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Chapter I

INTRODUCTION
The Problem: Rationale and Background
This study made use of experimental method of research.

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over
cured leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. After water, tea is the most widely consumed
beverage in the world. It has a cooling, slightly bitter, and astringent flavour that many
people enjoy.
Tea

originated

in

China

as

medicinal

drink. It

was

first

introduced

to Portuguese priests and merchants in China during the 16th century. Drinking tea became
popular in Britain during the 17th century. The British introduced it to India, in order to
compete with the Chinese monopoly on the product.
Tea has long been promoted for having a variety of positive health benefits. Recent
studies suggest that green tea may help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and some
forms of cancer, promote oral health, reduce blood pressure, help with weight control,
improve antibacterial and antivirasic activity, provide protection from solar ultraviolet
light, and increase bone mineral density. Green tea is also said to have "anti-fibrotic

properties, and neuroprotective power." Additional research is needed to "fully understand its
contributions to human health, and advise its regular consumption in Western diets."
Tea catechins have known anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, help
regulate food intake, and have an affinity for cannabinoid receptors, which may suppress
pain and nausea and provide calming effects.
Consumption of green tea is associated with a lower risk of diseases that cause
functional disability, such as stroke, cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis in the elderly.
Tea contains L-theanine, an amino acid whose consumption is mildly associated with
a calm but alert and focused, relatively productive (alpha wave-dominant) mental state in
humans. This mental state is also common to meditative practice.
The phrase "herbal tea" usually refers to infusions of fruit or herbs made without the
tea plant, such as rosehip tea, chamomile tea, or rooibos tea. Alternative phrases for this
aretisane or herbal infusion, both bearing an implied contrast with "tea" as it is construed
here.

Statement of the Problem


This research aims to formulate tea made from pili flour (Caranium Ovatum). Aside
from creating another type of Tea, this research also aims to know the extent of acceptability
of pili tea among consumers.

This study answers the following specific questions:

1) What are the qualitative characteristics of the product produced from pili in making
tea in terms of:
A. Color
B. Odor
C. Taste
D. Appearance
2) What is the degree of acceptability of pili in tea making?
3) Is there any significance in the qualitative characteristics of the tea produced from pili
using different proportions?
4)
Hypothesis
There is no significance between the qualitative characteristics of the product using
different proportions of pili.

Theoretical/Conceptual framework
The conceptual paradigm coveys the qualitative characteristics of the tea in terms of
appearance, color, odor, taste, and acceptability given the different ratio and proportion of the
said research.
Conceptual Paradigm
Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

Quality characteristics of
tea in terms of:

Proportion
of the Pili

Appearance
Color
Odor
Taste
Acceptability

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework


The first box represents the independent variable namely the Pili and an arrow
showing the dependency of the quality characteristics of the developed product in terms of
color, appearance, odor, taste, and acceptability.

Significance of the study

In this experimental research, it is hoped that it will contribute information on how


this crops maybe utilized and be made into herbal medicine with having more nutritional
value compared to the ordinary flavors and without spending much money for the primary
ingredients.
It will also benefit the communities who have abundant sources of pili plant like
farmers and tea manufacturers in a way that they can get information on how they can
process such raw materials into herbal medicine.
Through this study, the commercial value of these crops will be given a higher value,
not just an ordinary viand but also a medicine.
These products can be a good source of money, while surplus and wastage of this
vegetable can be avoided.

Scope and Delimitation


This study covers specifically the utilization of the flour made from pili in making the
tea that was conducted on December 2013 to March 2014 at West Garden Subdivison, Bigaa,
Virac, Catanduanes.
In evaluating the finished products, the quality characteristics, which were considered
are the appearance, texture, color, and taste.
There were panels of judges who evaluated the two samples. Different adjustments
were made to the different samples until the best quality was met.
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Definition of Key Terms


Acceptability refers to the approval of using pili flour in making tea.

Color refers to the quality such as violet, that you see when you look atat the tea.

Consumer refers to a group of people who are the final users of products and/or services.

Good refers to the quality characteristics of the tea which is very much acceptable.

Odor refers to the scent of the tea

Pili flour refers to the main ingredient in making the tea.

Poor refers to the quality characteristics of the tea which is less acceptable.

Taste refers to the flavor of the tea.

Utilization is the application of pili flour in making the product.

Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Review of Related Literature


Pili
The pilus (Canariumovatum) is a delicious
evergreen tree up to 20 meters tall with resinous wood
and resistance to wind. It is abundant in Southern
Luzon (Bicol Region) and parts of Visayas and
Mindanao. The bulk of the raw nuts are supplied from
wild stands in the mountains around Sorsogon, Albay
and Carmines Sur in the Bicol Region. (Zee, 1998)
The shells are difficult to crack. The nut meats
are single kernels and sweet, and the nuts are rich in oil
(Nut Factory, 2005).

Figure 2. Nutrition facts of Pili


Pili nut kernel is the most important product. When raw, it resembles the flavor of
roasted pumpkin seed, and when roasted, its mild, nutty flavor and tender-crispy texture is
superior to that of the almond.
The hard, stony shell of the pili seed is used chiefly in cooking, for which it makes an
excellent fuel (Gonzales and Bunoan 1947; Lanuza 1969-70; as cited by Coronel, 1996). The
use of the pili shell in the manufacture of charcoal has not yet been explored. The same is
true of the test air seed coat of the pili kernel, although when its chemical composition is
determined, some industrial uses may be found for this part of the fruit. (Coronel 1983; cited
by Coronel, 1996)

The pilitrees together with its pulp contain sap and resins which exhibit adhesive
properties. But it has not yet been tested experimentally.

In Bicol Region, The Pili Nut is one of the finest gifts of the Philippine tropics to the
world, found its place at the most prestigious specialty food show in the USA. Five (5)
companies producing pili nut snack food variants participated at the Winter Fancy Food
Show (WFFS) in Moscone Center, San Francisco, CA, last January 20-22, 2013. The WFFS
2013 broke records as the biggest specialty food promotional event with 1,300 exhibitors and
and some 20,000 visitors from various countries.

The Pili Nut

Pili (Canariumovatum), a fruit-bearing tree endemic to the Philippines especially


found in the Bicol Region of Luzon Island, yields a kernel precious to the countrys food
sector: the Pili Nut.

The Pili Tree is a low-maintenance crop. It only needs pruning from time to time,
requiring minimal fertilizers, or even none at all.
The Pili Fruit, green when young and turns into deep purple or black when ready for
harvest, is blanched in hot water for three minutes to easily peel the exocarp and pulp, and
expose the hard, bony shell.

The Pili Kernel is the most important part of the Pili Nut. With its testa stripped off, it
is a slender, yellowish-white core. Only the purest, spotless kernels are used in producing the
traditional Pili Nut recipes even the foreign market has come to love.

The traditional de-shelling of the Pili Nut, a legend in itself, is an experiential


attraction within the Pili Nut industry. Experts throughout the Bicol Region practice the
centuries-old process of pagtilad (that is, Pili Nut de-shelling using a bolo and a wooden
board) with precision, speed and strength unrivaled even by modern-day machines.

The Pili Nut kernel has the flavor of pumpkin seed when raw, and takes on an entirely
different identity when roasted. It is soft yet crisp, with an easy crunch that surprisingly melts

in your mouth, making it a favorite snack food among Filipinos. The same delighted
acceptance is true even in other countries that have already obtained the nut as an imported
staple.

The Philippines and Bicol Region: Where Pili Grows Best

The Pili Tree can be spotted in bushes across tropical Asia and other Pacific islands,
but the ones grown in the Bicol Peninsula, southeastern end of the Philippine island of
Luzon, are acknowledged as the best-tasting. And why ever not; the region is where the best
variables for growing Pili converge.

Home to at least five active volcanoes, one of which is the perfect-coned and worldadmi

Pili Fiber
The Pili nut (Canariumovatum), one of

600 species in the family Burseraceae, is

native to the Philippines and is abundant and wild in the Bicol Region particularly in
Sorsogon, and in parts of Visayas and Mindanao.

10

Trees of Canariumovatum are attractive symmetrically shaped evergreens, averaging


20 m tall with resinous wood and resistance to strong wind. C. ovatum is dioecious, with
flowers borne on cymose inflorescence at the leaf axils of young shoots. As in papaya and
rambutan, functional hermaphrodites exist in pili. Pollination is by insects. Flowering of pili
is frequent and fruits ripen through a prolonged period of time. The ovary contains three
locules, each with two ovules, most of the time only one ovule develops (Chandler 1958).
Pili fruit is a drupe, 4 to 7 cm long, 2.3 to 3.8 cm in diameter, and weighs 15.7 to 45.7 g. The
skin (exocarp) is smooth, thin, shiny, and turns purplish black when the fruit ripens; the pulp
(mesocarp) is fibrous, fleshy, and greenish yellow in color, and the hard shell (endocarp)
within protects a normally dicotyledonous embryo. The basal end of the shell (endocarp) is
pointed and the apical end is more or less blunt; between the seed and the hard shell
(endocarp) is a thin, brownish, fibrous seed coat developed from the inner layer of the
endocarp. This thin coat usually adheres tightly to the shell and/or the seed. Much of the
kernel weight is made up of the cotyledons, which are about 4.1 to 16.6% of the whole fruit;
it is composed of approximately 8% carbohydrate, 11.5 to 13.9% protein, and 70% fat.
Kernels from some trees may be bitter, fibrous or have a turpentine odor.

Although they are grown as ornamental trees in many areas of the Old World tropics
of Malaysia and the Philippines, only the Philippines produce and process pili nuts
commercially. Production centers are located in the Bicol region, provinces of Sorsogon,
Albay, and Camarines Sur, southern Tagalog, and eastern Visayas. There is no commercial
planting of this crop; fruits are collected from natural stands in the mountains near these

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provinces. In 1977, the Philippines exported approximately 3.8 t of pili preparation to Guam
and Australia.

Pili is a tropical tree preferring deep, fertile, well-drained soil, warm temperatures,
and well distributed rainfall.

It cannot tolerate the slightest frost or low temperature.

Refrigeration of seeds at 4C to 13C resulted in loss of viability after 5 days. Seed


germination is highly recalcitrant, reduced from 98 to 19% after 12 weeks of storage at room
temperature; seeds stored for more than 137 days did not germinate. Asexual propagations
using marcotting, budding, and grafting were too inconsistent to be used in commercial
production. Young shoots of pili were believed to have functional internal phloems, which
rendered bark ringing ineffective as a way of building up carbohydrate levels in the wood.
Success in marcottage may be cultivar dependent. Production standards for a mature pili tree
are between 100 to 150 kg of in-shell nut with the harvest season from May to October and
peaking between June and August.

There are high variations in kernel qualities and

production between seedling trees.

Most pili kernels tend to stick to the shell when fresh, but come off easily after being
dried to 3 to 5% moisture (30C for 27 to 28 h). Shelled nuts, with moisture content of 2.5 to
4.6%, can be stored in the shade for one year without deterioration of quality (Coronel et al.
1983). The most important product from pili is the kernel. When raw, it resembles the flavor
of roasted pumpkin seed, and when roasted, its mild, nutty flavor and tender-crispy texture is
superior to that of the almond. Pili kernel is also used in chocolate, ice cream, and baked

12

goods. The largest buyers of pili nuts are in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the kernel is one of the
major ingredients in one type of the famous Chinese festive desserts known as the "moon
cake". Nutritionally, the kernel is high in calcium, phosphorus, and potassium, and rich in
fats and protein. It yields light yellowish oil, mainly of glycerides of oleic (44.4 to 59.6%)
and palmitic acids (32.6 to 38.2%). The young shoots and the fruit pulp are edible. The
shoots are used in salads, and the pulp is eaten after it is boiled and seasoned. Boiled pili
pulp resembles the sweet potato in texture; it is oily (about 12%) and is considered to have
food value similar to the avocado. Pulp oil can be extracted and used for cooking or as a
substitute for cottonseed oil in the manufacture of soap and edible products. The stony shells
are excellent as fuel or as porous, inert growth medium for orchids and anthurium.
As cited by West and Balce 1923, Pili pulp, 64% of the fruit by weight, contains 73%
moisture.

On dry weight, 8% protein, 33.6% fat, 3.4% crude fiber, 9.2 % ash, 45%

carbohydrate. Pulp oil, greenish yellow in color, is 56.7% oleicglycerides, 13.5% linoleic
glycerides and 29.3% saturated fatty acids. The kernel, which weighs 0.74-5.13 g and which
comprises 4.4-16.6% of the whole fruit by weight, contains: 35.6-51.4% moisture, 11.515.7% protein, 69.2-76.6% fats and 2.59-4.32% carbohydrates. Its mineral and vitamin
contents (per 100 g): 119 mg calcium, 508 mg phosphorus, 2.6 mg iron, 489 mg potassium,
45 IU vitamin A, 0.95 mg thiamine, 0.12 mg riboflavin, 0.4 mg niacin and traces of vitamin
C (Intengan et al. 1968). Kernel oil is composed of oleic glycerides, 58.6% and palmitic
acids, 38.2%; yellow with an agreeable odor and taste, suitable for culinary purposes and
keeps perfectly for as long as 6 months. redMayon Volcano, Bicols land is a fecund mix of
volcanic soil and generous rainfall.
13

That typhoons regularly pass through the region does not even pose a problem to
BicolanoPili growers, as the Pili Tree is known as a stress tree, that is, the more it is shaken
and beaten by storms, the more it blooms and bears good fruit.

The Philippines is the only country capable of the commercial production and
processing of Pili Nut-based food and by-products, with Bicol supplying 80% of the total
output volume.

A number of articles about Pili were found. Pili Pulp Oil: Potential Value. New
options in large-scale production of pili pulp oil may aid a flagging market Pili
(Canariumovatum Engl.) is the second-most important nut fruit in the Philippines.
Opportunities exist for its development as a major crop export that would compete well on
the global nut market. Pili is a fairly big tree. It can reach a height of about 20 m and can
have a trunk diameter of 40 cm. Leaves are alternate and compound with opposite smooth
leaflets. Its elliptical, oblong, or oval fruit is about 4-7 cm in length and 2.3-3.8 cm in
diameter (Fig. 1).Generally the fruit has three parts: the skin, the pulp, and the nut.
(INFORM- International News on Fats, Oils, and Related Materials.Pham, 2008) Virgin Pili
Nut Oil. The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) in the Bicol Region has
developed a simple method of producing nutritious oil from pili nut (Canariumovatum)
pulp.The process of extracting oil from freshly harvested pili nuts uses minimal heat and
simple cooking and filtration tools, the DOST said in a statement.In Bicol, most of these

14

trees are found in Sorsogon, Camarines Sur and Albay.In 1998, total pili production in the
country was estimated at 9,007 metric tons.Albay is the major pili-producing province which
accounted for 3,549 MT (40 percent), followed by Sorsogon 3,001 MT (33 percent) and
Camarines Sur 1,207 MT (13 percent), reports said. (Flores, 2008. The Philippine Star)
DOST develops Pili Pulp Oil Extraction Technology in Sorsogon. The Sorsogon provincial
office here of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) has developed a
technology that provides a simple method of producing oil from pilinut pulp. It now serves
as an alternative to the process introduced by the National Institute of Molecular Biology and
Biotechnology (NIMBB) of the University of the Philippines in Los Baos, Laguna which
uses enzymes in extraction and chemicals in refining pili pulp oil. The NIMBB process,
while proven efficient is rather complicated and requires substantial investment and not
suitable with a micro or village-scale pili nut processing venture.The technology introduced
by the DOST provincial office, on the other hand, is composed of simple cooking and
filtration tools that process oil extracts from freshly harvested pilinuts using minimal heat.
(Calleja, 2009.Sorsogon United)

Whats New in Pili Industry. The industry has gone a long way not only in terms of increase
in hectarage but also in the improvement of the quality of the processed products.
Piliplanting is also becoming more commercial. One fellow who is planting more and more
pili trees is Jose Amador of Brgy. Guinlajon, Sorsogon City. He used to have only five
hectares of pili trees some eyars back. Some are planted in between coconuts while some are
planted as monocrop. Traditionally, the Bicolanos have been using pili oil for treating scalp

15

and skin disorders. The oil is also an excellent base ingredient for cosmetics like lip balm,
lipstick, lotion, ointment and spa massage oil. (Sarian, 2011.Agri Plan Talk)
The current status of the pili is equivalent to that of the macadamia some 30 years ago. It has
great potential to develop into a major industry. The immediate concern in pili production is
the difficulty of propagation. The lack of an effective clonal propagation method not only
hampers the collection of superior germplasm but also makes it almost impossible to conduct
feasibility trials of this crop. Few elite pili trees, such as 'Red', 'Albay', and 'Katutubo' were
selected in the Philippines. The National Clonal Germplasm Repository at Hilo, USDA/ARS,
has initiated studies in in vitro and vegetative propagation for the multiplication and longterm preservation of pili. A recently released pili cultivar in Hawaii may further stimulate the
interest in this crop.(Hamilton. University of Hawaii at Manoa)
Most pili kernels tend to stick to the shell when fresh, but come off easily after being dried to
3 to 5% moisture (30 C for 27 to 28 h). Shell nuts, with a moisture content of 2.5 to 4.6%,
can be stored in the shade for one year without deterioration of quality (Coronel et al. 1983).

Related Studies

Lee James study (2009) is to determine which green tea characteristics are related to
consumers liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 tea samples from
China, Japan, and South Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the
green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to
acceptability. We found out that U.S. consumers liked the green tea samples with lower

16

flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers acceptability of green tea was
negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of
green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis but the correlation was only
moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers liking, future
studies using more green tea samples using different flavor profiles are needed.
Marilyn Skeletons study (2009) and Diane Tayobanas study (2013) is to investigate
production of tea from guyabano leaves. It also deals with the investigation of the quality of
the tea produced and compares it to commercialized tea.

As based on results, the pili pulp and skin can be made into a tea. The tea produced
from combined pili pulp and skin following easy steps, the tea was observed purplish or
brownish violet in color and pure odor. It is environment friendly because the material used
was natural. Compared to commercial tea, this produced product form pili pulp and skin has
a great advantage to the consumers because it is affordable. It also helps to alleviate garbage
in the environment.

17

Chapter 3

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methods and procedures that were used in this research particularly
the design of the study, sources of data, procedures, data-gathering instrument and statistical
technique used.

Sources of Data
The data, which were considered in the study, were: 1) the crops as one of the main
ingredients, such as pili, cinnamon, and honey which were bought from open markets.
The newly produced product was given to a panel of judges, for them to evaluate.
They were chosen on their expertise and major of specialization. They were given a score
sheet for them to score according to their observation and evaluation on the quality
characteristics and acceptability of the tea and improvement of the product.

Procedure

18

In order to realize the study on Acceptability of Pili flour in tea making, there were two
phases of procedure. First was the preparation of the tea with pili flour as its main ingredient
and other ingredients respectively. Second was the procedure in data gathering.

Preparation of the Tea


I - Preparing the pili flour
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

Gather the Ingredients


Boil water
Pour the hot water into a bowl
Put the pili in the bowl with the hot water and let it cook for up to 15 minutes
Peel the pili
Separate the pili pulp and skin from the shell
Place the pili pulp and skin in a tray
Heat the pili pulp and skin in an oven at about 284F to 302F for 1 hour (30 minutes

each side)
i. When the pili pulp and skin is dry, put the pulp and skin in a blender and blend it until it
becomes a powder.
II Preparing the tea
1. Put 4 tbsp and 1/8 tsp of cinnamon in a pan and let it heat for up to one minute
2. Pour 1 tsp of honey and mix for about 20 to 30 secs.
3. Put the tea powder in the teabags (1/2 tbsp per bag, this way, we can make up to 5
teabags)
Data Gathering Procedure
1. Present the finished product to a panel of judges composing of six judges.
2. They will be given a score sheet for them to rate the finished product.
3. The score sheet will be collected by the researchers for tabulation

19

Figure 3.

Pili Tea
Ingredients
Pili flour
Cinnamon
Honey

Quantity
4 tablespoon
1/8 teaspoon
1 teaspoon

Data Gathering Instrument


The main tool used for gathering the data in this study was the subjective method using the
standard score sheet. The subjective method answers how the product tastes, smells and
looks. This was answered by the panel of judges to see to it that there was no bias in the
evaluation of the three phases. Each quality characteristics has the highest score of 5 and 1 as
the lowest. This was used as a basis for rating the acceptability of the product for the
response description.

Qualitative

Response

Average Score

Adjective
Description

Excellent

Strongly Acceptable

Very Good

Very Much Acceptable

Good

Much Acceptable

Fair

Moderately Acceptable
20

Poor

Not Acceptable

Statistical Techniques Used


This study used two statistical tools such as:
1. Arithmetic mean was used to determine the average response of the panelists for
particular characteristics such as appearance, texture and taste.
2. F-test Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the difference among the
various processes involved in the tea using p. If the computed F-value is greater than
the tabulator value at 0.01 or 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis (Ho) of no
significant difference is rejected; implying that the various processes are significantly
different if the computed F-value is less than the tabular value at 0.01 or 0.05 level of
significance, the null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted meaning that the various processes
are similar. Subjective evaluation was used in evaluating food quality of the product.
There were three replicates to be administered in order to test the quality
characteristics of the product and to gain the acceptability to the taste of the
consumer.

21

Chapter 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents the data gathered, the analysis and interpretation of the data on
making pili tea.

QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS
Appearance
22

Attractive, appears like the color of the main:


ingredient.
Color
Holds the color Violet to Brownish Violet
Taste
Delicate flavor
Odor
Holds the natural odor of Pili w/ Cinnamon
Acceptability
Acceptability of the tea

QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRODUCT


Table 1
Characteristics of the Tea in terms of Color

Samples

T1

Trials
T2

T3

Total

Weighted
Mean

Quantitative
Rating

Descriptive
Interpretation

100% Pili
Flour

3.
7

3.
6

4.
1

11.4

3.8

Very Good

90% Pili
Flour
10%
Cinnamon

4.
0

4.
2

4.
2

12.4

4.1

Very Good

23

70% Pili
Flour
20% Honey
10%
Cinnamon

4.
2

4.
1

4.
4

12.7

4.2

Very Good

Table 1 shows the characteristics of the three samples in terms of Color. The
proportion with 100% Pili flour has a weighted mean of 3.8, with qualitative rating 4, with
corresponding descriptive interpretation of very good. The proportion with 90% Pili flour
and 10% cinnamon has a weighted mean of 4.1, with qualitative rating 4, with corresponding
descriptive interpretation of very good remark. The proportion with 70% Pili flour, 20%
Honey and 10% cinnamon has a weighted mean of 4.2, with qualitative rating of also 4, with
corresponding descriptive interpretation of very good remark.

Table 2
Characteristics of the Tea in terms of Appearance

Samples
100% Pili
Flour
90% Pili
Flour
10%
Cinnamon

T1

Trials
T2

T3

Total

Weighted
Mean

Quantitative
Rating

Descriptive
Interpretation

3.
7

3.
7

4.
4

11.8

3.9

Very Good

4.
3

4.
5

4.
3

13.1

4.4

Very Good

24

70% Pili
Flour
20% Honey
10%
Cinnamon

3.
7

3.
8

4.
3

11.8

3.9

Very Good

Table 2 shows the characteristics of the three samples in terms of Appearance. The
proportion with 100% Pili flour has a weighted mean of 3.9, with qualitative rating 4, with
corresponding descriptive interpretation of very good. The proportion with 90% Pili flour
and 10% cinnamon has a weighted mean of 4.4, with qualitative rating 4, with corresponding
descriptive interpretation of very good remark. While the proportion with 70% Pili flour,
20% Honey and 10% cinnamon has a weighted mean of 3.9, with qualitative rating of also 4,
with corresponding descriptive interpretation of very good remark.

Table 3
Characteristics of the Tea in terms of Odor

Samples
100% Pili
Flour
90% Pili
Flour

T1

Trials
T2

T3

2.
8

3.
1

4.
1

3.
9

4.
2

4.
1

Total

Weighted
Mean

Quantitative
Rating

Descriptive
Interpretation

10

3.3

Good

12.2

4.1

Very Good

25

10%
Cinnamon
70% Pili
Flour
20% Honey
10%
Cinnamon

4.
0

4.
2

4.
2

12.4

4.1

Very Good

Table 3 shows the characteristics of the three samples in terms of Appearance. The
proportion with 100% Pili flour has a weighted mean of 3.3, with qualitative rating 3, with
corresponding descriptive interpretation of good. Both proportion with 90% Pili flour and
10% cinnamon and 70% Pili flour, 20% Honey and 10% cinnamon has a weighted mean of
4.1, with qualitative rating of 4, with corresponding descriptive interpretation of very good
remark.

Table 4
Characteristics of the Tea in terms of Taste

Samples
100% Pili
Flour

T1

4.
4

Trials
T2
4.
4

T3

3.
8

Total

Weighted
Mean

Quantitative
Rating

Descriptive
Interpretation

12.6

4.2

Very Good

26

90% Pili
Flour
10%
Cinnamon

4.
3

4.
2

4.
2

12.7

4.2

Very Good

70% Pili
Flour
20% Honey
10%
Cinnamon

4.
4

4.
3

4.
4

13.1

4.4

Very Good

Table 4 shows the characteristics of the three samples in terms of Taste. The
proportion with 100% Pili flour has a weighted mean of 4.2, with qualitative rating 4, with
corresponding descriptive interpretation of very good. The proportion with 90% Pili flour
and 10% cinnamon has a weighted mean of also 4.2, with qualitative rating 4, with
corresponding descriptive interpretation of very good remark. While the proportion with
70% Pili flour, 20% Honey and 10% cinnamon has a weighted mean of 4.4, with qualitative
rating of also 4, with corresponding descriptive interpretation of very good remark.

Table 5
Quality Characteristics of the Tea as rated by the Respondents

Samples

Quality Characteristics
Color

Appearance

Odor

27

Taste

Total

Weighted
Mean

Rank

100% Pili
Flour
90% Pili
Flour
10%
Cinnamon
70% Pili
Flour
20%
Honey
10%
Cinnamon

3.8

3.9

3.3

4.2

15.2

3.8

4.1

4.4

4.1

4.2

16.8

4.2

1.5

4.2

3.9

4.1

4.4

16.6

4.2

1.5

Table 5 shows the quality characteristics in terms of color, odor, taste and appearance
of the three samples. The proportion with 100% Pili flour has a weighted mean of 3.8, and
ranked third in terms of the given quality characteristics. The proportion with 90% Pili flour
and 10% cinnamon has a weighted mean of 4.2, and ranked 1.5 in terms of the given quality
characteristics. While the proportion with 70% Pili flour, 20% Honey, and 10% cinnamon
has a weighted mean of 4.2, and ranked 1.5 in terms of the given quality characteristics.

Table 6
ANOVA Table of the Quality Characteristics of the Pili Tea
Rated by the Respondents in terms of Taste

28

Source of
Variance

Degrees
Sum of of
the
Freedo
Squares m
3.23

Mean Compute
Square d
F

1.62

1.76

Tabular
Value

7.18

19

0.38

0.41

Interpretatio
n

Accepte

Not

d Ho

Significant

Accepte

Not

d Ho

Significant

.05

3.24

Samples
Respondent

Decision

1.87

s
Error
Total

34.77
45.18

38
59

0.92

Table 6 presents the Analysis of Variance for Taste of Pili Tea as rated by the
respondents. As shown in the table, the computed value for sample is 1.76 which is lesser
than the tabular value at .05 percent level of significance which is 3.24 which means it is not
significant and the null hypothesis is accepted. While the computed value for respondents
which is 0.41 which is less than the tabular value at .05 percent level of significance which is
1.87 which means it is not significant and the null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 7
ANOVA Table of the Quality Characteristics of Pili Tea
Rated by the Respondents in terms of Appearance

29

Source of

Sum of

Degrees

Mean

Computed

Tabular

Variance

the

of

Square

Value
.05

Squares

Freedo

0.10

m
2

0.05

0.13

3.24

Accepted

Not

1.87

Ho
Accepted

Significant
Not

Ho

Significant

Samples
Respondent

9.93

19

0.52

1.37

s
Error
Total

14.57
19.24

38
24.60

Decision Interpretation

0.38

Table 7 presents the Analysis of Variance for Appearance of Pili tea as rated by the
respondents. As shown in the table, the computed value for sample is 0.13 which is lesser
than the tabular value at .05 percent level of significance which is 3.24 which means it is not
significant and the null hypothesis is accepted. While the computed value for respondents
which is 1.37 which is less than the tabular value at .05 percent level of significance which is
1.87 which means it is not significant and the null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 8
ANOVA Table of the Quality Characteristics of Pili Tea
Rated by the Respondents in terms of Odor
Source of

Sum of

Degrees

Mean

Computed

Tabular

Variance

the

of

Square

Value

30

Decision Interpretation

Squares

Freedo

.05

Samples

0.13

m
2

0.07

0.07

3.24

Accepted

Not

Respondent

8.58

19

0.45

0.87

1.87

Ho
Accepted

Significant
Not

Ho

Significant

19.87
36.44

38
59

0.52

s
Error
Total

Table 8 presents the Analysis of Variance for Odor of Pili Tea as rated by the
respondents. As shown in the table, the computed value for sample is 0.07 which is lesser
than the tabular value at .05 percent level of significance which is 3.24 which means it is not
significant and the null hypothesis is accepted. While the computed value for respondents
which is 0.87 which is less than the tabular value at .05 percent level of significance which is
1.87 which means it is not significant and the null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 9
ANOVA Table of the Quality Characteristics of Pili Tea
Rated by the Respondents in terms of Color
Source of

Sum of

Degrees

Mean

Computed

Tabular

Variance

the

of

Square

Value
.05

Squares

Freedo
m
31

Decision Interpretation

Samples

0.93

0.47

2.61

3.24

Rejected

Not

Respondent

9.21

19

1.09

1.06

1.87

Ho
Rejected

Significant
Not

5.07
21.2

38

0.18

Ho
Error
Total

Significant

Table 9 presents the Analysis of Variance for Color of Pili Tea as rated by the
respondents. As shown in the table, the computed value for sample is 2.61 which is lesser
than the tabular value at .05 percent level of significance which is 3.24 which means it is not
significant and the null hypothesis is accepted. While the computed value for respondents
which is 1.06 which is less than the tabular value at .05 percent level of significance which is
1.87 which means it is not significant and the null hypothesis is accepted.

Table 10
ANOVA Table of the Quality Characteristics of Guyabano Candy (Pastillas)
Rated by the Respondents in terms of General Acceptability
Source of

Sum of

Degrees

Mean

Computed

Tabular

Variance

the

of

Square

Value
.05

Squares

Freedo

18.43

m
2

9.22

10.24

3.24

Samples

Decision Interpretation

Rejected
Ho

32

Significant

Respondent

13.06

14

0.69

34.28
65.73

28

0.90

0.77

s
Error
Total

1.87

Accepted

Not

Ho

Significant

Table 10 presents the Analysis of Variance for General Acceptability of Pili Tea as
rated by the respondents. As shown in the table, the computed value for sample is 10.24
which is greater than the tabular value at .05 percent level of significance which is 3.24
which means it is significant and the null hypothesis is rejected. While the computed value
for respondents which is 0.77 which is less than the tabular value at .05 percent level of
significance which is 1.87 which means it is not significant and the null hypothesis is
accepted.
Chapter 5
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter presents the summary, the findings, the conclusion and the recommendation of the
researchers on the study.
SUMMARY:
This study was conducted to test the Utilization and Acceptability of Pili flour as Tea. Three
proportions were made proportions namely: 100% pili flour; 70% Pili flour and 10% Cinnamon;
70% Pili flour, 20% Honey, and 10% Cinnamon. The data were gathered through scorecard by
ten respondents. The quality characteristics of the pili tea that were tested in the study are: Color,

33

odor, appearance and taste. The Analysis of Variance was used as statistical tool to determine the
significant difference between the different proportions of the Pili Tea
Particularly, the study answered the following questions:

i. What are the qualitative characteristics of the product produced from pili in making
tea in terms of:
A. Color
B. Odor
C. Taste
D. Appearance
2) What is the degree of acceptability of pili in tea making?
3) Is there any significance in the qualitative characteristics of the tea produced from pili
using different proportions?
. FINDINGS:
I.
The proportion that yield the best result is:
1. In terms of Color, the proportion with 70% Pili flour yield the best result followed by the
proportion with 90% Pili flour.
2. In terms of Odor, the proportion with 70% pili flour yield the best result followed by the
90% Pili flour and lastly the proportion with 100% pili flour.
3. In terms of Appearance, the proportion with 70% pili flour yield the best result followed by
the 90% Pili flour and lastly the proportion with 100% pili flour.
4. In terms of Taste, the proportion with 90% pili flour yield the best result followed by both
the proportion with 70% and 100% Pili flour.
5. As for the general acceptability of the three proportions, the proportion with 70% Pili flour
yield the best result followed by both the proportion with 90% and 100% Pili flour.
II.
The study found the following to be significant:
A. The level of acceptability according to the following qualitative characteristics are:
1. In terms of Color, all of the three proportions had a very good remark
2. In terms of Odor, all three proportions had a very good remark.
3. In terms of Taste, both proportion with 90% Pili flour and 70% Pili flour had a very
good remark while 100% proportion had a good remark.
34

4. In terms of Apperance, all of the three proportion had a very good remark

CONCLUSIONS:
Based from the results of the study, the following conclusions are drawn.
1. The difference in means is not significant especially in terms of color, odor, texture, and
appearance. This means that the different treatments are as good as each other.
RECOMMENDATIONS:
Based from the results and conclusion of the study, the researchers recommend the use of
pili flour in making tea.
For further research, the following are recommended:
1. That similar research shall be adopted but with combination of other variables.
2. Similar studies be conducted but higher concentration of pili flour should be used.

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