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Eleven Principles Of The Naqshbandi Sufi Order

[I have copied this page from the Haqqani Foundation website because of the
importance of these principles to the Naqshbandi order and because the
background of the page on their site made it difficult for me to read. It appears
largely to be taken verbatim from Trimingham, The Sufi Orders of Islam (pp.
203-204). The source for Triminghams's translation was Taj al-Din ibn Mahdi
Zaman al-Rumi, Risala fi sunan al-Ta'ifa al-Naqshbandiya, which is a
manuscript held in the Cambridge library and listed in the Add. (Additional or
Added ?) manuscripts #1073, pp. 4-5. There are a number of problems in
Trimingham's translation. When I have the time, I will attempt to correct the
translations, basing myself on sources that seem to have the much of the same
material as Taj al-Din's Risalah. I will follow my corrections by "--ed,"
indicating that I, the editor, am responsible for the corrections.
The following eleven principles show the exercise-aims of the Tariqat
Naqshbandiya. The first eight were formulated by Khwaja Abd al-Khaliq alGhujdawani, and the last three were added by Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband.
Yad Kard
Remembrance, or making mention. Both oral and mental. Be always repeating
the Dhikr imparted to you so that you may attain the beatific vision. Khwaja
Bahauddin Naqshband said, "The aim in Dhikr is that the heart be always aware
of al-Haqq [The Truth, a Beautiful Name of Allah], for its practice banished
Baz Gasht
Restraint. The person saying the Dhikr, when engaging in the heart-repetition of
the blessed phrase [shahada] should intersperse it with such phrases as "my God
you are my Goal and your satisfaction is my aim", to help to keep one's thoughts
form straying. Other masters say that it means 'return' or 'repent', i.e, return to alHaqq by way of contrition [inkisar].
Nigah Dasht
Watchfulness. Over wandering, passing thoughts when repeating the blessed
Yad Dasht
Recollection. Concentration upon the Divine Presence in a condition of Dhawq
[zoq], foretaste, intuitive anticipation or perceptiveness, not using external aids.

Hosh dar dam

Awareness while breathing. The technique of breath control. Said Khwaja
Bahauddin Naqshband, "The external basis of this tariqa is the breath." One must
not exhale in forgetfulness or inhale in forgetfulness.
Safar dar watan
Journeying in one's homeland. This is an interior journey, the movement from
blameworthy to praiseworthy qualities. Others refer to it as the vision or
revelation of the hidden side of the Shahada.
Nazar bar qadam
Watching one's steps. Let the salik [pilgrim] ever be watchful during his journey,
whatever the type of country through which he is passing that he does not let his
gaze be distracted from the goal of his journey.
Khalwat dar anjuman
Solitude in a crowd. The journey of the salik, though outwardly it is in the world,
inwardly it is with God. Leaders of the Tariqa have said,"In this tariqa
association is in the crowd [assembly] and disassociation in the khalwa." A
common weekly practice was to perform the dhikr in the assembly.
Wuquf-e zamani
Temporal pause [Awareness related to time--ed.]. Keeping account of how one is
spending one's time, whether rightly and if so give thanks, or wrongly- and if so
asking for forgiveness, according to the ranking of the deeds, for "verily the
good deeds of the righteous are the iniquities of those who are near [to God]."
Wuquf-e adadi
Numerical pause [Awareness related to number--ed.]. Checking that the heart
dhikr [said in the heart, silently] has been repeated the requisite number of times,
taking into account one's wandering thoughts. The Rashahat mentions that
Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband considered numerical awareness the first stage of
esoteric knowlege.
Wuquf-e qalbi
Heart pause [Awareness related to the heart--ed.]. Forming a mental picture of
one's heart with the name of Allah engraved thereon, to emphasize that the heart
has no consciousness or goal other than God. This is the meaning of the word

(Text copied from the Haqqani Foundation Web Page.)

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