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EXCRETION

Excretion is the process of removing metabolic wastes.


I. Excretion in Digestive System -The undigested food
is passed into the large intestine for temporary
storage. The remaining solid waste after absorption is
called feces. A feces contains bacteria, undigested food,
bile, and the remaining water and minerals. It is
discharged by the large intestine through the rectum. It
then leaves our body through the anus.
II. Excretion in Respiratory System - Our lungs give
off carbon dioxide and water vapor as waste products.
III. Excretion in Integumentary System - One body
system perform this excretion of liquid wastes like
water, urea and salt is our Integumentary System. We
call these wastes as sweat or perspiration.
Human homeostasis refers to the body's ability to
physiologically regulate its inner environment to ensure
its stability in response to fluctuations in the outside
environment and the weather. In other words, it is the
state of balance in our body. Homeostatic imbalance
will lead to diseases or even death. And one of the very
important systems in the body that maintain homeostatic
function is our URINARY SYSTEM.
This system function in the regulation of electrolytes,
maintenance of acid base balance and regulation of
blood pressure, they serve the body as a natural filter
of blood, responsible for water, glucose, and amino
acid absorption, remove and excrete waste in the body
and also produce hormones including calcitriol,
erythropoietin and the enzyme renin.
The major structures of urinary system are consists of
the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.
The kidneys are the major organs of the urinary system.
These are two bean-shaped kidneys found on each side
of the spinal column in line with our elbows. The main
function of the kidney is to filter impurities from the
blood and regulate the water level and chemicals in the
body.
Urine Formation - Urine formation begins with
filtration of plasma by glomerular capillaries, and then
passes through the different tubule for tubular
reabsorption and secretion (proximal convoluted
tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule and then
the urine enters in the collecting duct tubes.
The blood, which carries waste materials and other
substances, enters the kidneys through the renal artery.
The kidney is composed of about a million nephrons. A
nephron is the filtering unit of the kidney. At the end,
most of the water, sugar, vitamins and salts have been
reabsorbed.
Urine Formation

Urine formation begins with filtration of plasma by


glomerular capillaries, and then passes through the
different tubule for tubular reabsorption and
secretion (proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle,
distal convoluted tubule and then the urine enters in the
collecting duct tubes.
Then the substances that are useful to the body are
brought back into the circulation. Together with the
clean blood, they leave the kidneys through the renal
veins.
While the excess salts, water, and wastes remains in the
tubule and become urine. It is made up of metabolic
wastes such as excess water, excess salts, and the
nitrogenous compounds urea and uric acid.
The urine leaves the kidneys through the ureters.
The ureters are muscular tubes 10-12 inches long that
moves urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
Urinary bladder - It is a hollow muscular sac organ
connected from the ureters. Urinary bladder temporarily
store the urine that pass from the two ureters. When the
urinary bladder is full, it contracts and urine moves from
the bladder through the urethra.
Urethra is a tube that carries urine from bladder to
outside of the body. Difference in male/female.

Females: shorter, opens in front of vagina


Male: carries both urine from urinary system and
semen from the reproductive system

Treatments of Kidney disorders.


Dialysis, a treatment where a machine does the job of
the kidneys to filter the blood.
Kidney transplantation means replacement of the
failed kidneys with a working kidney from another
person, called a donor. Kidney transplantation is not a
complete cure, although many people who receive a
kidney transplant are able to live much as they did
before their kidneys failed.
People who receive a transplant must take medication
and be monitored by a physician who specializes in
kidney disease nephrologist for the rest of their lives.
Prevention of kidney disorders and kidney failures.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Do not delay urination when it is necessary


Drink 6-8 glasses of water everyday.
Eat a healthy diet. Avoid eating salty foods.
Avoid drinking soft drinks and alcoholic drinks
like beer and wine.