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Introduction to Wide Area


Network Protocols
Session 2303

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Agenda

Wide Area Network (WAN)


Environment
Requirements
Technologies
Interface Signaling Protocols
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Take-Away Message

By selecting the right cache of WAN


technology and hardware, you can:
Build a uniform multiservice network
for data, voice, and video consolidation
Reduce recurring network operation
costs (such as bandwidth)
Reduce management costs and focus
on core competencies
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WAN Networking Environment


Other

Access

Backbone

Telecommuters

Home Offices

Branch Offices

Regional Offices

Headquarters

Multiple Networking Environments where All Users


Require Ubiquitous Access to Corporate Applications

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WAN Networking Challenges

Increased Scope of WAN


Multiple Traffic Types

Telecom
Manager

Increasing Traffic Volumes


Telecom Budget

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Multiple Traffic Types

IP
IPX
AppleTalk
SNA

Wide Area
Network

Voice
Video

Leased Lines, Satellite,


Microwave, Circuit Switched,
X25, Frame Relay, ATM, POS
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Networked Application Growth


2000
1998
More Than
300%
Growth
in WAN
Traffic
by 2002

Voice
Video Teleconference
Office Applications

Client to Server
Server to Server
Internet/Intranet

Source: Gartner Group


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Telecom Budgets

Although Traffic
Volumes Are
Increasing,
Telecom Budgets
Are Not
in Fact in Some
Cases Decreasing
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New
Old
Telecom
Telecom Budget
Budget

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Agenda

Wide Area Network (WAN)


Environment
Requirements
Technologies
Interface Protocols
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Wide Area Network Requirements


Minimize Bandwidth Costs
Maximize Efficiency
Maximize Performance
Support New/Emerging Applications
Maximize Availability
Minimize Management and Maintenance
Multiservice Consolidation
Bandwidth Efficiency
Performance and QoS Guarantees
Emerging IP Services
Carrier-Class Reliability
Ease of Operation and Management
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Wide Area Network Costs


Capital costs (hardware):
non-recurring
Hardware
Costs 8.0%

Written off over three


to five years

Software
Costs 2.7%

Bandwidth rental
costs: recurring
One to five year
contracts
Penalties for
cancellation

Transmission Costs
87.8%

Maintenance
1.5%

Highest month
recurring expense

Management
Technical Staffing

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Source: Data Communications


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WAN Service Requirements


LAN interconnectivity

Multiservice Networking

Router and workgroup switches

Emerging IP services
Voice toll bypass
PBX tie trunking and voice
switching

Videoconferencing

FR/LL
WAN Router
ATM/LL
Workgroup Switch
PBX

VPN/LL

Room-to-room, desktop

Legacy data

ISDN
Videoconferencing

SNA, X.25, async data


FR/LL

TDM migration
Transport option for
aging TDM systems
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Legacy Data

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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Wide Area Connectivity


Requirements
Flexible trunking
Sub-rate leased lines
(64 kbps to T1/E1)

nx
T1/E1

T3/E3

n x T1/E1 leased lines


T3/E3 leased lines
OC-3/STM-1
leased lines

OC-3

Public
Network

STM-1

Public/private services

Bandwidth efficiency
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Agenda

Wide Area Network (WAN)


Environment
Requirements
Technologies
Interface Protocols
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Message

By selecting the right cache of WAN


technology and hardware, you can:
Build a uniform multiservice network for
data, voice, and video consolidation
Reduce recurring network operation
costs (such as bandwidth)
Reduce management costs and focus on
core competencies
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WAN Technologies
Application

Application

Presentation

Presentation

Session

Session

Transport

Transport

Network

Network

Network

Network

Link

Link

Link

Link

Physical

Physical

Physical

Physical

WAN
Switch A

WAN
Switch B

CPE B

CPE A

Circuit Switching
Frame Switching
Cell Switching
Frame/Cell

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Packet Switching
Frame Switching
Cell Switching
Circuit Switching

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)


X.25/HDLC, SNA/SDLC
ATM
POS

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2000, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Circuit Switching (TDM) Overview


PBX

PBX

Available bandwidth is statically partitioned


amongst the applications
Each application has access to the allocated
bandwidth only; no single application can burst
up to the entire bandwidth capacity
Example: available bandwidth = 24 DS0s
Four channels for router data; eight for voice calls; six
for video; six channels not allocated

Circuit switching delay: application frame size/


allocated bandwidth
Variability in delay: low

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Circuit SwitchingPros and Cons


Pros
Predictable performance
As bandwidth is allocated statically, all applications get
consistent performance and predictable delay

Protocol-independent
End devices can be using any protocol over the wide
area network

Can be used for multiservice applications consolidation

Cons
Inefficient bandwidth utilization
No dynamic allocation of bandwidth
No bursting capabilityone application cannot use bandwidth
allocated to the other even if that traffic is not present

Bandwidth limited
Once all of the available bandwidth is allocated, additional
bandwidth must be procured
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X.25 Switching Overview

Cells, frames, or packets within a switch but


X.25 packets at egress
Available bandwidth is dynamically allocated
Only useful for data applications
X.25 switching delay: can increase with number
of switches in path
Variability in delay: high
Layer 3 switchingPVC, SVC-based
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Traffic Handling in
an X.25 Network
2048 Bytes
256 kbps

Network

256 kbps

Router sends X.25 packet to first


X.25 switch
Assume that the call has been set up and a
data size of 128 agreed by both ends with a
window size of 7
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Traffic Handling in
an X.25 Network
2048 Bytes
256 kbps

Network

256 kbps

128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes

Network

256 kbps

128 Bytes

Router sends X.25 a window (7) of (128) packets;


the X.25 switch responds with RRs for
correctly received packets or RNR for
incorrect ones

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Traffic Handling in
an X.25 Network

128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes

128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes

Network
128 Bytes

128 Bytes

The network transports the packets across the


network; the packets are delivered to the far end
using the same window mechanism as the input
to the network
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Traffic Handling in
an X.25 Network

128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes
128 Bytes

Network
2048 Bytes
128 Bytes

Last window sent to router and whole


frame re-assembled and sent
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X.25 SwitchingPros and Cons


Pros
Excellent in highly errored environments
Protocol goes looking for an error

Protocol-independent
End devices can be using any protocol over the wide area network

Cons
Unable to guarantee performance
Due to windowing mechanism, throughput and performance is very slow

High delay and variability in delay


Each switch has to receive an entire window before forwarding it to the next
switch; therefore transit delay increases with number of switches in the path
The FIFO mode of each switch causes a variability at each switch

Typically data only


As a result of high delay and variability in delay, X.25 switches are more
suited for data-only environments that have little or no delay-sensitive
applications
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Frame Switching Overview


PBX

PBX

Either cells or frames within a switch but frames


only at egress
Available bandwidth is dynamically allocated
Each application gets access to all available
bandwidth; any application can burst up to the
entire bandwidth capacity
Frame switching delay: increases with number
of switches in path (queuing and serialization delay)
Variability in delay: can be high for FIFO
queuing switches
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Traffic Handling in
Frame-Switched Network
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

PBX

Channels

Router sends frame to first frame switch

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Traffic Handling in
Frame-Switched Network
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

PBX

Channels
2048 Bytes

256kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

PBX

Channels

First frame switch waits for the entire


frame, adds header and forwards to
next switch
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Traffic Handling in
Frame-Switched Network
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

PBX

Channels
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

PBX

Channels

Second frame switch waits for the entire


frame, and forwards to next switch
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Traffic Handling in
Frame-Switched Network
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

PBX

Channels
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

PBX

Channels

Last frame switch waits for the entire


frame, adds header and forwards it
to router
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Frame SwitchingPros and Cons


Pros
Dynamic allocation of bandwidth
Available bandwidth is allocated dynamically to any application
that needs it
One application can use bandwidth allocated to the other if that traffic
is not present

Can be used for multiservice applications


Frame switches are used for multiservice applications (DVV) (less over
subscription and reasonable speed links)

Cons
Unable to guarantee performance (in FIFO mode)
Frame switches typically operate in FIFO (first in-first out) mode, so one
application can impact the performance of others

Medium delay and variability in delay


Each switch has to receive an entire frame before forwarding It to the next
switch; therefore transit delay Increases with number of switches in the path
The FIFO mode of each switch causes a variability at each switch
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Cell Switching Overview


PBX

PBX

Cells only within a switch and cells only


at the egress of a switch
Available bandwidth is dynamically allocated
Each application gets access to all available
bandwidth; any application can burst up
to the entire bandwidth capacity
Cell switching delay: low delay
Variability in delay: low

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Traffic Handling in
Cell-Switched Network
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

Channels

Ten Voice PBX


Channels

Router sends frame to first cell switch

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Traffic Handling in
Cell-Switched Network
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

Channels

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

Ten Voice PBX


Channels

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

Channels

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

Ten Voice PBX


Channels

First cell switch starts to receive the frame;


as it receives enough data to fill up the
payload of one cell, it adds header and
forwards to next switch
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Traffic Handling in
Cell-Switched Network
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

Channels

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

Ten Voice PBX


Channels

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

Channels

Ten Voice PBX


Channels

Second cell switch receives the cell


and switches it to the next switch
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Traffic Handling in
Cell-Switched Network
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

Channels

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

Ten Voice PBX


Channels

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

Channels

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

Ten Voice PBX


Channels

Next cell switch receives the cells and


forwards to next switch till the last switch
where all cells are collected until the last
cell is received

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Traffic Handling in
Cell-Switched Network
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

Channels

Ten Voice PBX


Channels
2048 Bytes

256 kbps
PBX Ten Voice

256 kbps
2.048 Mbps

2.048 Mbps

Channels

2.048 Mbps

Ten Voice PBX


Channels

Last switch assembles the frame and


forwards to the attached router
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Cell SwitchingPros and Cons


Pros
Dynamic allocation of Bandwidth
Available bandwidth Is allocated dynamically to any application that needs It
One application can use bandwidth allocated to the other if that traffic Is not present

Guaranteed performance
Cell switches with efficient traffic and bandwidth management schemes can ensure that
each application receives guaranteed performance (TM, QoS Queuing, CAC, PNNI/UNI Etc.)

Low delay (controlled and bounded) and low variability in delay


Using fixed length cells ensures that network transit delay and variability in delay
is minimized
Switches use QoS-based queuing and scheduling such as CBR, VBR, ABR

Typically multiservice
As a result of low delay, low variability in delay and the ability to guarantee performance,
cell switches are ideally suited to support multiple services concurrently

Cons
Overhead
However the bandwidth efficiency and ability to provide low delay and
low variability in delay in cell switching easily overcomes the small
incremental overhead
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Frame/Cell Switching Overview


PBX

PBX

Either cells or frames within a switch and both frames


and cells at egress of switch
Frame switching is used for data and cells are injected
for delay-sensitive traffic
Available bandwidth is dynamically allocated
Each application gets access to all available bandwidth;
any application can burst up to the entire
bandwidth capacity
Frame/cell switching delay: increases with number
of switches in path
Variability in delay: high
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Frame/Cell Switching
Pros and Cons
Pros
Dynamic allocation of bandwidth
Available bandwidth is allocated dynamically to any application that needs it
One application can use bandwidth allocated to the other if that traffic is not present

Multiple traffic types


Cell injection process is used to insert delay sensitive traffic (like voice) during the transfer
of a data frame

Cons
Proprietary
There are no standards for frame/cell switching

Unable to guarantee performance


Cell injection causes frames to be partially transmitted and possibly buffered along the
path; frame-based traffic (data) suffers at the expense of cell traffic; increased volumes
of cell traffic can impact quality throughput and performance of frame-based traffic

Bandwidth inefficiency
Increased cell traffic can cause frame traffic to be discarded in the network, thereby
reducing the quality throughput or goodput of the network

High delay and variability in delay


Frame/cell switches operate as frame switches for data and have similar delay
characteristics; cell injection causes additional delays for frame traffic
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Packet over SONET Overview


PBX

PBX

Either cells or frames within a switch and SONET/SDH


payload at egress of switch
POS is serial transmission of multiprotocol packets
over SONET/SDH framesefficient high-speed
transport with low overhead
Available bandwidth is dynamically allocated
Any application can burst up to the entire available
bandwidth capacity-packet based infrastructure
Switching delay: low
Variability in delay: low
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Packet over SONET


Pros and Cons
Pros
Dynamic allocation of bandwidth
Bandwidth is available to any application that needs it

Scalable
Underlying technology can scale in speeds with increase in traffic volume

Efficiency-overhead
Direct mapping of packets over SONET payload increases efficiency by
removing overhead

Fault-tolerant, reliability carrier class redundancy with APS


With automatic protection switching, very fast switchovers in case of failure

Underlying transport flexibility


Can be used with different underlying transport-sonet/sdh adms, DWDM equipment

Cons
More suited towards packet-based applications
Direct mapping of packets over transport SONET/SDH media

QOS evolving from best-effort to guaranteed approach


Efforts underway to include differentiated service mechanisms

Not suitable for low speed links


Typically used over high-speed fiber-based infrastructures
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Summary of Technologies
Bandwidth
Traffic
Appl.
Multiservice
Scalability
Efficiency
Mgmt./QoS Performance
Circuit
Switching
(TDM)

***

**

**

Frame
Switching

***

***

***

***

***

Cell
Switching
(ATM)

****

****

****

****

****

Frame/Cell
Switching

***

***

***

***

***

Packet over
SONET

****

**

**

***

***

X.25

* = Weak
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* * = Fair

* * * = Good

* * * * = Excellent
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Agenda

Wide Area Network (WAN)


Environment
Requirements
Technologies
Interface Protocols
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Frame Relay UNI LMI


UNI between end device and network
Event notification
Unidirectional update requests
E-LMI allows one config. of
switches and router
Same frame format as NNI

Frame Relay Device


Short Status Enquiry
Short Status Enquiry
Short Status Enquiry
Long Status Enquiry

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ANSI

T1.617 Annex D

ITU-T

Q.933 Annex A
Signaling

LMI

Gang of Four
Cisco, NT, DEC

Frame Relay Device

Event

Short Status Update


Short Status Update
Short Status Update
Long Status Update
with Event Notification
or if Async Updates Used
Asynchronous Status
Event
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Frame Relay NNI


NNI between networks
Event notification
Bi-directional update requests
Allows foresight updates between
two Cisco networks using CLLM
Same frame format as UNI

Frame Relay Network 1


Short Status Enquiry
Short Status Update
Short Status Enquiry
Long Status Enquiry
Long Status Update
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ANSI

T1.618 Annex D

ITU-T

Q.933 Annex A

Frame Relay Network 2


Short Status Update
Short Status Enquiry
Short Status Update
Long Status Update
Long Status Enquiry
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ATM UNI and NNI


Generic Flow Control

Virtual Path Identifier

Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Channel Identifier

Virtual Path Identifier


Virtual Path Identifier Virtual Channel Identifier

Virtual Channel Identifier

Virtual Channel Identifier

Virtual Channel Identifier Payload Type

CLP

Virtual Channel Identifier Payload Type

Header Error Control (HEC)

Header Error Control (HEC)

UNI Header Format

NNI Header Format

CLP

Unlike Frame Relay ATM UNI and NNI formats


are different
UNI VPI range is 256 and VCI range is 65,535
NNI VPI range is 4,096 and VCI range is 65,535
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ATM ILMI
Private UNI
ATM End System

Private ATM Switch


Public UNI

ATM End System

Public ATM Switch


Public UNI

Private ATM Switch

Public ATM Switch

Integrated local management interface-ilmi


Use SNMP across UNI and NNI for ILMI MIB
Uses AAL 5 encapsulation
Used for ATM end system address (AESA) formerly
NSAP addressing for svcs
Automatic recognition of UNI or NNI interface protocol

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ATM ILMI (Cont.)


Get
Get Response
ATM End System

GetNext
Set

Public or
Private
ATM Switch

Trap
Getretrieve specified management information
GetNextretrieve via traversal of MIB,
management information
Setalter management information
Trapreport extraordinary information
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Summary

By selecting the right cache of WAN


technology and hardware, you can
Build a uniform multiservice network
for data, voice, and video consolidation
Reduce recurring network operation
costs (such as bandwidth)
Reduce management costs and focus
on core competencies
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Follow-On Sessions
WAN
Session 2304 (Level 2)-Deploying WAN Technologies
Session 2305 (Level 3)-Advanced WAN Concepts and
Troubleshooting

Extras
Session 2300 (Level 1) Introduction to Traffic
Management and Quality of
Service Technology
Session 2609 (Level 1) Introduction to High Availability
Networking
Session 2204 (Level 1) Introduction to Routing Protocols

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Introduction to Wide Area


Network Protocols
Session 2303

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Please Complete Your


Evaluation Form
Session 2303

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