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SolidCAM 2014 Interactive Training Course:

iMachining
iMachining 2D & 3D | 2.5D Milling | HSS | HSM | Indexial Multi-Sided | Simultaneous 5-Axis | Turning & Mill-Turn | Solid Probe

SolidCAM+SolidWorks
The Complete Integrated Manufacturing Solution

SolidCAM 2014
Interactive Training Course
iMachining 2D & 3D

1995-2014 SolidCAM
All Rights Reserved.

Contents

Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
About this course......................................................................................................................3
Basic Concepts..........................................................................................................................5
Process Overview......................................................................................................................5

2. CAM-Part Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Exercise #1: CAM-Part Definition.................................................................................... 9
1.1 Load the SolidWorks model..............................................................................................10
1.2 Start SolidCAM and create the CAM-Part.........................................................................10
1.3 Define the CAM-Part.........................................................................................................13
1.4 Define the iMachining Data..............................................................................................19
1.4.1 Add a new Machine Database file..........................................................................19
1.4.2 Add a new Material Database file...........................................................................20

3. iMachining 2D Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Exercise #2: iRough Technology.................................................................................... 32
2.1 The SolidWorks model with CAM-Part data is open.........................................................32
2.2 Add an iMachining 2D operation to the CAM-Part..........................................................33
2.2.1 Define the Geometry...............................................................................................34
2.2.2 Define the Tool........................................................................................................43
2.2.3 Define the Levels.....................................................................................................45
2.2.4 Define the technological parameters......................................................................47
2.3 Define the rough machining of the center pocket...........................................................50
2.4 Define the rough machining of the pocket ledge.............................................................50
2.5 Simulate the iMachining tool path...................................................................................51
2.6 Generate GCode and close the CAM-Part........................................................................52

Exercise #3: Tool Definition and the Technology Wizard................................................ 54


3.1 Load the CAM-Part............................................................................................................54
3.2 Define the Tool for the CAM Project.................................................................................55
3.3 Define the rough machining of the outside contour........................................................58
3.3.1 The Technology Wizard...........................................................................................61
3.4 Define the rough machining of the recessed pocket.......................................................65
3.5 Define the rough machining of the recessed hole...........................................................66
3.6 Define the rough machining of the ledges.......................................................................66
Exercise #4: iRest and iFinish Technologies................................................................... 67
4.1 Load the CAM-Part............................................................................................................67
4.2 Machine the interior pocket.............................................................................................68
4.2.1 Define an iRough (roughing) operation..................................................................68
4.2.2 Define an iRest (rest machining) operation............................................................68
4.2.3 Define an iFinish (finishing) operation....................................................................71
4.3 Machine the elevated floors.............................................................................................75
4.4 Machine the top of the bosses.........................................................................................75
4.5 Machine the pocket ledge................................................................................................76
4.6 Machine the holes with a Drilling operation....................................................................76
Exercise #5: Helical Entry, Pre-Drilling and small tools................................................... 80
5.1 Load the CAM-Part............................................................................................................80
5.2 Machine the main pocket.................................................................................................81
5.2.1 Helical Entry.............................................................................................................81
5.2.2 iRest and iFinish the main pocket...........................................................................87
5.3 Use Pre-Drilling Operations...............................................................................................87
5.3.1 Define a small pre-drilled hole................................................................................87
5.3.2 Define a large pre-drilled hole (entry hole)............................................................88
5.4 Machine the top of the mounting block (island)..............................................................93
5.5 Machine the holes.............................................................................................................94

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Contents
5.6 iMachining with a small tool.............................................................................................95
5.6.1 Machine the counterbores.....................................................................................96
5.6.2 Machine the vent slots............................................................................................96
Exercise #6: Effects on the Technology Wizard.............................................................. 97
6.1 Load the CAM-Part............................................................................................................97
6.2 Machine the outside shape............................................................................................100
6.2.1 Machine the original outside shape.....................................................................100
6.2.2 Machine the final outside shape...........................................................................105
6.3 Machine the ledges.........................................................................................................109
6.4 Machine the through hole..............................................................................................111
6.5 Machine the triangular pocket.......................................................................................111
6.6 Machine the holes...........................................................................................................114
6.7 iMachining Data changes................................................................................................114
6.7.1 Machine Database.................................................................................................115
6.7.2 Material Database.................................................................................................115
Exercise #7: Advanced features and controls in iMachining 2D................................... 116
7.1 Load the CAM-Part..........................................................................................................116
7.2 Advanced parameters on the Geometry page...............................................................117
7.3 Advanced parameters on the Tool page.........................................................................119
7.4 Advanced parameters on the Levels page......................................................................122
7.5 Advanced parameters on the Technology Wizard page.................................................124
7.6 Advanced parameters on the Technology page.............................................................128
7.7 Remaining parameters....................................................................................................134

4. iMachining 3D Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141


Exercise #8: Mold core machining............................................................................... 144
8.1 Load the SolidWorks model............................................................................................144

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8.2 Define the CAM-Part for iMachining 3D.........................................................................145


8.2.1 Define the typical CAM-Part parameters..............................................................145
8.2.2 Define the advanced CAM-Part parameters.........................................................145
8.3 Add an iMachining 3D operation to the CAM-Part........................................................153
8.3.1 Add an iMachining 3D operation and define the Geometry................................153
8.3.2 Define the Tool, Levels and Cutting conditions.....................................................161
8.3.3 Define the technological parameters....................................................................165
8.4 Define the rest machining with iMachining 3D..............................................................171
8.5 Define the finish machining with HSM (Part 1)..............................................................172
8.5.1 Add an HSM operation to the CAM-Part..............................................................172
8.5.2 Define the Constant Z passes and Link data.........................................................179
8.5.3 Define the Linear passes and Link data.................................................................187
8.5.4 Define an HSM Rest machining operation............................................................190
8.6 Define the finish machining (Part 2)...............................................................................195
8.6.1 Define a Pocket Operation (floor finishing)..........................................................195
8.6.2 Define a Profile Operation (outside shape finishing)............................................199
Exercise #9: Prismatic part machining......................................................................... 200
9.1 Load the CAM-Part..........................................................................................................200
9.2 Pre-drill through hole and define the rough machining.................................................201
9.2.1 Define a Drilling operation....................................................................................201
9.2.2 Define an iMachining 3D operation......................................................................201
9.3 Define the rest machining with iMachining 3D..............................................................202
9.4 Define the finish machining............................................................................................204
9.4.1 Define a Profile operation.....................................................................................204
9.4.2 Define a Pocket Recognition operation.................................................................204
9.5 Machine the countersinks and holes..............................................................................208
9.5.1 Define a Drilling operation....................................................................................208
9.5.2 Define a Drill Recognition operation.....................................................................209

Document number: SCiMTCENG1-2014


viii

Introduction

1. Introduction

About this course


The goal of this course is to teach you how to use SolidCAM to machine various parts using
iMachining 2D and iMachining 3D technologies. This course covers the basic concepts of SolidCAM
and is a supplement to the system documentation and online help. Once you have developed a good
foundation in basic skills, you can refer to the online help for information on the less frequently used
options inside SolidCAM.

Course design
This course is designed around a task-based approach to training and is interactive. With virtual
guided exercises, you will learn the commands and options necessary to complete a machining task
using iMachining 2D and iMachining 3D technologies. There are theoretical explanations embedded
into the exercises with written references to give an overview of the SolidCAM iMachining capabilities.

Using this training book


This training book is intended to be used in both a classroom environment, under the guidance of an
experienced instructor, and as self-study material. The various parts can be launched automatically
by clicking the file names that are written in this training book. This training book does not contain
step-by-step written instructions. It contains a number of videos demonstrating the steps that have
been implemented to complete each exercise. In a classroom setting, it is recommended to play the
videos on a large projection screen, which will help maintain a synchronized pace for the students. It
is suggested to first watch a video in the order it is presented, then apply and practice the material
covered by that video.

About the *.zip file


The *.zip file contains this interactive training book and copies of various files that are used throughout
this course. The Course_Examples folder contains the files that are required for the virtual guided
exercises. When extracting the *.zip file, it is important to extract the whole folder and not just
its contents there are buttons throughout this training book that link to files within the folder.
Therefore, it is important to ensure that this interactive training book and Course_Examples folder do
not get separated and that they remain in the same project folder. The Completed_CAM-Parts folder
inside the Course_Examples folder contains the final manufacturing projects for each exercise and
can be used for checking the integrity of your final projects. The SolidWorks and SolidCAM part files
used for the exercises were prepared with SolidWorks 2014 and SolidCAM 2014.

Adobe Reader
It is recommended to use Adobe Reader when viewing this training book. If you do not already have
Adobe Reader, it is a free PDF viewer that can be downloaded from Adobes website via this link
http://get.adobe.com/reader/. By default, Adobe Reader will allow launching of external files and
connecting to URLs, which is essential for the interactive features in this training book to function
properly. If you prefer using a different PDF viewer, it is important to ensure that the Trust Manager
Preferences allows external commands to be executed by your preferred Reader.

Windows 7
The majority of screenshots and videos in this book were made using SolidCAM 2013 integrated with
SolidWorks 2013 running on Windows 7. The newly added features for this current year were made
using SolidCAM 2014 integrated with SolidWorks 2014 running on Windows 7. If you are running
on a different version of Windows, you may notice differences in the appearance of the menus and
windows. These differences do not affect the performance of the software.

Conventions used in this book


This book uses the following typographic conventions:

Bold

This style is used to emphasize SolidCAM options,


commands or basic concepts. For example, you
need to define the Machine Coordinate System.
The mouse icon and numbered bold text indicate

1.4 Define the iMachining Data the beginning of the exercise action.

Explanation

This style combined with the lamp icon is used for


the SolidCAM iMachining functionality explanations
embedded into the virtual guided exercises. The
lamp icon is also used to emphasize notes.

This book also uses the following interactive features as buttons for launching part files and
connecting to URLs:

Exercise_1.SLDPRT

This style, used in hyperlink blue, signifies a button.


For example, to automatically launch SolidWorks
and load the file, click Exercise_1.SLDPRT.
This play button is used to play the videos that
make up the virtual guided exercises. Your internet
browser will automatically launch and connect to

1. Introduction

Basic Concepts
Every manufacturing project in SolidCAM contains the following data:
CAM-Part The CAM-Part defines the general data of the workpiece. This includes
the model name, coordinate system position, tool options, CNC-Controller, etc. In
iMachining, the CAM-Part also includes the Machine and Material Database definitions.
Geometry By selecting Edges, Curves, Surfaces or Solids, define what and where you
are going to machine. This geometry is associated with the native SolidWorks model.
The geometry in iMachining 2D is defined as a pocket that can be open, closed and/
or semi-closed (containing open edges). The pockets can contain internal chains
treated as islands or used for safe tool entry. In iMachining 3D, the stock and target
geometries are defined by Solids.
Operation An Operation is a single machining step in SolidCAM. Technology, Tool
parameters and Strategies are defined in the Operation. In short, Operation means how
you want to machine. In this particular course, you will learn how to use SolidCAMs
revolutionary iMachining technology to define how you want to machine.

Process Overview
The major stages of the SolidCAM manufacturing project creation process are the following:

CAM-Part definition
This stage includes the definition of the global parameters of the Manufacturing Project
(CAM-Part). You have to define a number of Coordinate Systems that describe the
positioning of the part on the CNC-Machine.
You have to define the Stock model and Target model to be used for the rest material
calculation. The Stock model describes the initial state of the workpiece that has to be
machined. The Target model describes the state of the workpiece that has to be reached
after the machining. After every operation, SolidCAM calculates how much material was
actually removed from the CAM-Part and how much material remains unmachined (rest
material). The rest material information enables SolidCAM iMachining to automatically
optimize the tool path and avoid air cutting.

iMachining Operation definition


During an iMachining Operation definition, the only requirements are to select the
machining geometry, choose the tool from the Part Tool Table (or define a new tool) and
define the Milling levels. The optimal Cutting conditions are then automatically generated
by the iMachining Technology Wizard.

CAM-Part
Definition

When using iMachining, the CAM-Part definition process includes the following stages:
CAM-Part creation

CNC-Controller definition

Coordinate System definition

Stock model definition

Target model defintion

iMachining Data

Machine Database definition

Material Database defintion

CAM-Part creation. At this stage, you have to define the CAM-Part name and location.
There are two available modes for creating and saving the CAM-Part Internal and
External. Internal stores the SolidCAM data inside the original SolidWorks model file.
External is typical for CAM-Parts saved prior to 2013. SolidCAM defines the necessary
system files and a folder to allocate the place to store SolidCAM data.
CNC-Controller definition. Choosing a CNC-Controller is a necessary step. The controller
type influences the Coordinate System definition and the Geometry definition.
Coordinate System definition. You have to define the Coordinate System the origin for
all machining operations of the CAM-Part.
Stock model definition. SolidCAM enables you to define the stock model that describes
the initial state of the workpiece to be machined.
Target model definition. SolidCAM enables you to define the model of the part in its final
state after the machining.
iMachining Data. When using iMachining, you have to define the machine and work
material parameters. The Technology Wizard requires this data to automatically
determine the optimal Cutting conditions for an iMachining operation.

2. CAM-Part Definition

Exercise #1: CAM-Part Definition


This exercise illustrates the CAM-Part definition process
in SolidCAM. In this exercise, you have to create the CAMPart for the model displayed and define the Coordinate
System, the Stock model and Target model that are
necessary for the part machining. You also have to define
the iMachining Data.
If the Machine and Material Databases are not defined
at the CAM-Part definition stage, you have to define
these Databases when the first iMachining operation is
added to the CAM-Part. This CAM-Part will also be used
in Exercise #2.
All subsequent exercises will use an already created CAM-Part with Machine and Material Database
definitions. The already created CAM-Parts have been saved using the External mode and have
compressed *.prz file extensions.
When you start to program a CAM-Part using
iMachining, you have to decide what workpiece
you are going to use. This decision determines the
number and the type of operations that are used to
reach the final part shape.
In this exercise, the Stock is defined by a 3D Model
since there is already a solid body representing the
stock material.

During the CAM-Part definition process,


you also have to decide on what type of
CNC-Machine you are going to use (3-, 4- or
5-Axis). In this exercise, a 3-Axis CNC-Machine
is chosen for the machining. With a CNCMachine of this type, all the required faces
of the part can be machined using a single
positioning.
All subsequent exercises will also use a 3-Axis
CNC-Machine.

The following steps have to be implemented to complete the CAM-Part definition process:

1.1 Load the SolidWorks model


Activate the file Exercise_1.SLDPRT. If SolidWorks is not already opened, SolidWorks and
the model will launch automatically.
This model contains two solid bodies: one represents the stock material and the other
represents the Target model.

1.2 Start SolidCAM and create the CAM-Part


The following video demonstrates the activation of SolidCAM and the creation of a new
milling CAM-Part. Also shown is the importance of preparing the CAM settings for this
course as well as using the New Milling Part dialog box. Click the play button below...

SolidCAM is started and the CAM-Part is created.


Proceed to the next step: 1.3 Define the CAM-Part

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2. CAM-Part Definition
New Milling Part dialog box

The New Milling Part dialog box enables you control over the creation of a
new CAM-Part.
Create CAM-Part...
External
When you select External to create a new CAM-Part, SolidCAM
handles the saving of the CAM Project by building and working in an
assembly. A copy of the original SolidWorks model is generated and all
CAM data is stored outside the original *.SLDPRT file.
External is typical for CAM-Parts saved prior to 2013 and
uses the *.prt or compressed *.prz file extensions.

Internal
When you select Internal to create a new CAM-Part, SolidCAM
manages the CAM Project with a single SolidWorks model file, using
a Part-only mode. All CAM data is stored inside the original *.SLDPRT
file.
CAM-Part/Model
When you create a new CAM-Part, you have to enter a name for the
CAM-Part and for the model that contains the CAM-Part geometry.
CAM-Part name
Enter a name for the CAM-Part. You can give any name to identify
your machining project. By default, SolidCAM uses the name of the
design model. When you select Internal to create a new CAM-Part,
SolidCAM also uses the name of the project type by default.

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Directory
When you select External to create a new CAM-Part, specify the
location of the CAM-Part. The default directory is the SolidCAM user
directory (defined in the SolidCAM Settings). You can enter the path or
use the Browse button to define the location.
The Use Model file directory option enables you to automatically
create CAM-Parts in the same folder where the original CAD model
is located.
Description
When you select Internal to create a new CAM-Part, a description can
be provided to accompany the current CAM-Part.
Model name
This field shows the name and location of the SolidWorks design
model that you are using for the CAM-Part definition. The name is,
by default, the name of the active SolidWorks document. With the
Browse button you can choose any other SolidWorks document to
define the CAM-Part. In this case, the chosen SolidWorks document is
loaded into SolidWorks.
Every time an External CAM-Part is opened, SolidCAM
automatically checks the correspondence of the dates
of the CAM-Part and the original SolidWorks design
model. When the date of the original SolidWorks model
is later than the date of the CAM-Part creation, this
means that the SolidWorks original model has been
updated. You can then replace the SolidWorks design
model on which the CAM-Part is based with the updated
SolidWorks design model.
Existing CAM-Parts
Several CAM-Parts can be created and saved within a single SolidWorks
model file. Upon creating a new CAM-Part using the Internal mode, the
current ones will be listed in the table. The table displays the CAM-Part
name, CNC Controller and CAM-Part Description.
Every time a SolidWorks model file with several CAMParts is opened, SolidCAM will prompt you and ask which
of the Existing CAM-Parts you would like to open.

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2. CAM-Part Definition
Units
When you select External to create a new CAM-Part, you have the option
to work in either Metric or Inch.
When you select Internal to create a new CAM-Part, SolidCAM will always
use the SolidWorks model units by default, and the ability to select either
Metric or Inch is locked.

1.3 Define the CAM-Part


The following video demonstrates how to complete the first stage of defining the CAMPart (for SolidCAM). This includes selecting the CNC-Machine Controller (gMilling_Haas_
SS_3x) and defining the Machine Coordinate System, Stock model and Target model.
Click the play button below...

The first stage of defining the CAM-Part is complete.


Proceed to the next step: 1.4 Define the iMachining Data

Coordinate System definition


To complete the CAM-Part definition, you need to define the
Machine Coordinate System.
The Machine Coordinate System defines the origin for all machining
operations of the CAM-Part. It corresponds with the built-in
controller functions.

13

You can define the Coordinate System origin position and axes orientation
by selecting model faces, vertices, edges, or SolidWorks Coordinate
Systems. The geometry for the machining can also be defined directly on
the solid model.
Coordinate
System
Z

The Z-direction of the Machine Coordinate


System is parallel to the revolution axis of
the tool.
In SolidCAM, the tool approaches from the
positive direction of the Z-Axis (like on a
vertical CNC-Machine).
Coordinate
System
Z

Coordinate
System
Y

Machine
Coordinate
System

Y
X

Z
Y

For 3-Axis CNC milling machines, each Machine Coordinate System


means separate clamping. If you need to machine the part from
different sides, use several Machine Coordinate Systems with
the Z-Axis oriented normally to the machined sides.

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2. CAM-Part Definition
In this exercise, it is enough to
define one Machine Coordinate
System with the Z-Axis oriented
upwards.

Coordinate
System

Such coordinate system enables


you to machine the part with a
single clamping.

CoordSys dialog box


The CoordSys dialog box enables you to define the Coordinate System
location and the orientation of the axes.
SolidCAM enables you to define the Coordinate System using the
following methods:
Select face
This method enables you to define a new
Coordinate System by selecting a face. The face
can be planar or cylindrical/conical. For planar
faces, SolidCAM defines the Coordinate System
with the Z-Axis normal to that face. For cylindrical
or conical faces, the Z-Axis of the Coordinate
System is coincident with the axis of revolution
of the specified cylindrical/conical surface.
Define
This method enables you to define the
Coordinate System by selecting points. You
have to define the origin and the direction of
the X- and Y-Axes.
Select Coordinate System
This method enables you to choose the SolidWorks Coordinate System
defined in the design model file as the Machine Coordinate System. The
Machine Coordinate System origin and axes orientation are the same as
those of the original SolidWorks Coordinate System.

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Normal to current view


This option enables you to define the Coordinate System with the
Z-Axis normal to the model view you are facing on your screen. The
Machine Coordinate System origin will lie in the origin of the SolidWorks
Coordinate System, and the Z-Axis will be directed normally to the
chosen view of the model.
by 3 points (associative)
This option enables you to define the Coordinate System by selecting
any 3 points.

CoordSys Data dialog box


The CoordSys Data dialog box enables you to define the Default machining
levels such as the Tool start level, Clearance level, Part Upper level, Part Lower
level and Tool Z-level.
The Machine CoordSys number defines the number of the Coordinate
System in the CNC-Machine. The default value is 1. If you use another
number, the GCode file contains the G-function that prompts the
machine to use the specified number stored in the machine controller
of your machine.
The Position field defines the sequential number of the Coordinate
System. For each Machine Coordinate System, several Position values are
defined for different positionings; each such Position value is related to
the Machine Coordinate System.
X shows the X value of the
Coordinate System.
Y shows the Y value of the
Coordinate System.
Z shows the Z value of the
Coordinate System.

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2. CAM-Part Definition
The Plane box defines the default work plane for the operations using
this Coordinate System, as it gets output to the GCode program. In the
SolidCAM CAM module, you must always work on the XY-plane. However,
some CNC-Machines have different axes definitions and require a GCode
output with rotated XY-planes.
Shift is the distance from the Machine Coordinate System to the location

of the Position in the Coordinate System and the orientation of the


Machine Coordinate System.

Rotation around is the angle of rotation around the main axes X, Y and Z.

The Front and Rear tabs contain sets of facial machining levels describing
the planes parallel to the XY-plane and located along the Z-Axis.
The Front tab displays levels for milling from the positive Z-direction.
The Rear tab displays levels for milling from the negative Z-direction. The
negative Z-direction can be used in the case of milling the part from the
back side with the same Coordinate System in the main spindle or in the
case of using the back spindle.
The Radial tab contains a set of machining levels describing the virtual
cylinders situated around the Z-Axis.
These tabs contain the following parameters:
The Tool start level defines the Z-level at which the tool starts
machining.
The Clearance level is the Z-level to which the tool moves rapidly from
one operation to another (in case the tool does not change).
The Part Upper level defines the height of the upper surface of the
part to be milled.
The Part Lower level defines the lower surface level of the part to be
milled.
Tool start
level
Rapid movements area
Clearance
level

Feed movements area

Part Upper
level
Part Lower
level

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The Tool Z-level parameter defines the height to which the tool moves
before the rotation of the 4/5 axes to avoid collision between the
tool and the workpiece. This level is related to the Coordinate System
position and you have to check if it is not over the limit switch of the
machine.
It is highly recommended to send the tool to the reference point or to
a point related to the reference point.
The Create planar surface at Part Lower level option enables you to
generate a transparent planar surface at the minimal Z-level of the part,
so that its lower level plane is visible. This planar surface provides you
the possibility to select points that do not lie on the model entities. It
is suppressed by default and not visible until you unsuppress it in the
FeatureManager Design tree.

Stock and Target model definitions


The Stock & Target model area of the Milling
Part Data dialog box enables you to start the
Stock and Target model definitions.

Stock model definition


SolidCAM enables you to define the Stock model using the following
modes:
Box in this mode SolidCAM will
automatically determine the box
surrounding the model. Optionally,
offsets from the model can be defined
to expand the surrounding box.
Extruded boundary this mode enables
you to define the 2D stock geometry by
selecting a chain of geometrical elements
(lines, arcs, splines, edges, etc.).
3D Model this mode enables you to define the stock model via 3D
model selection.
Cylinder this mode enables you to define the stock model as a
cylinder (or a tube) surrounding the selected solid model.
STL file this mode enables you to define the stock model based on
an STL file that exists on your system. When you choose this mode,
the STL file section becomes available. By clicking the Browse button,
you can choose the STL file for the stock definition.

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2. CAM-Part Definition
Target model definition
SolidCAM enables you to define the Target model, which is the final shape
of the CAM-Part after the machining. SolidCAM uses the Target model for
gouge checking in the SolidVerify simulation.
By default, when you create a new CAMPart, stock and target models are defined
automatically. If you have not changed the
default settings, the solid body is highlighted,
and the target model is already chosen in the
Type section.

1.4 Define the iMachining Data


The following videos demonstrate how to complete the second stage of defining the
CAM-Part (for iMachining). In the next two sub-steps, new Machine and Material files
are added to the iDatabase and the iMachining Data is defined.

1.4.1 Add a new Machine Database file


Part 1 includes adding a new Machine Database file (Haas_SS_New), defining
the machine parameters and setting the Machine Default level. Click the play
button below...

A new Machine file is added to the iDatabase.

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1.4.2 Add a new Material Database file


Part 2 includes adding a new Material Database file (Titanium_Ti), finding the
Ultimate Tensile Strength and defining the material parameters. Click the play
button below...

A new Material file is added to the iDatabase, the iMachining Data is defined and
the second stage of defining the CAM-Part is complete.

iDatabase dialog box


The iDatabase dialog box enables you to manage Machine and Material
Database records in SolidCAM.
Outside of creating a new CAM-Part, click the SolidCAM
field in the SolidWorks main menu and choose iMachining
Database to add and/or edit Machine and Material
Database records.

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2. CAM-Part Definition
Machine Database
The buttons at the bottom left enable you to manage machine definitions
in the list.

The New

button enables you to add new machine definitions.

The Delete
button enables you to delete existing machine
definitions from the list.
button enables you to save the defined machine
The Save As
definitions under specified names in specified locations.
The Revert
button enables you to return any edited parameters
back to their default values.
In the General area, there are three required values needed when defining
a new Machine Database they are represented by the yellow fields and
reflect the machine parameters that are constant.
Spindle Speed Max is the maximum rated frequency at which the
spindle can rotate, measured in revolutions per minute (RPM).
Feed Rate Max is the maximum rated velocity at which the cutter is
advanced against the workpiece, measured in units of distance per
time (MM/Min (Inch/Min)).
Spindle Power Max is the maximum rated output power of the spindle,
expressed in Kilowatts (Kw (Horsepower (Hp)).

21

Machining Level is the default level assigned to the machine, which

reflects the basic machine rigidity and its state of maintenance. The
assigned default level is not to be influenced by the speed, power or
acceleration capabilities of the machine.

The Machine Default Level should only reflect the


machines tendency to develop vibrations. An older, illmaintained, non-rigid machine should be assigned a very
low default level: between 2 and 4. A brand new, rigidly
constructed machine could be assigned a very high
default level: between 6 and 8.
When selecting a Machine Database, the assigned
Machining Level will be the default level for the
CAM Project.
After selecting the Machine Database, it is possible
to choose a different default machining level for
a particular CAM Project by using the drop-down
under Machining Level in the iMachining Data area
of the Milling Part Data dialog box
Keep in mind that you can change the level per operation
using the Machining level slider on the Technology Wizard
page of the iMachining Operation dialog box.

22

2. CAM-Part Definition
Material Database

The buttons at the bottom left enable you to manage material definitions
in the list.
The New

button enables you to add new material definitions.

The Delete
button enables you to delete existing material
definitions from the list.
button enables you to save the defined material
The Save As
definitions under specified names in specified locations.
button enables you to import saved Material
The Import material
Database files to the list from specified locations on your system.
button enables you to export saved Material
The Export material
Database files from the list to specified locations on your system.
The Revert
button enables you to return any edited parameters
back to their default values.
In the Material Properties area, there is one required value needed when
defining a new Material Database it is represented by the yellow field.
Different materials require different amounts of force to cut them.
iMachining uses the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) as the physical
property that determines the force per unit area required to cut the
material, measured in megapascal (MPa (pounds per square inch (psi)).

23

The iMachining Technology Wizard is totally dependent


on the correct UTS value to produce ideal Cutting
conditions.
The best way to find the correct UTS rating of a specific
material is by using www.matweb.com, or some similar
online resource for acquiring material property data.
It is important to know the exact specification of your
stock material so you may find the correct UTS value. If
there are many entries to choose from, always start with
the highest UTS value. This is absolutely safe.
It is common that the same materials are often made by many different
manufacturers. Therefore, it should be expected that tolerances can exist
between your material and its given UTS value. In turn, such tolerances
make the material more or less machinable based on those differences in
its physical properties.
After machining your newly supplied material for the first
time, you may discover that it can be cut faster than the
Machining level slider or Turbo Mode permits. In most
cases, this means that your material is less hard than
specified by your property data resource.
The Machinability factor enables you to alter the hardness of a material
without changing its given UTS value.

Moving the slider in the positive direction informs iMachining that


your material is less hard than indicated by its UTS value and is more
machinable by the specified percentage. Accordingly, the Technology
Wizard will output more aggressive Cutting conditions by default.

24

2. CAM-Part Definition
The definition of the CAM-Part is complete. After confirming the Milling Part Data dialog
box, the SolidCAM Manager is displayed.

SolidCAM Manager
The SolidCAM Manager tree is the main interface feature of SolidCAM
that displays complete information about the CAM-Part.
SolidCAM
Manager

The SolidCAM Manager tree contains the following elements:


CAM-Part header
Tool header
Machining Process
header
Geometries header
Fixtures header
Opera ons header

iMachining Opera ons

CAM-Part header
This header displays the name of the current CAM-Part. By rightclicking it, you can display the menu to manage your CAM-Parts.
The Machine subheader is located under the CAM-Part header.
Double-click this subheader to review your machine configuration
and parameters.
The CoordSys Manager subheader is located under the CAM-Part
header. Double-click this subheader to display the CoordSys Manager
dialog box that enables you to manage your Coordinate Systems.

25

The Stock and Target subheaders are located under the CAM-Part
header. Double-click these subheaders to load the Stock model/Target
model dialog boxes that enable you to change the definition of the
Stock/Target models.
The Settings subheader is also located under the CAM-Part header.
Double-click this subheader to load the Part Settings dialog box that
enables you to edit the settings defined for the current CAM-Part.
Tool header
This header displays the name of the current Tool Library. Doubleclick this header to display the Part Tool Table, which is the list of tools
available to use in the current CAM-Part.
Machining Process header
This header displays the name of the current Machining Process table.
Geometries header
This header displays all SolidCAM geometries that are not used in
the operations, if any.
Fixtures header
This header displays available fixtures. By right-clicking it, you can
display the menu to define and manage your fixtures.
Operations header
This header displays all SolidCAM operations defined for the current
CAM-Part.
iMachining can now be used to define how you want to machine. The next exercise will use
this CAM-Part.

26

iMachining 2D
Operations

SolidCAM iMachining is an intelligent High Speed Machining strategy,


designed to produce fast and safe CNC programs to machine your
mechanical parts. iMachining operations increase productivity and save you
programming time due to the knowledge-based Technology Wizard. With
its Morphing Spiral tool paths, proprietary topology analysis algorithms and
controlled tool load, iMachining provides higher material removal rates
(MRR), better tool life and shorter cycle times.

In SolidCAM, an iMachining 2D operation is a single machining step, but a single operation can
perform the machining of several geometries, provided they exist on the same Z-level. For geometries
of different depths, you can define a separate iMachining 2D operation. The functionality of an
operation depends on the specified Technology (i.e., iRough (roughing), iRest (rest machining) and
iFinish (finishing)). Each Technology offers a different range of tool path optimization strategies to
define how you want to machine. Every iMachining operation follows the same workflow and is
defined by a number of parameters.

The first step of definition for an iMachining operation is the Geometry selection. The
Geometry prompts iMachining what and where you want to machine.
The Geometry in iMachining 2D is defined as a pocket that can be opened, closed and/
or semi-closed (containing open edges). The pocket can contain internal chains treated
as islands or used for safe tool entry. The Geometry definition process consists of chain
picking. Geometry chains are defined by selecting the following entities: edges of models,
2D curves, circles, lines and splines. Each chain is composed of one or more entities and
defines an open, closed or semi-closed contour.

28

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Below are some general examples of iMachining 2D Geometry definitions and the tool
path techniques used on the different geometries. When defining several chains in a
single operation, note that the chain selection order is important.

Closed pocket

The Geometry is defined as a single closed


chain on the pocket contour. iMachining
uses the helical data from the operation
to enter into the pocket followed by a
morphing spiral to the outer edges.

Closed pocket with island(s)

The Geometry is defined as several closed


chains: the first chain is the pocket contour
and the remaining one(s) is the internal
chain on island contour. iMachining uses
the helical data from the operation to
enter into the pocket followed by a moat to
separate the island(s) from the remaining
material, where a morphing spiral can
then be formed.

Closed pocket with entry geometry

Like the previous example, the Geometry


is defined as several closed chains: the first
chain is the pocket contour, the second is
the internal entry chain marked as open.
This open internal chain is considered a
precut area already machined prior to
this operation. The tool plunges inside the
open area and a morphing spiral is formed
to the outer walls of the pocket.
To mark a chain as open, right-click its name in the Chain List section of the
Geometry Edit dialog box and choose Mark chain as open.

29

Closed pocket with island(s) and entry hole

Like the previous examples, the Geometry


is defined as several closed chains: the
first chain is the pocket contour and the
remaining ones are the internal chains
on island contours as well as entry hole
marked as open. The hole was drilled prior
to this operation. The tool feeds down into
the hole, both islands are separated and a
final morphing spiral is formed.
Note that if the pocket has a flat bottom, the hole should have a flat bottom
also. A Profile operation can be used to remove the drill point from the
bottom of the hole before using iMachining.

Open pocket

The Geometry is defined as a single chain


on the pocket contour and is marked
as open. The tool approaches from the
outside and starts machining from this
chain. It clears all the material by collapsing
inwardly to the central point of the pocket
with a morphing spiral.

Open pocket with island(s)

The Geometry is defined as several chains:


the first chain is the pocket contour
(marked as open) and the remaining one(s)
is the internal chain on island contour. The
tool approaches from the outside and
collapses inwardly on the island with a
morphing spiral.

30

3. iMachining 2D Operations

Pocket with open edge(s) and island(s)

The Geometry is defined as several chains:


the first chain is the pocket contour (with
edges marked as open) and the remaining
one(s) are the internal chains on island
contours. The tool approaches and
enters through one of the open edges. It
separates the island(s) when encountered
so a morphing spiral tool path can then be
formed.
To mark an edge as open, right-click the chain name in the Chain List section
of the Geometry Edit dialog box and choose Mark open edges.
To view the illustrated CAM-Part with many more general examples of iMachining 2D
Geometry definitions and the tool path techniques, activate the file GEOMETRIES.prz.

31

Exercise #2: iRough Technology


In this exercise, you use the same CAM-Part defined
in Exercise #1. The purpose of this exercise is to get you
started using iMachining 2D in SolidCAM. Using the default
iRough Technology, you have to define three iMachining 2D
operations to perform the rough machining of the outside
contour, center pocket and pocket ledge.
During the definition process of an iMachining Operation,
you have to define the machining Geometry, Tool, milling
Levels, as well as several technological parameters using
the Technology Wizard, Technology and Link pages.
The following steps have to be implemented in order to reach the final CAM-Part:

2.1 The SolidWorks model with CAM-Part data is open


If the Internal CAM-Part created in Exercise #1 is not open, activate the previously saved
file Exercise_1.SLDPRT. If SolidWorks is not already opened, SolidWorks, SolidCAM and
the model with CAM-Part data will launch automatically.

The SolidWorks model with CAM-Part data is loaded.

32

3. iMachining 2D Operations
2.2 Add an iMachining 2D operation to the CAM-Part...
The following video demonstrates how to add an iMachining 2D operation to the CAMPart. The iMachining Operation dialog box is displayed and the workflow in SolidCAM
is explained in detail. In the next four sub-steps, the rough machining of the outside
contour is defined. Click the play button below...

An iMachining 2D operation is added to the CAM-Part and the iMachining Operation


dialog box is displayed.
Proceed to the next sub-step: 2.2.1 Define the Geometry

iMachining Operation dialog box


Every iMachining Operation is defined by a number of parameters:

33

Geometry this page enables you to define the machining geometry


for the operation.
Tool this page enables you to define the tool and its related
parameters for the operation.
Levels this page enables you to define the milling levels for the
operation.
Technology Wizard this Wizard automatically calculates 16 sets
of Cutting conditions combinations for the iMachining technology,
taking into account the tool data and milling levels defined for the
operation.
Technology this page enables you to define several technological
parameters such as offsets and roughing, rest machining or finishing
data.
Link this page enables you to define the approach and retreat of the
tool and linking between tool paths. By default, iMachining calculates
the best method to enter and exit the cut for a particular operation.

2.2.1 Define the Geometry


The first step of definition for an iMachining operation is the geometry selection.
The machining geometry for the outside contour is defined as an open pocket
with island. Click the play button below...

The Geometry is defined.


Proceed to the next sub-step: 2.2.2 Define the Tool

34

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Geometry Edit dialog box
To start the Geometry definition, click the New
page of the iMachining Operation dialog box.

button on the Geometry

The Geometry Edit dialog box enables you to add


and/or edit geometry chains. When this dialog box
is displayed, you can select solid model entities for
the Geometry definition.

Chain selection options


You can define the geometry by selecting edges,
sketch segments and points on the contour. The
following options are available:
Curve
This option enables you to create a chain of
existing curves and edges by selecting them one
after the other.

Associativity: SolidCAM keeps the associativity to any edge or sketch

entity. Any change made to the model or sketch automatically updates


the selected geometry.
Curve + Close corners

This option enables you to close the gaps between successive chain
entities irrespective of the Gap minimum and Gap maximum values
(defined in the Units section of SolidCAM Settings) by virtually extending
the entities up to their intersection.

35

Splines and arcs are extended by lines


tangential to the arc/spline at its end point.
Associativity: When the model used for the geometry definition is
modified, SolidCAM enables you to synchronize the geometry with the
updated model. During the synchronization, SolidCAM determines gap
areas created using the Curve + Close Corners option and regenerates the
extension of the chain elements so as to close the gaps.

Loop
This option enables you to select a loop by picking one of the model edges.
Loop #2

Loop #1

1. Pick an edge shared by two model faces. Two faces to


which this edge belongs are determined, and their loops
are highlighted. The first determined loop is considered
to be the primary and is highlighted with yellow color.
The second loop is considered to be the secondary and is
highlighted with blue color.
2. Choose one of the loops. Click on any other edge forming
the face. You are prompted to accept the chain that is
now highlighted with yellow color. Accept the chain with
the Yes button. A closed geometry chain is defined on
this loop, and the secondary loop is rejected.

36

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Associativity: SolidCAM keeps the associativity to any edge or sketch

entity. Any change made to the model or sketch automatically updates


the selected geometry.
Point to point
This option enables you to connect specified points; the points are
connected by a straight line.

Associativity: SolidCAM does not keep the associativity to any selected

point. SolidCAM saves the X-, Y- and Z-coordinates of the selected points.
Any change made to the model or sketch does not update the selected
geometry.

You cannot select a point that is not located on a


SolidWorks entity (if you need to select such a point, add
a planar surface under the model and select the points
on that surface).
The following rules apply to the virtual line selection using the Point to

point option:

When you select a virtual line between two edges, the line behaves
as a spring. Whenever the model is changed and synchronized, the
geometry is updated with the model.
When you select a sequence of several virtual lines, only the points
connected to model edges or sketch elements are updated, but all
other points stay fixed at the defined X-, Y- and Z-positions.

37

Arc by points
This option enables you to create a chain segment on an arc up to
a specific point on the arc.
Second
point

Third
point

First
point

Associativity: SolidCAM does not keep the associativity to any selected

arcs by points. SolidCAM saves the X-, Y- and Z-coordinates of the selected
points. Any change made to the model or sketch does not update the
selected geometry.

Automatic selection options


SolidCAM automatically determines the chain
entities and closes the chain contour. The Auto
select mode offers the following options:
Auto-to
The chain is selected by specifying the start
curve, the direction of the chain and the element
up to which the chain is created. SolidCAM
enables you to choose any model edge, vertex
or sketch entity to determine the chain end.
When the end item is chosen, SolidCAM determines the chain according
to the rules of the chosen selection mode (Auto-general, Auto-constant
Z or Auto-Delta Z). The chain selection is terminated when the selected
end item is reached.
End enty

Start enty

38

Selected chain

3. iMachining 2D Operations
If the chosen end item cannot be reached by the chain flow, the chain
definition is terminated when the start chain segment is reached. The
chain is automatically closed.
End enty

Start enty

Selected chain

The confirmation message is displayed.

The Auto-to option is useful if you do not want to define


a closed chain, but an open chain up to a certain element.
Auto-general
SolidCAM highlights all the entities that are connected to the last
chain entity. You have to select the entity along which you want the
chain to continue.

39

Auto-constant Z
This option identifies only the entities found on the same XY-plane
with the previously selected chain entity. You are prompted to identify
the next chain element when two entities on the same Z-level are
connected to the chain. The system tolerance for this option can be set
in SolidCAM Settings.

Auto-Delta Z
When you select this option, you are required to enter a positive and
negative Z-deviation into the Delta-Z dialog box. Only entities in this range
are identified as the next possible entity of the chain.
In SolidCAM, the red arrow would generally indicate
machining direction for typical profile and pocket type
operations.

Tool movement
direcon

Tool revoluon
direcon

Geometry
direcon

However, no matter the direction of the geometry chain,


iMachining will generate Morphing Spiral tool paths that
always perform climb cutting.

40

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Managing chains
All selected chains are displayed in the
Chain List area of the Geometry Edit dialog
box. To edit a chain, right-click its entry
and choose the appropriate command
from the menu.
The following commands are used
throughout this training course:
Mark chain as open
This option enables you to define a geometry chain as open. When you
mark a chain as open, the contour is painted black.

Closed

Open

When an outer chain is marked as open, iMachining is informed to


approach from the outside contour and spiral inwardly to some central
point or inner contour of an island.
When an internal chain is marked as open, iMachining is informed to use
the geometry for safe tool entry and spiral outwardly to the walls of a
pocket contour.
Note that the chain selection order is important.

41

Mark open edges


This option enables you to define parts of a
geometry chain as open or closed.
When selected, the Mark Open Edges dialog box
is displayed and enables you to pick the open or
closed entities on the already selected geometry
chain.
When you mark an edge as open, the entity is
painted black.
Closed edges

Open edge

Mark as
This section offers you the following selection modes:
Open picking an entity with this mode selected marks it as

open.

Wall picking an entity with this mode selected marks it as

closed.

Toggle with this mode selected, picking a closed edge marks

it as open and picking an open edge marks it as closed.

Select
This section offers you the following selection methods:
Single entity this method enables you to pick one entity at a

time to mark it as open/closed.

From/To entities this method enables you to mark a chain

segment as open/closed by picking the start and end entities.

CAD selection
This button enables you to perform the selection using the CAD tools.

42

3. iMachining 2D Operations
2.2.2 Define the Tool
The second step of definition for an iMachining operation is the tool selection. An
end mill of 12.5 mm (0.5 in) is defined and added to the Part Tool Table. Click the
play button below...

The Tool is defined.


Proceed to the next sub-step: 2.2.3 Define the Levels

Choosing tool for operation dialog box


To start the Tool definition, click the Select
page of the iMachining Operation dialog box.

button on the Tool

The Choosing tool for operation dialog box enables you to manage the tools
contained in the Part Tool Table.

43

The Part Tool Table contains all tools available for use to machine
a specific CAM-Part. The Part Tool Table is stored within the CAM-Part.

End Mill/Bull Nose Mill


Throughout this training course, these tool types are used for the
definition of rough/rest/finish mills. The tool shapes and basic parameters
are shown below:
Arbor Diameter

Total
Length

Arbor Diameter

Outside
holder

Shoulder
Length

Cutting
Length

Total
Length
Shoulder
Length

Cutting
Length

Diameter

Diameter

Outside
Holder

Edge Radius

Ball Nose Mill


Currently, ball nose mills are technically not supported when using
iMachining. Positioning through cusps (leftover material) on floor can
occur. By default, the selection of ball nose mills is disabled.
Arbor Diameter

Total
Length
Shoulder
Length

Cutting
Length

Outside
Holder

Edge Radius
Diameter

44

3. iMachining 2D Operations
2.2.3 Define the Levels
The third step of definition for an iMachining operation is the selection of the
milling levels. The Upper level and Pocket depth are picked off the model and a
Delta depth is defined to perform machining deeper than the part bottom edge.
Click the play button below...

The Levels are defined.


Proceed to the next sub-step: 2.2.4 Define the technological parameters

Levels page
The Levels page of the iMachining Operation dialog box enables you to
specify the Z-levels at which the tool movements are executed.

45

Positioning levels
The default input values of the Positioning levels parameters are the
CAM-Part values that were specified in the CoordSys Data dialog box.
Start level
This value is equal to the Clearance level value of the Coordinate
System chosen for the operation.
Clearance level
This value defines the Z-level to which the tool retracts when it moves
from one cut to another.
Safety distance
This value defines the distance to the Upper level at which the tool
starts moving at the Z feed rate calculated for the tool. Movements
from the Clearance level to this height are performed in rapid mode.
Milling levels
SolidCAM enables you to define the Milling levels using the solid model
data.
Upper level
This parameter defines the Z-level at which the machining starts.
Pocket depth
This parameter defines the Z-level below which the tool does not mill.
When the Milling levels fields are painted red, the values
are associative to the picked entities; and if the model
changes, these associative values will also change.

Delta
This parameter defines the offset to control depths even farther. In
this exercise, the Delta depth value is used to offset Pocket depth and
perform machining deeper than the part bottom edge.
The direction of the Delta depth measurement is represented by the
blue or red arrows next to the input field text box, with a corresponding
positive (+) or negative (-) symbol.

46

3. iMachining 2D Operations
2.2.4 Define the technological parameters
The last step of definition for an iMachining operation includes the technological
parameters. For this operation, the default selections on the Technology Wizard,
Technology and Link pages are used. Click the play button below...

The definition of the first iMachining operation is complete and the rough
machining of the outside contour is defined.
Proceed to the next step: 2.3 Define the rough machining of the center pocket

Technology Wizard page

47

The Technology Wizard is an algorithm for producing on-the-fly Cutting


conditions for the current iMachining operation.
Step down
By default, the Wizard uses Automatic to calculate the optimal Step down
values.
Machining level
By default, the Wizard sets the aggressiveness according to the Machine
Default Level assigned to the CNC-Machine in Exercise #1.
Output Cutting Data
This section displays two sets of data related to the current Cutting
conditions (the spin and feed rate of the tool, the step over range, the
material cutting speed, etc.)
The Technology Wizard is covered in greater detail in
Exercise #3.

Technology page

The Technology page of the iMachining Operation dialog box enables you to
define the technological parameters for the operation.
Step down and Cutting angles
These values are automatically generated by the Wizard based on the
current Cutting conditions.

48

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Offsets
The default input value of the Wall / island offset parameter is 0.24 mm
(0.01 in) for iRough.
Offsets are typically removed by a rest machining and/or
finishing operation. iRest and iFinish are covered later in
Exercise #4.

Link page

The Link page of the iMachining Operation dialog box enables you to define
the parameters of the tool approach and retreat relative to Helical Entry and
repositioning moves.
Helical Entry
In some cases, like this particular geometry where the tool will approach
from the outer chain, Helical Entry does not apply. iMachining will enter
and exit the cut where it calculates best.

In other cases, like a closed pocket geometry, the tool will perform a
Helical Entry into the pocket at a default Ramping angle calculated by the
Wizard according to the Machining level aggressiveness.
Helical Entry is covered in greater detail in Exercise #5.

49

2.3 Define the rough machining of the center pocket


The following video demonstrates defining the rough machining of the center pocket.
The geometry is defined as a closed pocket and an end mill of 9.5 mm (0.375 in) is
defined for the operation. The milling levels are picked off the model and the default
technological parameters are used. Click the play button below...

The rough machining of the center pocket is defined.

2.4 Define the rough machining of the pocket ledge


The following video demonstrates defining the rough machining of the pocket ledge.
The geometry is defined as a semi-open pocket and the 9.5 mm (0.375 in) end mill is
selected for the operation. The milling levels are picked off the model and the default
technological parameters are used. Click the play button below...

The rough machining of the pocket ledge is defined and the CAM-Part is fully programmed
for roughing with iMachining 2D.

50

3. iMachining 2D Operations
2.5 Simulate the iMachining tool path
The following video demonstrates how to SolidVerify the CAM Project before it runs
on the CNC-Machine. Completing this step also includes general uses of the SolidCAM
Simulation control panel. Click the play button below...

Using several SolidCAM Simulation methods, the iMachining tool path is simulated for
the entire CAM Project.
Proceed to the next step: 2.6 Generate GCode and close the CAM-Part

Simulation control panel


The SolidCAM Simulation control panel enables you to check and view the
generated Morphing Spiral tool paths after you have defined and calculated
your iMachining operations.
There are two modes of Simulation used throughout this training course:
Host CAD
This is the default mode that enables you to
display the wireframe tool path directly on the
model in the SolidWorks window. Since all the
View options of SolidWorks are active during
the simulation, you can see the iMachining
tool path from different perspectives and
zoom in on any certain area of the model.

51

SolidVerify
This mode enables machining simulation
on the solid model. The solid stock model
is used in this mode. During the machining
simulation process, SolidCAM subtracts
the tool movements (using solid Boolean
operations) from the solid model of the stock.
The remaining machined stock is a solid model
that can be dynamically zoomed or rotated. It
can also be compared to the target model in
order to show the rest material.

In SolidCAM 2013, Solid Verification of the iMachining


tool path is also available in the Host CAD mode.
For more information regarding the Simulation control
panel, refer to the SolidCAM Milling Help.

2.6 Generate GCode and close the CAM-Part


The following video demonstrates how to generate GCode for the completed CAM-Part
for use on a 3-Axis Haas SS. Click the play button below...

GCode is generated and the completed CAM-Part is closed.

52

3. iMachining 2D Operations
GCode
This command enables you to generate and display the GCode file(s) for the
CAM-Part. The GCode file(s) can then be transferred to your CNC-Machine.
The GCode format depends on the Controller selection in the Milling Part
Data dialog box. For more information on post-processor customization,
contact SolidCAM technical support.
Generate
This option generates the GCode file(s) for either all operations of the
CAM-Part, a single operation or group of operations. The generated
GCode is displayed using the text editor defined in the GCode page of the
SolidCAM Settings dialog box.
If any changes are made in an operation or the postprocessor files, you have to generate the GCode again.
GCode All
This command is available when you right-click the Operations header
in the SolidCAM Manager.
One GCode file is generated unless you have separated an operation
or group of operations using Split commands.
GCode
Generating GCode for a single operation or group of operations:
1. In the SolidCAM Manager, click a single operation or
group of operations using the mouse in combination with
the Shift or Ctrl key. Right-click and choose Generate from
the GCode menu.
2. The GCode File Name
dialog box prompts you
to enter a File name for
the GCode file.

For more information regarding GCode, refer to the

SolidCAM Milling Help.

Congratulations! You have successfully completed the iMachining exercise.

53

Exercise #3: Tool Definition and the Technology Wizard


A milling CAM-Part is already created for this exercise.
The CNC-Machine Controller, Coordinate System, Stock
model and Target model are defined. The machine and
work material definitions for the iMachining Data are also
selected.
In this exercise, you have to define a tool suitable for the
CAM Project along with its important parameters related
to iMachining. The Tool definition affects the Cutting
conditions generated by the Technology Wizard.
Using the default iRough Technology, you have to define several iMachining 2D operations to perform
the rough machining of the CAM-Part. Specified depths are used to illustrate how the Cutting
conditions are automatically calculated based on the tool information and milling levels defined for
each operation.
The following steps have to be implemented in order to reach the final CAM-Part:

3.1 Load the CAM-Part


Activate the CAM-Part file EXERCISE_3.prz. If SolidWorks is not already opened,
SolidWorks, SolidCAM and the CAM-Part will launch automatically.

The CAM-Part is loaded.

54

3. iMachining 2D Operations
3.2 Define the Tool for the CAM Project
The following video demonstrates how to define a tool suitable for the CAM Project, and
the important parameters relative to iMachining are explained in detail. All iMachining
operations in this exercise will use the same tool. Click the play button below...

The Tool is defined for the CAM Project.


Proceed to the next step: 3.3 Define the rough machining of the outside contour

Part Tool Table dialog box


The Part Tool Table dialog box enables you to manage the tools contained in
the Part Tool Table.

There are important tool parameters related to iMachining that exist on the
Topology and iData pages of the Part Tool Table dialog box.

55

Topology page
There are three important parameters that affect the Cutting conditions
generated by the Technology Wizard:

Diameter
This parameter defines the cutting diameter of the tool.
Cutting length
This parameter defines the length of the cutting part of the tool. The
Wizard uses the Cutting length to calculate if multiple steps are needed
to achieve the pocket depth.
Number of flutes
This parameter defines the number of teeth of the tool. This value is
used when calculating the feed in the Feed rate type FZ. In iMachining,
inputting the correct Number of flutes will ensure that the proper chip
size is provided to each flute. Changing this value will change the Cutting
conditions (usually just the feed).
When using iMachining, you may find that matching a
tool with a specific machining situation will give you more
desirable Cutting conditions provided by the Wizard.

iData page
This page enables you
to define the default tool
parameters even more
specific to iMachining that
are used by the Technology
Wizard.

56

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Material Database
The Material Database definition is automatically selected using the
CAM-Part default, which is the work material defined in the iMachining
Data area of the Milling Part Data dialog box.
This list enables you to define a different work material for each tool.
Selecting a different work material definition is typically used when
machining different materials in one CAM Project (e.g., the CAM-Part and
a fixture).
Tool Material
This list enables you to select a given type of material from which the
tool is made. The Tool Material selection affects the Cutting Speed
adjustments generated by the Wizard. The following options are available
for selection:
Carbide at 100% (default selection)
Cobalt at 60%
HSS at 40%
Premium Carbide at 150%
If necessary, an override check box is provided to manually set a
percentage adjustment.
Machining Level
The Default level is automatically selected using the CAM-Part default,
which is the Machine Default Level assigned to the Machine Database file
in the iDatabase dialog box.
This option enables you to assign a Default level for each tool. When
choosing a tool from the Part Tool Table, the selected Default level will
position the slider to that level on the Technology Wizard page of the
iMachining Operation dialog box.
Topology / Helical Angle
This parameter is especially important for calculating
depths based on Axial Contact Points (ACPs).

Helical
Angle

This list enables you to select the Helical Angle of the


flutes of the tool.

57

There are five typical tool helix angles available for selection:
0 (Straight)
30 (Standard)
35 (Standard)
45 (Medium) (default selection)
60 (High)
If necessary, a value can also be entered manually.
Changing the Helical Angle parameter only changes the ACP indication
on the Technology Wizard page of the iMachining Operation dialog box.
When cutting, keep in mind that the helix angle has a
strong effect on the Downwards Force on the tool, and
should be monitored. If ignored, it can result in the tool
being pulled out of its holder.

3.3 Define the rough machining of the outside contour


The following video demonstrates adding an iMachining 2D operation to the CAM-Part
and defining the rough machining of the outside contour. The Wizard automatically
calculates an ACP value of 2.0 based on the tool information and 30 mm (1.2 in)
total depth. Axial Contact Points (ACPs) are also explained in detail. Click the play
button below...

The rough machining of the outside contour is defined.


Proceed to the next sub-step: 3.3.1 The Technology Wizard

58

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Axial Contact Points (ACPs)
The ACP value is calculated and displayed by the Technology Wizard in the
Step down section. It reflects the number of contact points the tool has with
the vertical wall it is producing, along a vertical line.

Tool cross-secon
ACPs

According to iMachining theory, the closer the ACP value


is to a whole number, the less likely it is that vibrations
will develop.
The Wizard will alert you whether or not the current situation for stability
is good based on the ACP value and the color of the Step down row. The
output grid changes color to indicate the current situation:
Green = Good

Yellow = Not so good Medium likelihood of vibrations

Red = Bad High likelihood of vibrations

59

There is a 20% tolerance on any ACP over 1.0 and


to the nearest whole number (e.g., 1.1, 1.2, 1.8,
1.9, 2.1, 2.2).
Currently, the ACP indication by itself has no
effect on the Cutting conditions generated by the
Technology Wizard.
The ACP indication should be used as a guide. Achieving
good ACPs will help you avoid vibrations. Changing the
Tool, Step down or reducing the Machining level can help
you achieve good ACPs and avoid vibrations.

Avoiding vibrations with iMachining


Reaction of cutting force is transmitted to the tool and from there to the
machine. If the machine and set-up are not rigid enough, vibrations will
develop. If you keep increasing feed and spindle rotation speed, eventually
the reaction becomes vibration.
Sometimes, the vibration makes resonance with the machine natural
frequency, and the vibration becomes stronger.
Resonance in Milling

Amplitude

5
4
3
2
1
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Frequency Ratio

The amplitude of vibrations increases as the driving frequency


approaches the resonant frequency of the machine. The driving
frequency is that of the flutes of the tool entering the material. An
end mill with 4 flutes rotating at 600 RPM, enters the material 2400
times a minute, which translates to a driving frequency of 40 (2400/60)
oscillations per second (Hz).

60

3. iMachining 2D Operations
If the natural frequency of the machine is around 40 Hz, the above
milling action will cause the machine to resonate, and the result will be
strong vibrations.
In such a situation of resonance, it is possible to avoid
the resonance frequency range by reducing the
Machining level. Increasing the depth of cut may also
help. Sometimes, increasing the Machining level is also
an option.

3.3.1 The Technology Wizard


The following video demonstrates how to use the Technology Wizard in greater
detail. Click the play button below...

The definition of the first iMachining operation is complete.


Proceed to the next step: 3.4 Define the rough machining of the recessed pocket

Technology Wizard
The Technology Wizard is an algorithm for producing on-the-fly Cutting
conditions for the current iMachining Operation.

61

The Technology Wizard page of the iMachining Operation dialog box is made
up of four sections: Step down, Machining level, Output Cutting Data and the
dynamic 3D preview window.

Step down
The Step down section consists of input options and the output grid.
There are two radio buttons for selecting the way the Wizard calculates
the depths:
Input options
Automatic this option is the default selection and provides
step downs based on the tool information and Pocket depth

defined for the operation.

User-defined this option enables you to manually choose the


method used for calculating Step down. When selected, the
User-defined drop-down menu appears and enables you to

choose one of the following methods:

1. No. steps the total depth is divided up by the value


entered in the input field text box.

62

3. iMachining 2D Operations
2. Step down the value entered in the input field text box
is used for the depth of each Step down until the total
depth is achieved.

Output grid

The output grid has three columns:

that is not the same.

No. steps

Step down

ACP

Rows are created for each Step down value

Machining level slider


The Machining level section consists of a slider that enables you to select
from calculated sets of Cutting conditions.

The slider is made up of 8 levels each level provides you with the
means to conveniently and intuitively control the Material Removal
Rate (MRR). Moving the slider up increases MRR and machining
aggressiveness.
There are many factors in machining that can make one
set of Cutting conditions better than another. Some of
these factors include fixture stability, cutting tool quality
and stability, and/or risks associated with the forces from
higher MRR. The Machining level slider provides you with
an adjustment for all these factors.

63

Output Cutting Data


The Output Cutting Data section displays two sets of data related to the
current Cutting conditions.
View 1 shows:

Spindle speed (rpm)

Feed rate (mm/min)

Step over (max)

Step over (min)

View 2 shows:

V Cutting speed (m/min)

CT (chip thickness)

Cutting Angle (max)

Cutting Angle (min)

The Output Cutting Data should be monitored while using the


Machining level slider to choose a set of Cutting conditions.
Dynamic 3D preview window
The dynamic 3D preview window shows a 3D representation of the
selected Cutting conditions. The 3D view shows:

Tool Diameter
Tool Total length
Tool Cutting length
Step down
Step over
Aggressiveness

If there are multiple steps with different depths, the largest Step down
from the output grid is used, since it is typically the most aggressive
Step down and should be monitored.

64

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Step over is represented by the red section in front of the tool. Levels
1 5 contain different Step over values, and the remaining levels have
a consistent Step over.

The aggressiveness is represented by the chips behind the tool. The


3D chips change color, quantity and size to show that moving up in
Machining levels produces more, thicker chips with greater heat.
As the Machining level slider is used to choose a set of
Cutting conditions, the 3D view updates. It also shows
how the chips should be evacuating the cutting area
under good conditions.

3.4 Define the rough machining of the recessed pocket


The following video demonstrates defining the rough machining of the recessed pocket.
The Wizard automatically calculates an ACP value of 0.7 based on the tool information
and 5 mm (0.2 in) total depth. Click the play button below...

The rough machining of the recessed pocket is defined.

65

3.5 Define the rough machining of the recessed hole


The following video demonstrates defining the rough machining of the recessed hole.
The Wizard automatically calculates an ACP value of 1.7 based on the tool information
and 13 mm (0.52 in) total depth. Click the play button below...

The rough machining of the recessed hole is defined.

3.6 Define the rough machining of the ledges


The following video demonstrates defining the rough machining of the ledges. The
Wizard automatically calculates an ACP value of 1.9 based on the tool information and
14 mm (0.56 in) total depth. Click the play button below...

The rough machining is defined and the completed CAM-Part is closed.


Congratulations! You have successfully completed the iMachining exercise.

66

3. iMachining 2D Operations

Exercise #4: iRest and iFinish Technologies


A milling CAM-Part is already created for this exercise.
The CNC-Machine Controller, Coordinate System, Stock
model and Target model are defined. The machine and
work material definitions for the iMachining Data are also
selected.
For this exercise, two tools (9.5 mm (0.375 in) and 6
mm (0.25 in) end mills) are already defined for the CAM
Project to perform the iRough (roughing), iRest (rest
machining) and iFinish (finishing) operations.
In addition, there are two iMachining 2D operations already defined to perform the rough and finish
machining of the outside shape. The 9.5 mm (0.375 in) end mill is used for both operations.
With iMachining 2D, it is possible to perform an iFinish operation directly after an iRough operation.
In some cases, however, you may have to machine features of a part where the roughing tool will
not physically fit prior to finishing. As a result, an iRest operation is used to remove any remaining
material before using iFinish.
The following steps have to be implemented in order to reach the final CAM-Part:

4.1 Load the CAM-Part


Activate the CAM-Part file EXERCISE_4.prz. If SolidWorks is not already opened,
SolidWorks, SolidCAM and the CAM-Part will launch automatically. Click the play button
below to see an introduction to the exercise...

The CAM-Part is loaded.

67

4.2 Machine the interior pocket...


The following videos demonstrate how to complete the machining of the interior
pocket. In the next three sub-steps, the machining is defined with an iRough, iRest
and iFinish operation.

4.2.1 Define an iRough (roughing) operation


Click the play button below...

The rough machining of the interior pocket is defined.

4.2.2 Define an iRest (rest machining) operation


Click the play button below...

The rest machining of the interior pocket is defined.


Proceed to the next sub-step: 4.2.3 Define an iFinish (finishing) operation

68

3. iMachining 2D Operations
iRest Technology
The iRest Technology enables you to define a rest machining operation from
within the iMachining Operation dialog box. An iRest operation is used to
remove material left by a previous roughing operation. The iRest Technology
calculates what stock has been previously removed using the iRest Data, and
then compares it to the target model.

iRest Data
In the iRest Data tab on the Technology page, there are three important
parameters required for calculating rest material:
iRest parameters
Previous tool diameter
Previous wall offset
Previous fillet radius

If an iRest operation is created using the Save & Copy


button,
the previous iRough operation is automatically defined as the Parent
operation and the associated parameters are written to the fields.
The Save & Copy functionality is used throughout this
training course to quickly create iRest operations, where
most parameters are identical.

69

Parent operation

If the previous roughing operation is not an iMachining operation, you


have the option to choose User-defined from the Parent operation
drop-down menu. This opens the fields for editing and enables you to
manually enter the iRest parameters.

Technology
In the Technology tab on the Technology page, the default input value of
the Wall / island offset parameter is 0.12 mm (0.005 in) for iRest.

It is important to note that the Wall / island offset


parameter for rest machining must be greater than 0, but
less than the Previous wall offset.
Rest material
In the Technology tab on the Technology page, this area provides
additional tool path optimization strategies for iRest.
Corners only this option limits the machining of rest material

to only the corners (and not the walls) of the pocket. It aids in
the reduction of cycle times.

70

3. iMachining 2D Operations
When enabled, the Wall / island offset parameter is inherited
from the previous roughing operation and the input field text
box becomes locked.

Note that Corners only will also clear rest material in tight
areas unreachable by the previous roughing tool.

4.2.3 Define an iFinish (finishing) operation


Click the play button below...

The finish machining of the interior pocket is defined.


Proceed to the next step: 4.3 Machine the elevated floors

71

iFinish Technology
The iFinish Technology enables you to define a finishing operation from within
the iMachining Operation dialog box. An iFinish operation is used to remove
material left by a previous roughing and/or rest machining operation. The
iFinish Technology calculates what stock has been previously removed using
the iRest Data, and then compares it to the target model.

iRest Data
button, the
If an iFinish operation is created using the Save & Copy
previous iRough or iRest operation is automatically defined as the Parent
operation and the associated iRest parameters are written to the fields.
The Save & Copy functionality is used throughout this
training course to quickly create iFinish operations,
where most parameters are identical.
Parent operation

If the previous roughing or rest machining operation is not an


iMachining operation, you have the option to choose User-defined
from the Parent operation drop-down menu. This opens the fields for
editing and enables you to manually enter the iRest parameters.

72

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Technology
In the Technology tab on the Technology page, the default input value of
the Wall / island offset parameter is 0 mm (0 in) for iFinish and the input
field text box is locked.

Wall finish
In the Technology tab on the Technology page, this section provides
additional tool path optimization strategies for iFinish.
Compensation this option allows for small adjustments

of the finish pass on the CNC-Machine. In iMachining, the


adjustment is only relative to the pass and not the corners.

Spring Pass this option provides a secondary pass in addition

to the primary finish pass. It aids in offsetting tool deflection


to ensures that parts are finished more accurately and
dimensionally correct.

Lead in/out location at start of chain this option enables you

to define the start location for the iFinish tool path. The tool
leads into the cut at the start of the first chain entity picked
during the Geometry selection.
Start of chain

Lead in/out

73

Large compensation move this option enables you to define a

large lead in/out for the iFinish tool path. It is beneficial to use
this option when older machines require the compensation
line to be greater than the tool diameter.

Large lead in/out

There are two radio buttons for selecting when the tool path is
optimized and at what depth:
Total depth
This option performs the selected tool path optimization strategy
only when the Total depth is reached.

Each step down


This option performs the selected tool path optimization strategy
at each step down and when the Total depth is reached.

74

3. iMachining 2D Operations
4.3 Machine the elevated floors
The following video demonstrates how to perform the machining of the elevated floors
using iRough and iFinish. Two chains are defined: one chain is marked as open and the
other is marked with open edges. iRough uses an end mill of 9.5 mm (0.375 in) and has
a 0.24 mm (0.01 in) allowance on the walls. The iFinish operation finishes the walls with
an end mill of 6 mm (0.25 in). Click the play button below...

The machining of the elevated floors is defined.

4.4 Machine the top of the bosses


The following video demonstrates how to perform the machining for the top of the
bosses using iRough and iFinish. Twelve chains are defined. iRough and iFinish both use
an end mill of 6 mm (0.25 in). The iFinish operation finishes the 0.24 mm (0.01 in)
allowance left on the walls. Click the play button below...

The machining for the top of the bosses is defined.

75

4.5 Machine the pocket ledge


The following video demonstrates how to perform the machining of the pocket ledge
using iRough and iFinish. Two chains are defined. The internal chain is considered a
precut area and is marked as open. iRough and iFinish both use an end mill of 6 mm
(0.25 in). The iFinish operation finishes the 0.24 mm (0.01 in) allowance left on the walls.
Click the play button below...

The machining of the pocket ledge is defined.

4.6 Machine the holes with a Drilling operation


The following video demonstrates how to perform machining of the holes through the
bosses with a Drilling operation. The drill geometry is automatically defined by SolidCAM
searching the solid model for All circle/arc centers. A drill of 4 mm (0.1575 in) is defined
for the operation to perform drilling of the holes using the standard drilling method
G81. Click the play button below...

The machining of the holes is defined, the iMachining tool path is simulated for the
entire CAM Project and the completed CAM-Part is closed.

76

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Drilling Operation
This operation type enables you to perform drilling and other canned drill
cycles. SolidCAM supports the canned drill cycles provided by your particular
CNC-Machine such as threading, peck, ream, boring, etc.

Drilling operations are used throughout this training


course to define the machining of holes and countersinks.
Geometry definition
To start the Geometry definition, click the New
Geometry page of the Drilling Operation dialog box.

button on the

The Drill Geometry Selection dialog box enables


you to select the geometry for drilling directly on
the solid model. When this dialog box is displayed,
SolidCAM enables you to select the drill centers
using the following methods:
Pick position

You can define drill centers one by one directly


on the solid model.
3 Points on circumference

Usually, all curves and arcs of imported models


are converted into splines by the exporting CAD
system. Due to the nature of spline curves or
surface boundaries, you cannot pick a center
position like you could on a circle or an arc. SolidCAM calculates the
center position of an arc defined by three points positioned on the
spline edges. This facilitates selecting drill centers on spline surfaces.

77

Multi-positions

You can select the model face. SolidCAM automatically recognizes all
arcs/circles located on the selected face and selects the center points
as drill positions.
All circle/arc centers

SolidCAM searches the solid model for arcs and circles and adds all
center points as drill positions to the geometry.
Tool definition
The tool is defined similarly to an iMachining operation, but Drilling Tools
are used instead of Milling Tools.

Levels definition
The milling levels are defined similarly to an iMachining operation.
However, you have to use the Depth type option in order to perform
drilling down to the specified diameter of the tool.
Depth Type
This option enables you to deepen the drilled hole in order to obtain
a given diameter at the specified drill depth.
Cuer p

Full diameter

Drill
depth

Diameter value

Drill
depth

Drill
depth

Diameter
value

Cutter tip the drill tip reaches the defined drill depth.
Full diameter the drill reaches the defined drill depth with
the full diameter.

78

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Diameter value the drill reaches the defined drill depth with
the drill cone diameter specified in the input field box.
The Diameter value can vary from 0 all the way up to the
drilling tool diameter. A value greater than that is automatically
decreased to the drill tool diameter.
Technology page
The Technology page of the Drilling Operation dialog box enables you to
define the technological parameters of drilling.

Sorting
This area enables you to define the sequence of the drill positions and
manage its direction.
Drill cycle
The drill cycle panel is displayed by clicking the
button. This panel
enables you to select one of the canned drill
cycles supported by the post-processor of the
current CNC-Controller.

Drill cycle type

For more information regarding this operation type, refer


to the SolidCAM Milling Help.
Congratulations! You have successfully completed the iMachining exercise.

79

Exercise #5: Helical Entry, Pre-Drilling and small tools


For this exercise, a milling CAM-Part is already created
and the iMachining Data is defined.
Two milling tools and two drilling tools are also defined.
In addition, there are two iMachining 2D operations
defined to perform the rough and finish machining of
the outside shape. An end mill of 9.5 mm (0.375 in) is
used for both operations.
Later, two more tools (a drill and an end mill) are
defined to perform additional machining operations.
When using iMachining, you have to be aware that the Technology Wizard automatically calculates
the helical cutting conditions based on material hardness and aggressiveness of the Machining
level slider; and in this exercise, the slider is used to illustrate its effect on Helical Entry. Also in this
exercise, two examples of Pre-Drilling techniques are used: the first defines a small pre-drilled hole
used to reduce stress on the tool during helical entry and the second defines a large pre-drilled
hole used for safe tool entry. The exercise concludes with how well iMachining performs even
when using small tools.
The following steps have to be implemented in order to reach the final CAM-Part:

5.1 Load the CAM-Part


Activate the CAM-Part file EXERCISE_5.prz. If SolidWorks is not already opened,
SolidWorks, SolidCAM and the CAM-Part will launch automatically. Click the play button
below to see an introduction to the exercise...

The CAM-Part is loaded.

80

3. iMachining 2D Operations
5.2 Machine the main pocket...
The following video demonstrates defining an iRough operation for roughing the main
pocket. The geometry is defined as a closed pocket with island. Two chains are defined:
the first is the pocket contour and the second is the internal chain on island contour.
An end mill of 9.5 mm (0.375 in) is used. The tool performs the Helical Entry into the
pocket followed by the pocket roughing tool path. A 0.24 mm (0.01 in) allowance is left
on the walls. Click the play button below...

The rough machining of the main pocket is defined.

5.2.1 Helical Entry


The following video demonstrates how to define the parameters of Helical Entry in
greater detail. Click the play button below...

The rough machining of the main pocket is redefined and the tool performs a safe
helical entry using the Classic helical cutting conditions.
Proceed to the next sub-step: 5.2.2 iRest and iFinish the main pocket

81

Helical Entry
In iMachining, if the Geometry is defined as a closed
pocket, the tool enters the material in a spiral movement
according to the parameters defined in the Helical Entry
area on the Link page.

Ramping angle
This parameter defines the aggressiveness of the descent angle by
which the tool enters the material. By default, the Technology Wizard
automatically calculates the helical cutting conditions based on material
hardness and aggressiveness of the Machining level slider.
Ramping angle at
Machining level 1

Ramping angle at
Machining level 8

When using more aggressive Ramping angle values, it is


important to note that cooling can become a concern.
Larger values will generate more heat and proper cooling
should be applied when necessary.

82

3. iMachining 2D Operations
An override check box is provided so the Ramping angle value can be set
manually, in the instance you want the tool to perform a helical entry at
an aggressiveness that is not relative to the position of the Machining
level slider.

Classic helical cutting conditions


This option automatically sets the
Ramping angle parameter to 2.5
degrees for the operation, which is
absolutely safe.
If you want to use the Classic helical cutting conditions,
the Ramping angle override check box must be disabled
in the Helical Entry area.
There are three ways to enable the Classic helical cutting conditions:
1. On a per operation basis in the Technology wizard
area on the Misc. parameters page of the iMachining
Operation dialog box.

When enabled here, only the current operation will use


the Classic helical cutting conditions.

83

2. Per project in the Technology wizard area on the


iMachining page of the Part Settings dialog box. The Part
Settings dialog box is accessed by double-clicking the
Settings subheader in the SolidCAM Manager.

When enabled here, newly created operations for the


current CAM-Part will use the Classic helical cutting
conditions.
3. Globally in the Technology wizard area on the iMachining
page of the SolidCAM Settings dialog box. The SolidCAM
Settings dialog box is accessed by clicking the SolidCAM
field in the SolidWorks main menu.

When enabled here, all operations for newly created


CAM-Parts will always use the Classic helical cutting
conditions.

84

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Center cutting
By default, Center cutting is enabled (since it is more common to use a
tool with center cutting capabilities).

Tool with Center cutting capabilities


For tools with center cutting capabilities, the working order is as
follows:
1. From the Clearance level, the tool descends to the Safety
distance above the Upper level.
2. The tool performs a helical entry into the material at the
specified Ramping angle until the operation Step down
depth is achieved, and then all material at that depth
is machined.
3. When the machining is completed at the operation Step
down depth, the tool ascends to the Clearance level and
repositions itself to the original start point, and then
steps 1 and 2 above are repeated until the Pocket depth
is achieved.
The Center cutting option works in conjunction with the Step down
parameter. If your tool does not have center cutting capabilities, you have
to disable the Center cutting check box. When disabled, the Step down
field is open to be edited.

85

Step down
This parameter defines the depth at which the tool stops ramping down
into the material; and at this depth, the tool clears a circular path in order
to make the floor flat. You have to enter a calculated value based on the
attributes of the tool without center cutting capabilities.

Tool without Center cutting capabilities


For tools without center cutting capabilities, the working order is
similar to a tool with center cutting capabilities plus the following
differences:
1. From the Clearance level, the tool descends to the Safety
distance above the Upper level.
2. The tool performs a helical entry into the material at the
specified Ramping angle until the Step down parameter
is reached, and then the tool clears a circular path in
order to make the floor flat. This process is repeated until
the operation Step down depth is achieved.
3. When the operation Step down depth is achieved, all
material at that depth is machined.
4. When the machining is completed at the operation Step
down depth, the tool ascends to the Clearance level and
repositions itself to the original start point, and then
steps 1 through 3 above are repeated until the Pocket
depth is achieved.

86

3. iMachining 2D Operations
5.2.2 iRest and iFinish the main pocket
The following video demonstrates defining an iRest and iFinish operation to
complete the machining of the main pocket. The copied machining geometry and
milling levels from the previous iRough operation are used. iRest and iFinish both
use an end mill of 6.5 mm (0.25 in). The iFinish operation finishes the 0.12 mm
(0.005 in) allowance left on the walls. Click the play button below...

The rest and finish machining of the main pocket is defined.

5.3 Use Pre-Drilling Operations...


The following videos demonstrate how to Use Pre-Drilling Operations when defining an
iRough operation. In the following sub-steps, two examples of Pre-Drilling techniques
are used prior to roughing the main pocket.

5.3.1 Define a small pre-drilled hole


Click the play button below...

87

5.3.2 Define a large pre-drilled hole (entry hole)


Click the play button below...

Two examples of Pre-Drilling techniques are defined and the machining of the
main pocket is redefined.
Proceed to the next step: 5.4 Machine the top of the mounting block (island)

Pre-Drilling
In iMachining, you have the option to Use Pre-Drilling Operations. This option
is found in the Pre-Drilling tab on the Link page.

88

3. iMachining 2D Operations
When the Use Pre-Drilling Operations
check box is selected, the Drill operation
and positions window is activated and
enables you to choose a previous Drill
operation to define the Pre-Drilling.
When a Drill operation is chosen, the
X- and Y-coordinates appear in the Drill
positions list. iMachining uses the Drill
position as an automatic entry point into
the pocket.
When defining an iRough operation, Pre-Drilling can be
used to extend tool life even further.
There are two typical types of Pre-Drilling used:
Small pre-drilled hole this type is defined by choosing a previous
Drill operation that uses a drilling tool with a smaller diameter than
that of the current roughing tool. It is used as a helical entry point for
an iRough operation and can dramatically reduce stress on the tool.

Helical entry
Drill posion

Large pre-drilled hole (entry hole) this type is defined by choosing a


previous Drill operation that uses a drilling tool with a larger diameter
than that of the current roughing tool. It is used for safe tool entry.

Vercal entry
Drill posion

In order to use a large pre-drilled hole for safe tool entry,


a Profile operation must also be defined to remove the
drill point from the bottom of the hole. When the entry
hole has a flat bottom, the tool is able to safely feed down
into the material.

89

Profile Operation
This operation type enables you to mill on or along a contour. The profile
geometry can be either open or closed. You can even machine one or more
profiles in a single operation.

In this exercise, a profile milling strategy is defined to


remove a drill point from the bottom of an entry hole for
an iRough operation.
Geometry, Tool and Levels definitions
The machining geometry, tool and milling levels are defined similarly to
an iMachining operation.
Technology page
The Technology page of the Profile Operation dialog box enables you to
define the technological parameters of profile milling.

90

3. iMachining 2D Operations
When defining the technological parameters of profile milling, first you
need to make sure that the tool position relative to the geometry is
correct. The Tool side option can be checked in the Modify area.
Modify
The Tool side option enables you to determine the tool position
relative to the geometry.
Right the tool cuts on the right side of the profile geometry.
Left the tool cuts on the left side of the profile geometry.
Center the center of the tool moves on the profile geometry

(no compensation G4x can be used with this option).

Right

Le

Center

The Geometry button displays the Modify Geometry dialog box that
enables you to define the modification parameters of the geometry
and to choose which geometry chains are active in the operation (in
case of multiple chain geometry). The chain geometry of the profile is
displayed on the model with the chain direction indicated and a circle
representing the tool relative to the geometry.
Depth type
This option enables you to choose the depth
type for the profile.
Constant the tool performs the profile milling

at a constant depth as defined by the Step down


until the Profile depth is achieved.

Variable (Define) the depths can be defined at

different profile points.

Helical the tool performs spiral movements

around the profile geometry with a continuous


lowering along the Z-Axis.

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Link page
The Link page of the Profile Operation dialog box enables you to define
the parameters of the tool approach and retreat relative to profile milling.

Ramping
This option determines how the tool approaches the start point of the
contour. The following three descent types are available:
Feed this type causes the tool to move rapidly to the Upper

level minus the Safety distance. Then the tool descends to the
approach plane with the given Z Feed rate. Use this option
when you know that there is material in the descent path.

Rapid this type generates a rapid descent (G0) from the

Clearance level to the approach plane. Use this option when


you know that there is no material in the descent path.

Diagonal this type can be activated only if the Step down is

equal to the Profile depth. It causes the tool to move rapidly


from the Clearance level to the Upper level, plus the Safety
distance. Then the tool diagonally descends to the start of
the profile geometry at the normal feed rate. The angle of the
diagonal is automatically generated depending on the type of
approach you choose.
For more information regarding this operation type, refer
to the SolidCAM Milling Help.

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3. iMachining 2D Operations
5.4 Machine the top of the mounting block (island)
The following video demonstrates how to complete the machining for the top of the
mounting block. An iRough operation alone is defined to perform the rough and finish
machining of the top surface. The chain on island contour is defined and is marked as
open. An end mill of 6.5 mm (0.25 in) is used. A 0.12 mm (0.005 in) allowance is left on
the floor and then removed by a finishing cut. Click the play button below...

The machining for the top of the mounting block (island) is defined.
Proceed to the next step: 5.5 Machine the holes

Floor finish
In the Finish area on the Technology page, the Floor check box enables you to
perform the finish machining of the pocket floor. When selected, a finishing
cut is executed to remove the Floor offset.

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The specified Wall / island offset remains on their respective contours.


In the instance of a completely open pocket, where there
are no walls or islands, an iRough operation alone can be
defined to perform the rough and finish machining of the
pocket floor.

Floor offset
This parameter enables you to define the allowance that remains on the floor
of the machined pocket until the finishing cut is executed. The allowance is
removed only when the Floor option is enabled in the Finish area.
Floor finish is typically used when a better surface finish is
desired on the pocket floor. Because there is less material
to remove and inherently less force on the cutting tool,
the finishing cut yields a better surface finish.

5.5 Machine the holes


The following video demonstrates drilling the holes through the perimeter fastener
posts and the mounting block. Two Drilling operations are defined. The drill geometry
is automatically defined by SolidCAM searching the selected faces. A drill of 4 mm
(0.1575 in) is used for one operation and a drill of 1.65 mm (0.065 in) is used for the
other. Both operations perform drilling of the holes using the standard drilling method
G81. Click the play button below...

The machining of the holes is defined.

94

3. iMachining 2D Operations
5.6 iMachining with a small tool
The following video demonstrates defining a small tool, and how iMachining performs
when using small tools is explained in detail. An end mill of 1.5 mm (0.059 in) is defined;
and in the next two sub-steps, the end mill is chosen to perform the rough and finish
machining of the counterbores and vent slots. Click the play button below...

A small end mill of 1.5 mm (0.059 in) is defined.

iMachining with small tools


For small tools, the Technology Wizard generates small engagement angles
and small chip thickness, so the Cutting conditions are suitable.

www.makino.com

Even in a micro-machining environment, when using very small tools, the


most important requirement is accuracy and surface finish, not speed or
cycle time; therefore, it is best to select a Machining level that is 2 or 3 levels
below the usual.

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5.6.1 Machine the counterbores


The following video demonstrates defining the iRough and iFinish machining of
the counterbores. Three closed chains are defined for the machining geometry.
The end mill of 1.5 mm (0.059 in) is used and a Machining level of 1 is set for
both operations. iRough uses a Pre-Drilling operation for safe tool entry. The iFinish
operation finishes the 0.06 mm (0.0024 in) allowance left on the walls. Click the
play button below...

The machining of the counterbores is defined.

5.6.2 Machine the vent slots


The following video demonstrates defining the iRough and iFinish machining of
the vent slots. Three closed chains are defined for the machining geometry.
The end mill of 1.5 mm (0.059 in) is used with a Machining level of 3 for both
operations. The iFinish operation finishes the 0.06 mm (0.0024 in) allowance left
on the walls. Click the play button below...

The machining of the vent slots is defined, the iMachining tool path is simulated
for the entire CAM Project and the completed CAM-Part is closed.
Congratulations! You have successfully completed the iMachining exercise.

96

3. iMachining 2D Operations

Exercise #6: Effects on the Technology Wizard...


For this exercise, a milling CAM-Part is already created
and the iMachining Data is defined.
In addition, there are two end mills and a drill already
defined; and in this exercise, the milling tools are used
to perform the machining of the outside shape and
through hole while the drilling tool is used to perform
machining of the holes through the ledges.
Later, a bull nose mill is defined to perform the rough
and finish machining of the ledges and pocket, both
of which contours have a floor radius.
When using iMachining, you have to be aware that making changes to the tool definition, milling
levels, Machine or Material Database definitions will have an effect on the Cutting conditions
generated by the Technology Wizard. This exercise illustrates these changes and their effects.
Also in this exercise, the Material boundary feature is used for Geometry definitions and the
Efficiency slider is used to control the Morphing spiral tool path generated by iMachining.
The following steps have to be implemented in order to reach the final CAM-Part:

6.1 Load the CAM-Part


Activate the CAM-Part file EXERCISE_6.prz. If SolidWorks is not already opened,
SolidWorks, SolidCAM and the CAM-Part will launch automatically. Click the play button
below to see an introduction to the exercise...

The CAM-Part is loaded.


Proceed to the next step: 6.2 Machine the outside shape...

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Advanced cutting condition


This option enables you to modify any one or more of the Cutting conditions
parameters provided by the Wizard. When enabled, the Modify cutting
conditions tab appears on the Technology Wizard page of the iMachining
Operation dialog box.

There are two ways to enable this option:


1. Per project in the Technology wizard area on the iMachining
page of the Part Settings dialog box.

When enabled here, all operations in the current CAM-Part


will have the Modify cutting conditions functionality.

98

3. iMachining 2D Operations
2. Globally in the Technology wizard area on the iMachining
page of the SolidCAM Settings dialog box.

When enabled here, all operations for newly created CAM-Parts


will always have the Modify cutting conditions functionality.
The individual parameters appearing on the Modify
cutting conditions tab are covered in greater detail in
Exercise #7.

99

6.2 Machine the outside shape...


The following videos demonstrate how to complete the machining of the outside shape.
The Target model consists of two solid bodies: one represents the original outside
shape and the other represents the final outside shape (after a modification from the
engineering department). In this example, iMachining 2D is utilized to save the part from
being scrapped.

6.2.1 Machine the original outside shape


Part 1 demonstrates defining an iRough and iFinish operation to perform the
machining of the original outside shape. Completing this sub-step also includes
making changes to the tool definition, which are shown having an effect on the
Technology Wizard. Click the play button below...

The machining of the original outside shape is defined.


Proceed to the next sub-step: 6.2.2 Machine the final outside shape

Changes to the tool definition


In iMachining, the Technology Wizard automatically calculates the optimal
Cutting conditions based on the tool information. When editing an operation,
there are two changes to the tool definition that can dramatically alter the
Cutting conditions:
1. Selecting a tool with a different diameter from the Part
Tool Table.
2. Editing certain parameters of the tool that is currently
being used in the Part Tool Table.

100

3. iMachining 2D Operations
When selecting a tool with a different diameter, if you
are using any Modify options within the operation, you
will be prompted to recalculate the modified parameters
upon clicking the Select button to exit the Part Tool Table.
It is recommended to click Yes.

These Advanced options, which values are calculated


according to the tool diameter, are covered in greater
detail in Exercise #7.
The Cutting conditions for the current operation are provided according to
the following tool parameters, and changing them has the following effects:
Topology page

Diameter changing this parameter has an effect on the Step


over ranges and associated Spin and Feed rates provided in
the Output Cutting Data.
Cutting length changing this parameter
can have an effect on the Step down
output grid. The Wizard uses the Cutting
length to calculate if multiple steps are
needed to achieve the Pocket depth.
Number of flutes changing this
parameter has an effect on the Feed
rate, the ACP indication and possibly the
Step downs in Automatic mode.

101

iData page

Material Database changing this


selection has an effect on all values in
the Output Cutting Data except Max.
Spin and Max. Cutting Speed (Vc).
Tool Material changing this selection
has an effect on the Max. Cutting Speed
(Vc) calculated by the Wizard and the
associated Spin and Feed rates.
Machining Level changing the Default level has an effect on
the Output Cutting Data by positioning the Machining level
slider to the assigned level of the tool.

Topology / Helical Angle changing this


parameter has an effect on the ACP
indication regardless of the calculation
method and possibly the Step downs in
Automatic mode.

To ensure the Cutting conditions remain safe, when


selecting a tool with a different diameter or editing
certain parameters of the current tool, clicking the Select
button to choose the tool for the operation and exit the
Part Tool Table will clear any Technology Wizard overrides
(on both the Cutting conditions and Modify cutting
conditions pages).

102

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Even if the same tool is selected and you exit the Part
Tool Table with the Select button, any Technology
Wizard overrides will be cleared and the default Cutting
conditions will be reset.

Do not reset cutting conditions when selecting same tool


This option enables you to keep the Cutting conditions that are produced as a
result of using Technology Wizard overrides, even if the same tool is selected
from the Part Tool Table.
There are two ways to enable this option:
1. Per project in the Technology wizard area on the iMachining
page of the Part Settings dialog box.

When enabled here, newly created operations for the current


CAM-Part will use the Do not reset cutting conditions when
selecting same tool option.

103

2. Globally in the Technology wizard area on the iMachining


page of the SolidCAM Settings dialog box.

When enabled here, newly created CAM-Parts will always use


the Do not reset cutting conditions when selecting same tool
option.
When using this option, you have to be aware that the
Cutting conditions are kept and that they may no longer
be optimal or safe.

104

3. iMachining 2D Operations
6.2.2 Machine the final outside shape
Part 2 demonstrates defining an iRough and iFinish operation to perform the
machining of the final outside shape. Completing this sub-step includes using the
Material boundary feature to define the machining geometry. Click the play button
below...

The machining of the final outside shape is defined.


Proceed to the next step: 6.3 Machine the ledges

Material boundary
This method of Geometry definition enables you to automatically build
geometry chains by defining an offset. The offset is built to one side of an
existing open or closed geometry chain.

105

In some cases, by eliminating the need to sketch a


working area in SolidWorks, this method of defining
geometry chains can help reduce programming time.
The Material boundary feature is only suitable for certain circumstances,
where the Stock is marginally larger than the Target and the initial shape is
the same as the final shape.
Provided the size and shape meet the above requirements, a Material
boundary can be used to define the following Geometry types:
Semi-open pocket

To define this Geometry type using the Material boundary feature, the
working order is as follows:
1. On the Geometry page, click the New
Geometry definition.

button to start the

2. Pick the chain entities that represent the walls of the semiopen pocket.

Stock
Target
Closed edges
Chain direcon

In the Chain List area of the


Geometry Edit dialog box, click the
button to accept
the chain as open. The selected

Accept chain

chain is displayed. Click OK


to
confirm the chain selection and
exit the Geometry Edit dialog box.
When selecting chains, it is important to note that the
offset is built to the left side of the chain direction;
therefore, when using this method, chains must always
be picked to indicate climb cutting.

106

3. iMachining 2D Operations
3. In the Material boundary area on
the Geometry page, enter an offset
value in the Define offset field.
To accurately define the offset, you have to consider the size of
the tool in addition to the Stock and Target.
When a geometry chain is selected as open, the In
Geometry mode is no longer active in the Material
boundary area. By default, Define offset is selected.
As defined by the offset value, iMachining automatically builds the
remaining chain entities to complete the semi-open geometry.
button enables you to verify the autoClicking the Preview
built geometry chain is correct.

Selected chain
Offset

The chain entities shown in blue represent the ones


chosen during Geometry selection, while those shown in
green represent the auto-built entities.
Closed pocket with entry geometry

To define this Geometry type using the Material boundary feature,


the working order is similar to a semi-open pocket with the following
differences:
1. On the Geometry page, click the New
Geometry definition.

button to start the

Any shape can be used for entry geometry, but it must be


the same as the final shape. In this exercise, a hole that
is considered a precut area is used for entry geometry.

107

2. Pick the chain entities that represent the walls of the closed
pocket. In the Chain List area of the Geometry Edit dialog box,
the selected chain is displayed. Click OK
to confirm the
chain selection and exit the Geometry Edit dialog box.
Stock
Target
Chain direcon

To ensure the entry chain is automatically built on the


inside of the selected closed chain, the chain direction
must indicate climb cutting.
3. In the Material boundary area on
the Geometry page, switch the
radio button to Define offset and
enter an offset value.
To accurately define the offset, you have to consider the size of
the tool in addition to the Stock and Target.
As defined by the offset value, iMachining automatically builds
the internal entry chain to complete the closed pocket with entry
geometry.

Offset
Selected chain

The geometry chain shown in blue represents the one


chosen during Geometry selection, while the one shown
in green represents the auto-built chain.

108

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Open pocket with island

To define this Geometry type using the Material boundary feature,


the working order is the same as a closed pocket with entry geometry
with only one difference. The chain on island contour is selected; and
as defined by the offset value, iMachining automatically builds the
external chain to complete the open pocket with island geometry.
For all these types of Geometry examples, it is important
to note that the auto-built chains and chain entities are
automatically defined as open.

6.3 Machine the ledges


The following video demonstrates defining the iRough and iFinish machining of the
ledges. The geometry is defined as an open pocket with island. A bull nose mill of 14
mm (0.55 in) with a Corner radius of 3 mm (0.125 in) is defined and used for both
operations. The iFinish operation finishes the 0.24 mm (0.01 in) allowance left on the
walls. Effects on the Technology Wizard when making changes to the milling levels are
also explained in detail. Click the play button below...

The machining of the ledges is defined.


Proceed to the next step: 6.4 Machine the through hole

109

Changes to the milling levels


In iMachining, the Technology Wizard automatically calculates the optimal
Cutting conditions based on the milling levels defined for the operation.
On the Levels page, when editing an operation, changes to the Upper level,
Pocket depth and/or Delta depth parameters has an effect on all values in the
Output Cutting Data, unless the Step over is already at its maximum.

Altering the Pocket depth parameter


changes the total depth to be
machined, which has an effect on the
Step down output grid.
Depth of Cut (DOC)
Changes to the milling levels has an effect on all values in the Output
Cutting Data because the Wizard calculates Step over based on the
Step down or Depth of Cut (DOC). Spindle speed and feed rate are
then synchronized according to the Step over.
Step down or DOC

Upper
level

Pocket
depth
Step over

110

3. iMachining 2D Operations
6.4 Machine the through hole
The following video demonstrates defining the iRough and iFinish machining of the
through hole. The Material boundary feature is used to define the machining geometry.
An end mill of 12.5 mm (0.5 in) is used for both operations. A Delta depth value of-0.76
mm (-0.03 in) is defined, so the tool performs machining deeper than the part bottom
edge. The iFinish operation finishes the 0.24 mm (0.01 in) allowance left on the walls.
Click the play button below...

The machining of the through hole is defined.

6.5 Machine the triangular pocket


The following video demonstrates defining the iRough and iFinish machining of the
triangular pocket. The geometry is defined as a closed pocket with entry hole. The
14 mm (0.55 in) bull nose mill is used for both operations. When defining the iRough
operation, the Efficiency slider is also used to demonstrate its effect on the Morphing
spiral tool path. The iFinish operation finishes the 0.24 mm (0.01 in) allowance left on
the walls. Click the play button below...

The machining of the triangular pocket is defined.


Proceed to the next step: 6.6 Machine the holes

111

Spiral Efficiency
iMachining generates Morphing spiral tool paths to clear a completely open
or completely closed pocket area, which does not have the shape of a circle.
This means that it generates tool paths with different side steps in different
directions.
As a result, the average side step is smaller than the maximum side step,
which makes the average Material Removal Rate (MRR) less than the
maximum MRR possible. This means that a morphing spiral is potentially less
efficient than a regular round spiral.
The Efficiency slider on the Technology page enables you to control the
efficiency of the Morphing spiral tool paths generated by iMachining.

Increasing the Efficiency reduces the variation of the side step permitted
in the spiral, making the side steps in all directions more equal and
accordingly producing a rounder spiral, looking more like a circle. The
remaining areas are cleared with trochoidal-like tool paths.

Efficiency level 10
Equal side steps

112

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Decreasing the Efficiency allows iMachining to use more of the side step
range specified by the Technology Wizard. By managing to morph itself
into the narrower parts of the pocket, the spiral produced looks less like
a circle and covers a greater part of the area.

Efficiency level 1
Different side steps

Level 6 is the default position of the Efficiency slider and


is recommended for general machining applications.
There are three reasons iMachining permits control of the Efficiency
in the Morphing spiral tool path:
1. Since the Technology Wizard adjusts the feed rate at every
point along the tool path in order to maintain a constant
cutting force on the tool, the actual loss in the average MRR
is negligibly small or even zero. This greatly depends on the
maximum feed rate the machine can achieve. With very slow
machines, the Wizard cannot fully compensate for some of
the very small side steps indicated by the morphing action,
because the maximum feed rate of the machine is not high
enough. In such cases, if your first priority is high average MRR,
and long tool life is less of an issue, you can instruct iMachining
to limit the extent of the morphing by selecting a higher level
of Spiral Efficiency.
2. The second reason is to gain a higher Global Efficiency for
the whole pocket or part, and for this iMachining is willing
to sacrifice a little in the local efficiency of a specific spiral by
using an Efficiency level of 6.
3. The third reason is to extend tool life to the maximum possible,
and for this a low Efficiency level is used since it is well known
that a continuous spiral cut causes less wear on the tool than
repeated short trochoidal-like cuts.

113

Priorities and cost structure (relative cost per part of


machine time, tooling and labor) are the determining
factors for what Efficiency level is best. Although it will
increase the cycle time, a lower Efficiency level is usually
best when regularly using expensive tools since it
increases tool life.

6.6 Machine the holes


The following video demonstrates drilling the holes through the ledges. A Drilling
operation is defined. The drill geometry is automatically defined by SolidCAM locating
the center points of all circle entities on the selected faces. A drill of 5.5 mm (0.2165
in) is used to perform machining of the holes using the standard drilling method G81.
The Depth type is set to Full diameter, so the tool reaches the defined drilling depth with
the full diameter. Click the play button below...

The machining of the holes is defined.

6.7 iMachining Data changes


The following videos demonstrate how making changes to the iMachining Data has an
effect on the Technology Wizard.

114

3. iMachining 2D Operations
6.7.1 Machine Database
Part 1 focuses on the steps necessary to either select a different machine or
make changes to the current machine definition. When changes are made to the
Machine Database, it not only has an effect on the Technology Wizard but also all
iMachining operations defined in the CAM-Part. Click the play button below...

Machine Database changes were shown having an effect on the Technology Wizard
as well as the iMachining operations defined for the CAM Project.

6.7.2 Material Database


Part 2 focuses on the steps necessary to either make changes to the current
material definition or select a different material. When changes are made to the
Material Database, it not only has an effect on the Technology Wizard but also all
iMachining operations and tools defined in the CAM-Part. Click the play button
below...

Material Database changes were shown having an effect on the Technology Wizard
as well as the iMachining operations and tools defined for the CAM Project.
Congratulations! You have successfully completed the iMachining exercise.

115

Exercise #7: Advanced features and controls in iMachining 2D


For this exercise, a milling CAM-Part is already created
and the iMachining Data is defined.
In addition, all the tools are defined and the part
programming is complete. The procedures that you
learned in the previous exercises were already applied
here to reach the final CAM-Part.
The purpose of this exercise is to introduce you to the
advanced features and controls in iMachining 2D that
you may not typically use.
These include the remaining parameters that are active when the Advanced cutting condition
option is enabled in the Settings as well as the Advanced mode in the iMachining Operation dialog
box. The remaining parameters are explained in detail; and in some cases, the advanced features
and controls are used to demonstrate their effects on the iMachining tool path.
The following steps have to be implemented to complete the last exercise for iMachining 2D:

7.1 Load the CAM-Part


Activate the CAM-Part file EXERCISE_7.prz. If SolidWorks is not already opened,
SolidWorks, SolidCAM and the CAM-Part will launch automatically. Click the play button
below to see an introduction to the exercise...

The CAM-Part is loaded.

116

3. iMachining 2D Operations
7.2 Advanced parameters on the Geometry page
In the following video, the Modify geometry fillet option is used on the Geometry
page. By default, iMachining automatically calculates the geometry fillet based on the
tool radius. The iRough_MainPocket operation is edited and the default Fillet radius
parameter is modified to demonstrate its effect on the iMachining tool path. Click the
play button below...

Proceed to the next step: 7.3 Advanced parameters on the Tool page

Modify geometry fillet


When the Advanced mode is enabled, the Modify geometry fillet option
appears on the Geometry page.

117

By default, the Modify check box is disabled and iMachining automatically


calculates the geometry fillet based on the current tool radius.
For iRough and iRest, the Fillet radius value is calculated
according to 20% of the tool radius.
For iFinish, the Fillet radius value is calculated according
to only 1% of the tool radius. The result is a smoother
tool path in tight areas and corners.
This option enables you to apply a user-defined
geometry fillet to the iMachining tool path.
When the Modify check box is enabled, the Fillet
radius input field text box is open to be edited.
There are two modes for entering the Fillet radius value:
Percentage a percentage of the current tool radius is used to
calculate the value.
Value a direct value can be entered.
The value entered must be greater than 1% but less than
90% of the tool radius.
A large Fillet radius of 90% limits the tool to the larger areas of the
part geometry.

Fillet radius - 90%

A small Fillet radius of 1% enables the tool to fit in the tight areas of
the part geometry. This is not preferred for roughing.

Fillet radius - 1%

118

3. iMachining 2D Operations
When using the Modify geometry fillet option, if you
choose a different tool with a different diameter for
the operation, you will be prompted to recalculate the
geometry fillet parameter upon clicking the Select button
to exit the Part Tool Table.

It is recommended to click Yes.

7.3 Advanced parameters on the Tool page


In the following video, the Feed and Spin types on the Data tab of the Tool page are
explained in detail. The feed rates and spindle speeds used for the iRough_MainPocket
operation are shown. By default, the Wizard automatically calculates the optimal Feed
and Spin parameters based on many factors defined for the operation. Click the play
button below...

Proceed to the next step: 7.4 Advanced parameters on the Levels page

iMachining Feed and Spin Data


When the Wizard is on, the Feed and Spin data for the tool are automatically
calculated according to the selected set of Cutting conditions for the current
operation. When GCode is generated, the Feed and Spin parameters are
written to the GCode file.

119

The individual Feed and Spin parameters for the current operation appear on
the Data tab of the Tool page.

The Feed XY and Spin rate parameters are shown with a lock
they need to be synchronized when using the Wizard.

icon because

Feed
The following feed rates are automatically calculated for the tool:
Feed XY this value sets the feed rate for when the tool is
cutting at maximum Step over. This feed rate is also the slowest
feed rate when cutting.
Feed XY max this value sets the maximum cutting feed rate.
This feed rate can be used to limit the entire cutting feed rate
by overriding the Feed XY value.
Feed finish this value sets the finish feed rate when using
iFinish, where the final profile pass uses a separate feed rate.
Feed Z this value sets the feed rate for the Z-down movements
and the helical reposition moves when down in the cut.
Feed helical this value sets the feed rate for the helical entry.
Feed reposition this value sets the feed rate for reposition
moves when the Z is down in the cut.

120

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Spin
The following spindle speeds are automatically calculated for the tool:
Spin rate this value sets the spindle speed for when the tool
is cutting in XY.
Spin finish this value sets the finish spindle speed when using
iFinish, where the final profile pass uses a separate spin rate.
Spin helical this value sets the spindle speed for the helical
entry.
Override check boxes are available for most parameters. When the Wizard is
off, the Feed XY and Spin rate parameters are open to be edited.
When using iMachining, it is recommended to leave

and utilize the optimal feed rates


the Wizard on
and spindle speeds that are provided. The Wizard
automatically calculates these values based on many
factors defined for the operation.

121

7.4 Advanced parameters on the Levels page


In the following video, the advanced parameters on the Levels page are explained
in detail. During calculation of the tool path, iMachining may separate areas of large
aspect ratios if it is more efficient to clear the divided areas with morphing spirals. The
iRough_OutsideShape operation is edited and the Through machining option is used
to disable separation and demonstrate its effect on the iMachining tool path. Click the
play button below...

Proceed to the next step: 7.5 Advanced parameters on the Technology Wizard page

Advanced Positioning levels and Through machining


When the Advanced mode is enabled, the Start level and Clearance level
parameters appear in the Positioning levels area on the Levels page.

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3. iMachining 2D Operations
Positioning levels
Start level
This default input value is equal to the Clearance level value of the
Coordinate System chosen for the operation.
Clearance level
This default input value defines the Z-level to which the tool retracts
when it moves from one cut to another.
The Through machining option is always available for use in the Milling levels
area, even in Simple mode.
Milling levels
Through machining
During calculation of the tool path, iMachining may separate areas of
large aspect ratios if it is more efficient to clear the divided areas with
morphing spirals.
Separang channel

Morphing spirals

The Through machining option enables you to turn off the separation
of large areas, in the instance you are machining through the lower
level of the stock. This option is used to avoid having the separated
material break away.

No separaon

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7.5 Advanced parameters on the Technology Wizard page


In the following video, the Modify cutting conditions parameters on the Technology
Wizard page are explained in detail. These include the Material Database definition and
Tool Material selection, Chip Control, Feed Control, Spindle Control, Cutting Angle Control
and the Turbo Mode. The parameters relative to the iRough_MainIsland operation are
shown. Click the play button below...

Proceed to the next step: 7.6 Advanced parameters on the Technology page

Modify cutting conditions


When the Advanced cutting condition option is enabled in the Settings, the
Modify cutting conditions tab appears on the Technology Wizard page.

124

3. iMachining 2D Operations
There are six sections that provide you with additional flexibility and advanced
control for the current operation.
Material Database
The Material Database selection is inherited from the tool definition.
As indicated in the previous exercise, selecting a different material
in the operation is an efficient technique for machining different
materials on a per operation basis.
Tool Material
The Tool Material selection is also inherited from the tool definition.
You cannot change the type of material assigned to the tool using the
Modify cutting conditions functionality.
However, you can manually set a percentage adjustment using the
override check box. The percentage adjustment is used to calculate
the Max. Cutting Speed (Vc) of the tool for the operation.

The following sets of parameters are automatically calculated by the Wizard:


Chip Control

Max. Chip Thickness this value represents the maximum chip


thickness for Machining level 8.
Min. Chip Thickness this value represents the minimum chip
thickness for all Machining levels.
Feed Control

Feed Rate Max this value represents the maximum cutting


feed rate for Machining level 8 when the tool is cutting at the
minimum cutting angle.
Reposition Feed this value represents the feed rate for
reposition moves when the Z is down in the cut.

125

Spindle Control

Max. Spin this value represents the maximum spindle speed


for Machining level 8 when the tool is cutting in XY.
Max. Cutting Speed (Vc) this value represents the maximum
velocity between the edge of the cutting tool and the surface
of the workpiece for Machining level 8.
Required Power At Motor this value represents the power
required for Machining level 8.
Cutting Angle Control

Max. Surface Area (%) this value represents the maximum


percentage of surface area contact between the cutting tool
and the workpiece for Machining level 8.
Max. Cutting Angle this value represents the maximum
cutting angle for Machining level 8. This value cannot exceed
80 degrees.
Min. Cutting Angle this value represents the minimum
cutting angle for Machining level 8. 10 degrees is the lowest
acceptable value.
Level 1 Max. Cutting Angle () this value represents the
maximum cutting angle for Machining level 1.
Override check boxes are available to modify these values that are set by
the Wizard, while maintaining synchronization across step down, step over,
spindle speed and feed rate.
It is strongly recommended that you only override any
one or more of these parameters if the Machining level
slider does not produce a desired result.

126

3. iMachining 2D Operations
When it is absolutely necessary to override any one or more of the Cutting
conditions parameters, enable the accompanying check box to open the field
for editing.

In the event that a modified value cannot be synchronized, the field is painted
red and a border-crossing arrow icon appears.
When the icon is clicked, the Wizard will calculate the nearest reconcilable
value. The value is written to the field, and the field gets painted yellow.
This indicates that the Modify cutting conditions data is validated.

There is also the option to use the Turbo Mode.


Turbo Mode
This option enables all levels of the Machining level slider to become
more aggressive and to yield an estimated 25% higher Material
Removal Rate (MRR).
When Turbo Mode is enabled, the values that appear
in the fields are representative of Machining level 8
Turbo; and when Turbo Mode is disabled, the values are
representative of Machining level 8 Normal.

127

7.6 Advanced parameters on the Technology page


In the following video, the advanced features and controls on the Technology page are
used to demonstrate their effects on the iMachining tool path. These include the Entry
rate slider for Morphing spiral controls as well as advanced Channels and Sorting options.
Two operations are edited in this step: iRough_MainIsland and iRough_MountingHoles.
The Technology and Channels options are shown in the first operation, and the Sorting
options are shown in the second operation. Click the play button below...

Proceed to the next step: 7.7 Remaining parameters...

Entry rate
When the Advanced mode is enabled, the Entry rate slider appears in the
Morphing spiral controls area on the Technology page.

128

3. iMachining 2D Operations
The Entry rate slider enables you to control the rate at which a Morphing
spiral tool path first enters the material. The Entry rate is automatically
calculated by the Wizard according to the stock material properties.
Entry rate - level 1

Entry rate - level 10

The value displayed with the Entry rate slider only indicates the relative rate
of entry according to the stock material properties and has no fixed units.

For hard materials, it is better to enter more gradually


than to directly lead in to the initial radial depth that is
determined by the side step appropriate for the specific
shape of a morphing spiral.

Channels
Channels are a unique feature of iMachining. They are designed to subdivide
an area of a pocket in such a way that most of the total area can be cleared
with morphing spirals, rather than with trochoidal-like tool paths, thus
reducing the cycle time and extending the tool life.
Moats are a special subset of Channels that are cut around islands,
whenever a morphing spiral or trochoidal-like tool path encounters
an island. By allowing the tool free passage around the island, this
unique feature enables iMachining to clear the remaining material
with a new morphing spiral.

129

Island moating
This option enables you to turn the separation of islands On or Off.
Island moang - On
Island moang - Off

By default, Island moating is turned On.

Modify Channel Parameters


When the Advanced mode is enabled, the Modify Channel Parameters and
Separation control options appear under the Channels tab on the Technology
page.

By default, the Modify check box is disabled and iMachining automatically


sets the Channel width and Thin wall thickness parameters based on the
current tool diameter.

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3. iMachining 2D Operations
Channel width
This value represents the width of all channels cut in the current
operation. It is the width between centers (of the tool). The default
value is automatically set equal to the tool diameter, which results in
the channels having a physical width of twice the tool diameter.

Thin wall thickness


This value sets the default thickness for any thin wall that is to be
considered dangerous. The possible formation of a thin wall at or
below this value is prevented by local widening of the channel.

Every time the tool breaks out from the material into air, there
is a transit situation of a thin wall which is subsequently removed.
iMachining addresses thin walls carefully since they can cause
vibrations, excessive tool wear and even tool breakage.
The Modify Channel Parameters option enables
you to apply a user-defined Channel width and
Thin wall thickness to the iMachining tool path.
When the Modify check box is enabled, the
input field text boxes are open to be edited.
It is strongly recommended that you do not reduce the
Thin wall thickness parameter below the default value
automatically set by iMachining.

131

When using the Modify Channel Parameters option, if


you choose a different tool with a different diameter for
the operation, you will be prompted to recalculate the
Channel Parameters upon clicking the Select button to
exit the Part Tool Table.

It is recommended to click Yes.

Separation control
The Separate slider enables you to control the
separation factor for the operation.
Level 3 is the default position of the Separate slider
and is recommended, unless you have a machine with
especially high or especially low acceleration.
If your machine can accelerate faster than an average
machine, it may be more efficient to use a higher
separation factor.
A high separation factor informs iMachining to use more channels when
applicable. The result can lead to more areas of separation, making it possible
for iMachining to clear them with morphing spirals.

Currently, iMachining has no knowledge of the maximum


acceleration of the Axes of a machine. The Separate
slider is provided so that you can inform iMachining to
lean more or less in favor of separation.

132

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Sorting
Under the Sort tab on the Technology page, iMachining offers the following
advanced Sorting options:

Advanced sort
If multiple pockets are defined in one operation, iMachining will sort
the pockets according to the order in which they were picked during
the Geometry selection.
The Advanced sort option enables you to turn Sorting on or off. To use
this option, enabled the check box ; the Advanced Sort
button is activated.
The Advanced Sorting dialog box is
displayed by clicking the Advanced Sort
button. This dialog box enables you
to define the sequence of machining
multiple pockets in one operation and
manage its direction.
You have to choose the method for
Sorting. Either a Linear or Circular pattern
can be used.

133

Step down order


By default, the Complete Z-level option is enabled in the Step down
order area. This means that If multiple pockets are defined in one

operation, and they have more than one Step down, every pocket is
machined by completing one Z-level at a time.

In some cases, it may be more beneficial to disable Complete Z-level.


At which point, iMachining is informed to complete all Z-levels of each
pocket before moving on to the next series of pockets.
Depending on the geometry of the workpiece, the ability
to disabled Complete Z-level can help improve the cycle
time by reducing retracts and long position moves.

7.7 Remaining parameters...


In the following video, the remaining parameters for iMachining 2D are explained in
detail and the advanced features and controls are used to demonstrate their effects
on the iMachining tool path. These include the In pocket positioning parameters on
the Link page, the Point interpolation parameters on the Motion control page as well
as the Fit arcs and In process simulation options on the Misc. parameters page. The
iRough_OutsideShape operation is edited and these remaining parameters are shown.
Click the play button below...

134

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Link
When the Advanced mode is enabled, the Detour length and Max. arc size
parameters appear in the In pocket positioning area on the Link page.

In pocket positioning
Z clearance
This parameter defines the height in which the tool is picked up off
the floor when repositioning from one cut to the next.
Side view of iMachining tool path

Z clearance

Detour length
This slider enables you to adjust the distance in which the tool is
allowed to travel when repositioning from one cut to the next.
iMachining automatically calculates this value to keep the tool down
as much as possible in order to reduce retracts and long position
moves.

135

Detour length

If the Detour length required to reach the next pass exceeds this
value, the tool will retract to the Clearance level and reposition via a
straight line movement.
Max. arc size
This slider enables you to adjust the maximum size of the 3D arc
that is used when repositioning from one cut to the next. iMachining
automatically calculates this value based on the current tool diameter.

Max. arc size

136

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Motion control
This page enables you to optimize the calculated tool path according to the
kinematics and special characteristics of your CNC-Machine.

Point interpolation
Using the Point interpolation options, SolidCAM enables you to
perform interpolation for the linear tool movements.
Approximate arcs by lines within tolerance
This option enables you to control the process of arcs approximation
for the current operation.
For more information regarding these options, refer to
the SolidCAM Milling Help.

137

Misc. parameters
This page contains the miscellaneous parameters for the operation.

Z level sorting
The Retract after every cut option enables you to quickly disable detouring
of the tool when repositioning from one cut to the next. When selected,
the tool will retract up to the Clearance level and then reposition via a
straight line movement before making the next cut.
Fit arcs
By default, this option is enabled to fit arcs in the iMachining GCode.
Cutting angle tolerance
This parameter is used to group sections of iMachining tool path that
fall within the specified tolerance, and then arcs are applied to those
sections.
A small tolerance can greatly reduce the amount of
GCode that is generated. It is especially beneficial for
machines with limited memory.
In process simulation
The Show tool path during calculation option enables you to display the
iMachining tool path on the model during calculation.
This option is a useful tool for verifying the iMachining
tool path during calculation.

138

3. iMachining 2D Operations
Constant chip thickness control for arcs
In iMachining, the Feed rate is automatically corrected when cutting in
corners in order to maintain a constant Chip Thickness (CT).
When milling aggressively, it is believed that a feed
correction for arcs is essential. By maintaining a constant
CT, it is proven that tool load is kept constant and tool life
is increased. In addition, it is more unlikely that dangerous
Cutting conditions could develop.
Since the constant CT is achieved by a reduced Feed rate, you may find an
increase in your cycle times. If you decide that faster cycle times is more
desirable than maintaining a constant CT, then you should consider using
the Constant chip thickness control for arcs slider.
This slider enables you to control the feed correction for arcs. The
position of the slider is set to 100% by default. If kept at 100%, iMachining
is informed to maintain a constant CT when cutting in corners.
Moving the slider to 0% informs iMachining to maintain a consistent Feed
rate between cutting in a straight line (G1) and cutting in a corner (G2).
The result is faster cycle times; but beware, with increased CT in corners
comes increased tool load.
Congratulations! You have successfully completed the iMachining 2D portion of the course.

139

140

iMachining 3D
Operations

142

4. iMachining 3D Operations
iMachining 3D is an automatic High Speed Milling CNC program generator for optimal roughing, rest

machining and semi-finishing of both prismatic and surfaced, general shaped 3D parts.

iMachining 3D automatically produces a complete, ready to run CNC program with optimal Cutting
conditions. iMachining 3D is able to rough and Rest rough a complete 3D part with True Scallop

on all slopes, all in a single operation. The optimal Cutting conditions are achieved by the expert
knowledge-based Technology Wizard of iMachining 2D.

With its full-depth Step down, intelligent Step up and smart positioning, iMachining 3D achieves
the shortest possible cycle time for roughing and semi-finishing of molds, complex 3D parts and 3D
prismatic parts. iMachining 3D can save up to 90% in machining time.

By default, iMachining 3D works in the mode of Cut only the Rest material, which enables it to use
the Updated Stock model from the previous operation, or the 3D Model of a casting or a forged part,
as the starting Stock model for the next operation. In addition, during the calculation of the tool
path, this initial Stock model is dynamically updated by each cutting move, and thus reflects the exact
shape of the remaining stock at every stage of the machining process so no time is wasted on Air
Cutting of volumes previously removed, or volumes which were empty to begin with (e.g., precast
or forged stock).
As shown in this chapter, iMachining 3D combined with other SolidCAM modules (i.e., HSM, 2.5D
Milling and Automatic Feature Recognition and Machining modules) for finishing provides a complete
machining solution for 3D parts.

143

Exercise #8: Mold core machining


The purpose of this exercise is to get you started using
iMachining 3D in SolidCAM. First, you have to define
the CAM-Part. The CAM-Part definition process for
iMachining 3D is similar to iMachining 2D, as shown
in Exercise #1. In iMachining 3D however, the Facet
tolerance is an important parameter to be aware of
when defining the Stock model and Target model.
During the first iMachining 3D operation definition, all
parameters are explained to show the commands and
options available to complete a machining task using the
iMachining 3D technology.
This exercise demonstrates the use of iMachining 3D to define the rough and Rest rough machining
of the mold core above, all in a single operation. A second operation is applied to further prepare the
CAM-Part for finishing operations. Using a practical range of both 3D and 2.5D strategies, the finish
machining of the mold core surfaces is then defined.
The following steps have to be implemented in order to reach the final CAM-Part:

8.1 Load the SolidWorks model


Activate the file Exercise_8.SLDPRT. If SolidWorks is not already opened, SolidWorks
and the model will launch automatically.
This model contains two solid bodies: one represents the stock material and the
other represents the Target model.

The SolidWorks model is loaded.

144

4. iMachining 3D Operations
8.2 Define the CAM-Part for iMachining 3D
The following videos demonstrate starting SolidCAM and defining the CAM-Part for
iMachining 3D. The first part is typical in the CAM-Part definition process. The second
part includes the iDatabase selections as well as advanced settings that are important
when using the iMachining 3D technology.

8.2.1 Define the typical CAM-Part parameters


Part 1 demonstrates selecting the CNC-Machine Controller (gMilling_Haas_SS_3x)
and defining the Coordinate System and Stock model. Click the play button below...

8.2.2 Define the advanced CAM-Part parameters


Part 2 demonstrates defining the Target model and the importance of setting the
Facet tolerance parameter to the recommended value of 0.01 mm (0.0004 in). In
the Part Settings, the Tool facet tolerance used for the Rest Material calculation
is also defined. The iMachining Data is then selected to complete the CAM-Part
definition. Click the play button below...

SolidCAM is started and the CAM-Part is defined.


Proceed to the next step: 8.3 Add an iMachining 3D operation to the CAM-Part...

145

Facet tolerance
SolidCAM generates a mathematical representation of the Stock model and
Target model, producing a triangular mesh for all the surfaces of the original
solids. The Facet tolerance parameter defines the accuracy to which triangles
fit those surfaces.

The triangulation is performed separately on the 3D Model geometries of


the Stock and Target models.
The Facet tolerance parameter appears in
the Model dialog box for both the Stock and
Target model definitions.
By clicking the Stock and Target buttons in the
Stock & Target model area of the Milling Part
Data dialog box, the associated Model dialog
box is displayed and enables you to define the

Facet tolerance.

The recommended value for Facet tolerance is

0.01 mm (0.0004 in).

The information about the triangulation process is stored in an internal *.fct


file that is similar to an *.stl file.

146

4. iMachining 3D Operations
This tolerance affects the following two variables:
1. It controls the quality of the Stock model and Target model
visualization shown in the Rest material window of SolidCAM,
which can be displayed by clicking the Show button in the
Name area of the Model dialog box.

After the CAM-Part is defined, if you right-click the Stock


and Target subheaders in the SolidCAM Manager and
choose Show (3D) from the menu, the Rest material
windows can also be displayed.

147

2. The faceting quality of the Target model that appears on the


screen is a direct representation of the surface quality of the
final workpiece after the machining.
Shown with a Facet tolerance value of 0.1

Shown with a Facet tolerance value of 0.01 (recommended)

A smaller Facet tolerance will produce a more precise


triangulation of your original models as well as improve
the visualization quality. However, a smaller tolerance
will dramatically reduce visualization speeds and slow
calculation times.

148

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Updated Stock for Rest Material calculation
A machining operation generates an Updated Stock model, reflecting all
material removal by the operation. SolidCAM automatically compares the
Updated Stock model with the Target model and calculates the Rest Material.
Updated Stock model generated aer the 1st opera on

In the Part Settings dialog box, SolidCAM enables you to define the
Updated Stock parameters and options used for the Rest Material
calculation in iMachining 3D operations.

149

To define these settings for the current CAM-Part, click the Settings
button in the Part settings area of the Milling Part Data dialog box. When
the Part Settings dialog box is displayed, switch to the Updated Stock
calculation page and move to the Rest Material calculation tab.

After the CAM-Part is defined, if you double-click the

Settings subheader in the SolidCAM Manager, the Part


Settings dialog box is displayed

and enables you to edit the


Updated Stock parameters and
options used for the Rest
Material calculation.
Updated Stock accuracy

This section enables you to define the


Updated Stock model accuracy parameters
for the Rest Material calculation.

Tool facet tolerance


This Value controls the precision of the mathematical representation
of the tool for the Rest Material calculation. The recommendation for
the Tool facet tolerance is 0.01 mm (0.0004 in).
Tool facet type
In addition to the tolerance used for faceting, the application controls
the manner in which the faceted tool representation approximates
the tool by forcing the representation to be bigger or smaller than the
actual tool.
If you want to know whether or not the tool gouges the
target part, it would be preferable to have a faceted tool
representation that is guaranteed to occur outside the
bounds of the actual tool.

150

4. iMachining 3D Operations
One of the three Tool facet type options is applied to the Tool facet
tolerance parameter:
Internal

External

Mixed

Bounds of actual tool


Faceted tool representaon

Internal this selection forces the faceted representation to

occur within the bounds of the actual tool. The vertices lie on
the surface and the facets lie inside of the actual tool.

External this selection forces the faceted representation to

occur outside the bounds of the actual tool. The vertices lie at
distances up to the faceting tolerance from the surface of the
actual tool.

Mixed this is a combination of the Internal and External

modes. The vertices lie outside but parts of the facets may lie
inside the actual tool.

The recommended Value for Tool facet tolerance is 0.01 mm (0.0004 in)
and the recommended mode for Tool facet type is External.
Current Stock model method (see page SolidVerify)
This section displays the method of Stock
model updating used for Rest Material
calculation.
This setting can be changed in the SolidVerify tab.

151

Stock model update method


Automatic
Save Updated Stock model for every this option enables you

to define the quantity of intermediate Updated Stock model


files for every specified number of operations. The Updated
Stock model is automatically calculated and saved accordingly.

Save Updated Stock model for operations with long tool path
only this option automatically estimates the time required

for simulation of the operations and saves the Updated Stock


model for those operations with tool path that is considered
too long.

Manual this option enables you to manually save the Updated


Stock model for a specific operation during the SolidVerify

simulation. The simulation of the next operations can be


performed on the Updated Stock model. Further iMachining
3D operations can also use the saved Updated Stock model for
the cutting in Rest Material areas.

Automatically check and fix solid model integrity


During the faceting of the Stock and Target models, the facet coordinates
generated by SolidCAM are often calculated as numbers of the float type
with many digits after the decimal point. These numbers cause problems
during the SolidVerify simulation, such as self-intersections and gaps in
the model.
By default, this option is enabled and SolidCAM uses a smart rounding
algorithm that removes the
noise in facet coordinates,
allowing the solid model to
be properly displayed.

For more information regarding the Updated Stock


calculation, refer to the SolidCAM Milling Help.

152

4. iMachining 3D Operations
8.3 Add an iMachining 3D operation to the CAM-Part...
The following three videos demonstrate how to define the rough (and Rest rough)
machining of the mold core using the iMachining 3D technology.

8.3.1 Add an iMachining 3D operation and define the Geometry


For the first part, you have to add an iMachining 3D operation to the CAM-Part.
The iMachining Operation dialog box is displayed and, like iMachining 2D, every
operation definition consists of a number of stages beginning with the geometry.
The features that appear on the Geometry page are also explained in detail. Click
the play button below...

An iMachining 3D operation is added to the CAM-Part, the iMachining Operation


dialog box is displayed and the machining geometry is defined.
Proceed to the next sub-step: 8.3.2 Define the Tool, Levels and Cutting conditions

iMachining Operation dialog box


Like iMachining 2D, every iMachining 3D operation is
defined by a number of parameters with some notable
differences relative to 3D milling.

153

Geometry definition
This page enables you to define the machining geometry for the operation.
By default, the solid model of the target is automatically selected for the
machining geometry.

If you click the Show button, the selected 3D Model geometry is displayed in
the SolidWorks window.

154

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Working area
iMachining 3D also enables you to limit the tool path with a specified
Working area.
In the Working area section, if you click the
Define button, the Working Area dialog box
is displayed.

Cut only the Rest material


After every machining operation, the exact shape of the remaining
stock is reflected in the Updated Stock model.
By default, iMachining 3D works in the mode of Cut only the Rest
material, which enables it to utilize the Updated Stock model from
the previous operation as input for the starting Stock model of the
current operation. The machining is then limited to the Rest Material.
By limiting the tool path to only the Rest material, this
option guarantees that no time is wasted on air cutting
of volumes previously removed or volumes that were
empty to begin with (e.g., 3D Model of a precast or forged
stock).
Mach. stock name
This field enables you to manually select a previously generated
Updated Stock model for the Rest Material calculation.
This option is only available when the Manual method of
Updated Stock calculation is chosen in the Part Settings
dialog box.

155

Show 3D
This button displays the SolidVerify simulation window with the
Updated Stock model and Rest material in comparison with the
Target model geometry defined for the operation.
Updated Stock model and Rest material generated a er the 1st opera on

The faceting quality of the Updated Stock and Target


models are also shown.
To view the faceting quality of only the Target model, first
you have to click the Hide Rest material
button and
then click the Hide Machined Stock
button at the top
of the window. The Show Target
button is the only
one that remains activated.

156

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Show model
This button displays the Updated Stock model in the SolidWorks
window.
Updated Stock model generated aer the 1st opera on

Working area
This mode enables you to specify a Working area geometry that
defines the machining boundaries for the operation. The iMachining
tool path is limited to the areas contained in the boundaries.

If you have already defined Working area geometries for


the current CAM-Part, you can choose one from the
Name list.

157

Define
button,
If you click the Define
the Geometry Edit dialog box is displayed.
This enables you to select the chains that
are required to define a new Working
area geometry (closed loop of solid model
edges and/or sketch entities).
If you click this button with an already
defined Working area geometry chosen
from the Name list, the Geometry Edit
dialog box is displayed and enables you to
edit the selected chains.
For more information regarding
the chain selection options, refer
back to Exercise #2.
Show
This button displays the selected Working area geometry from the
Name list in the SolidWorks window.
Auto Silhouette
In iMachining 3D, a Working area geometry must be defined by a
2D boundary chain, meaning that it must exist on the XY-plane of
the current Coordinate System.
If the selected chain contains 3D curves, enabling this option
automatically creates a 2D boundary chain by projecting the 3D
contour onto the XY-plane.

158

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Tool on working area
This option controls the tool position relative to
the boundaries of the Working area.

Since the Working area geometry is always projected on


the XY-plane, viewing the 3D Model and Working area in
the top view shows exactly where the tool will perform
the machining.
Internal
With this selection, the tool will perform
the machining up to the boundary of the
Working area. The center point of the tool
moves at an offset equal to the tool radius.

External
With this selection, the tool will perform
the machining over the boundary of the
Working area by a distance equal to the tool
diameter.
It is important to note that if a Working area geometry is
defined by a semi-open chain, External must be selected
for the tool position.
Center
With this selection, the tool will perform the
machining of the Working area until the tool
center is positioned on the boundary of the
Working area.

159

Offset value (+/-)


This parameter enables you to specify the offset of the tool center
on the boundaries of the Working area.
A positive Offset value enlarges
the Working area and a negative
Offset value reduces the Working
area to be machined.

+ -

For example, if you want to stay away from the walls of a


pocket that are represented by the boundaries of the
Working area, you can use the Internal option with a
small negative offset value.
If a single Working area geometry is defined by several boundaries,
then the iMachining 3D operation will machine the areas contained in
all boundaries.
Working area geometry

Boundaries

If one boundary exists inside another, then the inner contour will be
treated as an island. The area contained in the outer boundary minus
the area contained in the inner boundary will be machined. This
method can be extended to define more complicated shapes by
having islands within islands.
Working area geometry

Boundaries

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
8.3.2 Define the Tool, Levels and Cutting conditions
For the second part, the tool and milling levels are defined for the iMachining 3D
operation. An end mill of 12.5 mm (0.5 in) is used. The Upper and Lower levels
are picked off the model. Like iMachining 2D, the Technology Wizard automatically
calculates the optimal Cutting conditions taking into account the tool data and
milling levels defined for the operation. Click the play button below...

The tool, milling levels and Cutting conditions are defined.


Proceed to the next sub-step: 8.3.3 Define the technological parameters

Tool definition
Like iMachining 2D, this page enables you to define the tool and its related
parameters for the operation. In iMachining 3D however, there is also the
option to enable Holder collision.

161

Holder collision
When this option is enabled, the tool path is automatically adjusted to
avoid contact between the defined tool holder and the Updated Stock
model at every stage of the machining.

Without holder consideration, the extension of the tool


from the holder needs to be long in order to machine
deep pockets with steep walls.

With holder consideration, the extension of the tool from


the holder can be short and strong, enabling the tool to
run faster and more aggressive. In some cases however,
because the tool path is constrained, not all material is
machined.

Holder clearance

iMachining 3D Holder clearance


This parameter enables you to define how close the holder can
approach the material during the machining. By default, this value is
automatically calculated based on the current tool diameter.

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
Levels definition
Like iMachining 2D, this page enables you to specify the Z-levels at which the
tool movements are executed.

Lower level
Instead of defining a Pocket depth however, iMachining 3D requires that
you define the Lower level of the CAM-Part. This parameter specifies the
lowest Z-level below which the tool does not machine.

iMachining 3D analyzes the solid model geometry (and all its features) up
to the defined Lower level and automatically determines which volumes
need to be removed at what Z-level.
To ensure all its features will be machined, simply pick on
the solid model entity that represents the absolute
lowest level of the CAM-Part.

163

Cutting conditions
The Technology Wizard is an algorithm for producing on-the-fly Cutting
conditions for the current iMachining 3D operation, taking into account
many factors defined for the operation such as the tool data and milling
levels.

Like iMachining 2D, this page enables you to select from calculated sets of
Cutting conditions.
Step down
By default, the Wizard uses Automatic to calculate the optimal Step down
values.
Machining level
By default, the Wizard sets the aggressiveness according to the Machine
Default Level assigned to the CNC-Machine in the CAM-Part Definition.
Output Cutting Data
This section displays two sets of data related to the current Cutting
conditions (the spin and feed rate of the tool, the step over range, the
material cutting speed, etc.)

For more information regarding the Technology Wizard,


refer back to Exercise #3.

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
8.3.3 Define the technological parameters
For the third part, the technological parameters are defined for the iMachining 3D
operation. For roughing, the optimal Step down value(s) calculated by the Wizard
are used. The Rest rough parameters are defined to specify the calculation of the
tool path passes in Step up mode, where all Rest material on sloped surfaces is
removed. A value of 0.24 mm (0.01 in) is allowed for the Surface & Wall offset.
Click the play button below...

The definition of the iMachining 3D operation is complete and the rough (and Rest

rough) machining of the mold core is defined.

Proceed to the next step: 8.4 Define the rest machining with iMachining 3D

Technology page
This page enables you to define several technological parameters for the
operation such as offsets and roughing and rest roughing data.

165

Passes
In the Passes area, iMachining 3D enables
you to specify the parameters used for
calculation of the tool path passes.
Using proven iMachining 2D Technology
Wizard algorithms and intelligent localized

machining, roughing tool paths are generated


first with deep Step down passes.

After achieving the final reachable depth (by the current tool) of the
current region, rest roughing tool paths are then generated in Step up
mode to remove all Rest material on sloped surfaces.
Step down
By default, the Wizard automatically calculates the optimal Step down
value(s) based on the tool information, Lower level and Offsets defined
for the operation. The value displayed in this field defines the distance
of each cutting pass, generating thick horizontal slices for roughing.

Step down

If there are multiple steps with


different depths, the largest Step
down from the output grid is
shown, since it is typically the
most aggressive Step down and
should be monitored.

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
Rest Rough
By default, this Step up mode of rest machining is enabled in the
operation and informs the iMachining 3D technology to generate
cutting passes by way of thin horizontal slices, creating a staircase-like
effect on sloped surfaces.

Step up

Scallop
By default, this value is automatically calculated based on the
current tool diameter. It defines the distance to the peak of all
steps on slopes that are measured perpendicularly from the
machining surface.

Offset

Scallop

According to the local slope of each


individual surface, the heights of
the steps during Step up change
dynamically in order to maintain the
specified Scallop size throughout the
operation. Every Scallop produced is
therefore a True Scallop.

Machining surface

True Scallop

Using the override check box and specifying a smaller

Scallop value will result in finer passes, which can be

beneficial by helping to avoid semi-finishing operations.


However, the calculation time and cycle time will be
proportionately longer.

167

The Scallop parameter enables iMachining 3D to achieve its


Minimum machining feature on sloped surfaces. This feature
restricts the rest roughing tool paths at any Z-level to only cut
material that, if left uncut, would exceed the specified True Scallop
size.
This Minimum machining feature that is unique to iMachining 3D
results in the following benefits:
1. The total cutting length of the tool path is reduced,
resulting in reduced tool and machine wear and further
reduced cycle time.
2. A much more even amount of material is left on the
slopes, making the subsequent finishing operations
(using the HSM module) able to run faster with less tool
load variations. Tool and machine wear and cycle time is
reduced even further.
3. During the Step up procedure, the axial depth of cut gets
smaller every time a new higher step is machined. As the
smaller depths are cut, the feed and engagement angle
of the tool path is increased by the Wizard to maintain a
constant load on the tool. As a result, the machining time
of each higher step is shorter.
Scallop tolerance (%)
In conjunction with the Scallop value, the Scallop tolerance is an
important parameter used for calculation of the iMachining 3D
tool path. The following two options are available for selection:

30% (default selection)

10%

This tolerance is applied to the specified Scallop value. It enables


iMachining to join two steps on two adjoining slopes, which would
otherwise be cut at slightly different Z-levels, and perform one
long cut at the same Z-level.
The effect of the default tolerance is to produce an actual
Scallop that may be up to 30% larger than the specified
Scallop value. The total tool path length and cycle time
will be appreciably shorter.

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
There are two options for choosing the order of rest roughing passes:
Each down steps then rest rough this
option successively performs the Step
up rest machining after each Step down
roughing pass is achieved.
All steps down then rest rough (default
selection) this option performs the Step
up rest machining after the final Step
down roughing pass is achieved.
When the Holder collision option is enabled on the Tool
page, Each down steps then rest rough is the default
selection and both options are locked.
Each down steps then rest rough provides even more
clearance for the tool holder.

The extension of the tool from the holder can be short


and strong; and in most cases, all material is machined.
Constant
When this option is selected, the
height of the steps during Step up
are made constant, regardless of the
local slope of each individual surface.
The value in the input field text box
is then used to define the height of
the steps.

Offset
Constant
Step up

Machining surface

169

Offsets
The default input values of the Wall offset and Floor offset parameters
are 0.38 mm (0.015 in).

Wall offset
This parameter enables you to modify the tool diameter. The tool is
moved away from the machining surface by the defined value, leaving
the offset unmachined on the surfaces.
In most cases, only positive values should be used. The
offset can then be removed by further finishing operations
(using the HSM module).

Wall offset
Machining surface

Floor offset

Floor offset
This offset is applied to the tool and has the effect of lifting (positive
value) the tool along the tool axis. As a result, Floor offset has its
greatest effect on horizontal surfaces and no effect on vertical
surfaces. By default, this value is equal to that of Wall offset.
The tool path is calculated taking into account the tool plus Wall offset.
The resulting tool path is calculated by offsetting along the tool axis by
the distance equal to the specified Floor offset value.

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
Tolerance
Tool path
Using the parameters specified for the tool and the operation, the
iMachining 3D technology calculates the single steps of the tool on
the mathematical model, which results in a *.pj PCode file that later
serves as input to the generation of the GCode file.
This parameter defines the accuracy of the tool path generation by
affecting the number of single steps in the tool path. By default, this
value is automatically calculated based on the current tool diameter.

An override check box is available for specifying a


different Tool path value. A smaller value will result in less
deviation from the mathematical model, but the
calculation time will be proportionately longer.

8.4 Define the rest machining with iMachining 3D


The following video demonstrates how to define the rest machining of the mold core
using the iMachining 3D technology. The Updated Stock model from the previous
operation is compared to the defined Target model geometry for the current operation;
a smaller end mill of 6.25 mm (0.25 in) is defined to Cut only the Rest material. In a
similar way as the previous iMachining 3D operation, the milling levels, Cutting conditions
and technological parameters are defined to further prepare the CAM-Part for finishing
operations. Click the play button below...

The rest machining of the mold core is defined.

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8.5 Define the finish machining with HSM (Part 1)


In the following four videos, the first part of the finish machining is defined with the
HSM module. An HSM Combine Constant Z with Linear machining strategy is first used
to perform finishing of the sloped surfaces. An HSM Rest machining strategy is then used
to perform finishing in the tight corners of the model.

8.5.1 Add an HSM operation to the CAM-Part...


For the first part, you have to add an HSM operation to the CAM-Part. The HSM
Operation dialog box, which enables you to select from a list of available 3D high
speed machining strategies, is displayed. Combine Constant Z with Linear machining
is chosen for the technology. The Geometry, Tool and Constraint boundaries data
are defined. Click the play button below...

An HSM operation is added to the CAM-Part and Geometry, Tool and Constraint
boundaries data are defined.
Proceed to the next sub-step: 8.5.2 Define the Constant Z passes and Link data

HSM Combine Constant Z with Linear machining operation


SolidCAM HSM is a very powerful high-speed machining (HSM) module for
molds, tools and dies and complex 3D parts. The HSM module offers unique
machining and linking strategies for generating high-speed tool paths.
SolidCAM enables you to combine two machining strategies in a single HSM
operation. The Combine Constant Z with Linear machining strategy is used in
this exercise. The chosen strategy defines the technology that will be used
for the machining. When two machining strategies are combined, they share
the Geometry, Tool and Constraint boundaries data.

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
Geometry definition
Similarly to iMachining 3D, at the Geometry definition stage, you have to
specify the 3D Model geometry that will be machined.
In this exercise, the solid model of the target is selected
automatically by default.
Target geometry
This section enables you to specify the appropriate Coordinate System
for the operation and to define the machining geometry.
CoordSys
SolidCAM enables you to define the Coordinate System for
the operation by choosing it from combo-box or by selecting it
from the graphic window by clicking the CoordSys button. The
CoordSys Manager dialog box is displayed. Together with this
dialog box, SolidCAM displays the location and axis orientation of
all Coordinate Systems defined in the CAM-Part.
To retrieve more information about the Coordinate System, rightclick the CoordSys entry in CoordSys Manager and choose the
Inquire option from the menu.

When the CoordSys is chosen for the operation, the model will be
rotated to the appropriate orientation.
The CoordSys selection operation must be the first step in the
geometry definition process.
In this exercise, the selection of the Coordinate System is
not as critical since only one is available.

173

Geometry
After the Coordinate System is chosen, you have to define the 3D
Model geometry for the operation.
If you have already defined 3D Model geometries for the CAMPart, you can select one from the list.

button displays the chosen 3D model geometry


The Show
in the SolidWorks window.
The New
button enables you to define a new 3D Model
geometry for the operation with the 3D Geometry dialog box.
The Browse button enables you to view the available geometries
on the model and choose the relevant one from the list.
When you choose a geometry from the list, the related
Coordinate System is chosen automatically.
Facet tolerance
Before the machining, SolidCAM generates a triangular mesh for all
the faces of the 3D Model geometry used for the operation. Facet
tolerance is the accuracy to which triangles fit the surfaces. The
smaller the value the more accurate the triangulation is, but the
slower the calculation.
The triangulation was performed on the 3D Model geometry when it
was used for the first time in iMachining 3D. If you use the 3D Model
geometry again, SolidCAM will check the tolerance of the existing
geometry. It will not perform another triangulation as long as the
facets have been created with the same surface tolerance.

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
Apply fillets
This option automatically adds fillets to the internal model corners.
Tool definition
Like iMachining 3D, this page enables you to define the tool and its
related parameters for the HSM operation.
HSM Holder clearance
This parameter enables you to define how close the holder can
approach the material during the machining.

Holder clearance

Calculate minimum tool length


If this check box is selected upon clicking Save & Calculate, SolidCAM
calculates the minimal Outside holder length of the tool required to
perform the current operation.

This option is not available for the Rest Machining


strategy.

175

Boundaries definition
The Constraint boundaries page enables you to limit the operation
machining to specific model areas.
The machining always takes place within a boundary or a set of boundaries.
The boundaries define the limits of the tool tip motion. The area actually
machined can be extended beyond the boundary by as much as the tool
shaft radius.

In the image above, the tool center is located at the edge of the boundary.
Therefore, the tool extends beyond the edge by the tool radius. The
Offset feature can be used to offset the tool inside by a certain distance.
If there are several boundary contours, the operation will use all of them.

176

4. iMachining 3D Operations
If one boundary is completely inside another, then it will act as an island.
The area enclosed by the outer boundary, minus the area defined by the
inner boundary, will be machined.

You can extend this to define more complicated shapes by having islands
within islands.
Boundary type
The following Boundary types are available:
Created automatically this option enables you to automatically
create the boundary using the stock or target models.

The following types of automatically created boundaries are


supported in SolidCAM:
Auto-created box of target geometry
Auto-created box of stock model
Auto-created silhouette
Auto-created outer silhouette

177

Created manually this option enables you to define the


boundary limits of the tool path by creating a 2D area above the
model in the XY-plane of the current Coordinate System or by an
automatically generated 3D curve mapped on the surface.
The following types of 2D boundaries
are supported:

User-defined boundary

Profile geometry

Boundary box

Silhouette boundary

Combined boundary

The following types of 3D boundaries are supported:


Selected faces
Shallow areas
Theoretical rest areas
Tool contact areas
Rest areas
Boundary name
This section enables you to define a new boundary geometry or
choose an already defined one from the list.
button displays the appropriate dialog box for the
The New
geometry definition.
The Edit button displays the Select Chain dialog box, which enables
you to choose the chains for the boundary. The chosen boundaries
are displayed and highlighted in the graphic window.
Boundary - Tool relation
This option controls how the tool is positioned relative to the
boundaries. This option is relevant only for 2D boundaries.
For more information regarding the Geometry, Tool and
Constraint boundaries definition in an HSM operation,
refer to the SolidCAM Milling Help.

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
8.5.2 Define the Constant Z passes and Link data
For the second part, the technological parameters for the Constant Z passes
calculation and linking must be defined. These parameters are defined separately
for the Constant Z machining strategy and are used for finishing of the steep model
areas. Click the play button below...

The Constant Z passes calculation and linking are defined.


Proceed to the next sub-step: 8.5.3 Define the Linear passes and Link data

HSM Constant Z machining


The Constant Z tool path is generated for a set of sections created at different
Z-heights determined by the Step down parameter. The generated sections
are machined in a profile manner.
The Constant Z strategy is generally used for semi-finishing and finishing of
steep model areas with an inclination angle between 30 and 90 degrees.
Since the distance between passes is measured along the Z-Axis of the
Coordinate System, in shallow areas (with a smaller surface inclination angle)
the Constant Z strategy is less effective.

179

The image below illustrates the Constant Z finishing. Note that the passes are
densely spaced in steep areas. Where the model faces are shallower (towards
the top), the passes are widely spaced, resulting in ineffective machining.
Therefore, the machining should be limited by the surface inclination angle
to avoid the shallow areas machining. These areas can be machined later
with a different SolidCAM HSM strategy or in the same operation with a
combined strategy (e.g., Linear machining).

When two machining strategies are combined in a single HSM operation, the
technological parameters for the passes calculation and linking are defined
separately for each strategy.
Constant Z passes
This page defines the parameters of the Constant Z machining strategy.

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
Passes
This tab displays the following major parameters that affect the
generation of the tool path passes:
Wall offset this option enables you to modify the tool
diameter. The machining is performed using the modified tool.
According to the defined value, the tool is moved away from
(positive) or closer to (negative) the machining surface. When
a zero offset is defined, the tool with the specified diameter
is used for the tool path calculation and the machining is
performed directly on the model surfaces. Like in this exercise,
a zero offset is generally used for finishing operations.
Wall
offset

Floor offset this offset is applied to the tool and has the effect
of lifting (positive value) or dropping (negative value) the tool
along the tool axis. As a result, Floor offset has its greatest
effect on horizontal surfaces and no effect on vertical surfaces.
By default, this value is equal to that of Wall offset.

Floor
offset

181

Tolerance this parameter defines the maximum amount from


which the tool can deviate from the surface and results in the
accuracy of the tool path calculation.

Surface
Cut with high tolerance
Cut with low tolerance
Step down this parameter defines the spacing of the passes
along the tool axis. It differs from Adaptive step down, which
adjusts the passes to get the best fit to the edges of a surface.
The passes are spaced at the distance set, regardless of the XYvalue of each position (unless the Adaptive step down option
is used).

Step down

Limits this section enables you


to define the highest and lowest
Z-positions for the tool the
range in which it can move.

Point reduction this section


enables you to optimize the tool
path by reducing the number of
points.

182

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Smoothing
The Smoothing option enables you to round the tool path corners.
When this option is selected, the ability of the tool to maintain a
higher feed rate is increased and tool wear is reduced.

Tool path without smoothing

Tool path with smoothing

183

Adaptive step down


This option enables you to dynamically adjust the Z-distance between
passes to perform the optimal machining of surfaces when certain
conditions exist.
This option is best used in the following two instances:
1. In areas where the horizontal distance between the passes is
significant, Adaptive step down can be used to insert extra
passes and reduce the horizontal distance.
2. In areas where the passes on the topmost edges of a surface
would fall too close or too far away from that edge, Adaptive step
down will add extra passes to compensate. So the Step down
value controls the maximum Z-distance between the passes
for the entire surface, while Adaptive step down adjusts those
values for best fitting the surfaces.
Adapve step down passes

Adapve step down not used

Adapve step down is used

If passes are applied without Adaptive step down, some


material may be left on the top faces. In passes generated
with the Adaptive step down option, a pass is inserted to
cut the top face; the next step down will be calculated
from this pass.
Edit Passes
If you start the machining with a forged stock instead of a rectangular
or cylindrical block of material, you could trim the passes to the forged
stock faces to avoid unnecessary air cutting. The tool path trimming
is used for the part machining when you use either a casting as the
starting Stock model or you use the Updated Stock model resulting
from a number of previous operations.
For more information regarding the Constant Z passes
definition for the HSM Constant Z machining strategy,
refer to the SolidCAM Milling Help.

184

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Link data
The Link page enables you to define the way in which the generated
Constant Z passes are linked together into the tool path.

In the image below, the link movements are shown in green, the rapid
movements are shown in red and the Constant Z with Linear machining
passes are shown in blue.

185

General
This tab enables you to set the following general parameters of the
tool path linking:
Direction this parameter group enables you to define the
direction of the machining.
Retract this section enables you to define a number of
parameters for the start and end of the tool path.
Refurbishment the Min. pass length parameter enables you
to define the minimal length of the pass that will be linked.
Safety this parameter enables you to control the order of
Constant Z machining of several cutting areas.
Start hint this section displays and sets the XY-coordinates of
the starting position of the tool.
Ramping
This tab enables you to control the ramping aspects of the tool path.
Ramping is used when the tool moves from one machining level down
to the next one; the tool moves downward into the material at an
angle.
You can also define the ramping by
approach points in pre-drilled holes.
The centers of the holes are defined as
approach points.

Strategy
This tab enables you to define the parameters related to the Constant
Z linking strategy.
Retracts
This tab enables you to control the retract movements of the tool
between Constant Z cutting passes.
Leads
This tab enables you to control the lead in and lead out tool motions.
For more information regarding the Link definition for
the HSM Constant Z machining strategy, refer to the
SolidCAM Milling Help.

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4. iMachining 3D Operations
8.5.3 Define the Linear passes and Link data
For the third part, the technological parameters for the Linear passes calculation
and linking must be defined. These parameters are defined separately for the
Linear machining strategy and are used for finishing of the shallow model areas.
Click the play button below...

The Linear passes calculation and linking are defined.


Proceed to the next sub-step: 8.5.4 Define an HSM Rest machining operation

HSM Linear machining


Linear machining generates a tool path consisting of a set of parallel passes
at a set angle with the distance between the passes defined by the Step over
parameter.
With the Linear machining strategy, SolidCAM generates a linear pattern
of passes, where each pass is oriented at a direction defined with the
Angle value. This machining strategy is most effective on shallow (nearing
horizontal) surfaces, or steeper surfaces inclined along the passes direction.
The Z-height of each point along a raster pass is the same as the Z-height
of the triangulated surfaces, with adjustments made for applied offsets and
tool definition.

187

In the image below, the passes are oriented along the X-Axis. The passes are
evenly spaced on the shallow areas and on the model faces inclined along
the passes direction. The passes on the side faces are more widely spaced.
These areas can be machined with a different SolidCAM HSM strategy or in
the same operation with a combined strategy (e.g., Constant Z machining).

When Constant Z is combined with the Linear machining strategy, the


technological parameters for the passes calculation and linking are defined
separately for each strategy.
Linear passes
This page defines the parameters of the Linear machining strategy.

188

4. iMachining 3D Operations
The following parameters defined on the Constant Z passes page are
automatically assigned the same values on the Linear passes page:
Wall offset
Floor offset
Tolerance
Limits
When these parameters are edited on the Constant Z passes page, their
values are updated automatically on the Linear passes page. However,
when edited on the Linear passes page, the values on the Constant Z
passes page remain unchanged.
Link data
Like the Link page designated for the Constant Z passes, the Link page
located under the Linear passes page enables you to define the tool link
movements between the Linear cutting passes.

On the Link page for Linear passes, there is the Machining order tab
that enables you to define the order in which the combined machining
strategies are performed. The default option is Constant Z First.
Machining order
After the tool has finished performing the passes of the first machining
strategy, it goes up to the Clearance level and then descends back to
the machining surface to continue with the next strategy.
For more information regarding the Linear passes and
Link definition for the HSM Linear machining strategy,
refer to the SolidCAM Milling Help.

189

8.5.4 Define an HSM Rest machining operation


For the last part, you have to define an HSM Rest machining operation to perform
finishing in the tight corners of the model. A smaller ball nose mill of 4 mm
(0.1575 in) is defined to finish the rest areas. Click the play button below...

In just two operations, the finish machining of both the steep and shallow areas of
the model is defined with HSM.
Proceed to the next step: 8.6 Define the finish machining (Part 2)

HSM Rest machining operation


HSM Rest machining determines the model areas where material remains
after the machining by a tool path, and generates a set of passes to machine
these areas.
Pencil milling vertical corners can cause both the flute of the tool and
the radius to be in full contact with the material, creating adverse cutting
conditions. The Rest machining strategy picks the corners out from the top
down, resulting in better machining technique. Steep and shallow areas are
both machined in a single tool path with different Rest machining strategies.
It is important to note that SolidCAM determines the rest
areas using a Reference tool (the tool that is assumed to
have already been used in the CAM-Part machining) and
a Target tool (the tool that is used for the Rest machining).
Both tools must be ball-nosed.

190

4. iMachining 3D Operations
The image below illustrates the finishing of both the steep and shallow areas
of the model using the Rest machining strategy.

Geometry, Tool and Boundaries definition


The Geometry, Tool and Constraint Boundaries are defined similarly to
the previous HSM Combine Constant Z with Linear machining operation.
When an HSM Rest machining operation is added to the
CAM-Part after an already defined HSM operation, the
Constraint Boundaries selections will be automatically
populated with those used in the previous operation.
Reference tool definition
This page enables you to define the Reference tool used for the Rest
machining tool path calculation.

191

Passes
The Passes parameters for the various machining strategies vary slightly,
but most of them are the same. This page defines the parameters of the
Rest machining strategy.

The specific parameters that affect the generation of the tool path passes
for the Rest machining strategy are as follows:
Bitangency angle this parameter defines the minimum angle
required between the two normals at the contact points between the
tool and model faces in order to perform the Rest machining.

Bitangency angle

Steep threshold this parameter enables you to specify the angle at


which SolidCAM splits steep areas from shallow areas. The angle is
measured horizontally, so 0 represents a horizontal surface while 90
represents a vertical surface.

192

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Setting the value to 90 will mean
that all areas will be treated as
shallow and the passes in the rest
material areas will run along the
corner.

Setting the value to 0 will mean that


all areas will be treated as steep and
the passes in the rest material areas
will run across the corner.

Setting the value to 45 will mean


that areas where the slope is
between 0 and 45 will be treated
as shallow and the passes will run
along the corner. Areas where the
slope is between 45 and 90 will be
treated as steep and the passes will
run across the corner.

Shallow areas strategy this option enables you to choose the


machining strategy to be used in shallow areas (i.e., those below the
Steep threshold value).
Min. Depth of cut this parameter specifies the minimum depth of
material to be removed. Areas in which the depth of material to be
cut is smaller than this will be ignored.
Max. Depth of cut this parameter specifies the maximum depth
of material that can be cut. Areas in which the depth of material is
greater than this value will be ignored.

193

Stroke ordering this option enables you to control how the passes
are merged, in order to generate better Rest machining passes.
Link data
Like the Link pages designated for the previously used HSM strategies,
this page enables you to define the way in which the generated Passes for
the Rest machining are linked together into the tool path.
On the Link page for the Rest machining strategy, there are two tabs
in addition to the common ones that enable you to define the linking
parameters related to down/up milling and tool path refurbishment.
Down/Up Mill
This tab enables you to define the parameters of down/up milling.

Refurbishment
This tab enables you to define a number of parameters of the tool
path refurbishment.

For more information regarding the Passes and Link


definition for the HSM Rest machining strategy, refer to
the SolidCAM Milling Help.

194

4. iMachining 3D Operations
8.6 Define the finish machining (Part 2)
In the following two videos, the second part of the finish machining is defined with the
2.5D Milling module. A Pocket strategy is first used to perform finishing of the flat floors.
A Profile strategy is then used to perform finishing of the outside shape. These applied
operations showcase using a practical range of 2.5D strategies in 3D Milling.

8.6.1 Define a Pocket Operation (floor finishing)


For the first part, you have to add a Pocket operation to the CAM-Part. The Pocket
Operation dialog box is displayed. Using a Pocket strategy, the 0.24 mm (0.01 in)
offset is removed from the floors with a contour pattern. The operation definition
for a Pocket strategy is similar to that of an iMachining 2D strategy. Click the play
button below...

The floor finishing is defined using a Pocket strategy.


Proceed to the next sub-step: 8.6.2 Define a Profile Operation (outside shape

finishing)

Pocket Operation
In pocket milling, you have to
remove material from the interior
of a closed geometry.

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SolidCAM offers two types of pocketing:


1. When a profile geometry consists of one or more profiles
and none of them are enclosed or if they intersect with one
another, each is milled as a separate pocket without islands.
In this exercise, this is the type of pocketing performed,
since the two defined geometry chains are neither
enclosed nor intersect with one another.
2. When a profile geometry consists of several profiles, any
profile that is enclosed in another profile is treated as an
island. You can define an unlimited number of islands within a
single pocket.
Geometry, Tool and Levels definition
The machining geometry, tool and milling levels are defined similarly to
an iMachining 2D operation.
However, it is important to note that only closed chains
are acceptable for the pocket milling geometry. Like
iMachining 2D, either edges of the chain or the entire
chain can later be marked as open.
Technology page
This page enables you to define the technological parameters of the
pocket milling.

196

4. iMachining 3D Operations
The following types of pocket milling technologies are available:
Contour (default selection) this option machines
the pocket in a round pattern or pattern following
the shape of the geometry chain.

Hatch this option machines the pocket in a


linear pattern.

Hatch+Finish this option machines the pocket in


a linear pattern and cleans up the profile on each
cutting depth.

Plunging pattern when this option is selected,


the tool moves up and down in a drilling motion,
travelling inside the pocket.

For the specific type of technology selected, a separate tab appears on


the Technology page enabling you to define additional parameters.

197

Open pocket
The Open pocket tab is activated only
when the pocket geometry contains
open edges. This tab enables you to
define the parameters related to open
pocket machining.

Link page
This page enables you to define the parameters of the tool approach and
retreat relative to pocket milling.

Ramping
This field controls the way the tool plunges into the material.
Lead in
This field controls the movement of the tool when it enters the
material on the finishing cut.
Lead out
This field controls the movement of the tool when it exits from the
material on the finishing cut.

198

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Links between passes
This option enables you to reduce the unnecessary tool movements
through the Clearance level.
For more information regarding this operation type, refer
to the SolidCAM Milling Help.

8.6.2 Define a Profile Operation (outside shape finishing)


For the second part, you have to add a Profile operation to the CAM-Part. The
Profile Operation dialog box is displayed. Using a Profile strategy, the 0.24 mm
(0.01 in) offset is removed from the outside contour with a single finishing pass.
Click the play button below...

The outside shape finishing is defined using a Profile strategy.


Congratulations! You have successfully completed the iMachining 3D exercise.

199

Exercise #9: Prismatic part machining


A milling CAM-Part is already created for this exercise.
The CNC-Machine Controller, Coordinate System, Stock
model and Target model are defined. The Facet tolerance
parameters are specified. The machine and work material
definitions for the iMachining Data are also selected.
This exercise demonstrates how to use the iMachining 3D
technology to automatically and optimally mill prismatic
parts without the need for chain picking or sketching a
single contour.
Using proven iMachining 2D technology, iMachining 3D enables you to perform the roughing and
rest roughing of prismatic parts, which include multiple pockets and islands, in a single operation.
In addition to using the many benefits of iMachining 3D, this exercise also demonstrates how you
can dramatically reduce your programming times even further by using the 2.5D Milling and Feature
Recognition modules for finishing. The rough, rest and finish machining is completed in just four
operations, plus three operations for drilling of the holes.
The following steps have to be implemented in order to reach the final CAM-Part:

9.1 Load the CAM-Part


Activate the CAM-Part file EXERCISE_9.prz. If SolidWorks is not already opened,
SolidWorks, SolidCAM and the CAM-Part will launch automatically. Click the play button
below to see an introduction to the exercise...

The CAM-Part is loaded.

200

4. iMachining 3D Operations
9.2 Pre-drill through hole and define the rough machining
The following videos demonstrate how to complete the rough machining of the
prismatic part. In Part 1, a Drilling operation is defined to start the machining of the
through hole. In Part 2, an iMachining 3D operation is defined to perform the rough
machining. Working in the mode of Cut only the Rest material by default, iMachining 3D
automatically feeds down into the pre-drilled hole from the previous Drilling operation,
using it for safe tool entry.

9.2.1 Define a Drilling operation


Click the play button below...

A Drilling operation is defined to pre-drill the through hole.

9.2.2 Define an iMachining 3D operation


Click the play button below...

The rough machining of the prismatic part is defined.

201

9.3 Define the rest machining with iMachining 3D


The following video demonstrates how to define the rest machining of the prismatic
part. The Save & Copy functionality is used to create a copy of the current iMachining 3D
operation. The Updated Stock model is used to Cut only the Rest material. A smaller end
mill of 6 mm (0.25 in) is selected from the Part Tool Table for rest machining the tighter
areas and corners. The Wizard generates the optimal Cutting conditions according to
the new tool parameters. The copied value of 0.24 mm (0.01 in) is used for the Surface
& Wall offset parameter. Because this is a prismatic part, a smaller value is specified for
the Scallop parameter. Click the play button below...

The rest machining of the prismatic part is defined.


Proceed to the next step: 9.4 Define the finish machining

Scallop setting when rest machining prismatic parts


By default, the Scallop parameter is automatically calculated based on the
current tool diameter.

202

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Currently, when rest machining prismatic parts with iMachining 3D, the
default value may produce undesirable results. Often times, you may find
that the tool ignores material in some corners on vertical walls. In the
example below, the result is produced according to the default Scallop value
of 0.99 mm (0.04 in).
Material ignored aer simulaon

In this case, the amount of material that requires removal is less than that
which is automatically specified for the operation. To ensure the operation
machines all intended Rest material, you have to specify a small value. In
the example below, the desired result is produced according to the manually
entered Scallop value of 0.24 mm (0.01 in).
Material machined aer simulaon

It is important to note that when machining prismatic


parts with iMachining 3D, specifying a smaller Scallop
value will not negatively impact the calculation time nor
the cycle time.

203

9.4 Define the finish machining


The following videos demonstrate how to define the finish machining of the prismatic
part using the 2.5D Milling and Feature Recognition modules. The same 6 mm (0.25 in)
tool that was used for rest machining is also used for finishing.

9.4.1 Define a Profile operation


Part 1 demonstrates how to define the finishing of the outside shape using a
Profile strategy. During simulation, the 0.24 mm (0.01 in) offset is removed from
the outside contour in a single pass. Click the play button below...

9.4.2 Define a Pocket Recognition operation


Part 2 demonstrates how to define the finishing of the pocket features using a
Pocket Recognition strategy. A number of pocket contours are automatically
generated to perform the optimal machining of the recognized pocket features.
Click the play button below...

In just two operations, the finish machining of the prismatic part is defined.

204

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Pocket Recognition Operation
This operation type enables you to recognize the pocket features on the
solid model and perform the machining of those features.

In this exercise, a single Pocket Recognition operation is


defined to perform finishing of the walls and floors in the
enclosed pocket areas.
Geometry definition
The Geometry is determined automatically by the SolidCAM Feature
Recognition functionality.
The automatically recognized geometry consists of
planar faces and loops of through pocket features.
The definition of the geometry is performed in
the Select Faces dialog box.
The major steps of the Pocket Recognition
geometry selection are as follows:
1. Choose the model configuration used

for the recognition;

2. Set the desired selection filter options


(Through Pocket and Circular Pocket);
3. Set the Selection mode;
4. Perform the pocket recognition and

generate the faces tree;

5. Choose the faces you want to include

in the operation geometry.

205

When the Through Pocket filter option is selected with the Selection
mode set to Solid Body, the recognition of through pocket features is
also performed.
Through pocket
Upper loop
Lower loop

Only the through pocket features where the upper loop is identical
to the lower loop are recognized. The through pocket features that
cannot be machined with the current CoordSys position cannot be
selected.
When the Select Faces dialog box is confirmed, SolidCAM automatically
generates a number of pocket contours to perform the optimal machining
of the selected faces and through pocket(s).
Modify the geometry
After the geometry is defined, it can be shared between several
Pocket Recognition operations. In each operation, SolidCAM enables
you to perform a specific geometry modification. The modification
is relevant only for the current operation and does not affect other
operations based on the defined geometry.
The Modify button displays the Geometry Modify dialog box.

This dialog box enables you to define the


parameters of the geometry modification.

206

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Levels definition
The Levels page enables you to define the machining levels of the
operation: Start level, Clearance level, Safety distance, Upper level and
Step down.

It is important to note that the Pocket depth is


automatically recognized on the solid model, for each
pocket feature separately.
Technology page
The Technology page of the Pocket Recognition Operation dialog box
enables you to define the technological parameters of the Pocket
Recognition machining. The parameters available on this page are similar
to those seen in a Pocket operation.

In this exercise, and in most cases when finishing, the


default options can be used depending upon your desired
results.

207

To achieve optimal results when finishing, it is generally recommended to


first finish the floors, and then subsequently finish the walls. To perform
machining in this order with a single Pocket Recognition operation, the
following options should be used:
Final cut when this option is selected, only the finish path for the
floor areas of the pockets are generated. The disabled Floor offset
parameter indicates that machining is to be performed only at the
specified pocket depths.
Finish: Wall this option enables you to perform finishing of the
pocket walls in the same operation. Only walls and islands are finished
on the pocket contours.
Wall and Island offset these parameters specify the allowance
that will remain on the pocket walls and islands after the Final cut is
performed when finishing. The offsets are then removed according to
the above option.
For more information regarding this operation type, refer
to the SolidCAM Milling Help.

9.5 Machine the countersinks and holes


The following videos demonstrate how to define the machining of the countersinks and
holes using the 2.5D Milling and Feature Recognition modules.

9.5.1 Define a Drilling operation


Part 1 demonstrates defining a Drilling operation to perform the machining of the
countersinks. During simulation, the selected spot drill reaches the defined drilling
depth with the drill cone diameter specified by the Diameter value parameter.
Click the play button below...

The machining of the countersinks is defined.

208

4. iMachining 3D Operations
9.5.2 Define a Drill Recognition operation
Part 2 demonstrates how to define the drilling of the hole features using a Drill
Recognition strategy. The Drill geometry is automatically created according to the
recognized hole features. The machining of several identical holes, with different
depths and located at different Z-levels, is performed in a single operation. Click
the play button below...

The drilling of the hole features is defined.

Drill Recognition Operation


This operation type performs powerful drill feature recognition and
automatic Drill geometry creation. It also enables you to handle separate
sets of Milling levels for each drill position. The initial values of the Milling
levels sets are automatically recognized from the model, which can then be
edited if necessary.

In this exercise, a single Drill Recognition operation is


defined to perform drilling of all the hole features.

209

Geometry definition
The Geometry is automatically recognized on the Target model and
is defined using the SolidCAM Automatic Feature Recognition and
Machining (AFRM) functionality.
The hole recognition is performed in the direction
parallel to the Z-Axis of the Coordinate System
chosen for the operation. The definition of the
geometry is performed in the HR Drill Geometry
Selection dialog box.
The major steps of the Drill Recognition geometry
selection are as follows:
1. When defined in the CAM-Part, the

Target model used for the recognition


is automatically chosen;

2. Set the desired selection filter options


(Hole Type, Hole Diameter, Hole Upper
level, Hole Height and Color);
3. Perform the holes recognition and
generate the Holes Tree;
4. Choose the holes you want to include

in the operation geometry;

5. Preview the machining sequence.

Hole Diameter (d)


In this exercise, because all the hole features have the same diameter
but different heights, only the Hole Diameter filter option is used.
When this section is activated, the hole features are filtered according
to the diameter of the hole. With this filter, only the hole features with
the Hole Diameter value within the specified range are recognized.
The From and To values enable you to define the diameter range
by entering the values or by picking on the solid model. When the
cursor is placed in the From/To input field text box, you can specify
the diameter value by picking a specific cylindrical surface or a circular
edge on the solid model. When one of these entities is picked, its
diameter is calculated, inserted into the corresponding field and the
previous value is replaced. The field is then painted pink. When you
remove the automatically determined value, the field is painted white.

210

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Options
Auto this option enables you to perform the holes recognition

automatically in accordance with the specified filtering criteria.

Find Holes this button performs the holes filtering and


recognition according to the Manual/Auto criteria. The hole

features matching the specified filter criteria will be displayed


in the Holes Tree list.
The holes recognition is not performed each time you
click the Find Holes button. When the holes recognition is
performed the first time for a specific Z-Axis direction,
the recognized holes data is stored in the database and
can be used for further geometry definition.
When you click the Find Holes button, SolidCAM
retrieves the data from its database according to the
filter settings and checks the synchronization between
the data and the solid model. If the data in the database
is not synchronized, a new holes recognition process is
performed and filtering is reapplied.

Preview this button displays the current drill geometry based


on selected items in the Holes Tree list and the initial machining

sequence.

Click the

button to return to the geometry definition.

The geometry definition is confirmed by clicking OK.


Levels definition
This page enables you to specify the Z-levels at which the tool
movements are executed. The Start level, Clearance level and Safety
distance parameters are common for all drill features; the depth-related
parameters (Upper level, Drill depth and Delta depth) are defined for
each drill feature separately. This functionality enables you to perform
the machining of several identical holes with different depths and located
at different Z-levels in a single operation.
The Depth edit button enables you to
define the depth-related parameters for
the chosen drill features using the Depth
Edit dialog box.

211

The Depth Edit dialog box enables you control


over the depth-related parameters of the drill
recognition. It also enables you to choose what
hole features you want to be included in the
geometry for the Drill Recognition operation.
Holes Tree
This section displays the list of all drill instances
chosen for the geometry. The drill instances
with the same Upper Level, Drill depth, Delta
Depth and Depth Type are structured into
a Group. For each Group in the list, the drill
instances data are displayed in parentheses.
Each drill instance in the list is accompanied
by the X- and Y-coordinates of the drilling
position. Selecting the check boxes next
to each element in the list enables you to
include/exclude whole Groups or individual
hole features in/from the geometry.

It is important not confuse the Group classification in this


dialog box with that taking place at the stage of geometry
definition.
By default, the Depth Edit dialog box displays the parameter values
recognized from the solid model. You have to define the depth-related
parameters for each Group of drill instances separately.

212

4. iMachining 3D Operations
Technology page
The Technology page of the Drill Recognition Operation dialog box
enables you to define the technological parameters of drilling for the Drill
Recognition machining. The parameters available on this page are similar
to those seen in a Drilling operation.

For more information regarding this operation type, refer


to the SolidCAM Milling Help.
Congratulations! The iMachining 3D exercises are now finished and you have completed the
Interactive iMachining Training Course.

213

SolidCAM 2014
Interactive Training Course:

iMachining

2.5D Milling

HSS (High-Speed Surface Machining)

HSM (High-Speed Machining)

Indexed Multi-Sided Machining

Simultaneous 5-Axis Machining

Turning and Mill-Turn up to 5-Axis

Wire EDM

iMachining

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