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EE 2302 ELECTRICAL MACHINES - II

TEXT BOOKS

1. D.P. Kothari and I.J. Nagrath, Electric Machines, Tata McGraw


Hill Publishing Company Ltd 2002.
2. P.S. Bhimbhra, Electrical Machinery, Khanna Publishers, 2003.
REFERENCES
1. J.B. Gupta, Theory and Performance of Electrical Machines,
S.K.Kataria and Sons, 2002.
2. K. Murugesh Kumar, Induction and Synchronous Machines,
Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 2002.
3. V.k.Mehta, Principle of Electric Machines, S.Chand & Co.

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UNIT - III
THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
POLY PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
denotes two or more phases
Asynchronous Motor Rotating Transformer
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History
Inventors
RMF concept Galileo Ferraris 1885
Later by Nikola Tesla 1887
US patents Nov. 1887
Technical Paper A new system of AC Motor and
transformer May 1888 (AIEE- American Institute of
Electrical Engineering)
Licensed in 1888- First Manufacturer- GEC General
Electric Company

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Reason behind the name


phase induction motors convert three phase AC
electrical energy into mechanical energy.

Three

The stator winding is fed from 3-phase AC supply.

The rotor winding derives its voltage and power from the
externally energized stator winding through electromagnetic
induction principle and hence the name.

i.e., there is no electrical connection from the


rotor to any source of supply.
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Of all electric motors, three-phase induction motor


is the most extensively used in industries, domestic
applications and in other applications.
All over the world , about 80% of total energy
conversion from electrical to mechnical is carried
out by three-phase induction motors.

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Advantages of three-phase induction motors


Simple

and extremely rugged construction.

Low cost and reliability.


Requires minimum maintenance.
High

efficiency ( full load efficiency varies from 85% to 94%)


and good power factor (full load power factor varies from 0.85
to 0.92 lagging in nature)

It

has self-starting torque.

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Disadvantages of three-phase induction motors


Speed decreases with increase in load.

Its

starting torque is inferior to D.C shunt motor.

It is nearly a constant speed motor and its speed cannot be


changed easily.

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CLASSIFICATION
1. Single-phase induction motor
2. Three phase induction motor

According to its rotor construction

Slip ring OR phase


wound rotor

Squirrel cage rotor

Single cage

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Double cage

Construction
1. Stator the part i.e., three phase windings, which is stationary.
2. Rotor the part which rotates and is connected to mechanical
load via shaft.

Stator stamping

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Stator core with 3-phase winding

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Stator Assembly

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Stator terminal connections

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Squirrel cage rotor

Skewed slots

Short circuits all


rotor bars.

/rotor winding

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End ring

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Squirrel cage rotor


End ring

Copper bars

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Stator

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3-PH, HV, SCIM, 4155HP/3.1MW, 11kV, 2974r.p.m., 195A 50 Hz


BROKEN ROTOR BAR LIFTED OUT OF THE SLOT

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3-PH, HV, SCIM, 4155HP/3.1MW, 11kV, 2974r.p.m., 195A BROKEN ROTOR BAR LIFTED IN
THE SLOT SECONDARY DAMAGE TO HV STATOR

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Symbolic representation of squirrel cage induction motor

Star connected stator

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Delta connected stator

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Slip ring OR phase wound rotor


Shaft

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3-phase
winding

Skewed slots

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Slip rings

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Symbolic representation of slip ring induction motor

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Skewed slots
The slots on the rotor are always not parallel to the rotor shaft but
are usually skewed. (slanting angle of rotor slot with respect to
shaft axis)

Purpose of skewing
1.It provides uniform torque.
2. It reduces the magnetic locking of the stator and rotor.

3. It reduces the magnetic humming noise while running.

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Comparison
Squirrel cage rotor

Wound or slip ring rotor


Rotor consists of threephase winding similar to
the stator winding.

Rotor consists of copper


bars and is short circuited
by two end rings.

Construction is
complicated
Slip rings and brushes are
present to add external
resistance

Construction is simple

Frequent maintenance is
necessary
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Slip rings and brushes are


absent, external
resistance cannot be
added
Maintenance free

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The rotors very costly

The rotors are cheap

High staring torque can be Moderate starting torque


obtained and controlled
which cannot be
controlled
Rotor resistance starter
Rotor resistance starter
can be used
cannot be used
Speed control by rotor
Not possible
resistance is possible
Rotor copper losses are
Vice versa
high ,hence efficiency is
less
Used for high starting
Used for low starting
toque loads ,such as
toque loads ,such as
lifts,hoists,cranes,elevators lathes, drilling machines,
, compressors etc.,
fans blowers, water
pumps, grinders etc.,
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