8
4.4
15
3.4
2
3.4
15
1
4.2
4.4
11.3
11.3
9.2
14
13

175

index
11.3
() 4.6
12.3
11.3
15
12.1
6
6
4.5
12.3
9.9
6
13
4.3
3.1
3.2
12.2
1
4.6
4.3
3.1
3.1
4.3
9.9
12.1
7.1
3.3
3.4
12.3
7.2
4.5
4.7
3.3
12.5
4.3
9.8
9.6
7.1
3.3
10.2
8
9.2
12.1
9.3
9.2
4.6
13
() 4.5
10

13
3.1
1
9.4
9.2
17
9.3
3.2
15
15
11.2
3.2
7.1
15
9.3
13
13
1 9.3
2 7.1
4.3
9.9
3.1
3.4
9.3
4.5
15
9.5
7.1
3.2
3.1
7.1
4.3
9.2
4.7
3.4
12.3
5.1
3.3
3.1
4.7
19
9.2
10
15
9.2
6
13
15
7.1

176
9.6
9.6
15
5.2
9.8
13
3.2
3.2
9.5
9.2
7.1
11.3
1 5.2
2 4.2
11.1
13
14
7.1
10.2
11.2
15
4.4
9.2
3.4
12.5
9.3
5.1
7.2
9.7
15
13
8
7.2
9.2
19
4.8
13
13
15
8
14
11.3
12.3
4.3
9.4
9.9
3.2
13
13

index
9.4
3.4
13
9.9
7.2
3.2
3.2
4.1
13
2
4.5
3.4
15
15
9.2
11.3
9.4
7.1
11.1
7.1
6
9.4
10
5.1
10
11.1
4.7
4.5
13
9.9
4.3
11.1
9.4
9.4
2
7.1
7.1
3.4
9.9
15
9.9
13
11.1
() 13
2
3.2
6
3.3
15

177

index
15
13
4.2
9.4
3.2
14
9.9
13
2
3.2
3.5
13
3.1
3.1
7.1
6
7.1
6
15
3.2
7.2
4.1
3.4
3.4
() 4.7
3.4
1
3.1
7.2
12.5
7.2
13
3.4
9.6
9.9
4.2
13
16
3.2
18
19
4.1
4.1
14
14
7.3
15
15
19

3.2
5.1
11.2
5.1
5.2
3.4
3.2
5.2
4.5
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.3
3.1
12.5
5.2
7.1
4.6
, - 4.6
3.1
7.1
5.2
5.1
7.1
4.3
7.1
8
10
4.6
6
7.1
12.3
13
() 19
4.7
9.9
9.2
4.3
9.6
2
4.3
9.4
1
3.3
4.5
9.6
1
4.3
9.2

178
9.9
4.6
13
11.3
4.3
6
9.6
4.5
15
9.9
10
11.2
17
15
9.9
7.1
4.7
11.2
7.1
11.1
3.1
4.1
10
4.6
4.3
15
9.9
3.1
13
3.1
1
15
13
15
4.3
5.2
8
3.2
7.1
15
3.1
1
1
1
7.2
13
9.5
4.2
13

index
4.7
1
13
9.2
4.5
12.3
3.4
1
8
3.1
9.2
4.5
9.2
6
3.1
12.5
13
13
13
4.4
3.2
13
4.7
11.3
2
4.7
7.1
4.1
4.2
() 9.5
3.1
3.2
4.5
4.7
3.3
3.3
9.4
9.2
5.1
8
17
8
9.2
9.8
13
15
15
3.2
4.3

179

index
13
() 3.3
3.4
12.4
10.2
15
9.4
15
4.4
13
15
13
4.2
7.3
() 9.9
7.3
12.3
7.2
4.7
10
3.2
15
4.7
4.7
6
3.3
2
7.1
4.3
15
4.3
4.5
3.1
4.2
13
2
7.2
, -- 3.4
3.2
7.1
9.4
4.2
14
13
4.3
4.5
4.6
11.1
4.1

1
1
1
2
9.6
9.2
15
5.2
5.1
11.2
1
7.1
1
13
, - 15
() 4.3
13
3.3
9.9
4.5
3.2
12.3
9.2
3.1
3.3
3.1
9.9
15
12.5
6
4.7
7.1
, -- 9.9
6
9.4
3.4
2
14
2
6
15
9.1
15
5.2
6
9.2
15
4.6
11.3

180
4.7
10
3.1
3.1
3.2
, - 8
4.6
9.1
4.1
3.3
18
10
15
3.4
4.1
15
9.6
2
3.3
9.8
3.1
10
15
11.1
9.3
15
4.7
9.4
10
12.3
11.1
14
10
3.4
2
3.5
9.4
4.2
9.2
3.1
, -- 8
9.9
9.3
4.2
4.5
4.1
3.3
19
9.9

index
7.1
9.9
7.1
13
4.2
7.1
13
1
3.3
7.1
9.6
9.2
9.4
4.2
13
7.2
11.3
3.1
9.3
3.2
5.2
11.3
15
3.3
11.3
7.2
19
13
13
13
4.1
13
12.3
15
4.4
11.3
11.2
4.2
9.2
12.3
9.7
9.1
9.7
5.2
4.5
15
3.2
4.3
4.5

181

index
1 7.1
2 4.4
2
4.6
1
5.1
8
13
10
5.1
4.5
16
15
13
1
15
10.2
9.7
8

15
1
12.1
9.1
7.2
15
5.2
15
2
7.1
14
2
2
12.5
7.2
19
3.3
7.1
4.2