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Exercises in Signals, Systems, and Transforms

Ivan W. Selesnick Last edit: September 19, 2013

Contents

1 Discrete-Time Signals and Systems

 

3

Signals .

1.1 .

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3

1.2 System Properties

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5

1.3 More Convolution

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10

1.4 Z Transforms

 

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15

1.5 Inverse Systems

 

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18

1.6 Difference Equations

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19

1.7 Complex Poles

 

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24

1.8 Frequency Responses

 

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36

1.9 Summary Problems

 

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61

1.10 Simple System Design

 

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65

1.11 Matching

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66

1.12 More Problems

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75

2 Continuous-Time Signals and Systems

 

78

2.1 Signals .

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78

2.2 System Properties

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79

2.3 Convolution .

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85

2.4 Laplace Transform

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90

2.5 Differential Equations

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91

2.6 Complex Poles

 

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94

2.7 Frequency Response

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102

2.8 Matching

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129

2.9 Simple System Design

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130

2.10 Summary

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132

3 Fourier Transform

 

138

3.1 Fourier Transform

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138

3.2 Fourier Series

 

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146

3.3 Modulation

 

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148

4 The Sampling Theorem

 

150

 

1

Homework assignments: EL 6113, Fall 2013

HW 1 Signals: 1.1.6, 1.1.7 System properties: 1.2.1 (a, b, c, d), 1.2.2, 1.2.6, 1.2.8, 1.2.15, Convolution: 1.3.1 (a, b, d, f), 1.3.2, 1.3.3, 1.3.9, 1.3.11, 1.3.12 Z-transforms: 1.4.1, 1.4.3, 1.4.5, Speech recording: 14.1 in the DSP exercise packet.

HW 2 Convolution: 1.3.7, 1.3.8, 1.3.10, 1.3.13 Z-transforms: 1.4.7, 1.4.8, 1.4.9, 1.4.10, 1.4.12, Inverse systems: 1.5.1, 1.5.2, 1.5.3

HW 3 Difference equations: 1.6.1, 1.6.2, 1.6.3, 1.6.4, 1.6.5, 1.6.6, 1.6.7 (a, b), 1.6.8, 1.6.9 Complex poles: 1.7.1 1.7.2, 1.7.4, 1.7.9, 1.7.11, 1.7.12, 1.7.13 Frequency response: 1.8.1, 1.8.2, 1.8.4, 1.8.5, 1.8.8, 1.8.9, 1.8.10, 1.8.12, 1.8.15, 1.8.16, Not to turn in: 1.6.14, 1.6.15, 1.7.6, 1.8.18,

2

1

Discrete-Time Signals and Systems

1.1

Signals

1.1.1 Make an accurate sketch of each of the discrete-time signals

(a)

x(n) = u(n + 3) + 0.5 u(n 1)

(b)

x(n) = δ(n + 3) + 0.5 δ(n 1)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

x(n) = 2 n · δ(n 4)

x(n) = 2 n · u(n 2)

x(n) = (1) n u(n 4).

x(n) =

x(n) =

x(n) =

2 δ(n + 4) δ(n 2) + u(n 3)

k=0

4 δ(n 3 k 1)

k=−∞

(1) k δ(n 3 k)

1.1.2 Make a sketch of each of the following signals

(a)

(b)

(c)

x(n) =

k=−∞

(0.9) |k| δ(n k)

x(n) = cos(π n) u(n)

x(n) = u(n) 2 u(n 4) + u(n 8)

1.1.3 Sketch x(n),

x 1 (n), x 2 (n), and x 3 (n) where

x(n) = u(n + 4) u(n),

x 1 (n) = x(n 3),

x 2 (n) = x(5 n),

x 3 (n) =

n

k=−∞

x(k)

1.1.4

Sketch x(n) and x 1 (n) where

x(n) = (0.5) n u(n),

x 1 (n) =

n

k=−∞

x(k)

1.1.5 Sketch x(n) and x 1 (n) where

x(n) = n [δ(n 5) + δ(n 3)],

x 1 (n) =

n

x(k)

k=−∞

1.1.6 Make a sketch of each of the following signals

(a)

(b)

(c)

f(n) =

g(n) =

k=0

(0.9) k δ(n 3 k)

k=−∞

(0.9) |k| δ(n 3 k)

x(n) = cos(0.25 π n) u(n)

(d)

x(n) = cos(0.5 π n) u(n)

1.1.7 Plotting discrete-time signals in MATLAB.

Use stem to plot the discrete-time impulse function:

n

=

-10:10;

f

=

(n

==

0);

stem(n,f)

Use stem to plot the discrete-time step function:

f

stem(n,f)

Make stem plots of the following signals. Decide for yourself what the range of n should be.

=

(n

>=

0);

f (n)

=

u(n) u(n 4)

(1)

g(n)

=

r(n) 2 r(n 5) + r(n 10)

where r(n) := nu(n)

(2)

x(n)

=

δ(n) 2 δ(n 4)

(3)

y(n)

=

(0.9) n (u(n) u(n 20))

(4)

v(n) = cos(0.12 πn) u(n)

 

(5)

4

1.2

System Properties

1.2.1 A discrete-time system may be classified as follows:

memoryless/with memory

causal/noncausal

linear/nonlinear

time-invariant/time-varying

BIBO stable/unstable

Classify each of the following discrete-times systems.

(a)

y(n) = cos(x(n)).

(b)

y(n) = 2 n 2 x(n) + n x(n + 1).

(c)

y(n) = max {x(n), x(n + 1)}

Note: the notation max{a, b} means for example; max{4, 6} = 6.

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

y(n) =

x(n) x(n 1)

when n is even

when

n is odd

y(n) =

x(n) + 2 x(n 1) 3 x(n 2).

y(n) =

That is,

y(n) =

k=0

(1/2) k x(n k).

x(n) + (1/2) x(n 1) + (1/4) x(n 2) + · · ·

y(n) = x(2 n)

1.2.2 A discrete-time system is described by the following rule

y(n) = 0.5 x(2n) + 0.5 x(2n 1)

where x is the input signal, and y the output signal.

(a) Sketch the output signal, y(n), produced by the 4-point input signal, x(n) illustrated below.

3

 

2

  2 2

2

x(n)

x ( n )
x ( n )
     
      1

1

  2 2 x ( n )       1
  2 2 x ( n )       1
  2 2 x ( n )       1
  2 2 x ( n )       1
  2 2 x ( n )       1
3   2 2 x ( n )       1 -2 -1 0 1

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

n

 

5

(b)

Sketch the output signal, y(n), produced by the 4-point input signal, x(n) illustrated below.

 

3

3
 

2

2

 

x(n)

 
  x ( n )  
  x ( n )  
     
      1

1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

n

(c)

Classify the system as:

i. causal/non-causal

ii. linear/nonlinear

iii. time-invariant/time-varying

1.2.3 A discrete-time system is described by the following rule

y(n) = x(n), x(n),

when n is an even integer when n is an odd integer

where x is the input signal, and y the output signal.

(a)

Sketch the output signal, y(n), produced by the 5-point input signal, x(n) illustrated below.

3

by the 5-point input signal, x ( n ) illustrated below. 3 2 2 x (

2

by the 5-point input signal, x ( n ) illustrated below. 3 2 2 x (

2

the 5-point input signal, x ( n ) illustrated below. 3 2 2 x ( n

x(n)

input signal, x ( n ) illustrated below. 3 2 2 x ( n ) 1
input signal, x ( n ) illustrated below. 3 2 2 x ( n ) 1

1

input signal, x ( n ) illustrated below. 3 2 2 x ( n ) 1

1

input signal, x ( n ) illustrated below. 3 2 2 x ( n ) 1
input signal, x ( n ) illustrated below. 3 2 2 x ( n ) 1
input signal, x ( n ) illustrated below. 3 2 2 x ( n ) 1
input signal, x ( n ) illustrated below. 3 2 2 x ( n ) 1

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

n

(b)

Classify the system as:

i. linear/nonlinear

ii. time-invariant/time-varying

iii. stable/unstable

1.2.4 System classification:

6

1.2.5 A discrete-time system is described by the following rule y ( n ) =

1.2.5 A discrete-time system is described by the following rule

y(n) = (1) n x(n) + 2 x(n 1)

where x is the input signal, and y the output signal.

(a)

Accurately sketch the output signal, y(n), produced by the input signal x(n) illustrated below.

 

3

3
 

2

 
 

x(n)

 
  x ( n )  
1   1

1

 
1   1

1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

n

(b)

Classify the system as:

i. causal/non-causal ii. linear/nonlinear iii. time-invariant/time-varying

1.2.6 Predict the output of an LTI system:

 

7

1.2.7 The impulse response of a discrete-time LTI system is h ( n ) =

1.2.7

The impulse response of a discrete-time LTI system is

h(n) = 2 δ(n) + 3 δ(n 1) + δ(n 2).

Find and sketch the output of this system when the input is the signal

x(n) = δ(n) + 3 δ(n 1) + 2 δ(n 2).

1.2.8

1.2.9

Consider a discrete-time LTI system described by the rule

y(n) = x(n 5) + 1 2 x(n 7).

What is the impulse response h(n) of this system?

The impulse response of a discrete-time LTI system is

h(n) = δ(n) + 2 δ(n 1) + δ(n 2).

Sketch the output of this system when the input is

1.2.10

x(n) =

k=0

δ(n 4 k).

The impulse response of a discrete-time LTI system is

h(n) = 2 δ(n) δ(n 4).

Find and sketch the output of this system when the input is the step function

1.2.11

x(n) = u(n).

Consider the discrete-time LTI system with impulse response

(a)

h(n) = n u(n).

Find and sketch the output y(n) when the input x(n) is

x(n) = δ(n) 2 δ(n 5) + δ(n 10).

(b)

Classify the system as BIBO stable/unstable.

8

1.2.12

Predict the output of an LTI system:

1.2.12 Predict the output of an LTI system: 1.2.13 The impulse response h ( n )

1.2.13 The impulse response