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Airtrafficcontrol

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Airtrafficcontrol(ATC)isaserviceprovidedbygroundbased
controllerswhodirectaircraftonthegroundandthroughcontrolled
airspace,andcanprovideadvisoryservicestoaircraftinnon
controlledairspace.TheprimarypurposeofATCworldwideisto
preventcollisions,organizeandexpeditetheflowoftraffic,and
provideinformationandothersupportforpilots.[1]Insome
countries,ATCplaysasecurityordefensiverole,orisoperatedby
themilitary.
Topreventcollisions,ATCenforcestrafficseparationrules,which
ensureeachaircraftmaintainsaminimumamountofemptyspace
arounditatalltimes.Manyaircraftalsohavecollisionavoidance
systems,whichprovideadditionalsafetybywarningpilotswhen
otheraircraftgettooclose.

AirportTrafficControlTowerat
BordeauxMrignacAirport

Inmanycountries,ATCprovidesservicestoallprivate,military,
andcommercialaircraftoperatingwithinitsairspace.Dependingon
thetypeofflightandtheclassofairspace,ATCmayissue
instructionsthatpilotsarerequiredtoobey,oradvisories(knownas
flightinformationinsomecountries)thatpilotsmay,attheir
discretion,disregard.Thepilotincommandisthefinalauthorityfor
thesafeoperationoftheaircraftandmay,inanemergency,deviate
fromATCinstructionstotheextentrequiredtomaintainsafe
operationoftheiraircraft.

Contents
1Language
2History
3Airportcontrol
3.1Groundcontrol
3.2Localcontroloraircontrol
3.3Flightdata/clearancedelivery
3.4Approachandterminalcontrol
4Enroute,center,orareacontrol
4.1Generalcharacteristics
4.2Radarcoverage
4.3Flighttrafficmapping
5Problems
5.1Traffic
5.2Weather
6Callsigns
7Technology
8Airnavigationserviceproviders(ANSPs)andairtraffic

AirportTrafficControlTower
(ATCT)atSuvarnabhumiAirport,
Thailand.

8Airnavigationserviceproviders(ANSPs)andairtraffic
serviceproviders(ATSPs)
9Proposedchanges
10ATCregulationsintheUnitedStates
11Seealso
12References
13Externallinks

Language
PursuanttorequirementsoftheInternationalCivilAviationOrganization(ICAO),ATCoperationsare
conductedeitherintheEnglishlanguageorthelanguageusedby
thestationontheground.[2]Inpractice,thenativelanguagefora
regionisnormallyusedhowever,theEnglishlanguagemustbe
useduponrequest.[2]

History
In1921,CroydonAirport,Londonwasthefirstairportinthe
worldtointroduceairtrafficcontrol.[3]
InAmerica,AirTrafficControldevelopedthreedivisions.The
firstAirMailRadioStations(AMRS)wascreatedin1922after
WorldWar1whentheUSPostOfficebeganusingtechniques
developedbytheArmytodirectandtrackthemovementsof
reconnaissanceaircraft.OvertimetheAMRSmorphedinto
FlightServiceStations.Today'sFlightServiceStationsdonot
issuecontrolinstructions,butprovidepilotswithmanyother
flightrelatedinformationalservices.Theydorelaycontrol
AirportTrafficControlTower1(ATCT
instructionsfromATCinareaswhereFlightServiceistheonly
1)atKualaLumpurInternational
facilitywithradioorphonecoverage.ThefirstAirportTraffic
Airport,Malaysia.
ControlTower,regulatingarrivals,departuresandsurface
movementofaircraftataspecificairport,openedinClevelandin
1930.Approach/DepartureControlfacilitieswerecreatedafteradoptionofRADARinthe1950stomonitor
andcontrolthebusyairspacearoundlargerairports.ThefirstAirRouteTrafficControlCenter,which
directsthemovementofaircraftbetweendepartureanddestinationwasopenedinNewark,NJin1935,
followedin1936byChicagoandCleveland.[4]

Airportcontrol
Theprimarymethodofcontrollingtheimmediateairportenvironmentisvisualobservationfromtheairport
controltower(TWR).Thetowerisatall,windowedstructurelocatedontheairportgrounds.Airtraffic
controllersareresponsiblefortheseparationandefficientmovementofaircraftandvehiclesoperatingon
thetaxiwaysandrunwaysoftheairportitself,andaircraftintheairneartheairport,generally5to10
nauticalmiles(9to18km)dependingontheairportprocedures.

Surveillancedisplaysarealsoavailabletocontrollersatlargerairportstoassistwithcontrollingairtraffic.
Controllersmayusearadarsystemcalledsecondarysurveillanceradarforairbornetrafficapproachingand
departing.Thesedisplaysincludeamapofthearea,thepositionofvariousaircraft,anddatatagsthat
includeaircraftidentification,speed,altitude,andotherinformationdescribedinlocalprocedures.In
adverseweatherconditionsthetowercontrollersmayalsousesurfacemovementradar(SMR),surface
movementguidanceandcontrolsystems(SMGCS)oradvancedSMGCStocontroltrafficonthe
manoeuvringarea(taxiwaysandrunway).
TheareasofresponsibilityforTWRcontrollersfallintothreegeneraloperationaldisciplinesLocalControl
orAirControl,GroundControl,andFlightData/ClearanceDeliveryothercategories,suchasApron
ControlorGroundMovementPlanner,mayexistatextremelybusyairports.WhileeachTWRmayhave
uniqueairportspecificprocedures,suchasmultipleteamsofcontrollers('crews')atmajororcomplex
airportswithmultiplerunways,thefollowingprovidesageneralconceptofthedelegationof
responsibilitieswithintheTWRenvironment.
RemoteandVirtualTower(RVT)isasystembasedonAir
TrafficControllersbeinglocatedsomewhereotherthanatthe
localairporttowerandstillabletoprovideAirTrafficControl
services.DisplaysfortheAirTrafficControllersmaybeeither
opticallivevideoand/orsyntheticimagesbasedonsurveillance
sensordata.

Groundcontrol
GroundControl(sometimesknownasGroundMovement
Control)isresponsiblefortheairport"movement"areas,aswell
asareasnotreleasedtotheairlinesorotherusers.Thisgenerally
includesalltaxiways,inactiverunways,holdingareas,andsome
transitionalapronsorintersectionswhereaircraftarrive,having
vacatedtherunwayordeparturegate.Exactareasandcontrol
responsibilitiesareclearlydefinedinlocaldocumentsand
agreementsateachairport.Anyaircraft,vehicle,orperson
AirportTrafficControlTower2(ATCT
walkingorworkingintheseareasisrequiredtohaveclearance
2)atKualaLumpurInternational
fromGroundControl.ThisisnormallydoneviaVHF/UHF
Airport,Malaysia.
radio,buttheremaybespecialcaseswhereotherproceduresare
used.AircraftorvehicleswithoutradiosmustrespondtoATC
instructionsviaaviationlightsignalsorelsebeledbyvehicleswithradios.Peopleworkingontheairport
surfacenormallyhaveacommunicationslinkthroughwhichtheycancommunicatewithGroundControl,
commonlyeitherbyhandheldradioorevencellphone.GroundControlisvitaltothesmoothoperationof
theairport,becausethispositionimpactsthesequencingofdepartureaircraft,affectingthesafetyand
efficiencyoftheairport'soperation.
SomebusierairportshaveSurfaceMovementRadar(SMR),suchas,ASDE3,AMASSorASDEX,
designedtodisplayaircraftandvehiclesontheground.TheseareusedbyGroundControlasanadditional
tooltocontrolgroundtraffic,particularlyatnightorinpoorvisibility.Thereareawiderangeof
capabilitiesonthesesystemsastheyarebeingmodernized.Oldersystemswilldisplayamapoftheairport
andthetarget.Newersystemsincludethecapabilitytodisplayhigherqualitymapping,radartarget,data
blocks,andsafetyalerts,andtointerfacewithothersystemssuchasdigitalflightstrips.

Localcontroloraircontrol
LocalControl(knowntopilotsas"Tower"or"TowerControl")isresponsiblefortheactiverunway
surfaces.LocalControlclearsaircraftfortakeofforlanding,ensuringthatprescribedrunwayseparation
willexistatalltimes.IfLocalControldetectsanyunsafecondition,alandingaircraftmaybetoldto"go
around"andberesequencedintothelandingpatternbytheapproachorterminalareacontroller.
WithintheTWR,ahighlydisciplinedcommunicationsprocessbetweenLocalControlandGroundControl
isanabsolutenecessity.GroundControlmustrequestandgainapprovalfromLocalControltocrossany
activerunwaywithanyaircraftorvehicle.Likewise,LocalControlmustensurethatGroundControlis
awareofanyoperationsthatwillimpactthetaxiways,andworkwiththeapproachradarcontrollersto
create"holes"or"gaps"inthearrivaltraffictoallowtaxiingtraffictocrossrunwaysandtoallowdeparting
aircrafttotakeoff.CrewResourceManagement(CRM)procedures
areoftenusedtoensurethiscommunicationprocessisefficientand
clear,althoughthisisnotasprevalentasCRMforpilots.

Flightdata/clearancedelivery
ClearanceDeliveryisthepositionthatissuesrouteclearancesto
aircraft,typicallybeforetheycommencetaxiing.Thesecontain
detailsoftheroutethattheaircraftisexpectedtoflyafter
departure.ClearanceDeliveryor,atbusyairports,theTraffic
ManagementCoordinator(TMC)will,ifnecessary,coordinate
withtheenroutecenterandnationalcommandcenterorflow
controltoobtainreleasesforaircraft.Often,however,suchreleases
aregivenautomaticallyorarecontrolledbylocalagreements
allowing"freeflow"departures.Whenweatherorextremelyhigh
demandforacertainairportorairspacebecomesafactor,there
maybeground"stops"(or"slotdelays")orreroutesmaybe
necessarytoensurethesystemdoesnotgetoverloaded.The
TrafficControlToweratOslo
primaryresponsibilityofClearanceDeliveryistoensurethatthe
GardermoenAirport,Norway
aircrafthavetheproperrouteandslottime.Thisinformationisalso
coordinatedwiththeenroutecenterandGroundControlinorderto
ensurethattheaircraftreachestherunwayintimetomeettheslottimeprovidedbythecommandcenter.
Atsomeairports,ClearanceDeliveryalsoplansaircraftpushbacksandenginestarts,inwhichcaseitis
knownastheGroundMovementPlanner(GMP):thispositionisparticularlyimportantatheavily
congestedairportstopreventtaxiwayandaprongridlock.
FlightData(whichisroutinelycombinedwithClearanceDelivery)isthepositionthatisresponsiblefor
ensuringthatbothcontrollersandpilotshavethemostcurrentinformation:pertinentweatherchanges,
outages,airportgrounddelays/groundstops,runwayclosures,etc.FlightDatamayinformthepilotsusinga
recordedcontinuouslooponaspecificfrequencyknownastheAutomaticTerminalInformationService
(ATIS).

Approachandterminalcontrol

Manyairportshavearadarcontrolfacilitythatisassociatedwiththeairport.Inmostcountries,thisis
referredtoasTerminalControlintheU.S.,itisreferredtoasaTRACON(TerminalRadarApproach
Control).Whileeveryairportvaries,terminalcontrollersusuallyhandletrafficina30to50nauticalmile
(56to93km)radiusfromtheairport.Wheretherearemanybusyairportsclosetogether,oneconsolidated
TerminalControlCentermayservicealltheairports.Theairspaceboundariesandaltitudesassignedtoa
TerminalControlCenter,whichvarywidelyfromairporttoairport,arebasedonfactorssuchastraffic
flows,neighboringairportsandterrain.AlargeandcomplexexampleistheLondonTerminalControl
CentrewhichcontrolstrafficforfivemainLondonairportsupto20,000feet(6,100m)andoutto100
nauticalmiles(190km).
TerminalcontrollersareresponsibleforprovidingallATCserviceswithintheirairspace.Trafficflowis
broadlydividedintodepartures,arrivals,andoverflights.Asaircraftmoveinandoutoftheterminal
airspace,theyarehandedofftothenextappropriatecontrolfacility(acontroltower,anenroutecontrol
facility,oraborderingterminalorapproachcontrol).Terminalcontrolisresponsibleforensuringthat
aircraftareatanappropriatealtitudewhentheyarehandedoff,andthataircraftarriveatasuitableratefor
landing.
Notallairportshavearadarapproachorterminalcontrolavailable.
Inthiscase,theenroutecenteroraneighboringterminalor
approachcontrolmaycoordinatedirectlywiththetoweronthe
airportandvectorinboundaircrafttoapositionfromwheretheycan
landvisually.Atsomeoftheseairports,thetowermayprovidea
nonradarproceduralapproachservicetoarrivingaircrafthanded
overfromaradarunitbeforetheyarevisualtoland.Someunitsalso
haveadedicatedapproachunitwhichcanprovidetheprocedural
approachserviceeitherallthetimeorforanyperiodsofradar
outageforanyreason.
IntheU.S.,TRACONsareadditionallydesignatedbyathreeletter
alphanumericcode.Forexample,theChicagoTRACONis
designatedC90.[5]

Enroute,center,orareacontrol
ATCprovidesservicestoaircraftinflightbetweenairportsaswell.
Pilotsflyunderoneoftwosetsofrulesforseparation:VisualFlight
Rules(VFR)orInstrumentFlightRules(IFR).Airtrafficcontrollers
havedifferentresponsibilitiestoaircraftoperatingunderthe
AirportTrafficControlTowerat
differentsetsofrules.WhileIFRflightsareunderpositivecontrol,
JuandaInternationalAirport,
intheUSVFRpilotscanrequestflightfollowing,whichprovides
Indonesia
trafficadvisoryservicesonatimepermittingbasisandmayalso
provideassistanceinavoidingareasofweatherandflight
restrictions.AcrossEurope,pilotsmayrequestfora"FlightInformationService",whichissimilartoflight
following.IntheUKitisknownasa"TrafficService".
Enrouteairtrafficcontrollersissueclearancesandinstructionsforairborneaircraft,andpilotsarerequired
tocomplywiththeseinstructions.Enroutecontrollersalsoprovideairtrafficcontrolservicestomany
smallerairportsaroundthecountry,includingclearanceoffofthegroundandclearanceforapproachtoan

airport.Controllersadheretoasetofseparationstandardsthatdefinetheminimumdistanceallowed
betweenaircraft.ThesedistancesvarydependingontheequipmentandproceduresusedinprovidingATC
services.

Generalcharacteristics
EnrouteairtrafficcontrollersworkinfacilitiescalledAirTraffic
ControlCenters,eachofwhichiscommonlyreferredtoasa
"Center".TheUnitedStatesusestheequivalenttermAirRoute
TrafficControlCenter(ARTCC).Eachcenterisresponsiblefor
manythousandsofsquaremilesofairspace(knownasaFlight
InformationRegion)andfortheairportswithinthatairspace.
CenterscontrolIFRaircraftfromthetimetheydepartfroman
airportorterminalarea'sairspacetothetimetheyarriveatanother
airportorterminalarea'sairspace.Centersmayalso"pickup"VFR
aircraftthatarealreadyairborneandintegratethemintotheIFR
system.Theseaircraftmust,however,remainVFRuntiltheCenter
providesaclearance.
Centercontrollersareresponsibleforissuinginstructionstopilotsto
climbtheiraircrafttotheirassignedaltitudewhile,atthesametime,
ensuringthattheaircraftisproperlyseparatedfromallotheraircraft
intheimmediatearea.Additionally,theaircraftmustbeplacedina
flowconsistentwiththeaircraft'srouteofflight.Thiseffortis
complicatedbycrossingtraffic,severeweather,specialmissions
thatrequirelargeairspaceallocations,andtrafficdensity.Whenthe
aircraftapproachesitsdestination,thecenterisresponsiblefor
issuinginstructionstopilotssothattheywillmeetaltitude
restrictionsbyspecificpoints,aswellasprovidingmanydestination
airportswithatrafficflow,whichprohibitsallofthearrivalsbeing
"bunchedtogether".These"flowrestrictions"oftenbegininthe
middleoftheroute,ascontrollerswillpositionaircraftlandingin
thesamedestinationsothatwhentheaircraftareclosetotheir
destinationtheyaresequenced.

NewLaGuardiaAirport(LGA)
ControlTowerinNewYorkCity.

AsanaircraftreachestheboundaryofaCenter'scontrolareaitis
ControlTowerBrusselsAirport
"handedoff"or"handedover"tothenextAreaControlCenter.In
somecasesthis"handoff"processinvolvesatransferof
identificationanddetailsbetweencontrollerssothatairtrafficcontrolservicescanbeprovidedina
seamlessmannerinothercaseslocalagreementsmayallow"silenthandovers"suchthatthereceiving
centerdoesnotrequireanycoordinationiftrafficispresentedinanagreedmanner.Afterthehandoff,the
aircraftisgivenafrequencychangeandbeginstalkingtothenextcontroller.Thisprocesscontinuesuntil
theaircraftishandedofftoaterminalcontroller("approach").

Radarcoverage

Sincecenterscontrolalargeairspacearea,theywilltypicallyuselongrangeradarthathasthecapability,at
higheraltitudes,toseeaircraftwithin200nauticalmiles(370km)oftheradarantenna.Theymayalsouse
TRACONradardatatocontrolwhenitprovidesabetter"picture"ofthetrafficorwhenitcanfillina
portionoftheareanotcoveredbythelongrangeradar.
IntheU.S.system,athigheraltitudes,over90%oftheU.S.airspaceiscoveredbyradarandoftenby
multipleradarsystemshowever,coveragemaybeinconsistentatloweraltitudesusedbyunpressurized
aircraftduetohighterrainordistancefromradarfacilities.Acentermayrequirenumerousradarsystemsto
covertheairspaceassignedtothem,andmayalsorelyonpilotpositionreportsfromaircraftflyingbelow
thefloorofradarcoverage.Thisresultsinalargeamountofdatabeingavailabletothecontroller.To
addressthis,automationsystemshavebeendesignedthat
consolidatetheradardataforthecontroller.Thisconsolidation
includeseliminatingduplicateradarreturns,ensuringthebestradar
foreachgeographicalareaisprovidingthedata,anddisplayingthe
datainaneffectiveformat.
Centersalsoexercisecontrolovertraffictravellingovertheworld's
oceanareas.TheseareasarealsoFIRs.Becausetherearenoradar
systemsavailableforoceaniccontrol,oceaniccontrollersprovide
ATCservicesusingproceduralcontrol.Theseproceduresuse
aircraftpositionreports,time,altitude,distance,andspeedtoensure
separation.Controllersrecordinformationonflightprogressstrips
andinspeciallydevelopedoceaniccomputersystemsasaircraft
reportpositions.Thisprocessrequiresthataircraftbeseparatedby
greaterdistances,whichreducestheoverallcapacityforanygiven
route.SeeforexampletheNorthAtlanticTracksystem.
SomeAirNavigationServiceProviders(e.g.AirservicesAustralia,
TheFederalAviationAdministration,NAVCANADA,etc.)have
ChhatrapatiShivajiInternational
implementedautomaticdependentsurveillancebroadcast(ADS
AirportControlTowerinMumbai,
B)aspartoftheirsurveillancecapability.Thisnewtechnology
India.
reversestheradarconcept.Insteadofradar"finding"atargetby
interrogatingthetransponder,theADSequippedaircraftsendsa
positionreportasdeterminedbythenavigationequipmentonboard
theaircraft.Normally,ADSoperatesinthe"contract"modewhere
theaircraftreportsaposition,automaticallyorinitiatedbythepilot,
basedonapredeterminedtimeinterval.Itisalsopossiblefor
controllerstorequestmorefrequentreportstomorequickly
establishaircraftpositionforspecificreasons.However,sincethe
costforeachreportischargedbytheADSserviceproviderstothe
companyoperatingtheaircraft,morefrequentreportsarenot
commonlyrequestedexceptinemergencysituations.ADSis
significantbecauseitcanbeusedwhereitisnotpossibletolocate
InsidetheSoPauloGuarulhos
theinfrastructureforaradarsystem(e.g.overwater).Computerized
InternationalAirport'stower.
radardisplaysarenowbeingdesignedtoacceptADSinputsaspart
ofthedisplay.Thistechnologyiscurrentlyusedinportionsofthe
NorthAtlanticandthePacificbyavarietyofstateswhoshareresponsibilityforthecontrolofthisairspace.

Precisionapproachradarsarecommonlyusedbymilitarycontrollersofairforcesofseveralcountries,to
assistthePilotinfinalphasesoflandinginplaceswhereInstrumentLandingSystemandother
sophisticatedairborneequipmentareunavailabletoassistthepilots
inmarginalornearzerovisibilityconditions.Thisprocedureisalso
calledTalkdowns.
ARadarArchiveSystem(RAS)keepsanelectronicrecordofall
radarinformation,preservingitforafewweeks.Thisinformation
canbeusefulforsearchandrescue.Whenanaircrafthas
'disappeared'fromradarscreens,acontrollercanreviewthelast
radarreturnsfromtheaircrafttodetermineitslikelyposition.For
example,seethiscrashreport.[6]RASisalsousefultotechnicians
whoaremaintainingradarsystems.

Flighttrafficmapping

PotomacConsolidatedTRACONin
Warrenton,Virginia,UnitedStates.

Themappingofflightsinrealtimeisbasedontheairtrafficcontrol
system.In1991,dataonthelocationofaircraftwasmadeavailable
bytheFederalAviationAdministrationtotheairlineindustry.The
NationalBusinessAviationAssociation(NBAA),theGeneral
AviationManufacturersAssociation,theAircraftOwners&Pilots
Association,theHelicopterAssociationInternational,andthe
NationalAirTransportationAssociationpetitionedtheFAAto
makeASDIinformationavailableona"needtoknow"basis.
Thetrainingdepartmentatthe
Subsequently,NBAAadvocatedthebroadscaledisseminationof
WashingtonAirRouteTraffic
airtrafficdata.TheAircraftSituationalDisplaytoIndustry(ASDI)
ControlCenter,Leesburg,Virginia,
systemnowconveysuptodateflightinformationtotheairline
UnitedStates.
industryandthepublic.SomecompaniesthatdistributeASDI
informationareFlightExplorer,FlightView,andFlyteComm.Each
companymaintainsawebsitethatprovidesfreeupdatedinformationtothepubliconflightstatus.Stand
aloneprogramsarealsoavailablefordisplayingthegeographiclocationofairborneIFR(InstrumentFlight
Rules)airtrafficanywhereintheFAAairtrafficsystem.Positionsarereportedforbothcommercialand
generalaviationtraffic.Theprogramscanoverlayairtrafficwithawideselectionofmapssuchas,geo
politicalboundaries,airtrafficcontrolcenterboundaries,highaltitudejetroutes,satellitecloudandradar
imagery.

Problems
Traffic
FormoreinformationseeAirtrafficflowmanagement.
Thedaytodayproblemsfacedbytheairtrafficcontrolsystemareprimarilyrelatedtothevolumeofair
trafficdemandplacedonthesystemandweather.Severalfactorsdictatetheamountoftrafficthatcanland
atanairportinagivenamountoftime.Eachlandingaircraftmusttouchdown,slow,andexittherunway
beforethenextcrossestheapproachendoftherunway.Thisprocessrequiresatleastoneanduptofour
minutesforeachaircraft.Allowingfordeparturesbetweenarrivals,eachrunwaycanthushandleabout30

arrivalsperhour.Alargeairportwithtwoarrivalrunwayscanhandleabout60arrivalsperhouringood
weather.Problemsbeginwhenairlinesschedulemorearrivalsintoanairportthancanbephysically
handled,orwhendelayselsewherecausegroupsofaircraftthatwouldotherwisebeseparatedintimeto
arrivesimultaneously.Aircraftmustthenbedelayedintheairbyholdingoverspecifiedlocationsuntilthey
maybesafelysequencedtotherunway.Upuntilthe1990s,holding,whichhassignificantenvironmental
andcostimplications,wasaroutineoccurrenceatmanyairports.
Advancesincomputersnowallowthesequencingofplaneshoursin
advance.Thus,planesmaybedelayedbeforetheyeventakeoff(by
beinggivena"slot"),ormayreducespeedinflightandproceed
moreslowlythussignificantlyreducingtheamountofholding.
Airtrafficcontrolerrorsoccurwhentheseparation(eithervertical
orhorizontal)betweenairborneaircraftfallsbelowtheminimum
prescribedseparationset(forthedomesticUnitedStates)bytheUS
FederalAviationAdministration.Separationminimumsforterminal
Intersectingcontrailsofaircraftover
controlareas(TCAs)aroundairportsarelowerthanenroute
London,anareaofhighairtraffic.
standards.Errorsgenerallyoccurduringperiodsfollowingtimesof
intenseactivity,whencontrollerstendtorelaxandoverlookthe
presenceoftrafficandconditionsthatleadtolossofminimumseparation.[7]Paradoxically,currenthigh
precisioncruisingaltituderulesincreasetheriskofcollisionbetween10and33timesovermoresloppy
alternativeswhenairtrafficcontrolerrorsoccur.

Weather
Beyondrunwaycapacityissues,weatherisamajorfactorintrafficcapacity.Rain,iceorsnowonthe
runwaycauselandingaircrafttotakelongertoslowandexit,thusreducingthesafearrivalrateand
requiringmorespacebetweenlandingaircraft.Fogalsorequiresadecreaseinthelandingrate.These,in
turn,increaseairbornedelayforholdingaircraft.Ifmoreaircraftarescheduledthancanbesafelyand
efficientlyheldintheair,agrounddelayprogrammaybeestablished,delayingaircraftontheground
beforedepartureduetoconditionsatthearrivalairport.
InAreaControlCenters,amajorweatherproblemisthunderstorms,whichpresentavarietyofhazardsto
aircraft.Aircraftwilldeviatearoundstorms,reducingthecapacityoftheenroutesystembyrequiringmore
spaceperaircraft,orcausingcongestionasmanyaircrafttrytomovethroughasingleholeinalineof
thunderstorms.Occasionallyweatherconsiderationscausedelaystoaircraftpriortotheirdepartureas
routesareclosedbythunderstorms.
Muchmoneyhasbeenspentoncreatingsoftwaretostreamlinethisprocess.However,atsomeACCs,air
trafficcontrollersstillrecorddataforeachflightonstripsofpaperandpersonallycoordinatetheirpaths.In
newersites,theseflightprogressstripshavebeenreplacedbyelectronicdatapresentedoncomputer
screens.Asnewequipmentisbroughtin,moreandmoresitesareupgradingawayfrompaperflightstrips.

Callsigns
Aprerequisitetosafeairtrafficseparationistheassignmentanduseofdistinctivecallsigns.Theseare
permanentlyallocatedbyICAOonrequestusuallytoscheduledflightsandsomeairforcesformilitary
flights.Theyarewrittencallsignswith3lettercombinationlikeKLM,BAW,VLGfollowedbytheflight

number,likeAAL872,VLG1011.AssuchtheyappearonflightplansandATCradarlabels.Therearealso
theaudioorRadiotelephonycallsignsusedontheradiocontactbetweenpilotsandAirTrafficControl.
Thesearenotalwaysidenticaltotheirwrittencounterparts.Anexampleofanaudiocallsignwouldbe
"Speedbird832",insteadofthewritten"BAW832".Thisisusedtoreducethechanceofconfusionbetween
ATCandtheaircraft.Bydefault,thecallsignforanyotherflightistheregistrationnumber(tailnumber)of
theaircraft,suchas"N12345","CGABC"or"ECIZD".TheshortRadiotelephonycallsignsforthesetail
numbersisthelast3lettersusingtheNATOphoneticalphabet(i.e.ABCspokenAlphaBravoCharlie)for
CGABCorthelast3numberslike345spokenasTREEFOREFIFEforN12345.IntheUnitedStates,the
prefixmaybeanaircrafttype,modelormanufacturerinplaceofthefirstregistrationcharacter,for
example"N11842"couldbecome"Cessna842".[8]Thisabbreviationisonlyallowedaftercommunications
hasbeenestablishedineachsector.
Theflightnumberpartisdecidedbytheaircraftoperator.Inthisarrangement,anidenticalcallsignmight
wellbeusedforthesamescheduledjourneyeachdayitisoperated,evenifthedeparturetimevariesalittle
acrossdifferentdaysoftheweek.Thecallsignofthereturnflightoftendiffersonlybythefinaldigitfrom
theoutboundflight.Generally,airlineflightnumbersareevenifeastbound,andoddifwestbound.Inorder
toreducethepossibilityoftwocallsignsononefrequencyatanytimesoundingtoosimilar,anumberof
airlines,particularlyinEurope,havestartedusingalphanumericcallsignsthatarenotbasedonflight
numbers.Forexample,DLH23LG,spokenaslufthansatwothreelimagolf.Additionallyitistherightof
theairtrafficcontrollertochangethe'audio'callsignfortheperiodtheflightisinhissectorifthereisarisk
ofconfusion,usuallychoosingthetailnumberinstead.
Beforearound1980InternationalAirTransportAssociation(IATA)andICAOwereusingthesame2letter
callsigns.DuetothelargernumberofnewairlinesafterderegulationICAOestablishedthe3letter
callsignsasmentionedabove.TheIATAcallsignsarecurrentlyusedinaerodromesontheannouncement
tablesbutneverusedanylongerinAirTrafficControl.Forexample,AAistheIATAcallsignfor
AmericanAirlinesATCequivalentAAL.OtherexamplesincludeLY/ELYforElAl,DL/DALforDelta
AirLines,VY/VLGforVuelingAirlines,etc.

Technology
Manytechnologiesareusedinairtrafficcontrolsystems.Primaryandsecondaryradarareusedtoenhance
acontroller'ssituationawarenesswithinhisassignedairspacealltypesofaircraftsendbackprimary
echoesofvaryingsizestocontrollers'screensasradarenergyisbouncedofftheirskins,andtransponder
equippedaircraftreplytosecondaryradarinterrogationsbygivinganID(ModeA),analtitude(ModeC)
and/orauniquecallsign(ModeS).Certaintypesofweathermayalsoregisterontheradarscreen.
Theseinputs,addedtodatafromotherradars,arecorrelatedtobuildtheairsituation.Somebasic
processingoccursontheradartracks,suchascalculatinggroundspeedandmagneticheadings.
Usually,aFlightDataProcessingSystemmanagesalltheflightplanrelateddata,incorporatinginalow
orhighdegreetheinformationofthetrackoncethecorrelationbetweenthem(flightplanandtrack)is
established.Allthisinformationisdistributedtomodernoperationaldisplaysystems,makingitavailableto
controllers.
TheFAAhasspentoverUS$3billiononsoftware,butafullyautomatedsystemisstilloverthehorizon.In
2002theUKbroughtanewareacontrolcentreintoserviceattheLondonAreaControlCentre,Swanwick,
Hampshire,relievingabusysuburbancentreatWestDrayton,Middlesex,northofLondonHeathrow

Airport.SoftwarefromLockheedMartinpredominatesattheLondonAreaControlCentre.However,the
centrewasinitiallytroubledbysoftwareandcommunicationsproblemscausingdelaysandoccasional
shutdowns.[9]
Sometoolsareavailableindifferentdomainstohelpthecontrollerfurther:
FlightDataProcessingSystems:thisisthesystem(usuallyoneperCenter)thatprocessesallthe
informationrelatedtotheFlight(theFlightPlan),typicallyinthetimehorizonfromGatetogate
(airportdeparture/arrivalgates).ItusessuchprocessedinformationtoinvokeotherFlightPlan
relatedtools(suchase.g.MTCD),anddistributessuchprocessedinformationtoallthestakeholders
(AirTrafficControllers,collateralCenters,Airports,etc.).
ShortTermConflictAlert(STCA)thatcheckspossibleconflictingtrajectoriesinatimehorizonof
about2or3minutes(orevenlessinapproachcontext35secondsintheFrenchRoissy&Orly
approachcentres[10])andalertsthecontrollerpriortothelossofseparation.Thealgorithmsusedmay
alsoprovideinsomesystemsapossiblevectoringsolution,thatis,themannerinwhichtoturn,
descend,orclimbtheaircraftinordertoavoidinfringingtheminimumsafetydistanceoraltitude
clearance.
MinimumSafeAltitudeWarning(MSAW):atoolthatalerts
thecontrollerifanaircraftappearstobeflyingtoolowtothe
groundorwillimpactterrainbasedonitscurrentaltitudeand
heading.
SystemCoordination(SYSCO)toenablecontrollerto
negotiatethereleaseofflightsfromonesectortoanother.
AreaPenetrationWarning(APW)toinformacontrollerthata
flightwillpenetratearestrictedarea.
ArrivalandDepartureManagertohelpsequencethetakeoff
andlandingofaircraft.
TheDepartureManager(DMAN):Asystemaidforthe
ATCatairports,thatcalculatesaplanneddeparture
flowwiththegoaltomaintainanoptimalthroughputat
therunway,reducequeuingatholdingpointand
distributetheinformationtovariousstakeholdersatthe
airport(i.e.theairline,groundhandlingandAirTraffic
Control(ATC)).
TheArrivalManager(AMAN):Asystemaidforthe
ATCatairports,thatcalculatesaplannedArrivalflow
Theairtrafficcontroltowerat
withthegoaltomaintainanoptimalthroughputatthe
HartsfieldJacksonAtlanta
runway,reducearrivalqueuinganddistributethe
InternationalAirport,thebusiest
informationtovariousstakeholders.
airportintheworld.
passiveFinalApproachSpacingTool(pFAST),a
CTAStool,providesrunwayassignmentandsequence
numberadvisoriestoterminalcontrollerstoimprovethearrivalrateatcongestedairports.
pFASTwasdeployedandoperationalatfiveUSTRACONsbeforebeingcancelled.NASA
researchincludedanActiveFASTcapabilitythatalsoprovidedvectorandspeedadvisoriesto
implementtherunwayandsequenceadvisories.
ConvergingRunwayDisplayAid(CRDA)enablesApproachcontrollerstoruntwofinalapproaches
thatintersectandmakesurethatgoaroundsareminimized
CenterTRACONAutomationSystem(CTAS)isasuiteofhumancentereddecisionsupporttools
developedbyNASAAmesResearchCenter.SeveraloftheCTAStoolshavebeenfieldtestedand
transitionedtotheFAAforoperationalevaluationanduse.SomeoftheCTAStoolsare:Traffic

ManagementAdvisor(TMA),passiveFinalApproachSpacingTool(pFAST),CollaborativeArrival
Planning(CAP),DirectTo(D2),EnRouteDescentAdvisor(EDA)andMultiCenterTMA.The
softwareisrunningonLinux.[11]
TrafficManagementAdvisor(TMA),aCTAStool,isanenroutedecisionsupporttoolthat
automatestimebasedmeteringsolutionstoprovideanupperlimitofaircrafttoaTRACONfromthe
Centeroverasetperiodoftime.Schedulesaredeterminedthatwillnotexceedthespecifiedarrival
rateandcontrollersusethescheduledtimestoprovidetheappropriatedelaytoarrivalswhileinthe
enroutedomain.Thisresultsinanoverallreductioninenroutedelaysandalsomovesthedelaysto
moreefficientairspace(higheraltitudes)thanoccurifholdingneartheTRACONboundaryis
requiredtonotoverloadtheTRACONcontrollers.TMAisoperationalatmostenrouteairroute
trafficcontrolcenters(ARTCCs)andcontinuestobeenhancedtoaddressmorecomplextraffic
situations(e.g.AdjacentCenterMetering(ACM)andEnRouteDepartureCapability(EDC))
MTCD&URET
IntheUS,UserRequestEvaluationTool(URET)takespaperstripsoutoftheequationforEn
RoutecontrollersatARTCCsbyprovidingadisplaythatshowsallaircraftthatareeitherinor
currentlyroutedintothesector.
InEurope,severalMTCDtoolsareavailable:iFACTS(NATS),VAFORIT(DFS),NewFDPS
(MUAC).TheSESAR[12]ProgrammeshouldsoonlaunchnewMTCDconcepts.
URETandMTCDprovideconflictadvisoriesupto30minutesinadvanceandhaveasuiteof
assistancetoolsthatassistinevaluatingresolutionoptionsandpilotrequests.
ModeS:providesadatadownlinkofflightparametersviaSecondarySurveillanceRadarsallowing
radarprocessingsystemsandthereforecontrollerstoseevariousdataonaflight,includingairframe
uniqueid(24bitsencoded),indicatedairspeedandflightdirectorselectedlevel,amongstothers.
CPDLC:ControllerPilotDataLinkCommunicationsallowsdigitalmessagestobesentbetween
controllersandpilots,avoidingtheneedtouseradiotelephony.Itisespeciallyusefulinareaswhere
difficulttouseHFradiotelephonywaspreviouslyusedforcommunicationwithaircraft,e.g.oceans.
ThisiscurrentlyinuseinvariouspartsoftheworldincludingtheAtlanticandPacificoceans.
ADSB:AutomaticDependentSurveillanceBroadcastprovidesadatadownlinkofvariousflight
parameterstoairtrafficcontrolsystemsviatheTransponder(1090MHz)andreceptionofthosedata
byotheraircraftinthevicinity.Themostimportantistheaircraft'slatitude,longitudeandlevel:such
datacanbeutilizedtocreatearadarlikedisplayofaircraftforcontrollersandthusallowsaformof
pseudoradarcontroltobedoneinareaswheretheinstallationofradariseitherprohibitiveonthe
groundsoflowtrafficlevels,ortechnicallynotfeasible(e.g.oceans).Thisiscurrentlyinusein
Australia,CanadaandpartsofthePacificOceanandAlaska.
TheElectronicFlightStripsystem(estrip):
AsystemofelectronicflightstripsreplacingtheoldpaperstripsisbeingusedbyseveralServiceProviders,
suchasNAVCANADA,MASUAC,DFS,DECEA.Estripsallowscontrollerstomanageelectronicflight
dataonlinewithoutPaperStrips,reducingtheneedformanualfunctions,creatingnewtoolsandreducing
theATCO'sworkload.Thefirstselectronicflightstripssystemswereindependentlyandsimultaneously
inventedandimplementedbyNAVCANADAandSaipherATCin1999.TheNAVCANADAsystem
knownasEXCDS[13]andrebrandedin2011toNAVCANstripsandSaipher'sfirstgenerationsystem
knownasSGTC,whichisnowbeingupdatedbyits2ndgenrerationsystem,theTATICTWR.DECEAin
Brazilistheworld'slargestuserofTowerestripssystem,rangingfromverysmallairportsuptothebusiest
ones,takingtheadvantageofrealtimeinformationanddatacollectionfromeachofmorethan150sitesfor
useinATFM,BillingandStatistics.
ScreenContentRecording:Hardwareorsoftwarebasedrecordingfunctionwhichispartofmost

modernAutomationSystemandthatcapturesthescreen
contentshowntooftheATCO.Suchrecordingsareusedfora
laterreplaytogetherwithaudiorecordingforinvestigations
andposteventanalysis.[14]
CommunicationNavigationSurveillance/AirTraffic
Management(CNS/ATM)systemsarecommunications,
navigation,andsurveillancesystems,employingdigital
technologies,includingsatellitesystemstogetherwithvarious
levelsofautomation,appliedinsupportofaseamlessglobal
airtrafficmanagementsystem.[15]

Airnavigationserviceproviders(ANSPs)
andairtrafficserviceproviders(ATSPs)

ElectronicFlightProgressStrip
SystematSoPauloIntl.Control
TowerGroundControl

AzerbaijanAzrAeroNaviqasiya(http://www.canso.org/cms/showpage.aspx?id=110)
AlbaniaAgjenciaNacionaleeTrafikutAjror(http://www.anta.com.al/index.php?
option=com_content&view=article&id=66&Itemid=60)
AlgeriaEtablissementNationaldelaNavigationArienne(ENNA)(http://www.enna.dz)
ArmeniaArmenianAirTrafficServices(ARMATS)(http://www.armats.com)
AustraliaAirservicesAustralia(StateOwnedCorporation)andRoyalAustralianAirForce
AustriaAustroControl
BelarusRepublicanUnitaryEnterprise"(BelarusianAirNavigation)"
(http://www.avia.by/page616ru.html)
BelgiumBelgocontrol(http://www.belgocontrol.be/)
BrazilDepartamentodeControledoEspaoAreo(ATC/ATMAuthority)andANAC
AgnciaNacionaldeAviaoCivil(http://www.anac.gov.br)(CivilAviationAuthority)
BulgariaAirTrafficServicesAuthority(http://www.atsa.bg/)
CanadaNAVCANADAformerlyprovidedbyTransportCanadaandCanadianForces
CentralAmericaCorporacinCentroamericanadeServiciosdeNavegacinArea
(http://www.cocesna.org)
GuatemalaDireccinGeneraldeAeronuticaCivil(DGAC)(http://www.dgac.gob.gt/)
ElSalvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
CostaRicaDireccinGeneraldeAviacinCivil(http://www.dgac.go.cr/)
Belize
ChileDireccinGeneraldeAeronuticaCivil(DGAC)(http://www.dgac.gob.cl/)
ColombiaAeronuticaCivilColombiana(UAEAC)(http://www.aerocivil.gov.co)
CroatiaHrvatskakontrolazraneplovidbe(CroatiaControlLtd.)(http://www.crocontrol.hr)
CubaInstitutodeAeronuticaCivildeCuba(IACC)
(http://www.cubagob.cu/des_eco/iacc/home.htm)
CzechRepubliczenletovhoprovozuR(http://www.rlp.cz/)
DenmarkNaviair(DanishATC)
DominicanRepublicInstitutoDominicanodeAviacinCivil(IDAC)
(http://www.idac.gov.do/)"DominicanInstituteofCivilAviation"
EstoniaEstonianAirNavigationServices(http://www.eans.ee/)
EuropeEurocontrol(EuropeanOrganisationfortheSafetyofAirNavigation)
FinlandFinavia

FranceDirectionGnraledel'AviationCivile(DGAC)(http://www.aviationcivile.gouv.fr/):
DirectiondesServicesdelaNavigationArienne(DSNA)(http://www.dsnadti.aviation
civile.gouv.fr/presentation/frpresent.html)(Governmentbody)
GeorgiaSAKAERONAVIGATSIA,Ltd.(http://airnav.ge/en/)(GeorgianAirNavigation)
GermanyDeutscheFlugsicherung(GermanATCStateownedcompany)
GreeceHellenicCivilAviationAuthority(HCAA)
HongKongCivilAviationDepartment(CAD)
HungaryHungaroControlMagyarLgiforgalmiSzolglatZrt.
(http://www.hungarocontrol.hu/en/)(HungaroControlHungarianAirNavigationServicesPte.Ltd.
Co.)
IcelandISAVIA
IndonesiaAirNavIndonesia(http://www.airnavindonesia.co.id/)
IrelandIrishAviationAuthority(IAA)
IndiaAirportsAuthorityofIndia(AAI)(underMinistryofCivilAviation,GovernmentOf
IndiaandIndianAirForce)
IraqIraqiAirNavigationICAA
IsraelIsraeliAirportsAuthority(IIA)[1](http://www.iaa.gov.il/rashat/enUs/Rashot)
ItalyEnteNazionaleAssistenzaalVolo(ENAV)andItalianAirForce
JamaicaJCAA(JamaicaCivilAviationAuthority)(http://www.jcaa.gov.jm/)
JapanJCAB(JapanCivilAviationBureau)(http://www.mlit.go.jp/koku/)
LatviaLGS(LatvianATC)(http://www.lgs.lv)
LithuaniaANS(LithuanianATC)(http://www.ans.lt)
LuxembourgLuxembourgATC(http://www.atc.lu)
MacedoniaDGCA(MacedonianATC)(http://www.dgca.gov.mk)
MalaysiaDCADepartmentofCivilAviation(http://www.dca.gov.my)
MaltaMaltaAirTrafficServicesLtd(http://www.maltats.com)
MexicoServiciosalaNavegacinenelEspacioAreoMexicano(http://www.seneam.gob.mx)
NepalCivilAviationAuthorityofNepal(http://www.caanepal.org.np)
NetherlandsLuchtverkeersleidingNederland(LVNL)(DutchATC)http://www.eurocontrol.nl
Eurocontrol(EuropeanareacontrolATC)(http://www.lvnl.nl)
NewZealandAirwaysNewZealand(StateOwnedEnterprise)
NorwayAvinor(Stateownedprivatecompany)
OmanDirectorateGeneralofMeteorology&AirNavigation
(http://www.caa.gov.om/eng/index.php)(GovernmentofOman)
PakistanCivilAviationAuthority(underGovernmentofPakistan)
PeruCentrodeInstruccindeAviacinCivilCIAC(http://www.corpac.gob.pe/ciac/ciac.asp)
CivilAviationTrainingCenter
PhilippinesCivilAviationAuthorityofthePhilippines(CAAP)(underthePhilippine
Government)
PolandPolishAirNavigationServicesAgency(PANSA)
PortugalNAV(http://www.nav.pt)(PortugueseATC)
PuertoRicoAdministracionFederaldeAviacion
RomaniaRomanianAirTrafficServicesAdministration(ROMATSA)
(http://www.romatsa.ro)
RussiaFederalStateUnitaryEnterprise"StateATMCorporation"(http://www.gkovd.ru)
SaudiArabiaGeneralAuthorityofCivilAviation(GACA)(http://www.gaca.gov.sa)
SeychellesSeychellesCivilAviationAuthority(SCAA)(http://www.scaa.sc)
SingaporeCivilAviationAuthorityofSingapore(CAAS)
SerbiaSerbiaandMontenegroAirTrafficServicesAgencyLtd.(SMATSA)

SlovakiaLetovprevdzkovslubySlovenskejrepubliky(http://www.lps.sk/)
SloveniaSloveniaControl(http://www.sloveniacontrol.si)
SouthAfricaAirTrafficandNavigationServices(ATNS)(http://www.atns.co.za)
SpainAENAnowAENAS.A.(SpanishAirports)andENAIRe(ATC&ATSP)[16]
SwedenLFV(GovernmentBody)
SwitzerlandSkyguide
TaiwanANWS(CivilAeronauticalAdministration)(http://www.anws.gov.tw/eng/index.php)
ThailandAEROTHAI(AeronauticalRadioofThailand)(http://www.aerothai.co.th/)
TrinidadandTobagoTrinidadandTobagoCivilAviationAuthority(TTCAA)
TurkeyDGCA(TurkishDirectorateGeneralofCivilAviation)(http://www.shgm.gov.tr/)
UnitedArabEmiratesGeneralCivilAviationAuthority(GCAA)(http://www.gcaa.ae)
UnitedKingdomNationalAirTrafficServices(NATS)(49%StateOwnedPublicPrivate
Partnership)
UnitedStatesFederalAviationAdministration(FAA)(GovernmentBody)
UkraineUkrainianStateAirTrafficServiceEnterprise(UkSATSE)
(http://uksatse.ua/index.php?lang=en)
VenezuelaInstitutoNacionaldeAviacinCivil(INAC)(http://www.inac.gob.ve/)

Proposedchanges
IntheUnitedStates,somealterationstotrafficcontrolproceduresarebeingexamined.
TheNextGenerationAirTransportationSystemexamineshowtooverhaultheUnitedStatesnational
airspacesystem.
Freeflightisadevelopingairtrafficcontrolmethodthatusesnocentralizedcontrol(e.g.airtraffic
controllers).Instead,partsofairspacearereserveddynamicallyandautomaticallyinadistributed
wayusingcomputercommunicationtoensuretherequiredseparationbetweenaircraft.[17]
InEurope,theSESAR[12](SingleEuropeanSkyATMResearch)Programmeplanstodevelopnew
methods,technologies,procedures,andsystemstoaccommodatefuture(2020andbeyond)airtrafficneeds.
Manycountrieshavealsoprivatizedorcorporatizedtheirairnavigationserviceproviders.[18]
ChangeinregulationinadmittanceforpossibleA.T.C.'sregardingtheireyerefractionandcorrection
thereofbytechnologyhasbeenproposed.

ATCregulationsintheUnitedStates
FAAControlTowerOperators(CTO)/AirTrafficControllersuseFAAOrder7110.65astheauthorityfor
allproceduresregardingairtraffic.FormoreinformationregardingAirTrafficControlrulesand
regulations,refertotheFAA'swebsite.[19]

Seealso
Airsafety
Airtrafficservice
BashkirianAirlinesFlight2937&DHLFlight611midaircollision
CivilAirNavigationServicesOrganisation

CivilAirNavigationServicesOrganisation
Flightlevel(FL)
ForwardAirController
FlightInformationServiceOfficer
Flightplanning
Flighttracking
GlobalAirTrafficManagement
IFATCA(InternationalFederationofATCAssociations)
Linesman/Mediator
ProfessionalAirTrafficControllersOrganization
Tenerifedisaster
Towerenroutecontrol(TEC)
VirtualAirTrafficSimulationNetwork(VATSIM)
Zagrebmidaircollision

References
1. "FAA7110.65211"(http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/ATC/atc0201.html).
2. "IDAOFAQ"(http://www.icao.int/icao/en/trivia/peltrgFAQ.htm#23).Archived
(http://web.archive.org/web/20090220142943/http://icao.int/icao/en/trivia/peltrgFAQ.htm)fromtheoriginalon20
February2009.Retrieved20090303.
3. GreenJerseyWebDesign."HeritageLocationsSouthEastSurreyCroydonAirport"
(http://www.transportheritage.com/findheritagelocations.html?
sobi2Task=sobi2Details&catid=91&sobi2Id=273).Retrieved3July2015.
4. FAAHISTORICALCHRONOLOGY,19261996
5. "TerminalRadarApproachControlFacilities(TRACON)"
(http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/tracon/).FederalAviationAdministration.
Retrieved22February2014.
6. "crashreport"(http://www.tsb.gc.ca/eng/rapportsreports/aviation/1996/a96a0207/a96a0207.asp).tsb.gc.ca.
retrievedonAugust21,2010
7. Breitler,AlanandKirk,Kevin(September1996)."EffectsofSectorComplexityandControllerExperienceon
ProbabilityofOperationalErrorsinAirRouteTrafficControlCenters".CenterforNavalAnalysesDocument
(IPR950092){{inconsistentcitations}}
8. "WhatisanAbbreviatedAircraftCallSign?*"(http://atccommunication.com/whatisanabbreviatedaircraftcall
sign).ATCCommunication.Retrieved3July2015.
9. "AirTrafficControl"(https://sites.google.com/site/zagorakis1977/theory/airtrafficcontrol/technology).
Retrieved4December2012.
10. "Lefiletdesauvegarderesserresesmailles"
(https://web.archive.org/web/20090327181434/http://www.dgac.fr/html/publicat/av_civil/them_1/them_1_34_35.p
df)(PDF).dgac.fr(inFrench).Archivedfromtheoriginal
(http://www.dgac.fr/html/publicat/av_civil/them_1/them_1_34_35.pdf)(PDF)onMarch27,2009.
11. "TechnicalSessions"(http://www.usenix.org/events/usenix02/tech/techthurs.html).usenix.org.Retrieved
5December2010.
12. SESAR(http://www.eurocontrol.int/sesar/public/subsite_homepage/homepage.html)
13. http://www.navcanada.ca/NavCanada.asp?
Language=en&Content=ContentDefinitionFiles\TechnologySolutions\products\IIDS\excds\default.xml
14. "SolutionsusingEpiphanproducts"(http://www.epiphan.com/solutions_new/?arid=995).EpiphanVideocapture,
stream,record.Retrieved3July2015.
15. "CNS/ATMSYSTEMS"
(https://web.archive.org/web/20111109123519/http://www.icao.int/icao/en/ro/rio/execsum.pdf)(PDF).icao.int.
p.10.Archivedfromtheoriginal(http://www.icao.int/icao/en/ro/rio/execsum.pdf)(PDF)onNovember9,2011.
16. "AcercadeENAIREENAIREInformacincorporativa"

16. "AcercadeENAIREENAIREInformacincorporativa"
(http://www.enaire.es/csee/Satellite/Enaire/es/Enaire.html).Retrieved3July2015.
17. "Wired4.04:FreeFlight"(http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/4.04/es.faa.html).Retrieved3July2015.
18. McDougall,GlenandRoberts,AlasdairS(August15,2007)."CommercializingAirTrafficControl:Havethe
ReformsWorked?".CanadianPublicAdministration.p.Vol.51,No.1,pp.4569,2009.SSRN1317450
(https://ssrn.com/abstract=1317450).
19. "AirTrafficPlansandPublications"(http://www.faa.gov/documentlibrary/media/order/atc.pdf)(PDF).FAA.
Retrieved5December2010.

Externallinks
U.S.CentennialofFlightCommissionAirTrafficControl

WikimediaCommonshas
mediarelatedtoAirtraffic
control.

(http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Government_Role/Air_traffic_control/POL15.htm)
TheshortfilmATRAVELERMEETSAIRTRAFFICCONTROL(1963)
(https://archive.org/details/gov.archives.arc.43449)isavailableforfreedownloadattheInternet
Archive
NASAvideoofUSairtraffic(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8pYiC7bTUxQ)
Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Air_traffic_control&oldid=674714954"
Categories: Airtrafficcontrol Radar
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